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(, )

ZONDRES2D

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Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

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Cell summarization ................................................................................................................. 75
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Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

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Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

ZONDRES2D

2.5-

,
.
.

,
[Dey&Morrison, 1979; Lowry et al, 1989].

.
.

N ( x, z )

a bx cz
2A

(1)

.
,
.
2


I ( x) ( z )
x x z z

(2)

0
n

(3)

, - , I , - , - .


[Xu et al, 2000].

U ( x, y , z )

( x, , z) cos( y)d

(4)

()
.
4

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

[Constable, 1987].

A W WA C
T

RC m ATW T f C T RCm

(5)

A
(), C , W
, m , - , f
, R
.

( , ).
ZONDRES2D ,

.
,
:
.

, ()
.

..
.
S diag ( AT A)

(6)


.
ZONDRES2D

,
.
, ,
.
5

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

ZONDRES2D

, .

.
ZONDRES2D
,
IBM PC- Windows.


(), (),

.
: 10-3 1015 .
,
, - ,
,
(, ,
.) [, 1997].

. - (, ,
.)
(1012 - 1015 ). - (, ,
.) (104 - 108
). (, , .)
- .
(, )
.
""

"" , , ""
6

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

, .. ,
.

1000 .
,
.
,
, ( 1 100 ).
(3-1 /).
36 /.
( )
,
,
, , , ,
.
.
().
400 2 ,
.
, ,
,
( -500 ).
: , 10 - ,
100 - 1000 -
.

,

( 500 10000 ).
(100 - 1000 ) , c, ,
7

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

o . , ,
, , , ..
. ,

o [, 1997].
, .. ,

. ,
(
0,5-1 )
.
- ,
( 10 ) .

(, , , , ,
).
. 2-6%
,
.
, .

, [, 1997].

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014


ZONDRES2D - .
.
: www.zond-geo.ru.

( Zond). ,
.

SenseLock.

SenseLock (

, ) InstWiz3.exe.
. , ,
.
.



Registration file. ,
.
, ,
, Registration.
- SenseLock.
, USB.

ZONDRES2D

Windows 98 . :
P IV-2 , 512 . , 1024 X 768, True color. ( ).
9

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014


, Windows XP,
( ).

,

ZONDRES2D
, ,
. ZONDRES2D
: RES2DINV (Geotomo Software,
M.H. Loke, Malaysia), SENSINV2D (Geotomographie, T. Fleschner, Germany), ABEM
(Sweden), AGI (Advanced Geosciences, Inc., USA), Syscal (Iris Instruments, France), ProfileR
(Lancaster Environment Centre, A. Binley) .
.
.
,

ZONDRES2D,

*.z2d ( ).
Zond data file [*.z2d]

Zond.

ProfileR data file [*.in]

ProfileR.

ABEM/AGI/SYSCAL text file

ABEM/AGI/SYSCAL.

Res2dInv [*.dat], ARES

Res2dInv.

Sens2dInv [*.gem, *.imp, *.sen]

Sens2dInv.

Zond1d file convertion [*.zlf]

Zond-IP 1D.

Program configuration [*.cfg]

Omega-48 data files

Prosys (*.txt)

Skala-48/64 csv files

-48/64

SmartTEM-24 file [*.ip]

SmartTEM-24

GDD instruments [*.gdd]

GDD instruments

MAE instruments [*.tsv]

MAE instruments
10

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

, ( TAB
SPACE),

(,
).

,
20000, 500.


. ( - ):
( ).
.
.
.
.
( ).
.
() .
.
.
.

11

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014


:
(

File/Open file

).
File/Save file

File/Edit file

, ,
Notepad.

File/Create synthetic survey

.
File/Change electrode array

(,
, ).

File/Print preview

File/Recent

File/

File/English

File/Reg file

().

File/Exit
Options/Quality

control

module

Options/Project information

Options/Mesh constructor

Options/Data editor

Options/Program setup

Options/3D sections plot

Options/Geological editor

.
12

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

Options/Inversion/Set

boundaries

Options/Inversion/

Optimization
Options/Inversion/

Optimization/Display
Process
Options/Inversion/

Optimization/Line search

) (
3-4 ).

Options/Inversion/

Optimization/Full

( 5-6 ).

Options/Inversion/

Optimization/Factor

.
Options/Inversion/

Optimization/Length step

. .

