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I. .

1011-

2009

512(076)
22.1437

. I. . .
1011- ./ .. , .. , . . , .. . .: , 2009. 152 .
1011- ,

.

, ,
-.
. ,
- . .
. ..


, 2009
ISBN 978-5-7262-1172-5


I. ( 1). ......................................................... 4
............................................................... 4
............................................................ 10
..................................... 20
II. ( 2). ...................................................... 29
............................................................. 29
............................................................ 32
..................................... 45
III. ................................................................... 53
............................................................. 53
............................................................ 57
..................................... 64
IV. ............................................................................. 72
............................................................. 72
............................................................ 77
..................................... 84
V. ................................ 90
............................................................. 90
............................................................ 92
................................... 102
VI. ..................... 107
........................................................... 107
.......................................................... 109
................................... 117
VII. ................................................................................ 123
........................................................... 123
.......................................................... 126
................................... 136
......................................................................................... 142

I.
1. .
.
. . . .
. .


. ,
,
, .
, .
, ,
.
. ,

,
.
I. .
1.


, :
= 11, = 11,
= = 111.
2.


, :
= 11, = 111,
= 111 = 111.
3.
, :
= 11, = 11, = 11 = 111.
4

II. 180:
+ + = 180.
. ,
-
(D ).
III.
,
:
BCD = + .
IV.
:
a + b > c; a + c > b; b + c > a.
V. .
> a > b.
. , .
D ,
D .
VI.
.
1
D DE||AC, | DE | | AC | .
2
. ,
.
.
VII. .
= = .
VIII.
, .
= = .
5

. ,
.
IX.
60.
.
,

.
X. 2 : 1,
.
K, BN, CM ,
;
AO BO CO

2.
OK ON OM
XI. AK = ,
b2 c2 a 2
, 2

,
2
2
4
, b, .
. ,
,
,
:
BAD = CAD AD .
XII.
.
XIII.
,
:
CD AC
AD

.
DB AB
XIV. ,
:
AD AD2 = ACAB CDDB.
6

. , , ,
:
.

XV. , , .

O
.
XVI. ,
,
:
= , BD
D .
. ,
90.
,
90.
,
90. ,
7

, , ,
.
XVII. ( .)
:
( = 90 2 + b2 = 2.
XVIII. , , :
= 90, CD
AD = DB = CD.
XIX. ( .)


:
A AB
= 90, CD

,
D AC
BD
AC AD AB ,

, C D AB .
BC
, , :
AD DC
= 90, CD

,
DC DB
DC AD BD .
.
:
BC
AC
= 90 sin A
, sin B
.
AB
AB
:
AC
BC
= 90 cos A
, cos B
.
AB
AB
8

:
BC
AC
= 90 tg A
, tg B
.
AC
BC
:
AC
BC
= 90 ctg A
, ctg B
.
BC
AC

sin

cos

tg

ctg

30
1
2

45

60

2
2

3
2
1

2
2

3
2
1
2

1
3

90
1
0

0


:
cos(180 ) = cos; sin(180 ) = sin;
tg(180 ) = tg; ctg(180 ) = ctg.
:
1
cos120 = cos(180 60) = cos60 = ;
2
2
sin135 = sin(180 45) = sin45 =
.
2
. ,
30, .
9

XX ( ).

:
2 = b2 + c2 2bccos.
. ,
b2 c2 a2
: cos
.
2bc
XXI ( ).
:
a
b
c

.
sin sin sin
XXII. , :
1
S ha a .
2

.

1.1. ,
23, 71.
.
+ + . = .
= + + = 71, = = 23.
23 + 23 + = 71, = 71 46 = 25.
: = 25.
1.2. ( = )
. , = 70,
= 50.
. : = = , = h; = .

, = = /2.
10

= + h +

,
2

50 h ;
(*)
2
= 2 + = 70.

: 2 + 2 .
2

2 = 70, . . 35 . (*) 50 h .
2
2
2

50 h = 35, . . h = 15.
: = 15.
1.3. 4 : 3. ,
20.
. : = = , = .
4
= 2 + = 20;

3 = 4.
3

4 3 ,
2 3 / 2 ,

2 20 2 20.
3
2 + = 20;
+ = 20,
2
5
20 , = 40:5 = 8.
2
: = = 8.
1.4. .
. .
. = . = .
, = = . ,
2
.
11

h 2 2 2

2 3

.
4
2

a 3
a
2
AC B
2 a 3.

S ABC

2
2
4
2
3
a 3
: h
; S ABC
.
2
4
, 1.4
() .
1.5.
b.
.
, 1 1 = 1 = ,
2
1. 1 .

2

a2
4b 2 a 2
a
| BB1 | b 2 b2

.
4
2
2
1 ,
1
. , S ABC AA1 BC . 2
1
, S ABC BB1 AC . ,
2

AA1 b

4b 2 a 2
a 4b 2 a 2
a AA1
.
2
2b

4b 2 a 2
a
4b 2 a 2 ; BB1
.
2
2b
1.6. , 4 , .
, 3 .
: AA1 CC1

12

. I . ,
. = =
= 2 .
= . ,
, :
M 2 2 M 2 2 M cos ,
11
.
16

.
11
2 = 2 + 2 2 cos = 16 + 16 2 4 4 = 10 2,
16
= 10 .

9 = 16 + 4 2 42os cos

: = 10 .
II .
:
2 2 2
M 2

,
2
2
4

2 42 4 2
2
2
9

= 9
84 5
,
2
2
2
4
2
2 = 10 10 .
: 10 .
1.7. 10 ,
10 . .
. ( >).

2 2 .

13

x y 10,
y x 10,

x y 2 x 10 2 x 2 20 x 100 x 10.

= 40, = 30, 2 2 =50.


: 50 .
1.8. , :
) , 3:7;
) ,
3:1.
. = 3 b = 7.
2 b 2 58 x .

58 x
58

.
b
7x
7
) .
58
3
3 2
: )
; )

.
7
4
2 2
1.9.
30, 9 .
.
. , =
90, = 30.
AC

sin 30
.
2

, . = 2. :
+ 2 = 9 , 2 + 2 = 2.
2 2 (2 ) 2 ,

, 3 9.
= 3 , = 3 3 , = 6 .

: 3 , 3 3 , 6 .
14

1.10.
.
.
.
, d .

, + d + 2d.

2 + (a + d)2 = (a + 2d)2.
2

a
a
a
2ad 3d = 0 2 3 0 , 0 ,
d
d
d
a
a
4
5

3 d . , = , = a , = a .
d
3
3
3

, ..
a
3
3 / 4 4
cos BAC
, cos ACB
.
5 / 3a 5
5 / 3 5
3
4
: arccos , arccos .
5
5
1.11. ,
, 4 5 . .
. = 5
BN = 4 . AN = NC, AM = MB. = = , AN = NC = y.
NAB MAC .
NAB 2 + AN2 = BN2, . . (2)2 + 2 = (4)2, 42 + 2 = 16.
2 + 2 = 2, .. (2)2 + 2 = 25.
4 2 2 16,
2
,
4 2 25.
: 32 32 = 9, 2 2 = 3, 2 = 3 + 2.
2

15

, : 2 + 42 = 28,
28 2 13
41
28 13
2
, , |BC|2 = 4x2 + 4y2 = =4 4 ,
5
5
5
5
5
2

41
.
5

41
2 205
=
.
5
5
1.12. ,
32 18 .
: 24 .
. h. : (h2 +
2
32 ) (h2 + 182), (50)2.
. XIX
.
1.13. ,

. 30 40 .
.
. AD = 40 , BD = 30 . DMC,
DNC. DM = DN = BAC =BDM = .
DM
x
DN
x

cos ,

sin ,
DB 30
AD 40
2
2
x x
2
2

1 (sin + +cos = 1),


30
40

4
3
. . = 24 , cos =
sin . = sin =
5
5
3
4
= 70 42 = cos = 70 56 .
5
5
: 42 ; 56 .

: 2

16

1.14.
, 3 10 .
.
. 2
.
2 + (2)2 = ( 3 10 )2,
52 = 90, 2 = 18, = 3 2 .
, = 3 2 ; = 6 2 .
AN AB 1
( XIII)

,
AN =
NC BC 2
AC
2
=
10 = = 2 10 .
3
3
XIV :
BN 2 AB BC AN NC 3 2 6 2 10 2 10 36 20 = 16,
N = 4.
: N = 4 c.
1.15. PQR QPR = 75 PRQ = 40. :
) K QL; ) K
PN.
. QL
PK. PML.
PKR .
KPR + KRP = 90.
KRP = 40, KPR = 50.
PML
PML = 90 MPL = 90 KPR = 40.
)
KPN = KPR NPR =
QPR
75
KPR
50
= 12,5.
2
2
: ) 40; ) 12,5.
17

1.16.
30 , , , 20 .
, .
. =
; BK ; BK = 20 ,
= 30 . , BK,
, ,
K = K = 15 .
= =
= 202 152 25 . AZ , AZ BC.
AZB AZC . BZ = ,
CZ = 25 x. AZB (Z)2 = 252 x2; AZ
(Z)2 = 2 ZC2 = 302 (25 )2.
252 2 = 302 (25 )2, = 7 .
(Z)2 = 252 72, AZ 576 = 24.
: AZ = 24 .
1.17.
4 2 , 5 .
.
. = , ,
.
2
2
10
1
, = = . OD = BD .
1
3
3
3
AC

AD
2 2 ,
2
28 2 7
OD AO 2 AD 2

, BD = 3OD = 2 7 . 9
3

D:
: 6 .
18

AD 2 BD 2

8 28 6 .

1.18. ( = )
36 2. , = 97 .
. BD. DC = .

BD BC 2 DC 2 97 x 2 .

1
S ABC BD AC x 97 x 2 = 36.
2
, 1 = 9, 2 = 4.
, .
: 8 18 .
1.19. , = 3 ,
= 4 , = 5 .
.
2 = 2 + 2 2cos,
. .
AB 2 BC 2 AC 2
cos ABC
= 0.
2 AB BC
:
AB 2 AC 2 BC 2 3
cos BAC
,
2 AB AC
5
2
2
2
AC BC AB
4
cos ACB
.
2 AC BC
5
3 4
: 0;
; .
5 5
1.20. ,
7
= 5 , = 8 , cos BAC .
8
. ,
2 = 2 + 2 2cos
7
64 = 25 + AC2 25 42 35 156 = 0
8
19

35 61
= 12.
8

: 12 .
1.21. ,
= 5 , = 2 , : = 2:1.
.
. = = .

x2
= + 2 = 2.

,
sin sin 2
x2
cos
. ( sin2 =
2x
= 2sincos.)
2 = 2 + 2 2cos,
..
x2
x 2 ( x 2) 2 52 10( x 2)
x 2 9 x 20 0,
2x
1 = 4, 2 = 5.
: 4 , 5 , 6 5 , 5 , 7 .

1. , , : ) = 110;
) = 16.
2. , 3 .
3. , : ) = 60; = 71;
) = 50 + ; ) = 50 .
4. : : = 1 : 2 : 3. .
5.
100. .
6. ,
120 150.
7. 30,
40. .
20

8. KDM KDM DKM


DMK, DMK 2 KDM DKM.
.
9. PKC KPC PKC
O. , POK 110, C 3
KPC. PKC.
10. ABC , A B,
O. , AOB 108, 1,5
. .
11. A , B
ABC, 75.
ABC, , 2 .
12. PQR QPR = 75 PRQ = 40. :
) PK QL; ) PK PM.
13. ABC = 110 = 30. :
) A C;
) BD AN.
14.
, ,
37 53.
15. , A ABC, BC M. = , = 35 = 15.
ABC.
16.
,
,
2 : 5 ( ). .
17. A, B C
. :
) BC, : = 3:2; = 70 ;
) C, : = 2:5; = 70 ;
) BC, : = 7:3; = 16 ;
) BC, : = 2:5; = 30 .
18. A, B, C D
. :
) BC, : : CD = 7 : 8 : 5; D = 40 ;
21

) AD, : : CD = 3 : 4 : 8; BC = 16 ;
) AD, C : D : BD = 7 : 3 : 8; B = 12 .
19. , :
) 17 , 67 ; )
8 , 71 .
20.
, 45 , 40 .
.
21. , ,
15 6 . .
22. = 110, ( =
= ), , , 15.
.
23. , = 90. :
) , = 8, = 6;
) , = 20, = 7.
24. K K = 90. :
1) , : ) OK = 12 , MK = 5 ; ) OK = 6 , MK = 8 ;
2) K, : ) OK = 15 , = 17 ; ) OK = 12 , = 13 .
25. , : ) 8 4; ) 6 3.
26.
. :
) , = 9 , = 16 , = 12 ;
) , = 17 , = 10 , = 8 .
27. 45,
3
5

cos = . : ) ; ) .
28. 84,

20
.
29

.
29. : ) 7, 18, 12; ) 28, 35, 21.
?
22

30. , ,
, = 13 , = 12 .
31. , ,
, = 7 , = 24 .
32. 30, 36 . .
33. 60, 4 . .
34. ,
1 : 3.
35.
4 5 . .
36.
600 175 .
.
37. AC ABC 8
BC, AB 1 BC. AB.
5
38. ,
2
281
. .
2

39. = 5 , = 12 .
, ?
40. 10,

481
. .
2

41. 12.
, 3 : 4.
42. .
12 2.
.
43.
3 3 . .
23

44.
, ,
. ,
6 .
45.
, 3 10 .
.
46. 10.
75 % . .
47. a,
, , h.
.
48. ,
17 , 4.
49. 30 ,
, , 20 .
, .
50. , ,
, 10 , ,
, 12 .
51. 4
, .
96 2. .
52. ABC 36 2.
= , BD . AC, :
)BD = 12 ; ) = 97 ; ) : DC = 2 .
53. 12 16 .
, .
54. ,
, .
.
55.
ABC, = 90; = 2 ; sin B

1
5

56. , , 9 4 . .
24

57. (. .). :
) , b, bc, hc, = 1, = 4;
) , b, , hc, = 6, bc = 2.
58. 13, 5.
, , , , .
59. , , 5, 13. ,
, .
60. 5, 2. ,
.
61. ,
13, , , 12.
62. 70,
1682. .
63. 17 ,
13 . -.
64. ,
24, .
65. ,
, 6,5. ,
18.
66. 6 3 .
.
67. 10 15
, . .
68.

