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riverfront

development

Dissertation
Radhika Munshi|
B.Arch IV

Index

Introduction
History
Guidelines of riverfront developmment
Waterfront as a public space
Case Study : Sabarmati Riverfront

Challenges
Objectives
Stuctural works
Spaces created
Success stories

Inferences
Bibliography

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch

Introduction
A waterfront is the zone of interaction between urban developments
and the water and a waterfront area is considered as a unique and
irreplaceable resource where it is the interface between land, water,
air, sun and productive plants.

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch

Waterfronts

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch

A more detailed definition described the waterfront as the

interface point where land and water meet, between


approximately 200 to 300 meters from the water line
and 1 to 2 km to the land site and also takes in land
within 20 minutes walking distance.
The waterfront area should have multiple features which incorporate
each other and surrounded by structural and non structural objects to
form a focal point.

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch

History
The earliest cities developed along river banks and sea ports such as
Kolkata, Mumbai, London, Paris.
In the later stage of development, waterfront areas began as
commercial centers, transportation hubs and manufacturing centers,
as a central focus for them.
However, due to complex and
multiple problems such as technology
change, the historic preservation
movement, increased environmental
awareness and urban renewal, a
dramatic change in waterfront areas
was brought about and they became
large spaces of unused property in
the past thirty years or so.

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch

The first waterfront development projects were started in North American


cities, in particular Baltimore and Boston, in the 1960s.
.

Baltimore 1960

Baltimore 2013

Whereas the early examples of waterfront development primarily


focused on leisure and retail; contemporary schemes have a broader
scope.
Many are set up with the aim to create attractive mixed urban
environments that appeal to the imagination of people and persuade
them to work there, to live there, or to visit these.
Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch

Natural
Waterfro
nt

Public
Waterfro
nt

Functions of Waterfront
Working
Waterfro
nt

Redevelopin
g
Waterfront

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch

Trends of Waterfront Development

1960s - Massive waterfront development began and consequently


initiated the world-wide era of waterfront revitalization.
1970s - Urban waterfront redevelopment bloomed,
1980s - Accelerated and continued in the future.

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch

Element of Successful Waterfront


Development

Source: Torre, 1989; Journal of Techno Social-ISSN 2229 8940-Vol 4 No 1 April 2012 (Pg 24) Fig 2:
Elements of Successful Waterfront Development

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch

Characteristics of Waterfront Area

Source: An Evolution of Waterfront Development in Malaysia By Azlina Binti Md. Yassin Submitted on
16Th Pacific Rim Real Estate Society Conference, Wellington 24-27 January 2010.

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch

Waterfront as a Public Space


Characteristics of Public Spaces
1. Promotes human contact and social
activities.
2. Has design and architectural features
that are visually interesting.
3. Promotes community involvement.
4. Reflects the local culture or history.
5. Relates well to bordering uses.
6. Is well maintained.
7. Has a unique or special character.

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch

To develop Riverfront as Public Space

Establish a waters edge that is continuous, publicly accessible and


magnificent
Create a network of public spaces that attract and invite both
localities and tourists to waterfront
Provide a wide-range of public spaces that foster culture and creativity
in our city
Ensure all public spaces adhere to a high environmental standard
Strengthen connections along the waterfront on both sides of the river
Develop strong link between existing communities and emerging
waterfront communities and spaces
Improve the aquatic habitat and water quality along the waterfront
and integrate them with river and stream improvements
Maintain a consistency in waterfront design elements in all public
spaces (i.e. Park benches and lamp posts)
Coordinate the water usage and supporting land base to maximize the
economic, recreational and environmental asset of Water bodies.

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch

Sabarmati Riverfront
Development
Ahmedabad

Case Study

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch

Ahmedabad and Sabarmati River


The city was founded in 1411
along the river banks.
The river originates from the
foothills of Aravalli ranges near
Udaipur, Rajasthan, and flows
downstream
passing
through
Ahmedabad till Gulf of Cambay.
The 109-km river runs across a
stretch of about 11 km through
Ahmedabad. It is this stretch that
is developed as an ambitious
urban renewal project

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch

Sabarmati and Growth of Ahmedabad

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch

Need for Riverfront Development


The intensive uses took their toll on
the river.
Untreated sewage flowed into the
river through storm water outfalls
and dumping of industrial waste
posed a major health and
environmental hazard.
The river bank settlements were
disastrously prone to floods and
lacked
basic
infrastructure
facilities. Lacklustre development
took shape along the riverfront.
Such conditions made the river
inaccessible and it became a virtual
divide between the two parts of the
city.

