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Hanger Sizing Spring Selection Procedure in CAESAR I! Introduction Vertical supports for deadweight piping loads are easily located and sized. Differential (thermal) growth between the support structure and the pipe complicates the support selection. A choice must be made between rigid, variable load, and constant effort restraints. Deadweight Only With no thermal growth, a weight analysis with a Y restraint at the support location will produce a load (DW) that can be used to size the rod. Ghz cere 7 cei 2 Deadweight Only it ew The rod diameter is selected to carry the calculated deadweight (DW) at the support location. Add Thermal Effects As pipe heats up the load on ‘the rod shifts to the pipe, increasing the primary (and secondary) stress and increasing the anchor load. What If This Is Unacceptable? The pipe may lift off the support. The support may hold the pipe down. Redistributed pipe stress may be excessive. Support loads, too, are redistributed and they may be excessive elsewhere in the system. A Force Can Replace That Hard Restraint... Installed Position But That May Not Be Practical teow = The structure now carries twice the load =. Maintenance may be troublesome A “Constant” Effort Hanger Approximates This Ideal Support a So What’s Wrong With That? Constant effort supports are not cheap. They allow position drift if the load is not accurate. ernal friction requires a greater load to start movement Is There a Compromise? Between a rigid restraint to carry the deadweight and an applied force to carry the deadweight through @ thermal travel? Rigid support has k approaching co Constant force has k approaching 0 How about a spring support and its finite k? O A Spring Hanger 1 Min, Load ‘Max. Load COVE Only One Balance Point = You can pre-set the ideal design load (assumed “DW” in our example) for only one position. At other positions, the load will change as a function of the spring rate, k, and the position. This imbalance is usually acceptable. So we can tolerate some inaccuracy... ‘DW (factory re (sos eno) Installed Position Operating Position Or maybe we can be smarter about it... g tow (hits the targett) A Installed Position O oo Introducing Hot Load and Cold Load 2 Hot Load (HL) is the target load which the hanger should support in the operating condition. 2 Cold Load (CL) is the intentionally incorrect load at which the spring is pre-set, in order to get to the Hot Load after moving. CL=HL+kA CWE Load Variation = Load Variation = Load Change relative to Hot Load. |HL-CL] |kA] LV=- - HL HL Often limited by spec, to 10-25%. a pombe tot How Can You Select the Correct Spring? s Itis a matter of load and deflection. = The spring size (using Grinnell terminology) indicates a range of loads that can be carried by a spring. « The spring figure number (again Grinnell) relates to support travel 10 Hanger Size vs. Load Recommended & Maximum Max. Travel cat | | Spring Travel t = How Can Differing Travel Limits Provide the Same Load Limits? « By changing the spring rate. (Fekd) Oetber 264 never How Do You Select the Correct Spring Support? = [t's a matter of load and deflection. Basic input required: Support load to be carried: Required vertical travel of the support. Assume balancing load (DW) to be rried in the operating position. Insialled load will be DW+k5. cARgARY Somer sogater Zoot Determine Data to Pick the Spring 1} Calculate DW by adding a rigid vertical restraint at the hanger location and run a weight analysis. ChE This will estimate the natural load carried by @ support at each selected location tt can be adjusted to suit design We usually call this the Hot Load 14 Determine Data to Pick the Spring 2) Calculate 3 by replacing that Y resiraint with a vertical force equal to DW and run an operating analysis. = This vertical growth, 5, must be less the travel range of the support «This 5 is used with the Hot Load and proposed spring rate to caiculate a proposed Cold Load vet F ons Test the First Possible Spring = Enter the hanger table with the balance load — DW and the vertical growth at the support point - 6 « Find a smallest spring size that can carry the operating load (DW). z Use the k of the short range spring (highest k) of this size and see if it can carry the installed load (DW+kd). CAESAR Some an cee 204 Search for the First One That Works If both operating load and installed load are within the recommended range for the spring, a workable spring is now identified. If not, try the midrange spring of ihe same size (divide k by 2). Hf not that, try the long range spring (once again dividing the k by 2). CWE Moving to Other Figures » And if that doesn’t work, move up to the next larger figure and repeat until a spring is found. = Ifthis falls, divide the support load by 2 (DW/2) and restart the selection process. This time selecting two springs to support the pipe. Variations = The pipe grows down. Installed + Dis negative B + Cold = DW#k5 + Hot Load > Cold Load = Cold load design. + Cold Load = DW + Hot Load = DW-KS @® Operating © Op.