Options/Inversion/

Optimization/Automatic eta .
scaling
Options/Inversion/Invert

only visible graphs

( ). ,
, .

Options/Inversion/Not

P C .

suppress
Options/Inversion/Suppress

P .

P static shift. Max


( ).

Options/Inversion/Suppress

C .

C static shift. Max


13

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

( ).
Options/Inversion/Suppress

border influence
Options/Inversion/

Underwater options
Options/Inversion/

Underwater
options/resistivity
Options/Inversion/

Underwater options/invert
Options/Inversion/

Underwater
options/sublayers numbers 4
Options/Inversion/

Average window 84

Occam).

Options/Inversion/

Diagonal flatness filter


L2 smoothness norm

L2.

Options/Data/Apparent

resistivity
Options/Data/Resistance

Options/Data/Pseudo-

section

Options/Data/Graphics-plot

Options/Data/Calculated

data
Options/Data/Data misfit

Options/Data/Data weights

Options/Data/Iso-CC

,
14

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

graphics

.
Options/Data/Iso-psZ

graphics

( ).
Options/Data/Iso-PP

graphics

.
Options/Data/Display/

N .

Display every N point

(>3000).

Options/Data/ Display/

(
)

Options/Data/ Display/

0 1 (

Error gates


).

ALT.

Options/Data/U/AB/MN

norming

(
Data/Resistance).

Options/Data/G-Res plot


( )

Options/Model/Block

section
Options/Model/Smooth

section
Options/Model/Contour

section
Options/Model/Resistivity

Options/Model/Sensitivity


.
15

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

Options/Model/Model

(,

quality

).

Options/Model/DOI index


. (
).

Options/Model/X=Z scale

Options/Model/ModelEditor .
toolbar
Options/Topography/

Topo coefficient
Options/Topography/Strike

Options/Topography/

Import topography
Options/Topography/

Remove topography
Options/Topography/

Restore topography
Options/Topography/

Edit topography
Options/Topography/

Smooth topography
Options/Topography/

Absolute coordinates

Options/Topography/

180.

Reverse Line
Options/Topography/

().

Shift Line
Options/Cutting/Cutting

30.

angle 30
16

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

Options/Cutting/No cutting

by .

Options/Cutting/Cut
angle

by

Options/Cutting/Cut
sensitivity

Options/Cutting/Extend

bottom

Options/Cutting/

Pseudosection bounded

Options/Borehole/Create/Ed () (
it borehole data

).

Options/Borehole/Load

borehole data

, mod1d
( )..

Options/Borehole/Remove

boreholes

Options/Borehole/Set

column width

Options/Extra/Model

smooth/rough

).

Options/Extra/Potential&

sensitivity in model

Options/Extra/Potential&

sensitivity

in

model/ .

Potential isoline

Options/Extra/Potential&

sensitivity

in

model/ .

Sensitivity isolines

Options/Extra/Potential&

sensitivity

in

model/ .

Sensitivity contours

.
17

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

Options/Extra/Display

Rho&Etha together

Options/Extra/Extra isoline
color settings

Options/Extra/Resistivity&

IP summary plot

Options/Extra/Resistivity&

MF summary plot

-.

Options/Extra/Model&Data

histograms

--------On load file---------


Extra
.

Options/Extra/Open

in .

modeling mode
Options/Extra//Include

extended nodes
Options/Extra/Convert

AMN&MNB AMNB

Options/Extra/Convert

AMN&MNB AMNA

( , ).
Options/Extra/Display

electrode RMS

Options/Extra/Remove data , .
with big misfit
Options/Extra/Get synthetic ,
for big misfit

, () .

Options/Import/Export/

Import model/data

Zond

Options/Import/Export/

/.
18

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

Remove model/data
Options/Import/Export/

Save selection

Options/Import/Export/

Load selection

Options/Import/Export/

Extract 1d log

Options/Import/Export/

Load 1d log

.
Options/Import/Export/

bmp

Background image

SectionCor (*.sec).

Options/Import/Export/

Remove background
Options/Import/Export/

Load 1D model (ZondIP1D)

ZondIP1D.

Options/Import/Export/Imp

ort

RAW

data/COMx64, Mery/COMx64 ERA-MULTIMAX

ERA-MULTIMAX
Options/Import/Export/

Excel.

Import data from text/Excel


Options/Import/Export/

Excel.