, 18 24 .
69. 20,

12
. .
13

70. 18 ,
15 . ,
,
. .
25

71. :
) 5 , 10 , 12 ;
) 1 , 2 , 3,3 ;
) 1,2 , 1 , 2,2 ?
72. : ) 1 : 2 : 3;
)2 : 3 : 4?
73. 25 , 10
. ?
74. ABC, :
) = 3 ; = 4 ; = 5 ;
) = 12 ; = 13 ; = 10 ;
) = 10 ; = 8 ; = 3 ;
75. AC ABC, :
) = 5; = 8; cos = 7/8;
) = 7; = 10; cos = 5/8.
76. 12,
120, 28. .
77. = 2 , = 1, = 45.
.
78. 8,
30 45.
.
79. (,
), :
) = 2; = 3; = 4;
) = 14; = 50; = 48;
) = 1; = 2; = 3;
) = 6; = 7; = 9;
) = 68; = 119; = 170.
80. ABC =

6
, = 1 ;
5

12
2. AB,
25

.
81. ABC K
, = 6 , K = 5 , = 14 .
ABC.
26

82. 30 , 6 , . , .
83. 45 ,
8 , . ,
.
84. 25, 25 14
.
85. 25, 14 25 .
.
86. 15, 15 24
.
87. 11, 12 13 .
, .
88. ABC = 18, = 12, = 14.
BM.
89. BD ABC 1, = 3,
BDC = 60. ABC.
90. AB ABC 9,
= 3. M , : = 1:2.
CM.
91. ABC = 15 =
=20. AB AD = 4. CD.
92. 2 7 ,
30 1: 2 3 . .
93. ABC , = 13, = 14, = 15.
BC M , : = 1:2. AM.
94. ABC D AB. CD, = 37, =
15, = 44, AD = 14.
95.
30, , ,
, a.
96.
5 20.
.
27

97.
60. , , 25 .
98. ABC = 3, = 5, = 7.
.
99. ABC
= 18, = 15, = 12.
100. ABC = 5 B
AC = 2 2 = 2.
BC, , + < 90.
101. ABC = 4, = 5. B
BM ( ),
= 45 = 30. : ) , M
AC; ) AM MC.
102. 21 ,
30. ,
.
103. ABC A = 3 ,
= 2 , AH . H 1.
BC.

28

II.
2. . .
.

, .

. ,
,
.
.
k

~ A1 B1C1

= 1, = 1,
= 1;

k.
11 11 1 1


. .

,
.
,
:
1)
;
2)
,
, ;
3)
.
:
29

1) , -
, ,
;
2)

, .
, (, , , ,
) , .
:
1
1) S ABC ha a ,
2
ha , a;
2)S ABC ( ) ( p b) ( p c),
abc
ABC;
2
1
3) S ABC b c sin .
2
.
I.
K L , :
SOAB OA OB

.
SOKL OK OL
II.
, ,
,
:
S AB
b

.
S 111 a1 b1

30

III. D
.
, D:
SAB CP

.
SABD DQ
IV.
,
:
S AB C

.
SBD D
IIV.
.

:
: : = : :

.

V. ( .)
AD ,
AE p
BD m

,
EC q
DC n
BQ m 1 AQ p m
1 ,
1 .
QE n
p QD q
n
VI. ( V.)
AD
, Q ,
AQ
BQ
t,
e,
QD
QE

31

AE t e 1 BD t e 1

.
EC
1 e DC
1 t

. , ,

, , . , ,
,
AC BA CB

1 .
C B AC BA
. ,
, , ,
,
AC BA

1 .
A C B AC


2.1. = 15, = 17 = 10
,
, . , = 7.
. ,

AB C B AC 7
k

.
AB CB
AC 10
,
7
C B k CB 17 11,9 .
10
: 11,9 .
2.2. = 15 , = 16
= 9 ,
. .
32

. :
S

15 16 9 15 16 9
15 16 9
15 16 9

9
16
15
2
2
2
2

20 11 4 5 20 11 .
. MN, PQ
RS . OQN, POS, ORM.
ABC PQC . .
,
DCB,
BQ DO 1

.
QC OC 2
BQ = x QC = 2x,
CQ 2 x 2
CP 2

,
,
CB 3 x 3
AC 3
2
. . . ,
3
SPQC 2 2 4
,
S ABC 3
9
ON PQC, , OQN PQC
2
S
1
1
1
, . . QC . 2
S PQC 2
4


SOQN
S ABC

SOQN S PQC 4 1 1
20 11

SOQN
.
S PQC SABC 9 4 9
9

,
20 11
POS ORM
.
9
20 11
:
.
9
33

2.3.
D

7
.
4

AD 5
.
DC 3

DC
.
CB

7
, = 7
4

AD 5
, AD = 5 DC = 3.
DC 3
, = 7, , = AD +
7
+DC = 5 + 3 = 8. 7 = 8 . 8
DC 3 7 / 8 3 7 3 21

.
CB 4
4
4 8 32
: 21:32.
4
2.4. D ,

7
AD 5

.
.
D 2
CD

= 4.

. = 4 , =
=7, AD = 5 DB = 2. , = + =
= 4 + 7, , = AD + D = 5 + + 2 = 7. 11
11 = 7 .
7
AB
11x
11x
11x
77
77

.
CD AD AC 5 y 4 y 55 / 7 x 4 x 55 28 27
: 77:27.
34

2.5. , ,
BD .
?
. BD. N. BN : NC. DK
AN.
BN BM 1
DBC,

, . .
NK MD 1
BN = NK. ,
NK AD 1
,

, . . NK = KC. ,
KC DC 1
BN 1
BN = NK = KC, . .
.
NC 2
: 1 : 2.
2.6.
D, .
AB, , BD : DC = 3:2?
. N ,
K DN.
AK : KB .
MQ KD, R
.

( KD ),
BK : KP = BD : DC = 3:2. K = 3x KP = 2x.
BN BD 3

. BN = 3y, NR =
NR DC 2
= 2y. BM = 2BN, BM = 6y RM = .
KP NR 2
, ,

, PQ = x.
PQ RM 1
QM , AQ = QP = x,
AK : KB = 4 : 3 = 4:3.
: 4:3.
35

2.7. K
KC : KA = 1:3,
: = 2:5, D
BK.
D ?
. AD:DM. KC =
= x, AK = 3x, = 2, = 5.
MN BK. KN BM 5
5

. KC = x, KN x
NC MC 2
7
2
NC x . ,
7
AD AK
3x
21

.
DM KN 5 / 7 x 5
: 21:5.
2.8. D . , : = 2 : 5, BD : DC =
= 3 : 4. AD K. BKD
45. AMK.
. 1. AMK AD.
AM CD BK

1,
AC DB KM
2 y 4 x BK
BK 21

1,
.
7 y 3 x KM
KM
8
2. ACD BM.
3x 5 y AK
AK 14
BD CM AK

.
7 x 2 y KD
KD 15
BC MA KD
3. BKD = AKM,
S BKD BK KD
45
21 15

S KMA 16.
S KMA MK AK
S KMA
8 14
: 16.
36

2.9. D. ,
AD:DC = AB:B.
. .
D
DBC. ,
SABD 1 / 2 BH AD AD

.
SDBC 1 / 2 BH DC DC
,
SABD 1 / 2 AB BD sin ABD AB

.
SDBC 1 / 2 BC BD sin DBC BC
AD AB

, .
DC BC
2.10.
D.
, BD = 4, DC = 6. ADC.
. 2.8,
BD 4 2

.
C DC 6 3
= 2, = 3.
2 = 2 + 2, 92 = 42 + 100, =
1
= 2 5 , . . = 4 5 . S ADC AB DC 12 5 .
2
: 12 5 .
2.11.
. , = = 2, = 4.
.
. = . = 2,
AC 2 BC 2 AB 2
cos ACB

2 AC BC
x2 4 x2 4 x 2 1

.
4
4x2

37

BM AB 2

,
MC AC 1

MC

1
2
BC x
3
3

2
4
BC x . ,
3
3

4
1
2
10
12
16 2 x 2 2 x x 16 x 2 x
,
9
4
3
9
10
15
sin ACB 1 cos 2 ACB
,
4
1
15 144 15 18 15
S ABC x 2 x

.
2
4
10
4
5
18 15
:
.
5
2.12. =
5 , AD = 6 .
.
. = = .

AC 2 BC 2 AB 2
25
5
.
cos ACB

2 AC BC
2 5 2
BD AB x

BD + DC = x,
DC AC 5
x
x
x5
5x
BD DC DC DC x
DC x DC
5
5
5
x5
2
x
BD
. ADC,
x5

AD2 = AC2 +DC2 2ACDCcosACD


25 2
5
5
36 25
25

2
( 5) 2
( 5)
BM

14x2 235 900 = 0 = 20.


: 20.
38

2.13. , , 3 4 .
.
. BL BD .
L LK LE .
BL , KL = LE KBEL
BL
. , KL = LE =
2 2 .
2
= , = .
c2 2 a2 2
S ABC S ABL SLBC

(a c) 2.
2
2
1
ac
, S ABC AB BC
. ,
2
2
1
a 2c2
(a c ) 2 ac 2( a 2 c 2 2ac)
,
2
4
a 2c 2
a2 c2
2ac .
(*)
8
1
3 2
1
, S ABC BD AC
a c 2 ac ,
2
2
2
2 2
ac
a2 c2
.
(**)
9
(*) (**), = 144,
ac
, S ABC
72 .
2
: 72 2.
2.14. S.
AD .
1, 1 , AD ,
1
AO1 AD .
10
39

. (

1
BF, );
2
1
: = 2:1, S AOE S ABE (3
,
1
1
3 1
OE BE ). 1 AD AO ,
3
10
2 10

3
3 1
3 1 1
3 1 1
S
.
S1E
SAOE
SABE
S
S
20
20 3
20 3 2
20 3 2
40
S
:
.
40
2.15. C
D. AD : BD, AC : = 3.
. BF||CD.
DCB = CBF ( CD BF) ECD = CFB
(
CD BF). , BCF
. AFB ACD
AC BC AD BD
BC BD
A AF

.
AD AC
AC
AD
AC AD
BD BC 1
,

. AD AC 3
AD
,
3.
BD
: AD : BD = 3.
2.16. F N ABC
AF : FC = 3 : 1 BN : NC = 3 : 2. AN BF
M.
AMB ANB.
40

SABM
AB AM AM

SANB
AB AN
AN
, . NK
AF 3
BF.

,
FC 1
AF = 3x FC = x.
FK BN 3
3

, FK x
KC NC 2
5
2
KC x .
5
AM AF
3x
1
5
NAC,

.
AN AK 3x 3 / 5 x 6 / 5 6
S
AM 5
, ABM
.
SANB
AN 6

. I

5
.
6

, .
2.17.
D , DE = EC = 2. ,
= 5 , AD = 33 .
. AED = , AEC = .

AE 2 DE 2 AD 2
1
cos
.
2 AE DE
5
1
= 180 , cos . 5

2 = 2 + 2 2cos = 25,
. . = 5. , ,
= . , 5

.
2

41

, . .
= 5 = 30.
2
: 30 .
2.18.
CD. , : 1) CBD;
2) DBE ABC
cos.
. 1.
CBD , .
2.
/2.
D (
ADC AEC ).
CDE CA
. 90 BDE ACE , .
, =DEB , , DBE ABC
.
BD
cos DBC ( DBC),
BC
.
2.18, .
2.19.
1. ,
= 2 ,
1 /3.
.
. = .
2.16,
1 , cos .
42

, 1 = 2cos. 1

HH1
cos

ctg .
2 sin HBH1 sin

1
, ctg =
, .. =
3
3
=60. = 90 = 30.
: 30.
2.20.
CN. SABC = 56, SANMC = 42,
16
R =
. MN.
3
. NBM 56 42 = 14
NBM ,
S NBM 1
k
cos ABC
S ABC
2

ctg 2

(. 2.15). ,
3
.
sin ABC
2
AC

2 R,
sin ABC
16
2
16
, . . = 16. MN = k = 8 .
2
2
3
3
: 8.
2.21. = 3, = 2,
3
S ABC
15 . , ,
4
. .
. ,
.
. :
, , .
43

MN, ..
.
, . .
= 90

N
=
90 , .. .
2
. , ,
. . .
1
1
3
S ABC sin ACB 3 2 sin ACB
15 ,
2
2
4
15
sin ACB
.
4
1
cos ACB 1 sin 2 ACB
4
( , .)

1
2 = 2 + 2 2cos = 9 + 4 + 12 = 16,
4
. . = 4. ,
AB 2 BC 2 AC 2 16 4 9 11
cos ABC

.
2 AB BC
242
16
256 121
135 3 15
sin ABC 1 cos 2 ABC

.
256
256
16
3 15
:
.
16
44


1. :
) 7, 24, 25; ) 5, 12, 13.
2. KP KLM, :
) KL = 10 c, LM = 6 , KM = 8 ;
) KL = 12 c, LM = 5 , KM = 9 .
3.
3 : 4 : 5, , ,
. .