Original condition of the river near Vadaj

Dry riverbed with slums along the riverbanks and


lacklustre development along the riverfront

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch

Project Objectives
The project aims to reclaim the private river edge as a Public asset
and restore the citys relationship with its river. The Riverfront project
presents a great opportunity to create a public edge to the river on
the eastern and western sides of Ahmedabad.
The project is being developed by the Sabarmati Riverfront
Development Corporation Ltd. (SRFDCL), a company wholly owned by
the Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation.
The project was conceived in 1997, but it gained momentum only
after 2001.

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch

Challenges

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch

12000 hutments on both


banks
of
the
river
occupying nearly 20% of
critical project area.

Unorganized
Gujari
Bazaar of more than 1200
vendors on the eastern
bank and Court Litigation.

Nearly 200 Dhobis using


both the banks of the
river
for
washing
activities.

Thoroughly polluted and


contaminated Sabarmati
through 38 storm water
outlets.

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch

Undertaking the Objectives


Environmental Improvement
Strategies for overall environmental improvement have been
formulated to achieve the following objectives:

Reduction in Erosion and Flood

Sewage Diversion

Water Retention and Recharge

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch

Reduction in erosion and flood


An optimal width of 263 meters for the water way has been selected
and implemented. Both banks of the river have diaphragm walls built
into the riverbed at a depth of more than 10m, and retaining walls
which protect low-lying areas from periodic flooding and prevent
erosion of the river banks.

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch

Sewage Diversion
To stop the pollution of the
river from the storm water
outfalls
and
industrial
effluents,
an
integrated
storm water and sewage
system
with
interceptor
sewers
has
been
implemented.
These interceptor lines have
been installed along both
banks of the river capturing
38 sewage discharge points
and routing the sewage with
new pumping stations in the
reclaimed banks. These lines
carry untreated sewage to
the
recently
augmented
sewage treatment plants
south of Vasna Barrage.

Map showing the interceptor line installed in the reclaimed


land to divert the sewage to the treatment plants
downstream

Map showing the interceptor lines that divert the sewage to


the treatment plants at Vasna and Pirana downstream.

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch

Water retention
The Vasna Barrage, located just downstream of Ahmedabad, makes
it possible to retain water for 15 kilometers upstream, the entire
length of the river within the city

Vasna Barrage downstream of Ahmedabad enables water to be retained the river

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch

A more sustainable alternative is undergoing planning to use treated


water from the sewage treatment plants to replenish the river.
Hence, the traditionally monsoon-fed Sabarmati shall be able to hold
and replenish water year-round. Water retention in the river enables
recreational activities as well as groundwater recharge.

Conceptual map highlighting the use of treated water from sewage treatment plants to replenish the
river

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch

Features of the Project

The reduction of the riverbed from a variable


width of 600-300 m to a fix width of 263 m,
thus reclaiming 185 ha of land.

The construction of RCC diaphragm walls (1020 m depth) and anchor slabs (10 m) to
prevent the riverbanks from erosion. After the
finishing the anchor slab is turned in the socalled lower promenade.

The construction of interceptor sewers on both


the riverbanks able to prevent the waste water
to flow directly into the river and diverting it to
the two sewage treatment plants of Vasna and
Pirana.

The construction of RCC retaining walls (2.5 - 9


m) to protect the city from flooding. The height
of the walls is determined by the 100-year flood
level. An upper promenade is created on top of
the retaining walls

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT

Structural Works

Diaphragm Wall, Anchor Slab, Ghats and Ramps


Retaining Wall, Staircases and Ramps
Interceptor Sewage Line, Extension of Outfalls & Manholes
General Earth Fill
Pumping Station

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT

Diaphragm Wall

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch IV

Anchor Slab

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch IV

Ramps and Ghats

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch IV

Retaining Wall

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch IV

Staircases and Elevators

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch IV

Interceptor Sewage Lines

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch IV

Earthfill

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch IV

Riverbanks of the Sabarmati before the


project

Riverbanks of the Sabarmati after the


project

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch IV

Spaces Created and


Proposed

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch IV

LAND USE
STREET NETWORK

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch IV

RIVER PROMENADE
The key feature of this project is a two-level, continuous promenade
at the waters edge along each bank of the river.

