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Note the focus area and standard

descriptor/s the artefact /

document reflects

Note the type of

artefact / document

Describe the artefact / document and

indicate the possible impact or result on
teaching and/ or student learning

Describe how the artefact /

meet the standard descriptors you
have identified.

1.2 Understand how

students learn:
Demonstrate knowledge
and understanding of
research into how students
learn and the implications
for teaching.

This artefact is a
assignment from
the unit
Learners with
Diverse Abilities.
We were required
to write a report
focussing on the
learning from the
unit. In this we
practices that limit
a student with
diverse abilities,
how the learning
context is
important in
achieving effective
learning, an
example of
adapting the
curriculum and the

In undertaking studies in the unit

Supporting Learners with Diverse
Abilities I learnt a range of both
legislative requirements, and
overall teaching strategies that
both promote and support
participation and learning for
students with a range of diverse
abilities (including disabilities).

This artefact meets the

standard descriptor as it
allowed myself to conduct
research into how students
with disability learn as well
as developing knowledge
and understanding of the
implications of learning
and assessment (APST

1.6 Strategies to support

full participation of
students with disability:
Demonstrate broad
knowledge and
understanding of
legislative requirements
and teaching strategies
that support participation
and learning of students
with disability.

In the artefact selected to

represent this standard, I wrote a
report demonstrating my learning
and understanding of the unit. In
this, I comprehensibly discussed a
range of aspects incorporating
strategies that support
participation and learning of
students with disability.
I was able to also gain an
understanding of how students
learn researching a range of
considerations and practices
encouraging the inclusion of

The artefact included a

range of components in
the success criteria. By
meeting each one and
learning how to adjust the
curriculum to support and
encourage all student
participation I have
demonstrated my ability in
meeting this professional
standard (APST 1.6).

process of
curriculum based

students with disability.

This artefact impacts my teaching
as I feel the assignment and unit as
a whole has prepared me in being
able to cater for students
supporting full participation.

Elly Martin


EDU10712 Assignment 3

a. Outline instructional practices that limit a student with additional

needs ability to access the curriculum.
Barriers and implications of teaching children with additional needs can
include but are not limited to the teachers ability to adapt the curriculum to
include all children in the class as well as the teachers attitude to inclusion.
With all disabilities, it is essential that the classroom is a structured learning
environment. Unless organised, effective teaching corresponds to each of the
needs of the individuals, inclusive practice in the classroom is highly unlikely
(SCU, 2014, p. 4).
Teachers awareness of the differentiation of the program to include all
children in particular children with disabilities need a curriculum that
empowers them rather than one that simply compensates for their inability to
cope with the regular curriculum by watering it down or having lesser
expectations of them (Conway, 2011, p. 119). Conway (2011) further
suggests an alternative model based on teaching the same KLAs but
implementing different learning outcomes and assessment activities to
support individual childrens strengths and weaknesses (p.119). Providing
children with opportunities to participate in classroom activities that have been
purposefully planned and supported further benefits the childrens learning.
The teachers attitude to inclusion will further support the ongoing learning of
children with disabilities. Teachers must be aware of their own prejudices and
biases and be professional to view the child for whom they are and the
qualities and limitations they present with. Understanding the needs of each
student within the class will enable the teacher to use various teaching
strategies to achieve the learning outcomes. For example, cooperative
learning is a valuable teaching strategy with an emphasis on the social
processes, positive learning outcomes and relevance to a wide variety of
student needs (Arthur-Kelly & Neilands, 2011, p. 203). Implementing this
into the curriculum allows mixed ability students to collaborate to gain social
inclusion as well as developing quality teaching and learning elements of
higher order thinking and correct metalanguague.

Elly Martin
EDU10712 Assignment 3
b. Discuss how the learning context is important in achieving
effective learning outcomes.
The classroom environment becomes the learning context. The quality of the
school and classroom context is central to the promotion of learning and
behavior (Arthur-Kelly & Neilands, 2011, p. 186), thus, the classroom is an
ecosystem. Within the ecosystem there are four factors that constantly
interact and influence what happens (Conway, 2011, p. 121).
Teacher factors incorporate the attitude and readiness of having children with
additional needs in the classroom as well as knowledge of the students.
Individual teacher knowledge and belief about learning techniques will impact
on the structured learning of all the students.
Student factors include abilities and skills of the student with additional needs
and other students in the class (Conway, 2011, p. 122). When creating an
inclusive ecosystem, the children must work together through cooperative
learning using their metacognitive skills. This will ensure social and cognitive
objectives impacting on each individuals learning.
Curriculum and resource factors comprise curriculum used in the classroom
(Conway, 2011, p. 122) and the resources to assist the learning such as an
interactive whiteboard. By altering the curriculum and accessing resources to
support students with additional needs, each childs ability to achieve learning
objectives and outcomes through varying curriculum activities will also be
The physical setting factors reflect the structure of the classroom and the
harmonious environment to promote and encourage the want of learning.
This can be utilized by the way the classroom is set up and the respect the
teacher has for the resources within it. The consideration of children with
additional needs should also be considered such as ensuring the doorway is
wide enough for a child in a wheelchair.