4. 2 2 3, 3. .
5. 4. :
) BK;
) ;
) ;
) ;
) EK;
) KF, F 3:1;
) EFK;
) F EK;
) K.
6. = 3, = 4, = 5. :
) ;
) BK;
) AF;
) CQ.
7. 60.
:
) , ,
;
) , .
8. = 13, = 14, = 15. :
) ;
) BK;
45

) cos;
) .
9. = 6, = 4, = 0,25. :
) ;
) sin;
) ;
) AK;
) AL.
10. NOP, ON = 5,
PK 4 2 .
11. BCD 48 2. ,
DM = 9 .
12. , 13
15 , , , 12 .
13. 10 .
,
120.
14. , 36 2.
15. 6 2,
4 . .
16. , B , AB
= 3 , sin B

7
. , 4

3 7 2.
17. A ; = 12 ;
= 8 .

7
8

AB AC. .
18. = 5 ; = 2 ; : =
= 2 : 1. .
19. , 12, 15
20.
20. C AB : = 2 : 3.
D CB CD : DB = 2 : 5.
: CD.
46

21. P MN : PN = 3 : 5.
Q MP MQ : QP = 4 : 3.
QP : PN.
22. D , : = 2 : 11,
AD:DB= 5 : 4. CD.
23. D , : = 3 : 8,
AD:DB= 7 : 5. CD.
24. ABC = 10 ; = 8 ; = 9 .
AC BL?
25. MP MNP
NB, NP = 14 , MN = 50 ?
26.
? ( V.)
27. D, , BD : DC = 2:5,
, 1 .
3

AD Q . ( V.)
28. AD , ,
AQ 3 BQ 4
;
(Q AD ).
QD 2 QE 5

D ? (
VI.)
29. ,
D, E, F, , , , 13 ( D = 13 , = 13 ,
CF = 13 ).
AF, BD , , , PQR.
PQR?
30. = 3; = 4; = 5. O B?
31. AB D,
AD : DB = 3 : 8. CD
AM?
47

32.
2 : 1 3 : 1 ( ). ,
.
33. AB
, D, BC,
BM, , BD : DC = 3 : 2?
34. BC
D, , = 2CD. AC
, D M, AB,
3 = ?
35. K AC
KC : KA = 1:3; M BC : = 2:5.
D AM BK.
D AM?
36. M AB : = 1:2.
N AC BN MC
5:2, B. N
AC?
37. P BC : = 2 : 3.
Q AP AQ : QP = 4 : 3.
BQ AC?
38. 1, 1 1 AB, AC, BC 1 : 1 = 1 : 4, 1 : 1 = 2 : 1, 1 : 1 = 1 : 1. P 1 1, Q 1
1. P Q 1?
39. 1, 1 1 AB, AC, BC
1 : 1 = 1 : 2, 1 : 1 = 1 : 2, 1 : 1 = 1 : 1.
P 1 1, Q 1
1. P Q 1?
40. BC D , BD : DC = 3 : 5.
ABD ADC .
41. BC AC M N ,
: = 1 N : NC = 2 : 5.
BMN.
42. AB BC M N , :
) AM : MN = 2 : 3; BN : NC = 1 : 1;
48

) AM : MN = 3 : 5; BN : NC = 2 : 3;
) AM : MN = 7 : 3; BN : NC = 5 : 4.
MBN 1. .
43. F N AF : FC =
= 3 : 1 CN : NB = 2 : 3. AN BF M.
AMB ANB.
44. L BC, K
BL. AK AL
1
LD = AL KF = AK .
3
KLFD.
45. P, Q R AB, BC
AC , : = BQ : QC = AR : RC = 1 : 2.
PQR ABC.
46. AQ, BR
CP, M, N K.
MNK ABC.
47. ABC M BC, K
AC, = 4AK. AM BK
O. MK, , AM = 5 , BK = 10 ,
AOB = 135.
48. ABC D AB, E
BC, BC = 3BE. AE CD
O. AB, , AE = 5 , OC = 4 , AOC =
= 120.
49. = 5, = 6, = 7.
AB D. ADC.
50. = 4, = 6, = 30.
B AC D. D.
51. 25, , 7,5 2,5.
.
52. B
A BC D. , BD = 4, DC = 6.
ADC.
49

53. ABC BD AF.


ABC CDF, AB = 6, BC = 4 AC = 3.
54. ABC BAC BC M.
, AB = BC = 2AC, AM = 4. ABC.
55. ABC ABC AC K.

3 2
. ABC.
2
56.
,
3 : 2, .
, BC = 2, KC = 1, BK

57. ABC AC = 4 , BC = 3 ,

S ABC

3 15
c2.
2

, AB, .
, AB .
58. AC ABC 5 ,
AD 6 .
AB.
59. ABC AB = 15 , BC = 17 c = 10
AC,
AC, BC. :
) , = 13 ;
) , = 3 .
60. 71, 84 105 .
, ,
156 .
61. 4 : 5 : 6.
, , 0,8 .
62. 2 : 5 : 4.
, , 55.
63. , ABC A1B1C1 =1, =1, = 5 ,
= 7 , 11 = 10 , 11 = 8 . .
64. , ABC A1B1C1 = 1,
2,5 11 11. 11,
4,2 .
50

65. h .
,
. .
66. ABC DE (
D , ).
AD : DB, , = 16 , = 20 , DE = 15 .
67. ABC = 15 , = 10 , AD
. D ,
. , DC.
68. 7 12 .
, , :
) 10 ;
) 20 ;
) 21 2.
69. ( = )
: = 5 : 4. MBN, CM AN , 162 2.
70. , AC ,
AB . ,
.
71. , AC ,
.
AB ( B)?
72. K M AB BC ,
AK : K = 3 : 2; : = 3 : 1. B
l, AC. KM l
P, AC N. BP CN, = .
73. . AC C
N , = 2CN. M BC, : = 1 : 3. MN
AB?
74. K M AB BC
, BK : KA = 1 : 4; : = 3 : 2. MK
AC N. : CN.
75. AE CD.
AB, BD = 18; = 30; = 20.
51

76. AP CQ. 15, BPQ 9,


BPQ 9/5. AC.
77. ABC AB = BC = 6. AB
, BC D ,
BD : DC = 2 : 1. AC.
78. , 15, AN, BP CM. MNP, S = 1.

52

III.
. .
. .

, , ,
.
.
, .
.
.
, ,
.
. ,
, .
.
,
.
I.
- ( 2)180. ,
360.

, ,

,
.
. ,
90.
ABCD : = = D = DA,
= = = D = 90.
53

. ,
90.
ABCD :
= = = D = 90.
. ,
.
ABCD :
= = D = DA.
. , .
ABCD :
|| D, BC || AD.
. , , .
,
.
,
.
ABCD :
|| AD, D.
. ,
,
.
II.
:
ABCD = BD.
III.
. :
ABCD BD,
= DAC =BCA =DCA,
ABD = BD = ADB = CDB.
54

IV. .
. .
.
V.
,
,
:
ABCD
|| D, = CD,
BC || AD, BC = AD.
VI.
, 180:
ABCD = , = D,
+ = + D = C + B = + D = 180.
VII.
:
ABCD ,
BD = 0 = , BO = OD.
VIII. :
ABCD , 2 + 2 + CD2 + DA2 = AC2 + BD2.
IX.
180.
ABCD , BC || AD,
+ = D + C = 180.
. ,
.
X.
.
BC || AD, = , DE = CE
PE || AD, PE

AD BC
.
2
55

XI.
, :
= CD A = D.
.
BC AD
D = L. , .. BD
.
2
XII. , ( ) ,
( ) .
ABCD ,
AD, SABO = SDCO.


|| BD.
BD = CM, BC = DM,
= 2L.,
= + AD.
.
:
S = ABAD.
:
S = ADBE = ABADsin,
, AD.
ABCD AD || BC
:
AD BC
S
BE ,
2
AD.
56

:
1
S ABCD AC BD .
2
:
1
S d1d 2 sin .
2
-
na 2

S
ctg .
4
n

3.1. 9 3 2, , , 120.
.
. ABCD, AC = BD
; = BD = d.

S ABCD = 4S AOD =
2

1 d
1
= 4
sin 120 = d 2 sin 120 ;
2 2
2

sin 120= sin(180 60)= sin 60=

3

2

d2 3

, d 2 = 36, d = 6.
2 2
BAD . = CD = x, AD = BC = y
, : 2 + 2 = d2 = 36.
x 2+ y 2 = 36,
SABCD = xy, 9 3 .
xy = 9 3 .

S ABCD = 9 3 , 9 3

: 3 , 3 3 .
57

3.2. 46 ,
17 . .
. ABCD = BD = d,
= CD = x, AD = BC = y. ABCD = 2 + + 2 = 46,
+ = 23. BAD = BCD
, 2 + AD2 = BD2.

x 2 + y 2 = d 2 ,
x 2 + y 2 = 172 ,

x+y = 23,
x+y = 23.
: ( + )2 = 232,
232 ( x 2 y 2 ) 232 17 2
2 + 2 + 2 = 232, xy

= 120.
2
2
: 120 2.
3.3. , 3 5 , 60.
. ABCD = d1 = 5 c;
BD = d2 = 3 c, AOD = 60 .
S ABCD = 4S AOD =
1d d
1
4 1 2 sin 60 d1d 2 sin 60
2 2 2
2

1
3 15 3
35

.
2
2
4
15 3 2
:
.
4
3.4. 48 ,
26 .
.
.
. ,
. . = = CD = AD = 12 c.

58

= . = 13 .
2 + (13 )2 = 122, 22 26 + 25 = 0,
.. 26 22 = 25. D = 2 = 26 2,
2 x 26 2 x
= 26 x 2 2 = 25.
S ABCD =
2
: 25 2.
3.5. 5 ,
2 2. .
. ,
;
. = d1,
BD = d2 .
,
1
S ABCD d1d 2 2 2.
2
d1 + d2 = 5 c.
d1 d 2 5,
, d1 = 1, d2 = 4.

d1d 2 4.
, BO = OD=
1
4
= c, = = .
2
2
1
17
2 2
4
.
4
2
17
.
2
3.6. ABCD = 2 , =
= 3 , AD.
,
,
.
. DM CN BE ( M BC, N
AD). P Q BE MD

59

AC. ABE MDC (AB = CD, BAE = MCD,


ABE = CDN ). ,
1
MC ED BC . , CAD
2
AP AE
PQ BM
ACB,

1,

1 , . . = PQ = QC.
PQ ED
QC MC
.
,
AP 1
BP 2

,
.
PC 2
PE 1
= , = 2. DCN,
S ABCD = S EBCN . EBCN
= 6. , SABCD = 6 xy.
2
2
5
7
4 4,
:
2 , 2
.
2
2
3
12
4 4 9,
,
5 7
SABCD = 6

35 .
3 12
: 35 2.
3.7. 12 ,
16 . .
. MN ; CQ .
QCD
( = CD) ( =
Q). , AP = QD.
, BC = PQ.
+ AD = 2AP + 2PQ = 2AQ.
, AQ = MN. AC
ACQ: 162 122 20 .
: 20 .
60

3.8. CD ABCD
N , MN
.
MN, BC = a, AD = b.
. BC = a, AD = b.
CD
S. ASD, MSN, BSC
. . BSC
b2
x2
, MN . S ASD 2 , S MSN 2 .
a
a
SASD SMSN = SMSN SBSC,
b2 2
2

b2 a 2
.
2 2 2 1 b 2 x 2 x 2 a 2 x
2
a
a
a

a 2 b2
.
2
3.9.
. 3 ,
42 . .
.
: 96 2.
. . ,
.

3.10. KN, KM
KL KLMN a, LN
b. MN.
. LH MP
. HK = x.
LH a 2 x 2 .

HLN :
LH2 + HN2 = LN2 (a2 x2) + (a + x)2 = b2 2ax = b2 2a2.
61

HLK KMP ,
KP = HK = x. MNP
MP = 2 2 , PN = a x,
MN2 = MP2 + PN2 =
2
2
= a x + (a x)2 = 2a2 2ax = 2a2 (b2 2a2),
MN 4a 2 b 2 .

: 4a 2 b 2 .
3.11. ABCD
BD .
BAD, : = 3:4, : OD = 2:5.
. SBOC = S.
,

SAOD OD 5

,
S AOB OB 2

S AOB

SAOB AO 3

SBOC OC 4

3
S.
4

S AOD

5 3
15
S S.
2 4
8

,
S ABC
S 3 / 4S
2

.
SABD 3 / 4 S 15 / 8S 3
: 2 : 3.
3.12. ABCD,
1, K AB, L BC, M
CD N AD , AK : KB = 2, BL : LC = 1 : 3, CM : MD = 1,
ND : NA = 1 : 5. SAKLCMN.
. KBL
AB BC
,
KB BL
1
SABC = AB BC sin B ,
2
1
SKBL KB BL sin B
2
62

(. .

SABC
AB BC

, . I 2), SBKL 1 / 3 AB 1 / 4 BC

1
1
SABC. , SNDM = SADC.
12
12
SAKLCMN = (SABC SKBL) + (SADC SNDM) =
11
11
11
= ( S ABC S ACD ) S ABCD .
12
12
12
11
:
.
12
3.13. ABCD
. SABP = S1,
SBCP = S2, SCDP = S3. SDP.
. ,
:
S1 AP

.
S2 PC
,

ADP CDP,
SADP AP S1

. :
S3
PC S2

, SKBL =

S1S3
.
S2
3.14. ABCD E CD. O BD AE. DOE,
DE : CE = 1 : 2, AO = 2OE SAOB = 1.
. =DOE = .

