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1470

Formulas and Reference Range Values

Reference Range ValuesCerebrospinal Fluid


Component
Color

Preterm
Neonate

Term
17 Days

Term
830 Days

13 Months

4 Months
16 Years

Adult

Clear or
xanthochromic

Clear or
xanthochromic

Clear or
xanthochromic

Clear

Clear

Clear

323 (01070)d

Red blood cells/mcL


White blood
cells/mcL

<25c28e

<30a

<10a

<3

<1

<5

Polymorphonuclear
cells/mcL

<20e60%c

<38e60%a

<10%a

None
(3671%)f

None
(2635%)f

None

Lymphocytes/mcL

020 (<24 hrs);


04 (7 days
age)d

11

6070%

Monocytes/mcL

<4f (5099%)

4f (5099%)

<4f (3367%)

<4f (4490%)

3050%

1545b

1545b

Protein (mg/dL)

65150c

<70a (40120)b

<40a (2080)b

1545b

Glucose (mg/dL)

2463
(1.33.5mmol/L)

>60% seruma

>50% seruma
38 (2.1
mmol/L)

4085
4572
45
(2.5 mmol/L) (2.54.0 mmol/L);
6060% serum
glucose

CSF glucose/blood
glucose

0.551.05c

0.6

0.6

0.6

0.6

Lactate mmol/L

530
(approx 10%
serum value)c

<3.1
(>2 days age)

<3.1

<3.1

<2.4 (children)

811

<20

<20

<20

50180

60100

100160

0.51.0

0.51.0

Opening pressure
(mm H2O) in lateral
recumbent position
CSF volume (mL)
Fluctuation with
respiration

0.51.0

0.51.0

CSF, cerebral spinal fluid


a
Calculating the ratio of red blood cells (RBCs) to white blood cells (WBCs) in CSF.
General rule: for every 500 RBCs in CSF, acceptable to have 1 WBC.
6
Normal ratio of RBCs to WBCs in peripheral blood: 1000 RBCs: 12 WBCs 10 /L.
( WBC[peripheral] RBC[CSF] )
6
10 /L
Number of WBCs introduced into the CSF per L =

RBC(peripheral)
Compare this number with the actual number of WBCs in the CSF.
6
1000 10 /L RBCs in CSF raises CSF protein by approximately 0.015 g/L.

0.51.0