The lower-level promenade is built just above the water level AND an
upper level promenade. Together these provide Ahmedabad with an
uninterrupted, pedestrian walkway, nearly 11.5km in length, in the
heart of the city.
Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch IV

LOWER LEVEL PROMENADE


The lower-level promenade is built just above the water level to
serve pedestrians and cyclists, and to provide access to the water.

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch IV

The width of the promenade varies from 6-18m.Facilities provided at the


River Promenade include:

Access points from the city level via staircases and ramps at regular
intervals.
Lifts or Elevators to make lower-level promenade accessible for people with
disabilities.
Concrete paved flooring which can support walking, jogging and cycling.
Continuous seating arrangement at the rivers edge along with protective
railing.
Platforms at regular intervals for regulated and organized vending
Dissertation
activities.
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch IV

UPPER LEVEL PROMENADE


The upper level promenade shall host a variety of public features at
the city level.

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch IV

GHATS
31 NOS
Ghats punctuate the lower-level river promenade at planned
intervals to provide access to the water. These have been designed
at strategic locations to enable continuation of cultural activities
along the water.

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch IV

BOATING STATIONS
3 NOS
Boating Stations have been provided at the lower-level River
Promenade to enable recreational boating in the river as well as a
water-based mode of public transport in the future.

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch IV

STREETS
The SRFD streets run parallel to the river on both banks and provide
continuous access to the riverfront development. Access streets at
key locations connect the SRFD streets to the rest of the city.

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch IV

All SRFD streets have dedicated pedestrian paths with cycle tracks,
parking bays, and 6 m/20ft wide carriageways. Access lanes on one
or both sides of the streets provide entries to the existing
development and when required, the proposed riverfront
development.

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch IV

PARKS AND PLAZAS


The project devotes around seventy hectares, more than a quarter
(26%), of the reclaimed land towards creating public spaces in the
heart of the city.

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch IV

RIVERFRONT PARK, Subhash Bridge


Area 6 ha
The park is envisaged as an extension of Gandhijis Sabarmati
Ashram, across the river, providing a serene and contemplative
backdrop to the Ashram and maximising this vista.

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch IV

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RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch IV

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch IV

RIVERFRONT PARK, Usmanpura


Area 1.8 ha

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch IV

AMUSEMENT PARK
Area 0.9 ha
This park will be a hub of thematic areas with an informative and
entertaining environment. The facility will provide interactive
exhibitions, holographic displays and animatronics to recreate prehistoric living creatures, historic episodes and traditional architecture.

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch IV

FLOWER GARDEN
Area 5 ha
This garden has been envisioned as a venue for Ahmedabads Annual
Flower Show- an event for exhibition and sale of native and exotic
species of plants and flowers. Throughout the year, the garden shall
serve as a neighbourhood park.

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch IV

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch IV

URBAN FOREST, Paldi


Area 10.4 ha
The proposed forest, downstream of the river is envisioned as a
significant green resource for the city.

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch IV

PLAZA, Vallabhsadan
Area 0.5 ha
It is visualized as a pedestrian promenade lined by arcades which will
provide a shaded environment. Staircases and elevators for
handicapped access connect the plaza at regular intervals to the
lower-level promenade and the river.

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch IV

PLAZA, Gandhi Ashram


Area N.A.
Gandhi Ashram is the only property that opens up directly onto the
river where a series of wide steps connect to the lower level-River
Promenade. The visualizations show the transformation of the space
into an amphitheatre, where the existing steps serve as seating.

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch IV

RIVERFRONT PARK, Khanpur


Area 1.4 ha
The linear park on the eastern riverbank and is planned with secure
play areas for children, walking, jogging and other recreational
facilities, and areas for outdoor performances and concerts.