SDOE 12 OE OD sin OD

,
SAOB 12 AO OB sin 2OB
S ADP

OD
. OB
. AED

63

ED
1
= . EC
2
= . = 2, = 3, = 6 . AOD

AO 2 x 2 x 2
OD
AO
2
k '=
=
=
= ,
=
= . ,
OB
OP
7
OP OP 7 x 7
OD 2
OE 2 1 1
S AOD S AOB
, S OED S AOD
.
OB 7
AO 7 2 7
1
: .
7
3.15. ABCD
, CD, 1 .
AD . ,
BD.
. Q
CD AB, M N . M, P, Q N.
MP QN AD ( ACD ABD).
, MQ PN
. MPNQ
.
BC AD, . . MPQN . , . . PQ = MN.
: 1 .

ECP k =


1. ABCD 4. :
) ;
) ;
) ,
1 : 2.
64

2. , 4 .
3. , 3 ?
4. ,
?
5. 4 8. :
) ;
) ;
) ;
) .
6. ,
50 %?
7. ,

2 10 , 12 2.
8. , 74 ,
3 2?
9. ,
4 : 9, 144 2?
10. , 1,5
, 24 49
175 . .
11. x y 30 %
x 120 %
3
. x.

12. ABCD, 30, AB AD E F , : =


=5 : 1, AF : FD = 2 : 3. FOD, O DE CF.
13.
266 2, 5 .
14. ABCD 4. D
l, BC 2
AB. l BC?
65

15. M AC ABCD a
: = 3 : 1, N AB, NMD
. AN.
16. 16 2,
, , 150. .
17. 3 4 , 1 : 3. .
18. 8 ,
30. : ) ) .
19. , 10 ,
30.
20. , 24 7 .
21. 20 ,
14 . .
22. 2 .
.
23. 28 21. .
24. 12 , 15 .
.
25. , 4 ,
45.
26. 12 2,
3 : 4.
27. , ,
, .
28. 8, 1.
.
29. 7 9 ,
126 2. .
30. 5 8 , 150. .
31. , 5 12,
30. .
32. 96 2, 6
8 . .
66

33. 64 2,
2,5 5 .
.
34. ABCD 4, D 45,
4 2 . .
35. ABCD 21, D
45, D 3 2 . .
36. 48 ,
5 : 7. .
37. ,
3 4, 28.
38. 25 15 .
45. .
39. 45
6 72 . .
40. 5 : 8,
60. 80 3 . .
41. 17 19 .
2 . .
42. ABCD BD 5 ,
ADB 4/5. ,
AB 41 .
43. ABCD . =
=3 , = 8 . 5 / 3
. AC.
44. ABCD 5 3 2,
A 60. BH, AD,
3 . BD.

45. 90 , 60.
1 : 3.
.
46. ,
, 2 .
67

30. , .
47. 8 3.
, ,
. .
48. , a b. .
49. ABCD CD AD . , = 21, = 35, MD = 9.
50. ABCD,
K BD. , : =
= 1 : 4, K = 1.
KMCD.
51. BD ABCD Q , : = 1 : 5, DQ : QB = 2 : 7.
PQC = 1. .
52. AB, BC AD ABCD
K, M, L , AK : KB = 2 : 1, BM : MC = 1 : 1, AL : LD = =1 : 3.
: SKBL : SBML.
53.
. 48.
.
54. 6 8, 24. .
55. 30 40,
25. .
56. . ,
2 4.
57. ABCD AD : BC = 5 : 3.
O. BOC
12. AOD COD.
58. a b.
,
.
59. a b. ,
, .
68

60. ,
, 4 8
. .
61. 10,
. .
62. 3,
30 .
,
.
63. ,
8 .
64. 10, 48.
.
65. 7 13
8 10 .
66. , 12 20 , .
67.
15 9, . .
68. , , 4. , ,
5.
69. , .
70.
. 8 ,
112 . .
71. 5 9
12 12 .
72. ABCD = 3 AD = 5 .
A 60, D 30.
.
73. ABCD O.
AD = 18 , = 10 , = 5 . BC.
69

74. AB ABCD CD
AD. = , = b.
ABCD.
75.
20 70, , ,
2. ,
4.
76. ABCD = 1, AD = 2. , AB P,
AC L, BD R CD Q, PL = LR.
PQ.
77. ABCD AD = 10 = 6. E
CD. SABCE : SAED.
78. ABCD F G
AF : FB = 1 : 2 CG : GD = 1:1. AD = 12, BC = 5.
SFBCG : SAFGD.
79. ABCD AD = 3 39 , = 39 ,
BAD = 30, ADC = 60. D ,
.
, .
80. ABCD AD = 12, BC = 3. BC M , AM
, 3/4 .
CM.
81. ABCD E CD.
BD AE O. SDOE,
DE : EC = 1 : 2, AO = 2OE, SAOB = 1.
82. ABCD M AB,
BD CM O. , = ,
= 4, S = 1. SD.
83. M AB ABCD.
CM BD O. ,
SD = 7, = 2, = 2. S.
84. ABCD F E AD
AF : FE : ED = 1 : 4 : 1. BE FC
AC BD M N, DC = 60 AD = 24.
MN.
70

85. ABCD AD = 30, BC = 24, AB =


=3, BAD = 60. E.
SCED.
86. ABCD BC = 3, AB =
=CD = 3. 60. AD.
87. ABCD AD = 7 . AC BD
K. , AK = 1, KD = 2,
BAC = DAC . SABC.
88. ABCD BAD = ADC = /2, AB = 1,5AC, DCA = BCA, AD = 4. SABCD.
89. ABCD AC BD
O. :
) , : = 3 : 5;
) BCD AOB, AO : OC = 1 : 2 BO : OD = 3 : 1.
90. ABCD , , AB CD,
1 . , BC AD.
91. 1
2 . , ,
, , .
92. ABCD ABD ACD .
,
DBC CDB 57 63.
93.
1: 3 :4 : 5 : 7. .
94. -, : ) = 6, ) = 10.

71

IV.
. . . .


.
, ,
, , .
,
.
, ,
R OA = R.
. ,
,
, .
.
, .

.
,
.
. ,
.
. , , (d = 2R).
72

.
,
.
. , , ,
, .
.
. , .
O ,
DOE
. , ( )
,
(
, DOE DE).
.
, .
. ,
.

. , , .

.
I.
, .
73

,
,
,
.
II. , ,
.
,
= .
III. , ,
.
,
,
ACO = BCO .
IV. ,
, .
, ,
= .
V.

,
.
, CD ,
= CD2.
VI.
,
,
.
= DC.
74

VII. ,
, .
= DB BE.
VIII. ,
, ,
, , ,
- ,
.
,
1
1
ABC = AOC = ADC .
2
2
IX. , .
ABC = ADC .
X. ,
,
, .
,
1
BAC = ADC .
2
XI.
,
.
= 90 ,
.
XII.
.
, ,
.
75

, ,
.
A ,
1, 2 ,

12,
R1, R2 .
12 = R2 + R1
12 = R2 R1
XIII.

.
1, 2 ,

,
12 =
12 , = .

l R S :
l = 2R,
S = R2.
l AB R ,
).
180
.
, , .
.
1 2
S = R , .
2
. , ,
.
1
S = R 2 ( sin ) ,
2
.

( =

76

XIV. , , .

4.1. . , = 6 , = 4 .
. ; ;
= 6 . , .
, = . ; = 4 .

R 42 32 25 5 .
: 5 .
4.2. A
, D
( > AD). CD, = 12 , = 18 .
.
.
AD = x, DC = AC AD = 18 x.

, , , 2 = AD.
122 = 18, = 8 .

DC = AC AD = 18 8 = 10.
: 10 .
4.3. ,
,
2 : 7.
77

. BD
2:7. , DNB
360

2 80 , DLB = 280.
9

,
1
1
ABD DNB 80 40 .
2
2
: 40.
4.4. 12 18 . .
.
,
CQ .

BR CQ. APC BRC ,
3
C 3
,
.
BR 2
BC 2
r. AB = 2r, BC = 2AB =
= 4r, OC = 5r. OQC BRC .
5 OQ
r 5


, ..
, r = 15, d = 2r =30.
4 BR
12 4
: 30 .
4.5.
. ,
.
. ,
, ,
| BA |= | CA | , = = R, ,
.
, .
78

, sin OAC | OC | R 1 .
| OA | 2 R 2
=30, = 60.
: = 60.
4.6. .
,
, Q, R L. QAR = .
PBL .
. BPR = BAR
BR. QAB = QLB (
QB). QAB BAR ,
BPL + PLB = ,
180.
: 180 .
4.7. ,
3
R
5
, 4 : 9.
. = : PD = 4 : 9.
= ,
= = 90.

9 2 4
2
2
2
2
PB = OB OP = R
R = R.
25
5
= 4 PD = 9x.

16 2
2
PD = AP PB 362 =
R x R
25
15
6R
3
6
PD = 9 x =
. OPD OD = R, OP = R , PD = R ,
5
5
5
2
2
2
+

5
cos OPD= OP PD OD = .
2OP PD
9
79

DPB = 90 OPD, sin DPB = cos OPD =

5
.
9

: arcsin .
9

4.8.
.
arcsin 0,8. ,
8 .
.
.
. ,
,
.
= CMD + DMA =
= 90 + DMA,
. , . .
, > , .
. .
OB
AO =
= 10 = + = 18.
sin OAB
: 18 .
4.9. R = 4

KB AK,
.
8
,
AK C.
AM .
. KB 3
, KAB = 90 AKB =
, 8
3 5
= = .
8 8
AKB , ,
80



, = . ,
2 4 4
4
, = =
= 4 , = 4 2 . = = 4( 2 1) ,

=
2 . ,
2
2 = 2 + 2 2cos = 36 24 2 ,

= 2AKB =

36 24 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 3 ( 2 1) .
: 2 3 ( 2 1) .
4.10.
1 2 5 .
,
.
. 1 2
2
1 ,
. 2
, ,
1 .
12 , 12 = 5 1 =
= 3 . 2 = 4 , 2
, = 2 = 4 .
: 4 .
4.11.
. 2 7 .
,
, D.
D.
. , 1D2 .
. CDO1 BDO1 , BDO1 = CDO1. DO2 =
= CDO2.
81

CDO2 CDO1 D
D,
180,
O2D + CDO1 = 2DO1 = 90.
CD 2DO1, DC2 =
= 21 = 14 (. XIX, ' 1), DC = 14 .
1D =

DC 2 CO12 14 4 3 2 .

: 3 2 .
4.12. 32
1 2, , 12
. ,
12.
.
12 , N
12.
2
1 N O1O2 32 ,
3
12 = 48 .
1 2 (
) ,
1 = 2 = 24 .
r
. 2 2 =
= 32 r, = r, 2 = 24 ,
12 = (32 r)2 = r2 + 242 r = 7.
: 7 .
4.13.
.
.
. 1 2 , , , D
.
r R. 82

12. 1

, 1 .
2

= 12 = r + R = 2 2 = 2
BP

1 = R r. ,
= sin ,
AP
2

1
1+ sin
Rr

R
2 .
= sin r
= sin
=
R

2
r
R+r
2
+1
1 sin
r
2

1+ sin
2 .
:

1 sin
2
4.14.
K. K KB
. D
C. CD, KB = 2R
BKD = .
. O
. BKD BOC
( ,
BDK ,
OC ,
; ,
). ,
= . r.
83


r=

r
cos = r,
= cos ,

2R r

2 R cos
.
1 + cos

CD = BD BC = 2Rsin rtg =

R sin 2
.
1 cos

R sin 2
.
1 cos
4.15. R r
, AD BC
. , ABCD
, .
2 Rr
:
.
R+r
. ,
OD, OA, OB OC
CDA, DAB,
ABC DCD , ,

ABCD.
COB .

: CD =


1. 30 , . .
2. , 115, 43.
.
3. 3 : 8 : 4.
, .
4. D . D, :
) = 5, = 2, = 2,5;
) = 16, = 9, = ED.
5. , : ) 10 ; ) 35 .
84

6. , : ) 1 ,
)25 .
7. ,
38, , , 24 .
8. , 16, ,
45.
9. , 6, 135.
10. K , : ) 60; ) 90; ) 120.
11. l , : ) 60; ) 90; ) 120.
12. , 107 .
13. 167 ,
117 . .
14. , : ) 10 ; ) 4 .
15. , : ) 2 2;
) 50 2.
16. , 10 .
17. :
) , 8 ;
) , 18 2.
18. , 6, : ) 90; ) 60.
19. , 6, : ) 90; ) 60.
20. 7 : 4,
12 .
.
21.
32 , .
, 8 .
22.
. 3,
1. .
85

23. ,
,
1 : 3.
24. . 60.
, .
25. ,
5 : 6 : 7
. ,
.
26.
4 9 , .
27. 6
5 4 .
.
28.
, 36 48 ,
42 . .
29. P 11 7. P 18.
, P .
30. AB OC.
AB, = 12 , 13 .
31. A AB
, C D ( >AD).
CD, = 15 , AD = 9 .
32.
12 , 2/3 . .
33. A, ,
AB AC, AC 8 = 30.
CM, AB.
34.
6, 1.
?
35. CD, AB ,
1 : 3. CAD CBD .
86

36. , , 1 : 3.
.
37. BC
, A, AB AC
D E . BAC , = 12,
AD = 3,5, EC =

9
5

38. = = 6. AB
, BC D
, BD : DC = 2 : 1. AC.
39. = 1. AB
, AC D , BC E : = 7 : 2. AC.
40.
. , ,
. ,
6 4 .
41. 10 A
AB AC, 12 . BC.
42. A AB
AC, 12 . B C
4 . .
43. 1 .
, .
44. 1 60,
. , .
45. 1 ,
90.
46. R
, . ,
.
47. , 60, .
.
87

48. 60 120.
.
49. , ,
. ,
, 6 . .
50. , ,
16 30.
.
51. 17,5 AB,
AC BC, CD AB. AC
BC, : AD = 5 : 3.
52. 5 3
2 : 3.
.
53. 4 5.
, .
54. 6
5 4.
.
55. , 25 ,
40 30 .
.
56. R r .
,
.
57. R r .
,
.
.
58. 27 13 ,
50 .
( )
( ) .
59. 80 .
4 8. -.
88

60. 1,
4. .
61. 5 2
. ,
.
62.
.
,
.
63. . ,
2 8 .
,
.
64. O ,
M N. K, ,
O K MN. K OM
MN p q . K ON.
65. 9
M. ,
M,
N. , MN 6.
66. P AC
ABCD BC AD. CD
AP 6 2, A.
AD K. SACK.
67. R=2 3 AB
AK, /12. B
, AK
C. AM .
68. 3 9 .
, ( > ). 1. .