Export to Excel/Model
Options/Import/Export/

Excel.

Export to Excel/Data levels


Options/Import/Export/
Export

model

to

CAD ) DXF (Autocad).

(DXF)
Options/Import/Export/

Convert to VES (ZondIP1D) ZondIP1D .


Options/Import/Export/

( ) Surfer.
19

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

Direct drawing in Surfer


Options/Graphics/

Observed graphics

Options/Graphics/

Calculated graphics

Options/Graphics/

Smooth contours

(Contour section).

Options/Graphics/

Copy

pseudo

colors

to .

model
Options/Graphics/

Bitmap output settings

Options/MT data/Load MT -.
data
Options/MT data/Invert MT -.
data
Options/MT data/Show MT -.
plot
Options/MT data/With static .
shift
Options/MT data/Set weight -.
of MT
Options/MT

data/DET

inversion
Buffer/Model

Buffer/Model

) :
Modeling/Load background bmp
SectionCor (*.sec).
20

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

Modeling/Show background .
.

Modeling/Remove
background

Modeling/Get values from

(,

background

).
Modeling/Set

to

values

(, ) .

background

all .

Modeling/Remove
polygons
Modeling/Save polygons

.poly.

Modeling/Load polygons

( .poly).

Modeling/Export to CAD

DXF
(Autocad).

Modeling/GraviMagnetic/

Load new data

Modeling/GraviMagnetic/

()

Add new data

Modeling/GraviMagnetic/

Field settings

() , .

Modeling/GraviMagnetic/

Substract median grav

, .. .

Modeling/GraviMagnetic/

, ..

Substract median mag

Modeling/GraviMagnetic/

Inversion

/ (

()

).
Modeling/GraviMagnetic/

Display GM window

/ .

Modeling/Self

Potential/ .
21

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

Load data
Potential/ .

Modeling/Self
Remove data

Potential/

Modeling/Self

Redox factor vs Z

Modeling/Self Potential/ Use ,


background resistivity

Modeling/Self

Potential/Display SP window
Modeling/Display

color /.

scale
Modeling/Colors from color
( ).

scale

from .

Modeling/Exit
modeling mode


/ .

Delete

Insert

.
F

magic wand
.

Ctrl+C


.
22

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

/ /

Space

, :
.
.
.
.
.
.
,

*.Z2D

.
,
.
.
Options/Mesh Constructor (.1).

23

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

. 1. Mesh constructor.
Vertical nodes ,


16.

1.1 .

Start height .

.
Maximal depth . ,
, ..
.

24

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

Layers number .

. 12-14 .
, ..
.
Incremental number
. 1 2.
Horizontal nodes
.
Minimum .
Maximum - .
Intermediate nodes
(0 - 4).
,
(Total potential calculation).
Nodes number ,
( ) , Minimum
Maximum.

Nodes number.

. ,
, - Secondary potential calculation,
.
,
(.2). http://zondgeo.ru/zfiles/util/2dInversionofVES.exe http://zond-geo.ru/zmovies/ert2ves2ertconvert.exe
,
ZondRes2d.

25

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

. 2. (), () .
,
,
- .
Regular mesh ,
.
(
).
Regular mesh
X, Nodes number.
Regular mesh
, .
. In elec,
, .
Start resistivity .
Start polarizability .
Apply,
.
(

).
26

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

Preview .
: ,
,
( ).

,
(
Options/Extra/Model&Data histograms

(. 36).
.

. 36. Histogram

).

,
(
).
ZONDRES2D data files *.Z2D.
*.Z2D (
), (
). , ZondRes2D.
, ,
, , , ..
27

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

: 1) , 2)
( ), 3) (
).
I :
, ,
.
ZONDRES2D () :
C1

C2 C1z C2z C1y C2y ( . Current)

P1 P2 P1z P2z P1y P2y ( . Potential)

Y Z . ,
,

. - sample_with_z_source. Y
1/3 (
). - sample_with_y. Z
,

(
).
:
Ro_a
( ) Res

SRes (, , )

Res SRes
, .
Eta_a

Eta_a ,
:
Eta_a (%) =(U / U) 100%,

(7)

U ,U .
- sample_with_ip.
10.
28

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

(),

.
Eta_a (%) = - 2.5 ()

(8)

, Weight,
.
. (..
Weight)

.
, , ,
, ,
.
(
) ,
*. - sample_with_array_combi.
(
).