Elly Martin
EDU10712 Assignment 3
c. Provide in one curriculum or KLA area an example of adapting
curriculum, teaching and learning strategies for a student with
high additional education support needs. Reference to the
BOSTES guidelines and/or other sources for supporting students
with special education needs.
Within the KLA of PDHPE for primary, school-aged students, a child with a
physical disability such as cerebral palsy will be disadvantaged. Cerebral
palsy is a lifelong physical disability that occurs as a result of damage to the
developing brain. It most often arises before or during birth, or shortly
afterwards (Vize, 2011, p. 22). Although the physical effects of the disease
vary depending on the area of the brain affected, in all cases the damage
created is permanent however, non-progressive (Vize, 2011). Cerebral palsy
can affect different parts of the body with the most common type known when
the muscles contract due to confused brain signals.
In a school, it will be recognizable that a child with cerebral palsy is a student
with high additional education support needs. For the particular individual,
they will need the curriculum to be altered as well as various teaching and
learning strategies suited to their needs. In doing so, the construction of an
Individual Education Plan (IEP), will take place. Following on the report will
outline specific objectives for these needs.
Before adapting curriculum to suit an individuals needs, it is important to
create and reflect on specific goals of a teaching program and in the best way
that the student can aim to reach these. From this, it will be more beneficial to
then adapt the curriculum. Students with special needs need a curriculum
that empowers them rather than one that simply compensates for their
inability to cope with the regular curriculum by watering it down or having
lesser expectations of them (Conway, 2011, p. 119). Thus, it is vital to
consider the priorities of the child with cerebral palsy as well as their family,
for example; they may see a stronger need for the child to be socially included
rather than learning adapted literacy techniques. A child with cerebral palsy
may have associated disabilities including communication and speech
difficulties, visual impairment, hearing impairment and intellectual

Elly Martin
EDU10712 Assignment 3
impairment (Vize, 2011, p. 22) therefore, there is a great need for computer
access equipment assisting with changes to font size as well as a text-tospeech program and vice versa.
In specific relation to the PDHPE KLA, curriculum adaptations suited to the
childs needs such as a walking frame or wheelchair can assist in the
inclusion of activities. Outside the classroom, the educational programming
for students with special education needs should centre on the individual
student as well as focus on the support that is required for that student to
maximise specific outcomes (NSW Board of Studies, 1999). As this child has
a priority of social inclusion it is important that outside the classroom the
PDHPE activities consist of pair and team skill building activities. For
example; engaging in a learning experience of a simple activity throwing a ball
between a partner would be an achievable learning strategy for a child who is
wheelchair bound as they still have access and movement in their arms and
It is now evident from above, that adapting the curriculum is possible and can
be achieved in the PDHPE KLA. The needs of the child need to be the main
concern when altering the curriculum as the child and their familys priorities
and specific goals are what need to be reached.
Teaching and learning activities should be constructed to suit individual
childrens learning styles. It is important that the strategies progress the
students learning and encourage them to reach their individual goals. For the
child who has cerebral palsy, focusing on their IEPs priorities and goals will
enable them to move forward. For example, in the classroom when crossing
KLAs to English encouraging social activity by cooperative learning and
paired activities will need clear alterations. The child can have a switch to use
to take their turn in the learning process. The switch can have a recording of
the questions being answered allowing the child to participate in discussions
and activities independently alongside their peers. The teaching activity is
specifically permitting the child using the switch to contribute (Vize, 2011).
Along with a physical disability, the child more than likely has a severe
concern with their speech and language. To cater for this in the classroom,