89

V.

. , .
3 . ,
.
.
, .
. , .
I. , ,

.

: , , . (: , .)
II. .
III. , , .
.

IV. , , .
90

V. , ,
:
a
b
c
2R

,
sin sin sin
R .
VI.
abc
R
,
4S
, b, , S .
VII. , , . R ,
, , :
ABC = 90;
; AO = OB = CO = R.
VIII. ,
, .
, , , .
: , , . (: , , .)
IX. .
. r , , S , ..
S
2S
r
,
p abc
, b, .
91

1
1 1 1
.
ha hb hc r
XI. ,
,
, .
K, , L
: AK = AL; K = ; CM = CL.
XII.
.
XIII. k,
k.
R1, R2, r1, r2 111 ~ 222 k,

R1 r1
k.
R2 r2
r R

: d2 = R2 2Rr.


5.1. .

abc
R
, , b, , S
4S
. , = = = ; = = = 60;
SABC=
92

a2 3
. R
4

a3
4a
a 3

.
2
3
a 3 4 3
4
4

2S
,
P

.
2
r

a2 3
4 a 3.
3a
6

a 3
a 3
;r
.
3
6
5.2.
b.
.
R
.
4S
= = b, BK , 1
K = K = b cos, = 2bcos.
2

: R

AC BK
b2
b 2 sin cos sin 2 .
2
2
b b 2b cos b cos
b
R

, .. R
. 2
sin
2

2
sin
2
b
4 sin 2
2
V.
2S
r
,
P
.
b2
2 sin 2
b 2 sin 2
b sin 2
2
r

.
b b 2b cos 2b(1 cos ) 2(1 cos )

SABC=

: R

b
b sin 2
, r
.
2 sin 2
2 1 cos
93

5.3.
, r. .
. = .
,

2r
a tg 2 ;

OAD ,
,
2
a cos .
2b
4r 2

1 2
2
2
a
a
a a a 4r .
2 a
b

2 cos 2 1 tg 2 2
4r 2 2 a 2 4r 2
1 2
2
a
1 tg 2

a a 2 4r 2
.
2 a 2 4r 2
5.4. 2
, - q .
.
.

, Q R. CP = CR, R = QA, = BQ
, .
CR-x, RA=y, BP = r. (, BPOQ r .) ABC 2 + 2 + 2r = 2, = +
, .. x+y = q. ,
2q + 2r = 2 r = p q,
SABC = pr = p(p q).
: r = p q, SABC = p(p q).
5.5.
,
10, 20 24 .
119
400
:
,
.
3
3 119

: b

94

.
;
VI X.
5.6. .
2:3.
, 36 .
. , Q, R .
AR 2

. R = 2, RC = 3, = .
RC 3
= AR, RC = QC, PB = BQ, = 2, CQ = 3, BQ = y.
2 = 2 +2, ..
(5)2 = (2 + )2 + (3 + )2 122 10 22 = 0
2

5 1 0 ,

= 1 = .

, ABC 5 + 4 +
3 = 12 = 36, = 3; = 5 = 15.
: 15 .
5.7. , b . ,
.
. = , = b = .
Q, R .
= BQ = , QC = CR =
= y AP = AR = z.
x z c;

y z b;
x y a.

,
x c b;
:

x y a.
95

acb
abc
y
.
2
2
a c b a bc
:
,
.
2
2
5.8. = 90, CD , = 3 , =
= 4 . , CDB ADC.
.

O12P, 1 , 2
.
x

= 32 42 25 = 5 . 12
CD: CD AB = BCCA, CD =
.
5

144 9
9 16
BD BC 2 CD 2 9
AD 5
.
25 5
5 5
r1 , BCD:
9 12

2S BCD
108 3
r1
5 5
.
BC BD CD 3 9 12 180 5
5 5
r2 , CD:
16 12

2S CDA
192 4
5
5
r2

.
12
16
DC CA DA
240 5
4
5
5

O1O2 (r1 r2 ) 2 (r2 r1 ) 2 2( r12 r22 ) 2 .
:
96

2 .

5.9.
7:6.
, ,
5.
.
1 , 2
. ,
BAC 7


ACB 6
12 = 5.
= 7 BCA = 6.
1 , 1, 1, 1
. , 2, 2, 2 , 2, 2, 2 . ,
ABC = 180 ACB = 180 13;
1 = : 2 = 90 6,5;
2 = ABO1 + 1B2 = 95 6,5;
2BC = 2 = AB2 = (180 13) (95 6,5)=
= 85 6,5;
2 = 2 = 2CB = 6 (85 6,5) =
= 12,5 85.
2 = CAB 2AC = 7 (12,5 85) = 85 5,5.
2AB = AB2, 85 5,5 = 95 6,5, = 10.
, BAC = 7 = 70; BCA = 6 = 60; ABC =
= 180 13 = 50.
: 50; 60; 70.
5.10. ABC
CD. , ACD BCD, = 4, , , 2,5.
5 13
:
.
12
97

. ABC ,
.
S
r , S
p
, .

AQ = r1 ctg

,
1

AQ = r2ctg . 12 2
O1R2, O1R = r1 r2,
a 2R = PQ = AB BP AQ.
5.11. .
, . , ,
r1, r2 r3. , .

. r
ABC . MN RT '.
98

APQ NRA' .
AOL K' 'K AL.
POL ORK , PL =
= KR , , AP = A'R. ,
APQ NAR . ABC, APQ, CRT MBN ,

, ..
r
r1
r
r
2 3
.
PQ BN RC BC
t. r1 = tPQ, r2 = tBN, r3 =
= t RC, r = t, PQ + BN + RC = ( Q = NR), r1 + r2 + r3 = r.
: r1 + r2 + r3 = r.
5.12. ,
D. , , AD = DC, =
2
9 cosBCA = .
3
, Q D , . DC = x, BD = 9 .
DC = CQ, = AQ
= BD , .
DM 2
4
ADC. = cos = , = 2 = ; Q
3
3

2
QC = = ; P = BD = 9 x; = 9 +
= 9 . 3
3
3
ABC
4
4
2 2 + 2 , = 3 = = 4.
3
3
: 4.
5.13. , LABC, 1.
, 99

AC, a . 3.
?
. 1 2 ABC ( ).
AMO1N AP2Q

1 1 1

,
3 2 3
(AM+AN)3 = AP +AQ. (1)
MB = = NC ,
, AM + AN = (AB + ) (MB +
+ N) = AB + AC = . , BP = BR CQ = CR AP +
+AQ = AB + BC + BP + CQ = AB + BC + . , (1)
( + )3 = + + + = 2,
+ + = 3.
: .
5.14. 12
arctg
= 6 5
. ,
. .
12
. tgACB = ,
5
1
1
5
cosABC =

.
144 13
1 tg 2ABC
1
25

ACB.
5
1
ACB
1 cos ACD
13 2 ;
tgDCO1 tg

5
2
1 cos ACB
3
1
13
100

1 cos ACB
2

.
2
13
12 108
= DCBD = DC2tgACB = 9
.
5
5
DC
3 13 39

.
cos ACB
5
5
ABC
216
2S
216
R
5
2
78
AC 2 BC 6
108
5
1CD:
2
O1D = R = DCtgDCO1 = 3 2.
3
2 1
BD. r. 12
1 = R r, 12 = R + r 21 = DCO1. Rr
2r 2
2
,
tgDCO1
6 3r = 4 + 2r, r .
Rr
2r 3
5
2
: .
5
5.15. ABC
D.
CD, , , D 5 .
. ;
AD. ,
ODC .
,
OCD = BCD + OCB = EAD + OCB =
1
1
=
2
2
( ), a
DOC= + ( ).
sin DCO1

101

1
1
, .
2
2
, OD DC = 5 .
: 5 .


1. , :
) 10 ;
) 10 .
2. : ) 7, 5, 8 ; ) 13, 15, 20 .
:
1) ;
2) ;
3) .
3. 40 42 . .
4. ,
20 : 21, 17 .
5.
, :
) 5, 8, 10;
) 8, 7, 5;
) 80, 315, 325.
6. ,
. , :

) 134 ;

) 70 .
7.
. , 102 .
8. 5 , : ) 30; ) 45. .
102

9. , 5, 45 60.
10. ,
10 , 3 .
11. , , 4, 10.
.
12. ( = ) 0,4 BD, 40. .
13. , , .

18 11
,
169 2

9
. .
13
14. .
, , ,
4 .
15. , 24
7 .
16. , , = 7 , = 6 =
= 5 .
17. 6, 10 12 .
,
. .
18. . 5 10. .
19. 15 20.
,
.
20. 13 84
. .
21. 6 10 .
.

103

22. LMN (L = 90) , LN . LN


6. LMN MN.
23. , , . S. , .
24. 2 , a 2,5. .
25. , , 4 : 13.
26.
30, 3 3 . .
27. , 16 , 6 .
.
28. ,
,
(2 3 ), 30 75.
29. = 3, = 6,
cosC =

1
4

, AD . R , -

AABD.
30. = 7, = 37 , =
= 3 AD.
, ABD.
31. ( = = 6) , D ,
BD:DC = 2:1. .
32. 1.
, D , a BC
BE : = 7 : 2. .
33. C = 60.
2 3 .
104

D , AD = 2DB. , CD = 2 2 . .
34. 1:2. , ,
D. BD : DC.
35. ,
, .
, = 6, = 9.
36. = 9 , D. , AD = DC,
2
cosBC = . AC.
3
37. = 10 = 20
= 30 . ( = 10) .
, , K.
K.
38. , .
D. , , , BD = 4, = 4 2 , SCD = 6.
39. = 41, = 51, = 58. , BD.
.
40. ,
9, R = 2, . .
41. 12, 15 18 . ,
. ,
.
42. PQL , 1
PL. PL 2 , PLQ .
3
, , L, PQ.
.
105

43. = 2, BC = 2 , ABC =105.


2 2 . .
44. Q,
AQ . , , = 12, PQ = 5.
45. 4 . ,
, = 60.
46.
AM CN. S = 56, SANMC = 42.
16

. MN.
3
47. = 10, = 17, = 21. N
. AMN.
48. 1 (cosABC =
= 0,8). , .
.
49. ABC
ABC = 40, , K , OBK = 15. .
50.
. BD = 6.
= 80. , D = 10.
51. 3
D. 4
2
. BCA
. ED.
3

106

VI.

. ,
.
. .
. , .
. .
, .
I.
,
180.
, + + + = 180.
II.
,
.
,

AB + CD = AD + BC.
.
III.
.
IV. .
107

V. r , , S S
: r .
p
VI. (2R) ,
,
d
2R
,
sin
R .
. , , , , .
VII. ,
, .
VIII. , , .
I. ,
, .
. , h = 2r,
AD
B1D = AB = CD = L. =
.
2
.

90.
I. a, b, c, d

S ( p a )( p b)( p c)( p d ) ,
abcd
.
2
.
,
S abcd , a, b, c, d .

: p

108

.

: BD = AB CD + BC AD.
II. S = rp, .

nR 2
2
S nr 2 tg , S
sin
.
n
2
n

6.1. .
48 . .
. ,
,
AB + CD = BC + AD = /2,
.
AB = CD AB + CD = /2,
= : 4 = 12 .
: 12 .
6.2.
20 12 , .
. ABCD (AB = D) ;
, , , AD ; 2R = AD = 20; R = 10 ().
= d; CDA = . :
d
2R
. (1)
sin
AB = CD = x; d = 20 2 2 , ACD
( ,
).
109

1 1
ABCD, = 11 = 12,
20 12
1 1D =
4 ().
2
CC1D
sin

x 2 16
. (1)
x

CC1

CD

20

20 2 x 2
2

x 400 x 2
2

, 20 x 2 16 x 400 x 2 .

x 16
x 16
x
, 400(2 16) =
=2(400 2). , 2 = 80; x = 4 5 ().

20 2 x 2 400 80 320 8 5 ().

: = 8 5 (); AB = CD= 4 5 ().


6.3. , , 68 . ,
64 .
. o
BC AD

68 ().
2
AD = 64.
, AD = 100;
= 36. o + CD = BC + AD, = CD,
AD

, = 68 ().
2
ABE (AD BE) = 90. ABCD
AD BC
, ,
32 (). 2
ABE : 2 = 2 + 2, BE 682 32 2 60 .
BE = 2R, R = 30 .
: 30 .
110

6.4. 21
9 8 . .
. ABCD (A CD = ). 1 .

1 = C1D =
6 ();
2
82 6 2 64 36 10 ().
BAD :
BB
8 4
AB1 6 3
sin BAD 1
, cos
.
AB 10 5
AB 10 5
D ABCD :
AB2 + AD2 2ABADcos = D2;
3
D2 = (10)2 + (21)2 21021 ;
5
BD = 289 = 17 (),
BD = d = 17 ().
BD
17 17 5
, 2 R

,
sin 4 / 5
4
17 5 85
R
.
8
8
85
:
.
8
6.5. ,

3 1 45,
, .
. ABCD , , A + C = 180.
= 180 45 = 135.

C1||B; 1;
1 = 1 = 45;
1CD = 135o 45o = 90o;
111

|AlD| = |AD| |AA1| = 3 2 = 2 ().


