Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 39

..

( )

2013

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, . .
90 , 60 .
, 13 . -
20.
?

.. ( )

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, . .
90 , 60 .
, 13 . -
20.
?

90

1
2
60 = 10 > 20.
3
3

.. ( )

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. :
1. $1
2. 0.5 $2

.. ( )

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. :
1. $1
2. 0.5 $2
.

1/2 1/4 1/8 1/16 1/32 ...


2
4
8
16
32 ...

.. ( )

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.. ( )

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- .

.. ( )

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- .
-
. .

.. ( )

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X, (X).
> (X). :

.. ( )

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X, (X).
> (X). :
.

()
.

x, y
.

(X) : x > y, x < y, x = y.

.. ( )

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X, (X).
> (X). :
.

()
.

x, y
.

(X) : x > y, x < y, x = y.

()
.
. x

> y, y > z, x > z.

.. ( )

2013

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X, (X).
> (X). :
.

()
.

x, y
.

(X) : x > y, x < y, x = y.

()
.
. x

> y, y > z, x > z.

()
.
x

> y > z, (0, 1),


x + (1 )z > y.

.. ( )

2013

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X, (X).
> (X). :
.

()
.

x, y
.

(X) : x > y, x < y, x = y.

()
.
. x

> y, y > z, x > z.

()
.
x

> y > z, (0, 1),


x + (1 )z > y.

.
.

( )
.

x
.

> y, z x + (1 )z > y + (1 )z.

.. ( )

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.
(1)-(4),
U : X R, x, y (X)
x

.. ( )

> y EU(x) > EU(y).

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1. u < v (0, 1)
, -

.. ( )

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1. u < v (0, 1)
, -
2.
( 0
1)

.. ( )

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1. u < v (0, 1)
, -
2.
( 0
1)
3.

.. ( )

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1. u < v (0, 1)
, -
2.
( 0
1)
3.
4. ,
0 1. ,

.. ( )

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1. u < v (0, 1)
, -
2.
( 0
1)
3.
4. ,
0 1. ,

5. ,

.. ( )

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1. X - . >
(X),
(, 4 ).

.. ( )

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( )

= {N, {Xi }iN , {Ki }iN }.


N - ,
Xi , i N i N,

Ki : iN Xi R i

.. ( )

N,

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( )

= {N, {Xi }iN , {Ki }iN }.


N - ,
Xi , i N i N,

Ki : iN Xi R i

N,

: |N| = 2, N = {1, 2}, X1 , X2 ,


K1 (x1 , x2 ) + K2 (x1 , x2 ) = 0(const) x1 X1 , x2 X2 .

.. ( )

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X1
m n

= {1, ..., m}, X2 = {1, ..., n}

..., a1n
..., a2n
,
A=
... ... ...
am1 , ..., amn

a11 ,
a21 ,

aij = K1 (i, j).


.

.. ( )

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1
2
0 3
2 1 1 1

A=
2 0
0
1
4
1
0 2

.. ( )

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.
, i, j
max min aij
i

.. ( )

min max aij


j

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.
, i, j
max min aij
i

min max aij


j

(i , j ), (
i ,j )
max min aij
i

.. ( )

= min max aij


j

2013

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, .
1

x1
x2

x=
, x 0,
xi = 1,
... i
i=1

xm
2

y1
y2

, yj 0,
yj = 1.
...
j=1

yn

1 x, 2
y, 1
A(x, y)
.. ( )

= x Ay =

m
n

i=1 j=1

aij xi yj .

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( , (1928))
.

max min xT Ay
x

.. ( )

= min max xT Ay.


y

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:
Ax

b, x 0

cT x

max

:
AT y

c, y 0

bT y

.. ( )

min

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1 2 0 3
2 1 1 1

A=
2 0 0 1
4
1 0 2

.. ( )

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(x , y ) ,
xi > 0, yj > 0 i, j. ,
, .
.

.
, m

x , y .
.

.. ( )

= n,

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...
0 a22 . . .
A=
... ... ...
0 0 ...
aii

a11

0
0
,
...
ann

> 0, i = 1, . . . , n.

.. ( )

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...
0 a22 . . .
A=
... ... ...
0 0 ...
aii
.

a11

0
0
,
...
ann

> 0, i = 1, . . . , n.

.
. .

.. ( )

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2. (x , y ) ,
xi > 0, yj > 0 i, j. ,
, . ,
,
, x , y .

.. ( )

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3. a = aij ,
aij = aji i, j. ,
. ,
. .
. .

.. ( )

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4. 2 n . ,
2 .
k = 1, ..., n , k > 0, ,
. .

.. ( )

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5. .
, . ,
3, 4 5 .
. .
, .
1, , 0,
-1, .
, ..
3,4 5 .

.. ( )

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6. m n
f(x).
.

.. ( )

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7. 33.
a13 = a22 = a31 = 0. . 1
1,2,3. 2 -1,-2,-3. ,
1, .
, 1 ,
. , 1 ,
(.. ).

.. ( )

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