Elly Martin
EDU10712 Assignment 3
adapted strategies such as using a speech-generating device can also assist
the child in communication. When participating in technology based activities,
augmentative communication devices and systems such as enlarged
keyboards to type on as well as chat-books can be used. The NSW Board of
Studies outline as one of their lifelong aims that a child with special education
needs has the opportunity to access a variety of places and to participate in a
range of meaningful activities (1999). To develop this, Conway (2011) notes
Any understanding of the classroom (or any learning space) as a teaching
and learning environment in which curriculum is implemented requires an
understanding of the dynamics of that space and how a student with
additional needs impacts on those dynamics (p. 121).
It is thus, imperative that the classroom caters for the childs needs by
including wide doorways and ramps for mobility aids such as wheelchairs and
walkers to move around in the classroom and playground. In doing so, they
will be able to participate in a range of teaching and learning strategies stated
above. Throughout an inclusive classroom the key is to make sure all
activities include all students enabling a child with a physical disability to
participate with the activity being altered if necessary.

Elly Martin
EDU10712 Assignment 3
d. Outline the process of Curriculum Based Assessment.
Curriculum based assessment (CBA) is a process for class-level testing of
student performance, and the use of this information in programming and
teaching decisions (Arthur-Kelly & Neilands, 2011, p. 195). The teacher sets
specific curriculum goals suited to the individual so that they are achievable to
be assessed on. It is a way of recognizing what the child can already do and
knowledge they need to obtain. Below, are the five steps in the CBA process
that develop this framework for an individual child:
Step 1: Identify the scope and sequence of the curriculum.
When using CBA, the teacher needs to analyse the curriculum and sequence
that information (Arthur-Kelly & Neilands, 2011, p. 197). The scope and
sequence then needs to be identified allowing the teacher to cumulate the
lessons and describe what is to be learned.
By introducing a personal learning program (PLP) for children, the teacher
can generate a task analysis ensuring the child has the ability to reach their
objectives. It is the strategy of breaking down a task into the component
parts. Typically, a task will be made up of content and strategies (Arthur-Kelly
& Neilands, 2011, p. 198). A task analysis allows the teacher to see when the
child is having difficulty with a particular part of the activity and hence, also
gives the child a perspective on where they are becoming stuck. From this
observation of the activity, the classroom teacher can create an objective for
the student.
Step 2: Assess the current performance level of the student on the curriculum.
Once the scope and sequence has been addressed, it is important to focus on
assessment for the child and the level for them to achieve. Arthur-Kelly and
Neilands (2011) suggest three levels of assessment should be constructed:
Level one consists of the daily aspects of students performance.
Level two strives for considerations in the medium term for the teacher.

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EDU10712 Assignment 3
Level three is the overall significance of the specific curriculum and learning.
Although an assessment should utilise all three levels, it is important for a
teacher to commence at level one to focus on building the progress from
there. When conducting assessment suited to each individual, the teacher
needs to incorporate a vast range of sources such as finding out the childrens
preferred learning style (Arthur-Kelly & Neilands, 2011). As a result of the
assessment process, the teacher may deduce content from various KLAs and
amend the childs PLP.
Step 3: Establish short-term instructional objectives for the student(s).
In the middle of the CBA process, it is important the teacher checks and
reviews their students progress based on their PLP (Arthur-Kelly & Neilands,
2011). In the individualised program, the objectives need to reflect and be
specific towards the individual that will be regularly evaluated. To ensure the
program will be achievable by the child, the following two components will be
Mastery learning of an objective only moving on to new information once the
previous knowledge is cemented, for example, with the use of the basal
reading series. The student should have confidence avoiding failure through
inadequate time allowance.
Designing short-term instructional objectives to reach before generating new
content into the childs program. Small progress steps should be taken to
allow student success (Arthur-Kelly & Neilands, 2011).
Step 4: Introduce effective instruction.
To ensure that an inclusive classroom occurs, a broad range of instructive
strategies should be introduced. Across these strategies, the classroom
teacher should evaluate the impact on the learning processes and outcomes
achieved by students (Arthur-Kelly & Neilands, 2011, p. 203).