1D 1CD = 90. To pa
A1D2 = x2 + y2 = 4.
, CA1D = BAD, B || 1, ,
A1CD , CDA = 45, .. = (B =
=CD). = = 2 (2 + 2 = 4; 22 = 4; 2 = 2).
,
d
BD
2R

. (1)
sin sin
2
BD2 = 32 + AB2 23Bcos45 = 9 + 2 23 2
11 6 5 ,
2
BD = 5 (c) = d.
d (1), 2 R

5
10
R
.
2
2 /2

10
.
2
6.6. ,
, 8 , 30. .

. ABCD ( = CD = ).
, + AD = AB + CD, BC + AD =
= 2x. 1 AD, 1 ,
x
| BB1 | x sin 30 .
2
ABCD ,
2x x x 2
BC AD
S ABCD

.
BB1
2
2 2 2

SABCD = 8 2, 8 = 2/2, 2 = 16 , = 4 .
112

1 = 2r, r ,

x 4
1 2r , = 4r, r 1 ().
2
4 4
= , AD = v. BC + AD = 8, + v = 8.
CC1 = BB1. 11 = = ; 1 + C1D =
3
= 2|1| = 2xcos30 = 2 4
4 3 (c) AD = + 4 3 . 2
: + AD = 8, + ( + 4 3 ) = 8, 2 + 4 3 = 8, + 2 3 = 4.
= 4 2 3 , v = (4 2 3 ) + 4 3 = 4 + 2 3 .
: = CD = 4; = 4 2 3 ; AD = 4 + 2 3 .
6.7. 8
20 . .
. ABCD = CD = .
, + AD = + CD, .. 20 +
8 = 2; = 14 ().
1 1 .

AD B1C1 20 8
1 C1D

6 .
2
2

BB1 y 2 AB12 14 2 6 2 196 36 4 10 ().
1 = 2r, r , .. 2r = 4 10 ;
r 2 10 . l = 2r = 4 10 .

: 4 10 ().
6.8. 2 . , 10 .
. ABCD , . . = CD = 10 .
, 1 = 2r, r
. 1 = 2r = 22 = 4 (). , BC+AD=AB + CD = 20;
113

S ABCD

BC AD
20
h
| BB1 | 10 4 = 40 c.
2
2

: 40 .
6.9. .
2 3 . .
.
, + CD = 2 + 3 (), .. + =
= 5, = ; CD = y.
1,
C1D = AD AC1 = 3 2 = 1 ();
1 = = .
CC1D ,
CD2 = CCl2+C1D2 2 = 1 + 2.

x 12 ;
x y 5;
x y 5;
x y 5;

1;
2
13
y

(
y

x
)(
y

x
)

1
;

y x 1;
y 5 .
5
AB x 12 / 5 6
r

().
2
2
2
5
6
:
().
5
6.10. ABCD . , . .
, ME = 2 = 16 .
. K ,
D Q.

, = . , K , .. MK . ,
, ,
.
114


1/8. = , = PQ = 8 MK = 10 . o

K = MB = MK 2 MC 2 100 x 2 18 2 ;
AB AC 2 BC 2 100 x 2 64 x 2 6 x ;

BP

AB
3x .
2


2 = 2 + 2 100 x 2 182 9 x 2 x 2 x

3 2
.
5


S AMBC S AMB S ABC

1
1
486 2
MP AB AB BC
.
2
2
5

: 97, 2 2.
6.11. , , d1 d2.
. K, , .
= K BC,
d1d 2
d1d 2
OK R

.
2
2
1
2
2
2
d

d
4
d1 d 2
1
2
2
d1d 2
: R
.
2 d12 d 22
6.12. b ( > b) h
. .
. BE D
(AD||BC)
. , . 115

a b
a b a b
, DE a

,
2
2
2
= ED :
a 2 b2
a 2 b 2 4h 2 a 2 b 2
=
; BH h

.
4h
4h
4h

BE = h, AE

CH 1 2 4h 2 a 2 b 2
.

2
2
4h

6.13. , , .
.
. , K
, K = , K = (
). ,

,
2
2
2
, OK . AOK BOK
AK OK
n
OK

, OK m n .
OK KB
OK
m
: R OK m n .
6.14. ABCD R,
. , 2 + CD2 = 4R2.
. ADB = , CAD =

= , D 2
( BD ).

= 2Rsin D = 2Rsin 2Rcos.


2

, :
116

2 + CD2 = 4R2 (sin2 + cos2) = 4R2,


.
.
6.15. ABCD . BD
. ,
R = 2.
. AB2 + CD2 = 4R2 2 + AD2 = 4R2 (. 6.14) BC + AD = AB + CD
( ,
), = 2 :
4 BC 2 CD 2 4 R 2 ;
2
2
2
BC AD 4 R ;
BC AD 2 BC CD,

, = CD AD = AB.
, , ABCD
. + = 4R2
2R
4R
1 2R 4R
42 + 2 = 4R2, BC
, AB
, S ABC

.
2 5 5
5
5
8R
: S ABCD
.
5

1. , 16 .
2. 20. , 3 : 4.
3. 15 . .
4. 12 ,
5 . .
117

5. , ,
4 . , 24 7 .
6. .
1, - 3.
.
7. , , 3 : 4 : 5, 48 . .
8. 10
, , , .
.
9. R, CD . , .
10. , ,
. .
11. 6 10 . ,
.
, 5 : 11. .
12. 2 8 .
.
13. 4 , 40. .
14. , , 170. , 160.
15. 24, ,
. .
16. 15 17 . .
17. , ,
8. , ,
/6.
118

18. KLMN (LM||KN) , . LM : KN = 1 : 3.

2 3
. .
3

19. K BD ABCD BD ,
AK = 18 CK = 8. BD.
20. , 7 2 ,
3 3 . .
21. ,
7 8 . .
22. . .
23. 14, 12
16. .
24. ABCD,
AD, .
AD.
25. ABCD ( AD ) . .
.
26. R
S. .
27. 1 , 5. ,
.
28. 100 . ,
16 .
29. = 2 AD = 10 ,
. .
30. , ,
8 4 .
.
31. AD
6. AD.
, 4.
119

32. KLMN LM KN , KN. LN 4 ,


MNK 60. LM.
33. , 4 , ,
, .
. ,
.
34. AD
. , =
= 2 OD = 4.
35. , D A ABCD, D
D N . , : DM = 1 : 3,
CN : DN = 4 : 1, AB = 7, AD = 6. .
36. KN LM KLMN , KN =
= 3, LMN = 120. LM MN , KLN. KLN.
37. ABCD AD = 40, BAD =
=ADC = 60 = CD = 10 , AD, . ,
AD, 10 D, . K. ABKM MDCK.
38. 3 , ,
7. .
39. 10 4 13 , 6
12. . ? ?
40. KLMN KL = 2, LM = 3, KLM = 120, LN
AKLM. LN.
41. ABCD . ,
= , CAD = BD = a. CD.
120

42. ABCD .
BD K. , AD = 5,
= 10, K = 6. D.
43.
1 . 60. .
44. ,
, CD, pa 1 .
, . AD.
45. .
b d,
(b ). .
46. ABCD, , ABD, R r.
47. ABCD AD BD
. , , ,
AD F , D F.
EF, , AF = , AD = b (a > b).
48. .
.
?
49. R
. .
50. , , D . CD
. D ,
,
K. BCDK, , = 10
K : K = 3:2.
51. ,
R = 5 ,
.
52. , , 60 3 2.
53. , 5.
121

54. 60 , 240 2. .
55. , 25 , , 20 2. .
56. Q .

122

VII.


(
).


( (; ) (
(; )).
AB {x B x A ; y B y A}.
( ) (
).
AB :

a = {1; 2}, | a | a12 a22 ;

a = {1; 2; a3}, | a | a12 a22 a32 .


, .

a = {1; 2; a3} b = {b1; b2; b3},


,
a1 a2 a3
b1 b2 b3

1 .
b1 b2 b3
a1 a2 a3
0
,
0
. , {1; 0; 2} {3; 0; 6} 1
0 2
1
:

.
3 0
6
3
0 = {0; 0; 0} .
, (), -

123

. ,
, , , .
, , . ( , ).

.

a | a | =

= | | | a | a , > 0 , < 0.

. , a = {3; 6; 12), 2 a =
1
={6; 12; 24}
a = {1; 2; 4}.
2

a b ,
,
,
,

( a + b ).

a b ( ), , , ,
,

a + b .


. , a = {2; 3; 5}, b = {1; 2; 4}, a + b = {2 + 1;
(3) + 2; 5 + (4)} = {3; 1; 1}.

a b c

, a = b + c .
.
124


.

: i , j , k ,
0, 0, 0z .

. .
.

a = {1, 2, 3} b = {b1, b2, b3}

( a = {a1, a2} b = {b1, b2}) c



( a , b ) = a1b1 + a2b2 + a3b3

( ( a , b ) = a1b1 + + a2b2).
. ,
:



( a , b ) = | a || b |cos a , b .
.

a , b c :


1. ( a , b ) = ( b , a ).


2. (k a , b ) = k( a , b ).



3. ( a , b + c ) = ( a , b ) + ( a , c ).

4. ( a , a ) = | a |2 > 0, a 0 ( a , a ) = 0, a = 0.
.
,


( a, b )
(a1b1 a2b2 )
cos a , b
.
| a ||b |
a12 a22 b12 b22

. a b ,



cos a , b 0, .. ( a , b ) = 0.

125


7.1. D (3; 5; 4)
D (0; 2; 1). D .
. D
D ,
D = {0 3; 2 (5); 1 4} = {3; 7; 5} ,

CD (3) 2 7 2 ( 5) 2 9 49 25 83 .
: 83 .
7.2. (3; 2),
CM {4; 0}, NC = {1; 5}. N.

. (; ) N (xN; yN). CM = { 3;
x 3 4;
(2)} = {4; 0}, M
M = 7, M = 2.
y M 2 0,
NC = {3 xN; 2 yN} = {1; 5},
3 x N 4;
x N 2;

2 y N 5, y N 3.
: (7;2); N (2; 3).
. ;
.
7.3. (3; 7); (7; 1); (2; 2) ABCD. D.
,

. BA CD . BA = {3 7; 7 (1)} = {4; 6}=


= CD , D
CD ( ) . D D( xD ; y D ) ,
126

xD 2 ( 4);
D (2; 4).

y D 2 ( 6),
: D (2; 4).

7.4. , a {; 1;

0} b {3; 2; ) .
m 1 0
.

,
3
2 n
m / 3 ,
3

1 / 2 , = , = 0.
2
0 / n a.

3
: = , = 0.
2
2
7.5. (; ; zA) (; ; zB). .
.
1
1
{xB x A ; y B y A ; z B z A }.
2
2
,
xB x A
y yA
z zA

; yA B
; zA B
xA
,
2
2
2

x x y yB z A z B
.. C A B ; A
;
.
2
2
2
. .
7.6. (3; 13; 7) (11; 6; 28).
5
, , ,
.
2
5
.

,..

5
5
{14; 7; 21} {10; 5; 15} .
7
7
127

,
(7;8; 22).
: (7; 8; 22).
. ,

( (; ; zA) (; ; zB))
,

x A
x
; yA

; zA
zB



( =
= 1).
7.7.
12, { 3 ; 5 ; 1} .

. | a | 3 5 1 3. , 4 .
() ,

: 4a (4) a .
: { 4 3;4 5 ;4 } { 4 3 ;4 5 ;4 }.
7.8. AD ABC.

BC a AB b AD .
. BC = 2 BD .

BD = BA + AD = a + b .
,

BC = 2( a + b ) = 2 a +2 b .

: 2 a +2 b .
3.9. N CD ABCD. BD B

b AN .

. MN MA AN a b
MN BCD, BD = 2MN,

BD = 2 MN 2a 2b .
128

MN
K, MK = KN = K
( : , DOC,
NKC
1/2).
K |AO| = ||,
1
K : = 3 : 4 AK ( a b ) ,
2
4
2 2
AC AK a b .
3
3
3
4 2
2 2
BA 2CN 2(CA AN ) 2 a b b a b .
3
3
3
3

4 2
: BD 2a 2b ; BA a b .
3
3
7.10. ABCDEF

BC a AE b . DF a b .
. AD
ABCD. CG .
720. , FAB =
720
FAB
=
= 120; DAB =
= 60.
6
2
= l. l
l
= . , GD = ,
2
2
l
l
AD = + HG + GD = l 2l .
2
2

AD a 2 , ..

AD 2a . DE DA AE 2a b . EF CB a .

DF DE EF ( 2a b a ) 3a b .

: 3a b .
129

7.11.
ABC. , AO BO CO O .
. BD .
OD ,
1
OD (OA OC ) ( OD
2
OB
').
= 2,
OD
OB 2OD , ..

OB OA OC OA OB OC O ,
.

7.12. a {1; 5} b {2;3}

c {3; 1}.


. , b c a , ..
2 3 1
2 3 1
.
;
3 1 5
3 5
, , ..
2 3 1,
2 3(3 5) 1, 7 15 1, 2,

3 5 3 5
3 5
1.

: 2b c .

7.13. a {4; 8,1} b {1;

1; 0}, c {0; 3; 2}, d {1; 1; 1}.


. , , ,

b c d a ,
1 0 1 4 0 4,

1 3 1 8 3 8,
0 2 1 1 0 2 1

4 ,
4 ,

( 4 ) 3 8, 3 2 12,
2 1
2 1

130

4 ,
1,

1 2,
2,
3 2( 1 2) 12 3.

: b 2c 3d .
7.14. (3; 5). =
x
2 , AB
2

a {1;2} .
x
. 2

2

t
t

t ; 2 , t . AB = t 3;3 a ,
2
2

a {;2} ( ),
t 3 ,
t 3,
t 3 ,
t 6,

t
3 2 2 t 4 6 3 4 6 3.
: (6; 1).
7.15. ,

c {; 0; 2} a {1; 3; 4} b {2; 5; 6}.

