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Teacher: Jessica Lewis

Date: Monday-Tuesday January 25-26, 2016

Class: Physical Science

Level: 6th grade

Purpose: The purpose of this lesson is to teach students about Newtons 2nd Law of Motion.
Objectives: The objectives are for students to understand the Newtons 2nd Law of Motion, to
calculate the force required for an object of a certain mass to accelerate to a certain point, and
to determine the momentum of different moving objects mathematically.
Common Core Standards:

Write and evaluate numerical expressions involving whole-number exponents.


Write, read, and evaluate expressions in which letters stand for numbers.


Apply the properties of operations as strategies to generate equivalent



Identify when two expressions are equivalent (i.e., when the two expressions
name the same number regardless of which value is substituted into them).
For example, the expressions y + y + y and 3y are equivalent because they
name the same number regardless of which number y stands for.


Understand solving an equation or inequality as a process of answering a

question: which values from a specified set, if any, make the equation or
inequality true? Use substitution to determine whether a given number in a
specified set makes an equation or inequality true.


Use variables to represent numbers and write expressions when solving a

real-world or mathematical problem; understand that a variable can represent
an unknown number, or, depending on the purpose at hand, any number in a
specified set.


Solve real-world and mathematical problems by writing and solving equations

of the form x + p = q and px = q for cases in which p, q and x are all
nonnegative rational numbers.

6-8 RST.7

Integrate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text

with a version of that information expressed visually (e.g., in a flowchart,

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diagram, model, graph, or table).

6-8 RST.8

Distinguish among facts, reasoned judgment based on research findings, and

speculation in a text.

6-8 RST.9

Compare and contrast the information gained from experiments, simulations,

video, or multimedia sources with that gained from reading a text on the same


Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas,

concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of
relevant content.


Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using

effective technique. relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event


Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization,

and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific
expectations for writing types are defined in standards 13 above.)


With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and
strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying
a new approach.(Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of
Language standards 13up to and including grade 6 on page53.)


Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well
as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of
keyboarding skills to type a minimum of three pages in a single sitting.

The students will understand the difference between momentum and force.
The students will be able to predict what will happen to force, velocity and momentum when
different variables change, therefore demonstrating the relationship between force, velocity
and mass.
The students will be able to mathematically determine the acceleration of an object given its
mass and the force acted upon it.
Hawaii State Teacher Standards:
4.a-i: Content Knowledge - The teacher understands the central concepts, tools of inquiry, and
structures of the discipline(s). He or she teaches and creates learning experiences that make
these aspects of the discipline accessible and meaningful for learners to assure mastery of
the content.

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The assessment for this lesson will be an exit ticket. The exit ticket has 5 questions. I have
attached the exit ticket to the last page of this document.

1 light object, 1 heavy object of about the same size, computer, TV monitor, white board, dry
erase markers, tennis ball, short video clips on Newtons 2nd Law of Motion and momentum.

a. Introduction
1.) Ask a student to read aloud the definition of Newtons 1st Law from their notes. Ask
suggestions for real life examples of Newtons 1st Law as a recap of last lesson.
b. Developmental
1.) Demonstration: On a table in the front of the class have two objects, approximately the same
size, one heavy and one light. Ask students which object has more mass?
2.) Ask for students to make predictions on what will happen if we push object A, how far will it
go? And now object B with the same force? Will it go a shorter distance or further? Help them
understand that the concept of distance on the table is essentially a measure of acceleration a change in velocity during a certain amount of time. Ask them what is making the objects
eventually stop? (Friction) Have kids do the pushing so it is more interactive.
3.) Once we have made several observations about the objects and the required force to make
them accelerate, ask students to come up with a conclusion a what must be true statement.
The goal is for students to reach this conclusion : A force causes an object to accelerate. The
greater the force, the greater the acceleration. The more mass an object has, the less it will
4.) Introduce new concept of notes, have students make 2 columns in their notebooks. The left
column is where students will write the terms and definitions. The right column is where
students will draw a picture that represents the concept.
a.) There will be a visual of the notes drawn on the white board.
b.) Terms for the left column:
Newtons 2nd Law of Motion
Equations for Newtons 2nd Law of Motion
5.) Then have students write this Law of Motion definition they have created into their notebooks
as I write it on the board using the new style of column notes.

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6.) Write 2nd Law equation on board: Force =mass x acceleration.