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch IV

AMENITIES
Many new public facilities are being built on the reclaimed land to
include sections with particular needs.

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch IV

RIVERFRONT MARKET
Area 6.5 ha
TheRiverfront Markethas been created to house Ravivari, the
traditional flea market at a permanent site adjacent to its previous
location. The market provides designated vending areas with 1,641
vendor platforms, seating areas, paved walkways, food courts,
vehicular access, parking and 4 public washrooms. The public areas
shall be shaded with over 800 diverse trees that have been planted

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch IV

EXHIBITION CENTRE
Area 5.7 ha
With its strategic location in the heart of the city, the centre shall
address the requirements of the exhibitors and visitors alike.

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch IV

EVENTS GROUND
Area 5.07 ha
The Events Ground has been planned to offer a wide range of venues
for local as well as international events.

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch IV

DHOBHI GHAT
Area 0.9 ha
A laundry campus has been created to provide state-of-the-art
facilities for the washing community that traditionally used the river
banks for laundering.

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch IV

The recently constructed facility on the eastern bank has vehicular


access, parking and lighting within the site. The seven blocks on the
campus have been provided with wet areas on the ground level and
terraces are equipped for drying clothes. These have also been
provided with water and electrical supply with meters and drainage
system.

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch IV

PUBLIC WASHROOM
Area 14 nos.

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch IV

SPORTS FACILITIES
The project also offers three significant sports facilities which have
been proposed with reference to its location in the city and the
surrounding context.

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch IV

PALDI SPORTS COMPLEX


Area 7.1 ha
The proposed complex near Paldi aims to provide city-level sports
facilities on the western bank.

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch IV

PIRANA SPORTS GROUND


Area 4.2 ha
The proposed ground at Pirana aims to provide a multifunctionalmaidanon the eastern bank for informal sports and
recreational uses.

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch IV

SHAHPUR SPORTS CENTRE


Area 2.4 ha
The proposed centre at Shahpur will offer neighbourhood-level sports
facilities on the eastern bank.

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch IV

Success Stories
The Sabarmati Riverfront Project add almost 10,00,000 sq. mts. of
parks, promenades and plazas to Ahmedabad.
The Sabarmati Riverfront Project help provide Ahmedabad with
many new cultural trade and social institutions (36,000 Sq.m).
Creating of City Level Recreational Activities Water Sports
Tourist attraction.
Recharge of Ground water Aquifers of the city
Continuous Green coverage along the river corridor.
Elimination of Flood Hazard.
Creating Vibrant Urban neighborhoods and beautification of the city.
Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch IV

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DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch IV

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Radhika Munshi| B.Arch IV

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Radhika Munshi| B.Arch IV

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Radhika Munshi| B.Arch IV

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RIVERFRONT
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Radhika Munshi| B.Arch IV

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DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch IV

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Radhika Munshi| B.Arch IV

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RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch IV

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RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch IV

Inferences
Riverfront Qualities
Points to think when designing a riverfront
1)Access and Linkage
2)Edge Uses
3)Attractions & Destinations
4)Identity & Image
5)Amenities
6)Water Uses
7)Flexibility in Design
8)Seasonal Strategy
9)Landuse Management
10)Diverse Funding Sources.

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch IV

Need of Riverfront Development Planning


1)To develop city as a major commercial and service center with
international class facilities.
2)To project on city as waterfront city with attractive investment
opportunity to further enhances the economic growth and
stability.
3)To establish cities as one of the major tourism attraction center
of the country with international class facilities.
4)Appealing leisure and entertainment function contained with
landscape & fountains.
5)Manifesting cities nature with urban economic development.
6)Increase the Overall living standard of people in the cities
contain with riverfront.
7)Making excellent living environment.
8)Fully Accessible to Public & fully guaranteed as a Public
waterfront.
Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch IV

Bibliography

http://www.sabarmatiriverfront.com/
http://www.hcp.co.in/project-details/61/73/135/sabarmatiriverfront-development-project
http://www.slideshare.net/alagar2012/riverfront-reportfinal020713?next_slideshow=1
http://www.slideshare.net/syamsd3/urban-design-sabarmati

Dissertation
RIVERFRONT
DEVELOPMENT
Radhika Munshi| B.Arch IV

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