. a b , ..

1 2 x 2 x,
x 2,

3 5 0 3 5 0, 5 / 3,

4 6 2 4 6 2
4(5 / 3) 6 2

x 2, x 11,

5 / 3, 5,
2 / 3 2 3.

: 11.
7.16. (0; 0) AB
x2 x 1
y
, 0 ,
x 1
131

y 1

1
, AB
4 3x 3 / 2

. A1B1 AB
2 6 . A1B1 .
x2 x 1
:
x 1
( 2 x 1)( x 1) ( x 2 x 1) x 2 2 x x ( x 2)
y

.
( x 1) 2
( x 1) 2 ( x 1) 2

. y

x0 = 0
" + " "",
.. 0 = 0 , (0) = 1. (0; 1) .
1
y 1
, . .
4 3x 3 / 2

1
t ;1
, A t;
; 3/2
3/ 2
4 3t

4 3t

| AB | t 2

1
.
48t 3

(t ) | AB |2 t 2

1
t > 0 (
48t 3

t = x > 0)
(t ) 2t

1
32t 5 1
1

0t .
4
4
2
16t
16t

1 1
, A ;
.
2 6

2 6 , .. A1B1 = 2 6 AB
A1B1 = 2 6 AB .

: { 6 ;2} , { 6 ;2} .
132

7.17. :

) a = {2,5} b = {1,3};

) a = {2,0,1} b = {3,5,1}.

. ) ( a , b ) = 2(1) + (5)(3) = 2 + 15 = 13;

) ( a , b ) = 23 + 0(5) + (1)1 = 6 + 0 1 = 5.
: ) 13; ) 5.

7.18. a b , | a |= 7 3


| b | 6 , a b 150. ( a , b ).



3
. ( a , b ) = | a || b |cos150 = 7 3 6
= 63.
2

. 63.

7.19. | a | = 5 | b | = 2.

a b 120.

2 a 3 b a +2 b .
. 14 :
3

1
(2a 3b , a 2b ) (2a 3b , a ) (2a 3b , 2b )


3

( a, 2a 3b ) ( 2b ,2a 3b )



2
( a ,2a ) (a , 3b ) ( 2b ,2a ) (2a ,3b )

1


( a ,2a ) (a , 3b ) 2(b , b ) 2(b ,3b )

2


(2a , a ) (3b , a ) 2(2a , b ) 2(3b , b )

4

2(a , a ) (b , a ) 6(b , b )


2 | a |2 6 | b |2 | a | | b | cos 120

1
50 24 5 2 50 29 21.
2

. 21.
133


7.20. a = {3,4,5}

b = {2,4,3).
.

(a , b ) 3 2 (4) 4 5 (3) 6 16 15 25;

| a | 32 ( 4) 2 52 50 5 2 ;

| b | 22 4 2 (3) 2 4 16 9 29 .
:

(a , b )
25
5
cos

.
| a | | b | 5 2 29
58
5
:
.
58

7.21. a =

={3, 4, 5} b = {7, , 1} (.. 90).



. : ( a , b ) =0, ..
37 + (4) + 5(1)=0 16 4 = 0 =4.
: 4.
7.22. (2,1); (4, 2)
(0, 3). (, ).
. ,
; ,
, , .
ABC

BA BC :

cos ABC cos BA, BC

( BA, BC )
| BA | | BC |

BA = {6,3} BC = {4, 1},


6 4 ( 3) 1
21
7
cos ABC

0
2
2
2
2
45 17
85
6 ( 3) 4 1
ABC .
134

BA BC ,
.
:
( AB, AC )
cos BAC
.
| AB || AC |
AB = {6, 3} AC = {2,4},
12 12
24
4
cos BAC

0.
45 20 3 5 2 5 5
CA = {2,4} CB = {4, 1},
(CA, CB)
8 4
2
cos ACB
=

0.
20 17
85
| CA || CB |
cos < 0, , ABC .
: .
7.23. , 2
.
. ,
, .
= 2. , = 1 = 2.
(0, 1) (2, 0).
CN . (0; 0,5) N (1; 0).
CN MB . CN = {l, l} MB = {2, 0,5},
cos ACB

(CN , MB)

| CN || MB |
5
: arccos
.
34

1 2 ( 1) ( 0,5)
2,5
5

.
2 4 1/ 4
2 17 / 2
34

135

7.24. ABCDA'B'C'D. B'D D'P, .


.
, .

2.
B'D D'P ( 180). .
: (0, 0, 2);
D (2, 2, 0); D (2, 2, 2) (0, 1, 0).
: B'D = {2, 2, 2}; D'P = {2, 1, 2}.

( BD, DP)
424
2
1
cos BD, DP

.
4 4 4 4 1 4
12 3
3 3
| BD || DP |
,
1
180, ..
.
3 3
1
: arccos
.
3 3

1. .
, :
) (3;5) (1; 2);
) (2; 1; 3) (0; 1; 1);

) (3; 7) (0; 9);


) (4; 5; 0) (1; 3; 1).

2. MN = {6; 10; 2} PQ = {3; 0; 6}. : a) PQ ; )


1
2

) MN
136

2
PQ .
3

3
MN ; ) MN PQ ;
2

3. MN = {4; 1; 3). :
) N, (0; 1; 2);
) , N (5; 2; 1);
) MN, (1; 1; 2);
) MN, N (3; 5; l);
) , MN
:CN = 1:3, (0; 0; 1);
) D, MN ,
MN:ND = 2:3, N (2; 3/2; 1/2).
4. BD ABCD, (1; 3; 0); (2; 4; 1) (3; 1; 1).
5. (3; 0; 1);
(1; 4; 1) (5; 2; 3). AD.
6. (2; 8); (2; 7)
(1; 5). .
7. A (2; 3; 5), (2; 1; 3)
(1; 2; 3) .
.
8. M1 2 11 22.
12, A1 (0; 1; 2), 2 (1; 2; 1), 1 (1; 1; 3), B2 (1; 0; 0).
9. (1; 2; 2) (3; 4; 12). D,
AD:DB = :. OD
?
10. (4; 5; 0), (3; 3;2) (2; 2; 6).
.
11. , (1; 2), (2; 3).
12. , ,
(1; 2; 1)
(7; 1; 2).

13. = {2;3} q = {4; 2}.

a = {2; 13} q .

14. a = {3; 5} b = (1; 4).

c = (2; 5) a b .
137

15. a = {1; 0;l}; b = {3; 2; 0} c ={1; 2; 3}.

d = {2; 2; 3} a , b c .

16. c = {11; 6; 5} = {3; 2;1},

q = {1; 1; 2}, r = {2; 1; 3}.


17. A (0; 6) = x2 + 2 + 2 . . -

.
18. = 4 2 A (x0, 0),
0 = 2. O , O
. .
19. (1;2;3), (1;2;3),

C(0;5;3) D (0;3;10). d a , b c ,

a 2 AB 3BC CD , b AC 4 AB , c 2 AD , d = (3; 5;4).


20. (35; 16; 20); (1; 24; 3); (20; 16; 4);
D (l; 4; 2). - , 15 + 23 17z 43 = 0 -
, .
(- ,
.)
21.
ABCD: (1; 2; 3); (3; 2; 1); C (6; 4; 4). CD
. : 1) ;
2) .
22. , , = 2 + 4.
, 1 3. ,
.
23. , N, = 2 + 3 10. , N, : 6; 1; 3. MN ON PO , .

24. a , b c

120. a b

c , | a |=3, | b |=2, | c | = 1.
138

25. : = a , = b , | a | = | b |= 2,

= 60. a b ,
, .
26. N M , AN , ,
: = 3:1 : ON = 2:1.

= b = c . b c .
27. D , D : DA = 3:1 BE : = 2:1. CD

. = OB = q .

q .
28. K M CD

ABCD K = a , = b . BD AD a b .
29. A1A2A3A4A5.
A1 A3 A1 A2 A1 A5 .

30. (0,0) =

1 x
x

, 0

, 2 + + 2 = 0
, . 1 1 5 .
1 1 .

31. (0,0)
x2 x 1
, 0 ,
x 1
1
=
, 4 3x3 / 2

. 1 1 2 6 . 1 1 .
32. : ) (2; 3) {; 1}; ) {; 1}
{0; 2}; ) {2; 5} {2 3; 10} ?

33. a b , :

) a = {; 2; 5}; b = {2; ; 8);


139

) a = {x; 2x; 1}; b = {; 2; 4}.

34. , c = (;0;2)

a = {1; 3; 4} b = {2; 5; 6}.

35. , a = {12; 3; 7)

b = {3; ; 2} c = {2; 3; 1}.

36. , a = {2; 1; 1}, 3.

37. = {2 22; 2; 22} v = 1 2 y;

1 2 1
y ;
2
2

y .

, ,
.

38. = {a2; b; 2 b}, v = {b; b2; 2 + 4b}.


b, ,
.

39. a b , :

) | a | = 3; | b | = 4; a, b ;
3

) | a | = 3 ; | b | = 1; a, b ;
6

) a ={3; 1; 5}; b = {1; 2; 3);

) a ={5; 7; 4}; b = {2; 3; 8};



) a = 2i 3 j 4k ; b = i 2 j k ;


) a = i 2 j k ; b = CD , (1; 2; 0) D (2; 1; 3);

) a = p q 2r ; b = 2 p q r , p = {3; 4; 2}, q = {2; 3; 5},

r ={3; 2; 4);

) a = , b = CD , A (2;3; 8); B (2; 1; 7); (1; 4; 5); D (7;4; 7).

40. a b , :

) a = {3; 1; 2}, b ={2; 3; 4};

) a = {1; 2; 2}, b ={6; 3; 6);

) a = 2 p 3q; b = p 2q , p = {4; 2; 4}, q = {6; 3; 2};

) a = , b = D , A (1;2; 2), (1;4;0), (4;1;1), D(5;5;3).


41. , (1; 2; 1),
(3;1; 7), (7; 4;2). ?
140

42. , t p t i 3 j 2k


q i 2 j t k ( ).

43. = {3; 2; 2} = {1; 0; 2} .


.
44. : A (2; 3; 0), B (2; 1; 1),
(0; 1; 4). BD .

45. a = (1; ; 2} b = {; 3; 4)
?

46. a = {2; ; 2} b = {1; 2; } ?

47. c a = {2; 1; 3}, a

() c + 2 b , b = {l; 0; 4}.

c .

48. a = {; 1; 2} b = {2; ; 4},

b a . .

49. a = {2; 1; 1} b = {3; 4; 2}.


c , a , c b

a .

50. b , a = {2; 1; 1}

( b , c ) = 3, c = {1; 1; 3}.

51. a = {3; 1; 5} b = {1; 2; 3}. c ,

, k

( a , c ) = 9 ( b , c ) = 4.
, .
52. ABC ( = = 8, = 12)
BE : = 3 : 1.
.
53. ABCDA'B'C'D.
' D'C.
54. ABCDA'B'C'D' = 2, = 3, ' = 4.
' '.
141


I
1. ) 70; ) 164;
2. 45; 135.
3. ) 49; ) 80.
4. = 30; = 60;
= 90.
5. 80; 80; 20
80; 50; 50.
6. 30, 60, 90.
7. 10, 140.
8. 60, 75, 45.
9. 20, 40, 120.
10. 48, 72, 60.
11. 30, 60, 90.
12. ) 40; ) 12,5.
13. ) 20; ) 35.
14. 16.
15. 50, 110, 20.
16. 70.
17. ) 28 ; ) 98 ;
) 12 ; ) 18 .
18. ) 16 ; ) 60 ;
) 60 .
19. ) 25 ; ) 21 .
20. 10 .
21. 10 ; 10 ; 1 .
22. 40.
23. ) = 10;
) 351 .
24. 1) ) 13 , ) 10 ;
2) ) 8 ; ) 5 .
25. ) 4 3 ; ) 3 3 .
26. ) = 25 ;
= 15 ; = 20 ;
) = 21 .
142

27. ) 27; 36; ) 486.


28. 3360.
29. ) 28; 35; 21.
30. sin A

12
;
13

5
;
13
5
12
cos A ; cos B ;
13
13
12
5
tgA ; tgB ;
5
12
5
12
ctgA ; ctgB .
12
5
24
31. sin A
;
25
7
sin C ;
25
7
24
cosA ; cosC ;
25
25
sin B

tgA

24
7
; tgC
;
7
24

ctgA

7
24
; ctgC .
24
7

32. 12 3 ; 12; 24.


33. 4; 4 3 ; 8.
10
.
3
35. 15 .
36. 744 .
37. 20.
38. 10.
25 144
39.
,
.
13 13
40. 45.

34.

41. 28,8.
42. 12 .
27
43.
.
4
44. 2 .
45. 4 .
46. 8.
ah
47.
.
4h 2 a 2
48. 8 2.
49. 24 .
50. 75 2.
51. 12 .
52. ) 6 ; ) 8
18 ; ) 12 .
53. 10.
54. 30.
55. 6 2 5 ; 4 2.
56. 78 2 .
57. ) bc = 3; hc = 3 ;
b 2 3; a = 2;

) c = 8; hc = 2 3 ;
b = 4; a 4 3 .
60 25 144
58. 12;
;
;
.
13 13 13
169 65
25
59.
; ; 12; .
12 12
12
60. :

5;

2 5 ;
1; 4.
61. 202,8.
62. 1.