7.) Demonstrate this using real numbers in context.
a.) 1 Newton is the force required to move 1 kg the distance of 1 meter during 1 second. (try to
demo this) In American units this is moving about 2 pounds the distance of about 3 feet in 1
b.) So if we want to put someone in a shopping cart and push them along the road, say we want
them to go 3 m/sec^2 or about 7 mph/s. The mass of the person is 40 kg or about 90 lbs and
shopping cart is 20 kg or about 50 lbs. We would need a force of : F=m x a. F= 60kg x 3 m/s^
so F= 180 N which is about 132 lb/foot/second.
8.) Show National Geographic Fight Science video until 6:43 min.
9.) Give students 2 minutes to draw a picture in their notes to help them remember what this Law
of Motion means.
Introduce the next vocabulary term: Momentum: the measure of how hard it is to stop
something. The equation is Momentum = mass x velocity. The more momentum an object
has, the harder it is to stop. Ex. can you stop a ball moving 5 mph? sure!! can you stop a car
moving that fast? NO!! which has more momentum? (Car). What if the tennis ball is traveling
4000 mph? Would its momentum be more than the car then?
Give students time to copy down the Momentum definition in their notebook and draw
a picture.
Show Bill Nyes Momentum clip and short Momentum/Inertia film.
c. Concluding
Hand out exit ticket, allow students to use their notes. The exit ticket has 5 questions. I have
attached the exit ticket to the last page of this document.

Adaptations and Extensions: Some adaptations for students with Special Needs would be
to give them the notes definitions and they will just draw the picture. This will cut down on
reading needs. This can also be used for ELL students. An extension would be further
discussion about different examples of Newtons 2nd Law of Motion as well as added
mathematical examples using the equations. Students can also come up with some numbers
for their examples and try to figure out the accelerations and forces required to get the objects
to move.
Management Considerations:
Some of my methods to prevent any behavior issues are to be very prepared so there is very
little down time during preparation and transitions. I will also ask for students to raise their
hands in order to get more input from different students and to reduce calling out. Multiple
modes of learning are addressed as I will be using demonstrations, videos, having student
write down their definitions and draw pictures, therefore I will be gearing my lesson towards
visual, logical and kinesthetic learners.

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I taught this lesson 3 times. The first two times were with small classes of 11-12
students and the third time, which was filmed the class size was 24. The lesson went very
well each time. My cooperating teacher and I discussed how a lesson can change depending
on the size of the class. In a smaller class a more informal discussion is possible, however
with a larger class an informal discussion may lead more often to calling out and chaos. I
had expected that I would feel the need to ask students to raise their hands more in the
larger class, however the lesson actually flowed fairly smoothly and students took turns
speaking. However, this was likely a result of the class being videotaped, my CT being in the
room, and my presence as a teacher being a new, exciting event. I did notice that there were
a couple of times when students attempted to raise hands but because other students didnt
and said their answer aloud the student raising their hand didnt get the chance to be the one
who gave the answer. This is something that in the future I will focus. It is very important to
me and my philosophy of teaching to give all students the opportunity and the time to answer
questions and I strive to encourage students who are less likely to volunteer to answer.
From the first class to the next I began to leave the notes up on the board for
students to continue copying them down if they take longer. In the future I may create a
PowerPoint slide of the notes to put up on the 2nd computer in the classroom to help
students see the notes a little closer and clearer. This will be a good adaptation for Sped
students as well as students on the opposite side of the classroom.
I reviewed the exit quizzes that I administered to the students and I was quite pleased
with the results. Most students got all of the multiple choice answers correct and most
students got the definition of Newtons 2nd Law correct, as they just recopied their notes.
What interested me though was the students answers to #4, which was to give an example
of momentum in real life. Many students correctly used an example to describe momentum,
yet they were missing the appropriate language, such as mass and velocity. I believe that in
the future I could word that question a little differently to get more accurate and focused
Videos used:
National Geographic Fight Science - show until 6:43 min
Biil Nyes Momentum clip
A Tale of Momentum & Intertia

Chaminade University of Honolulu * 3140 Waialae Avenue Honolulu, Hawaii 96816-1578 * (808) 735-4711 *

Newtons 2nd Law of Motion

Exit Ticket

Pd. _____

1. Newton's 2nd Law of Motion states that to increase acceleration you __________________.

A. increase force
B. decrease force
C. increase mass
D. increase inertia

2. What units are used to measure force?

A. Newtons
B. Kilograms
C. Meters
D. Seconds

3. Using complete sentences, what is Newtons 2nd Law of Motion?

4. Give an example of how momentum is used in a sport you like. Ex. Football, baseball, volleyball, soccer.

5. Calculate the force required to push a 5 kg box an acceleration of 2 m/s2.

Hint: Use your notes!

A. Force = 100 N
B. Force = 20 N
C. Force = 10 N

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D. Force = 5 N

Chaminade University of Honolulu * 3140 Waialae Avenue Honolulu, Hawaii 96816-1578 * (808) 735-4711 *