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Chapter21
MagnetForcesandMagneticFields

1)MagnetsandMagneticFields
a)Naturalpermanentmagnets
Likepolesrepel,unlikeattract
comeinpairs(nomonopoles)
Interactwithearth;

defineN(ornorthseeking)poleas
poleattractedtoNorthpoleofearth

b)Magneticfielddirection:
directionofforceonNpole
B

c)Fieldofdipole

d)Magnetostaticsforpoles
(identicaltoelectrostaticsforcharges)

2types:N,Svs+,
Unlikeattract,likerepel
Inversesquarelaw
Forcealongjoiningline
MagneticField:

r
F
B=
qM

e)Whystudymagnetism?

Nomonopoles(yet)
Poles(dipoles)producedbymovingcharges(nodirect
controlofpoledistribution)
Chargesaffectedbymagneticfield
i.e.fundamentalunitisstillcharge;wantmagneticfielddue
tocharge,andforceonchargeduetomagneticfield

2)Magneticfieldduetocurrent(direction)
Oersted(1820)

I
B
r

3)Magneticforceoncurrent
a)Orthogonalcase
Forceperunitlength

F
= IB
l
definesB
DirectionfromRHR1:Bfingers,Ithumb,Fpalm

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F
N
B =
= tesla(T)
Il
Am

Units:

Bearth .5gauss = 5 105 T


Bfridgemagnet .01T
Bsuperconducing 110T

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b)Generalcase

Forceperunitlength

F
= IBsin
L

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4)Forcebetweenparallelwires

I1
F
B ; = I2 B
d
l

F
I1I2
= k
l
d

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FE
FB
FB

FE
Attractionorrepulsion?
Doesitdependonreferenceframe?

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F
I1I2
= k
l
d
DefineAmpereasthequantityofcurrentthatproducesa
forceperunitlengthof2x107N/mforseparationof1
m

(2 107 N/m)(1m)
7
2

k =
= 2 10 N/A
2
(1A )

Then

ThisdefinesCandgives

1
9
2
2
k=
= 8.988 10 Nm /C
40

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Permeabilityoffreespace

0 = 2k 4 10 N/A
7

0
k =
2

F 0 I1I2
=
l 2 d

Then

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5)Fieldduetolongstraightwire(magnitude)

I
B
r

0 I
B=
2 r

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6)Forceonamovingcharge
Zeroatrest
ZeroparalleltoB
MaxperpendiculartoB

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ProportionaltocomponentofvperptoB

F = qvBsin
(AlternativedefinitionofB)

PerpendiculartoB
Perpendiculartov

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7)Motionofachargeinamagneticfield
a)Constantforce
motionisparabolic
electricorgravitationalfield
noteverywhereperptovelocity
notmagneticfield
QuickTime and a
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b)Constantmagnitudeperpendiculartomotion
radialfield(circularmotion)
massonastring
motioniscircular

magneticfieldproduces
circularmotion
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(initialvel.perp.toB)

Forceduetothefield:
F = qvB

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Forcircularmotion:
mv 2

F = Fc =
r
So,

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r =

mv
qB

mv 2
= qvB
r

rdependsonv,B

v
qB
= =
r
m

angularfreq.
independentof
speed,radius

Tracksinabubblechamber
electronpositroncreation
1,3positive

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2negative
energy:3>2>1
energydecreasesbycollisions

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Example:Findspeedandradiusforproton
B=0.10T
V=2100V
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c)Workdonebymagneticfield
WorkbyaforceF
F

displacement,x

W = Fx cos

Foramagneticfield, 0

Work=0

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d)Velocityselector
ForceduetoE(down):

FE = qE
ForceduetoB(up):

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FB = qvB
Forzerodeflection,FE=FB:

qE = qvB
E
v=
B

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e)MassSpectrometer
Ionenergy:

2qV
KE = mv = qV v =
m
2

1
2

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Radiusofmotion:
mv m 2qV
r=

qB
qB m
r=

m
q

2V
B

m r 2B 2
=
q
2V