63. 5 , 12 , 30 2.
64. 24.
65. 5 12.
66. 36.
67. 24 .
68. 8 10 , 9 5 .
69. 240.
70. 7,2 .
71. ) ; ) ; ) .
72. ) ; ) .
73. 10 .
3 4
74. ) 0, , ;
5 5
71 5 25
)
,
,
;
104 16 52
31 3
9
)
, , .
32 4
16
75. ) 12; ) 4.
76. 20.
77. 30.
78. 8 12 2 4 6 ;
12 4 2 4 3;
4 6 8 3 4 2.
79. ) ;
) ;
)
;
) ;
) .
80. 1 .
81. 36 .

3 113 .
86. 4,8 ; 4,8 ;
3 .
87. 9,5 .

3 ;

2
( 3 1) ;
2
3
( 3 1) 2.
4

90. 33 .
91. 13.

4.

92. 2 4 3 .

29

5.

5. ) 2 3 ; ) 4 3 ;

93. 8 2 .
94. 13.

) 2 3 ; )

6
(1 3 ) .
3
96. 6.
97. 12,5 .
15
98.
.
8
99. 10.

95.

4 3
; ) 2;
3

) 7 ; ) 3; ) 3;
) 4:1.
12
6. ) 6; ) ;
5
) AF

100. 13 .
101. )

2 ;

3.

3 11 3
89.
.
4

3 5
2

; BE

12 2

7. ) 3 : 1; )

4 2 4110 2 ( 3 1)
4 2 5

83. 4 2 4 .

103. 13 2 11 .

3 : 1.

5 41 10 2 ( 3 1)

5
73
) BP ; CQ
.

4 2
;
5

82. 9 3 3 .

113.

1. ) 84; ) 30.
8
2. ) 8 ; )
26 .
5

88. 185 .

4 2 5
102. 3,5.

84. 16; 113;

II

85. 48 ; 3 113 ;

8. ) 84; ) 11,2; )
;

)
.

5
;
13

505
.
2

9. ) 8; )

15
;
8

) 3 15 ; ) 46 ;
)

12 15
.
7
143

10. 10 2 .
32
11.
.
3
12. 84 2, ; 24 2, .
13. 25 2.
14. 12 .
15. 12 .
16. 11 + 109 .
17. 28 .
18. 4 ; 5 ; 6 .
19. 150.
20. 7 : 3.
21. 9 : 35.
22. 99:47.
23. 36:41.
24. 5 4 .
25. 10,5 37,5 .
26. 2 : 1.
BQ 6 AQ 7
27.
;
.
QE 5 QD 4
AE 1 BD
2
;
.
EC 9 DC 25
1
29. .
7
30. 2 : 1.
31. 3 : 4.
32. 7 : 5.
33. 4 : 3.
34. 1 : 1.
35. 21 : 5.
36. 1 : 4.
37. 8 : 15.
38. 2 : 1 : 3.
39. 5 : 3 : 2.

28.

144

40. 3 : 5.
41. 28 : 5.
42 ) 5; )

20
; ) 3,6.
3

43. 5 : 6.
44. 12 : 5.
45. 1 : 3.
46. 1 : 7.
47. 13 6 2 .
48. 2 7 .
5 6
.
2
12
50.
.
7
51. 3,75; 10; 11,25.

49.

52. 12 5 .
53. 7,5.
54.

ah
.
ah
66. 1 : 3.
67. 6 ; 4 ; 6 .
10
68. )
193
7
5
193 ; ) 4 193 ;
6

65.

18 15
.
5

15 7
.
16
7
56. .
9

55.

3 31
4 31

.
7
7
58. 20 .
195
140
59. )
; )
.
17
17
60. 113,6 ; 134,4 ;
168 .
61. 0,8 ; 1 ; 1,2 .
62. 10; 25; 20.
63. 11=14 ; =4 .
64. =3 ; 11=1,2 .

193
.
2
69. 50 2.
70. 1:3:5.

71. 1 : 2 1 : 3 2 .
6 2
72.
;
.
7
7
73. 1 : 9.
74. 5 : 1.
75. 25.
24
76.
.
5
77. 2 6 .
78.

57.

3 1
.
4

III
1. ) 16;

) 4 2 ;

2 10
.
3
2. 8 2.
3. 9 .
4. 9 ;
3 .

5. ) 32; ) 4 5 ;
1
4
)
; ) .
5
5
6.
25%.
7. 16 .
8. 12 ; 25 .
9. 8 ; 18 .

32. 56 .
33. 12,8 ; 6,4 .
34. 5.
35. 5.
36. 10 14 .
37. 1/2.
38. 100 2.
39. 2.
40. 52.

10. 50 13 .
11. 6.
12. 3.
13. 66 .
14. 1 : 3.
15. /2.

41. 321 .
42. 8 2.

16. 2 2 ( 3 1) .
159 2
.
32
18. ) 32 2;

17.

) 8 2 3 ;
8

2 3
19. 200 2.
20. 84 2.
21. 24 2.
22. 1 : 1.
23. 16,8.
24. 150 2.

25. 8 2 2.
5 2
26.
.
2
27. 60; 120.
28. 150.
29. 14 ; 18 .
30. 20.
31. 30.

43. 105 .
44. 19 .
45. 30 15 .
46. 4.
47. 3; 2; 3.
48. a+b.
49. 39.
50. 29.
51. 4,32.
52. 8 : 3.
53. 12.
54. 5.
55. 600.
56. 3 3 .
100
20.
3
2ab
58.
.
ab
3a b
59.
.
a 3b
60. 4 12 .
61. 10.
62. 9.
63. 16 2.
64. 6 8.
65. 80 2.

57.

66. 256 2.
67. 144.
68. 50/3.
69. 2.
2
70. 682 2.
3
71. 7 95 2.
72. 2 3 2.
73. 9 .
74. 3ab/4.
75. 2.
76. 3/2.
77. 11 : 5.
78. 49 : 53.
79. 13.
80. 4/5.
81. 1/7.
82. 6.
83. 1.
84. 3.
85. 10 3 .
86. 6.
87.

2 3
.
9

88. 11 2 .
89. ) 3 : 5; ) 8 : 3.
90. 1 .
91. 1 .
92. 120.
93. 27.
94. ) 120; ) 144.
IV
1. 60, 30 140,
110.
2. 101 36.
145

3. 36, 48, 96.


4. ) 4; ) 12.
5. ) 20 ; ) 70 .
1
6. )
; ) 12,5 .
2
7. 36,2 .
8. 4.
9. 8/.
k
k
10. )
; )
;
3
2 2
2k
)
.
3 3
11. )

3l
2l 2
; )
;

3l 3
.
2
12. 25 .
13. 25/.
14. ) 100 2;
) 16 2.

15. ) 2 ; ) 5
16. 25 2.
16 2
17. )
;

) 6 2 .
18. ) 9; ) 6.
19. ) 9 18;
) 6 9 3 .
20. 16 .
21. 12 20 .
22. 5
23. 45.
24. 1 : 2.
146

2
.

25. 80, 60 40.


26. 12 .
27. 4 .
28. 30 .
29. 2.
30. 10 .
31. 16 .
32. 6.
33. 8.
34. 2 4.
35. 60 120.
36. 30 60.
37. 0.
38. 2 6 .
39. 2/3.
40. 2 .
120
41.
.
61
22
42.
.
35

43. 1 2.
4

2 3 2
.
12
1
45. 2.
4 2

44.

R 2
.
6
2
47. .
3
48. 3.
49. 6 .
50. 34.
51. 21 28 .

46.

10 6
.
3
53. 1 4.
54. 2.
55. 5.

52.

56. 2 Rr .
57. 2 Rr .
58. 48 30 .
59. 8.
60. 4.
61.

10(7 2 10 )
.
9
2

1 sin / 2

62.
1 .
1 sin / 2

63. 4 .
64. q2/.
65. 4.
66. 128/5.

67. 25 14 3 .
68. 9.
V
1. ) 10 3 ; )

5 3
.
3

2. 1) ) r 3 ; R

7 3
;
3

7
66
d ; ) r
;
3
2
19825
325
;
R
; d
1056
4 66

2) ) 2 3;

14 3
;
3

66;

325

2 66
7
3) ) 3; ;
3
33
105625
)
;
.
2
1056

3. R = 29 ; r = 12 ;
d = 145 .
4. 40 ; 42 .
5. ) ;
) ; )
.
6. ) = 67; =
=23; = 90;
) = 55; =
=35; = 90.

20.

6
.
91

21. 4,2.
5 13 25 2
a;
a;
a .
2
2
4

23. 8tg tg .
4 2

22.

24. 12.
25. arctg

7. ) = 51; =
= = 64,5;
) = 129; =
= = 25,5.
8. ) 5; ) 5 2 .
9.

25
(3 3 ).
4

10. 85/8.
11. 24.
12. 16.
13. 5.
4 3
14.
.
3

15. 21 4 .
16. 4 3 .
17. 16 .
18. 150.
19. 1.

5
5
; arcctg .
12
12

26. 3.
27. 10.
28.

1
.
2

29.

2 6
.
3

333 45 37
2 6

45.

31. 2 6 .
32. 2/3.
33. 3 2 .

46. 8.
47. 230,4.
48. 3.
49. sin 55:sin40:sin85.
50. 6(tg10 + tg20).
51. 3 3 .

1. 8 2 .
2.192.
3. 30 .
4. 60 2.
5. 15 .
6. 5.
7. 9 , 12 , 15 ,
12 .
8. 5.

34.

5.

9.

35.

135
.
13

10.

36. 4.
37.

50( 2 3 1)
3

38. 3.
39.

84
.
20

40. 3 6.
41. 10 8 .
42. 3/2.

2 3
.
2

VI

333 45 37
;
8

30.

7
3 1.
6
108
44.
15 .
11

43.

4 5
R.
5
2
a.
3

11. 2 14 .
12. 1 4 .
13. 80.
14. 150.
15. 432 3 .
16. 25 9 .
17. 2S .
18. 1.
147

19. 24.
20. 42 6 2.
21. 98 2.
22.

44. 1 .

sin
.
4

45.

23. 10.
46.

3 1
.
2

24. arccos

47.

25. arccos( 5 2).


26. arcsin

2R 2
S 2R 2

27. 1,6.
28. 10 .
29.

5 14
.
42

30.

18 5
.
5

31. 32 2 .
4 3
32.
.
3

33. 2.
34. 16.
35. 4 2 7 .
3 3
.
4
10
37. .
11

36.

38. 7/6.
39. 72. . .
40. 5.
a 2 sin sin
41.
.
2 sin( )

42. 55.

148

2
2
,
.
3
3

1
6

43. (3 3 ),

a( a b d )
bd .
a b

8 R 3r 3
( R 2 r 2 )2

a 2 ab .


48. ctg2
: 1.
4

49. c sin 2 4 R 2 c 2 .
50. 30 2.
8 5

1. ) {4; 3}, 5;
) {3; 2}, 13 ;
) {2;2;2), 2 3 ;
30 .

2. ) {3; 0; 6}, 3 5 ;
) {9; 15; 3},

315 ;

) {9; 10; 4), 197 ;


) {5; 5; 3),

33

5.

19 .

113 .

1 20
6. ; .
3 3
7. (3; 8; 7).

8.

VII

) {5; 2; 1},

4.

29
.
2
1 7 5
9. ; ; .
4 8 8

.
5
52. 30.
53. 75.
54. 8 .
55. 16 .
Q 3
56.
.
2
51.

3. ) (4; 2; 5);
) (1; 1; 2);
) (3; 0,5; 3,5);
) (1; 5,5; 2,5);
1 1
) 1; ; ;
4 4
) (4; 0; 4)
(8; 3; 5).

59 .

27 27 2
10. ; ; .
10 10 5
11. (4; 0).
12. (10; 0; 0)
(6; 0; 0).

13. a 3 p 2q .
3 25
14. c a b .
17
17

15. d 3a b 2c .


16. c 2 p 3q r .
3
3
17. AO AB AC .
8
8

18. CO 4 AB OA .
19.
38 71 53
d
a
b
c.
119 357 119

3
OA
19
1
25
OB OC.
19
76
1
21. AM CB BA
2
= {4; 4; 2}.

20. OD

22. CB 2OA .
49
23. MN
PQ.
13

24. a 1,5b 3c .

a b
25.
2 3
12 4
26. a c b .
7
7
2 6
27. AB p q.
5
5

28. BD 2b 2a.
29. A1 A3 A1 A5 (1
2 cos 72) A1 A2 .
30. {12; 6} {12;6}.

31. { 6 ; 2}
{ 6 ; 2}.

2
32. a) ; ) 0;
3
) 1 4.
5
16
33. ) x ; y ;
4
5
) x = 8; y = 32.
34. 11.
35. 6.

3
3
36. 6 ;
;

2
2

3 3
6 ; ;
.
2 2

37. {(1; 2),(1;2),


(1;1), (1; 1), (0;0)}.
38. {(l;2),(l;l),(l;2),
(l;l), (0;0)}.
3
39. a) 6; ) ; ) 14;
2
) 1; ) 12; e) 2;
) 41; ) 66.
11
4
40. )
; ) ;
9
406
23
)
; ) 0.
3 86

12
41. arccos ;
49

61
;
arccos
7 122
61
;
arccos
7 122
.
42. 6.
43. /4.
44. /4.
45. 2.
46. x = 1; = 2.
47. {4; 2; 6).
48. x = 2; =4.
49. (4; 2; 2).
1 1
50. 1; ; .
2 2
51. {2; 3; 0}.

52. arccos

3 7
.
8

53. /2.
54. arccos

8 5
.
25

149

,
,
,

I. .


1011-

. .
. .
29.07.2009.
6084 1/16.
. 077-1. .. 9,5. .-. . 9,5. 4500 .
.
. 115409, , , 31






, : , , -, -
.

()

8(495)324-84-40

- ()

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()

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()

8(495)324-84-46

()

8(495)324-84-00

():

8(495)323-90-62

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-
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115409, . , ., .31

, , u .: 8(495)324-05-08, 8(499)725-24-60.

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