Elly Martin
EDU10712 Assignment 3
The teacher must constantly review the student program and engage in
change if the previous method is not effective. It may be that the teacher
needs to combine instructional strategies (detailed below) to ensure the
student is reaching their full potential.
With a problem-solving focus, cooperative learning consists of mixed ability
groups of children working together to achieve learning outcomes through a
process of planned interdependence (Arthur-Kelly & Neilands, 2011, p. 204).
Social inclusion of group members occurs by delegating roles to ensure that
each child would individually contribute to the group.
In the learning practice of cognitive and metacognitive approaches, teachers
have a large role in assuring the thinking process is guided to their students.
Independent focused framework with a teacher supporting the child will
explore the processes of maximizing outcomes.
Self-directed learning is the provision of opportunities for the student to
explore knowledge in their own way at their own speed (Arthur-Kelly &
Neilands, 2011, p. 206). The teachers role in this practice is to direct the
student on task with some structure of learning objectives for example asking
them to brainstorm a topic before removing themselves from the learning
process. Observation of student engagement is then vital.
Direct Instruction (DI) involves highly structured and explicit teaching content
and strategies to students (Arthur-Kelly & Neilands, 2011, p. 207).
Highlighting the importance of the transfer of information from the teacher to
the learner, DI consists of specific and mastery-learning tools to ensure
objectives of the student are being reached.
The strategy of computer-assisted instruction and technological supports vary
as technology is constantly changing. Whilst computer and computer
programs can be used to enhance and support teaching and learning
programs it may also include improving student attention to and
concentration on tasks (Arthur-Kelly & Neilands, 2011, p. 207).


Elly Martin


EDU10712 Assignment 3

Step 5: Actively monitor student progress and adjust program features in the
light of progress information.
To complete the CBA process, the teacher must effectively review their
students progress ensuring the learning objectives are achieved in their PLP
(Arthur-Kelly & Neilands, 2011). By obtaining ongoing assessment such as
journals and work samples of each individual child, the teacher can clarify if
objectives have been reached. For example, crosschecking a childs work
with the syllabus outcomes to see if they have reached their objectives will
demonstrate whether a program adjustment is needed.
Describe one of the instructional methods detailed in the prescribed text
and outlines how it could be used to improve the effectiveness of your
teaching practice.
Cooperative learning is the placement of children in structured, mixed ability
groups to work together and accomplish shared goals by problem solving. It
has a great deal of potential for promoting the inclusion of students with
additional needs, with an emphasis on the social processes, positive learning
outcomes and relevance to a wide variety of student needs (Arthur-Kelly &
Neilands, 2011, p. 203). Within the group, each individual has the opportunity
to feel empowered and develop their sense of agency to be active
participants in their own learning, contribute and share ideas, facilitate the
learning of others, and evaluate their actions and achievements (Gillies,
2007, p. 51).
Cooperative learning has many benefits for the students that can include, an
improvement of their self-esteem as well as the opportunity to interact with
special needs children on a less strict level. Special needs children have a
chance to fit in with other students as well as developing higher order
thinking skills and correct metalanguage (Arthur-Kelly & Neilands, 2011). For
example, introducing various methods to record group ideas such as using an
enlarged keyboard to type on will enable a physically disabled child to
participate in literacy activities as they may struggle with fine motor skills.

Elly Martin
EDU10712 Assignment 3
Simple teaching and learning strategies such as think, pair, share and team
building activities enables each individual child the desire to express oneself
to a peer (Kagan, 2007, p. 33) as well as be offered social support differing
from a teacher.
To improve the effectiveness of teaching practices, cooperative learning
enables teachers to become consultants and gravitate to those students
who can benefit most from their attention (Kagan, 2007, p. 35). In particularly,
successful cooperative learning within a classroom will enable the educator to
create a different perspective in connecting with the children on their level.
My teaching practice will be altered to appreciate the work that the group
produce from individuals combined in my classroom. The teaching practice I
construct will become more effective by aiming to channel the students
expressiveness by being on the same side as them (Kagan, 2007).


Elly Martin


EDU10712 Assignment 3

Arthur-Kelly, M. and Neilands, J. (2011). Planning effective teaching

strategies. In P. Foreman (Ed.). Inclusion in action (3rd ed.). South
Melbourne: Cengage Learning.
Conway, R. (2011). Adapting, curriculum, teaching and learning strategies. In
P. Foreman (Ed.). Inclusion in action (3rd ed.). South Melbourne:
Cengage learning.
Gillies, R. M. (2007). Cooperative learning: Integrating theory and practice.
Los Angeles: SAGE Publications.
Kagan, S. (2007). Cooperative Learning. Heatherton, Vic.: Hawker Brownlow
New South Wales, Board of Studies. (1999). Personal development, health
and physical education k-6. Support documents for students with
special education needs. Retrieved from
Southern Cross University. (2014). Module 2: Needs analysis. Retrieved from
Vize, A. (2011). The A to Z of special needs: A practical resource for early
childhood and primary teachers. Albert Park: Teaching Solutions.