= DW+kS An Example = Using the Grinnell table, select a spring that will carry the balancing load (DW) in the operating position. I seniver 17 Compute Data (DW) = Run a weighi analysis with a'rigid vertical restraint at this location. » The load on this restraint will be the balancing load for the support in the operating condition. = For this example, let the load (DW) be 900 Ibf. Compute Data (5) = Now remove the rigid vertical restraint and replace it with an ideal support in the form of an upward force equal to DW. Run an operating analysis with this force and compute the vertical growth at this location. For this example, let the vertical thermal growth (5) be +1.2 inches ai this location. Go to the Table q Find thet First Spring to eal | ChE ASAE Bons 20 Oct, 2048 What’s the Spring Rate? ary The short range spring rate (K) is 400 Ibf-/in. Calculate the Installed Load « Operating load is 900 Ibf. Op. = DW « The installed load for a short range spring is 1380 Ibf. Inst. = DWsk6 = 900 + 400(1.2) 20 (The table shows only 3/4 inch travel available.) Can Carry th Check If This Sprin ie oad? gees Continue the Search Clearly a short range spring does not work. Move to a midrange spring. kmid = kshort/2 Try k = 200 Ibf-fin. = Inst. = DW+k6 = 900 + 200(1.2) a Inst. = 1140 Ibf. = This works; max. load is 1200 Ibf. 21 Check Load Variation = Itis important to minimize the load shift at supports in moving from the installed position to the operating position. 2 This is measured by Load Variation (Lv) 2 Load Variation = (Inst.-Op./Op. inst. = Installed (usually Cold) Load # Op. = Operating (usually Hot) Load Using Load Variation With DW and 3 given, L.V. can only change as k changes. Remember that k changes by 4:2:1 in going from short to long range springs. Moving to the next longer spring will halve the Load Variation and the load need not be checked. 22 Check Load Variation « L.V. = load change / balance load = (Inst.-Op.VOp. (Cold-Hot)/Hot = LV. =ko/DW » LV. = 240/900 = 27% = This load variation is excessive. 2 Move from midrange to long range spring to cut L.V. in half = L.V.tong = L.V.mid/2 Review the Selection We have a long range (Fig. 98), size 9 spring. It will carry a balancing load of 900 Ibf. in the operating position, and carry 1020 Ibf. [900+(100)1.2] in the installed position. The load vatiation for this spri acceptable 13.5%. ig is an CAESAR I Semiear 23 CAESAR II Listing cngsae Check the Spring Capacity = Maximum recommended load = 1200 = Minimum recommended load = 700 = At 300-1020, we are in the middle; OK 24 Actual Installed Load Spring support balances the design load (DW) in the operating position. This is the Hot Load Typically, the Theoretical Installed Load is DW+k6. This is out of balance. The Actual Installed Load is a separate calculation to check for hanger deflection due to this imbalance. Actual Installed Load Most spring hangers have little difference between the Theoretical and Actual Installed Load. = A flexible system or a large load variation will cause the Actual Installed Load to differ. Look at the restraint loads in the installed position to check or run the extra load case in hanger design. 25 CAESAR II Hanger Data reoctreaname << —_——, Node Info. Design Date Defined Hanger Data po cate, 209% 26 Bup-oujen tordns, 0002 > SITOAD “WNYSHL 06 ® Ol © (SINIOd YOHONY) SIIZZON (N SZ9£) S3AIWA 31V9 #OSL — S3AT¥A SQ wis = NOUV INSNI Sniavy 9NO1 — SMOET3 9 s¥auo30 S2i — dNaL wd S'0L ~ 3uNSSBYd ualvM ~ GIN @ yo 901-V — TWN HOS GIS Vid ,ZL — 3dld C boldns Smp-oujeysebuoy | Q}dNS 0002 > S310A9 IWNY3HL 06 ® O1 © (SINIOd HOHONY) S31ZZON (N GZ9¢) S3AIVA Blvd _#OSL — S3ATVA So wiuu"os — NOLLWINSNI Snigvy 9NO1 ~ smog7a 9 Saqyogd ZL ~ dN3L uve S01 — 3YNSS¥d MaLVM — GIN @ 49 901-V — TVW HOS GIS Vid .Z) - 3dld LoLdns