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Collaborative Learning

John Milliken
School of Education
Queens University Belfast

Learning outcomes
To

consider the role of collaborative learning


To examine some collaborative learning
approaches
To consider some aspects of educational
debate
To be aware of changing aspects of teaching
and learning

Curriculum issues
Prescriptive Curriculum

Experiential Curriculum

Teacher-centered

Student-centred

Linear & rational

Coherent & relevant

Part to whole organisation Whole to part


organisation
Teaching as transmitting

Teaching as facilitating

Learning as receiving
constructing

Learning as

Structured environment
environment

Flexible

Learning in context

Teaching vs learning
John Amos Comenius, a 16th
Century scholar; summarised the
approach that teaching should
follow, The main object is to find
a method by which teachers
teach less but learners learn
more, proving that current
problems have noble pedigrees.

Collaborative learning
Collaborative learning is an umbrella term for a variety of
educational approaches involving joint intellectual effort by
students, or students and teachers together. Usually
students are working in groups of two or more, mutually
searching for understanding, solutions or meanings, or
creating a product.
Collaborative learning activities vary widely, but most
center on students exploration or application of the course
material, not simply the teachers presentation or
explication of it.
Smith and McGregor (1992)

Educational goals

Involvement
Co-operation and
teamwork
Community
responsibility

Assumptions about learning


Learning

is an active constructive process


Learning depends on rich contexts
Learners are diverse
Learning is inherently social

Approaches
Collaborative learning

Co-operative learning
Writing
groups
Learning
communities

Peer
teaching
Problem-based
learning
Discussion
groups

RQ

Widespread use
Based

on theory and validated by research


Amount, generalisability, breadth and
applicability
Variety of co-operative learning methods
available

Why use cooperative learning?

promote student learning and


academic achievement
enhance student satisfaction
with their learning experience
help students develop skills in
oral communication
develop students' social skills
promote student self-esteem
increase student retention
develop a community of learners

5 Elements of cooperative
learning
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Positive interdependence
Face-to-face interaction
Individual and group accountability
Interpersonal and small group skills
Group processing

Postive interdependence

Each group member's efforts


are required and indispensable
for group success

Each group member has a


unique contribution to make to
the joint effort because of his
or her resources and/or role
and task responsibilities

Sink or swim together!

Face-to-face interaction

Orally explaining how to


solve problems
Teaching one's
knowledge to others
Checking for
understanding
Discussing concepts
being learned
Connecting present
with past learning

Promote each other's


success

Individual and group


accountability

Keeping the size of the group


small.
Giving an individual test to each
student.
Randomly examining students
orally.
Observing each group and
recording the frequency with
which each member-contributes
to the group's work.
Assigning one student in each
group the role of checker.
Having students teach what they
learned to someone else.

No hitchhiking! No social
loafing
No freeloading

Interpersonal and small group


skills

Social skills must be taught:

Leadership
Decision-making
Trust-building
Communication
Conflict-management skills

Mutual understanding

Group processing

Group members discuss


how well they are
achieving their goals and
maintaining effective
working relationships
Describe what member
actions are helpful and not
helpful
Make decisions about
what behaviours to
continue or change

RQ

Jigsaw Approach

Jigsaw Approach

Jigsaw approach

Approaches
Collaborative learning

Co-operative learning
Writing
groups
Learning
communities

Peer
teaching
Problem-based
learning
Discussion
groups

Problem based learning (PBL)


PBL is a learning-centred pedagogy based
on current theories of learning including
constructivism, social constructivism and
situated learning.

Problem-based learning clearing house


https://chico.nss.udel.edu/Pbl/

PBL - an iterative process


Mrs.
You
are
Paula
the
a
researcher
Embledon
owner
of ain
issmall
aa cellular
78of
antique
year
immunology
old
shop
woman
in Kingston.
lab.
You
has
A
new
bridge
has
constructed
spanning
awho
river
1
Mr.
John
Smith
is been
the
owner
a national
company
come
Mrs.
have
Jones,
been
to the
given
an
emergency
old
blood
room
has
samples
complaining
brought
one
to which
you
of shortness
which
for
appraisal
of
kilometer
wide.
Intwo
afriend,
recent
storm,
during
winds
manufacturing
FMCG
products.
Recently
his
company
breath
a
contains
landscape
and
anti-coagulant.
pain
painting
in herthe
which
chest.
An
aliquot
appears
She
had
ofobserved
tothe
been
belatter
about
relatively
sample
200
can
gusted
towith
120
km/hr,
bridge
was
to
be years
merged
an
international
company
with
aindifferent
good
old.
be
shown
She
health
isto
convinced
until
lyse
three
tumour
weeks
cells.
is
another
previously,
You conduct
painting
when
further
beneath
she studies
the
oscillating
from
side
tothere
side
..
organisational
culture.
sprained
landscape..
to
determine
..... the mechanism of the killing

Brainstormhypothesize
Identify learning
issues

Read the
problem
Next page

EVALUATE
Research-Learn

Return-RereadReport-Review
Prof. H. Pross
Queens School of
Medicine

Problem statement
EXEMPLAR TASK:
Based on the information provided on
the handout, work in groups of four and
compile a problem statement.

Approaches
Collaborative learning

Co-operative learning
Writing
groups
Learning
communities

Peer
teaching
Problem-based
learning
Discussion
groups

Learning communities

1.

2.

Sociocultural and constructivist views of


learning (Lave & Wenger)
Two important questions:What social engagements and processes provide the proper
context for learning?
What forms of co-participation might be required when
engaging learners in these forms of learning.

Community types
Learning

community: focus on learning together,

sharing, developing relationships


Communities

of practice: focus on developing

professional practice
Community

of enquiry: focus on enquiring about

and issue/area
Knowledge

knowledge

community: focus on developing

Cyber communities
Teaching/learnin
g
Face-to-face

Blended

Online

the cornerstone of an online community lies in the presence of


socially close, strong, intimate ties, the development of trust, shared
values and social organisation.
The quality of peoples relations is an important characteristic in an
online community
(This will be the modified role of the teacher as an e-moderator!)

E-Learning (teacher to moderator)

Salmon (2005)

References

Johnson, D.W. and Johnson, R. T. (1990) Cooperation and Competition:


Theory and Research, Edina, MN; Interaction Book Company
Lave, J. and Wenger, E. (1991) Situated learning; legitimate peripheral
participation, Cambridge University Press
McConnell, D. (2006) E-learning groups and communities, SRHE/OU
Press
Salmon, G. (2005) E-moderating, Open University Press
Smith, B. L. & McGregor, J. (1992) What is collaborative learning?
National Center on Postsecondary education