***.


. -
sample_with_ext_nodes.
( )
, .

a G

U
C

(9)

G - , U ,
.
II :
29

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

, topo,
. ,

res

).
X-
.
.
topo ,
. - topo1.
topo~ .
,
(. 3). ,
.
- topo2a/topo2b.

. 3. .
topo#

().

(. 4), X
. -

. ,
P .

- (
30

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

), X
. - topo3.

. 4.
( ).
topo% ,
ro_a ( ), ,
(L)
.
topo^ ,
. - topo4.
, , topo~#.
topow ,

( ).

( ) (. 5). ,
(
( , )),
(3-10).

Options/Inversion/Underwater options. -

water1.

,
. - water3.
.

31

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

. 5. ,
.
topo* ,
( ). - water2.
,

.
III :
model.
: ,
,
, (topo coefficient).

( n m).
n ,
.
n-1 m-1 .
n-1 m-1 .

, .
n-1 m-1 .

32

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014


(
): , ,
,
, , .

- ,
( , ).
, , ,
.
ZondRes2D.

.
.
,
. (
),
.

. 6.
.
( , )
, ,
. ,

(. 6).
.
33

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

-
.
( ) .
,
.
( )
,
. ,
, ,
.. , , ,
, .
.
,
, . ,
,
.
ZondRes2D
Options/Quality
control module, Options/Data editor (
) Options/Data/Graphics plot
( ).

ZondProtocol Zond.
: ( ),
, ,
, ,
.
ZondRes2d,

ZondProtocol

(. 7).

34

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

7. ZondProtocol

ZondRes2D
,
Options/Quality control module.
:
1.
;
2. (
) ;
3. ;
4. ;
5. .
35

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

, ,
,

.

(Data graphics, . 8),
(Settings) (Pseudo).

.8. - .
,
(Electrode array),

( ,
, .., Graphyc Type),

.
Data graphics.

36

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

. .

(. 8). ,
,
.

( ).

, ,
(.10A). ,
, (.10B). ()
.

. 9. .


.
.
(), Shift
().

(
),
.
:

,
- ,
37

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

(
, , ).

. ,

, ,
, .

( ).

) (

).

, .

, . /

.

( , ..).
, ,

.
.

( Pseudo),

.
, QC module,
.

http://zondgeo.ru/zmovies/ert_qc_denoising.exe http://zond-geo.ru/zmovies/editsmoothert.exe.

38

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

Options/Data/Pseudo-section,

Options/Data/Graphics-plot.
,

(Option/Data/Resistance U/I)
(Option/Data/Apparent resistivity).


, .

Options/Data/Graphics-plot/Iso-PsZ

Options/Data/Graphics-plot/Iso-Pole (. 10).

.10. . ,
(Iso-Pole),
. , (Iso-PsZ).
39

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

:

( ). ,
, ,
(.9A). ,
, (.9B). ()
.

( ).
.
Options/Graphics/
Observed graphics Calculated graphics ( 1: ).
SHIFT
( 2: ).
SHIFT (
5: ).
SHIFT (
3: ).

SHIFT.
.
.
( ) ,
. .
.

, 0.
ALT ,
ALT , , ,
0.
40

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

Options/Data/Display/Error

gates.

()
ALT.


.
:
, .
.

:
Log data scale

.
Smooth mode

/ .
Display grid point

Display ColorBar

Setup

Print preview

Save picture

*.emf.

Save XYZ file


Default

*.dat

.
Setup 2:
.

SHIFT ( 5: ).

41

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

SHIFT
( 7: ).
.
( . 34
ZondRes2D) :
1. , Y
;
2. - ,
Y
;
3. - , Y
( );
4. ,
Y
;
5. , Y
;
6. , Y
.

, Options/Data/Display/.
Display every N point
. ,
3000 .

Options/Data/Data Weights
Options/Data/Data Misfit.

.
42

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

, , ,
.
ZondRes2D
, ,
Y- (.11).
,
(, ),
.
.

.11. .

, X
, Y (
).
, .

.

()

. ,

(),
. ( )
,
43

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

( ) .

. ,

.
. 12.

.12. .

.
- sample_with_y.z2d.

http://zond-

geo.ru/zmovies/XYcoordZond2d.exe.


. ,
.
http://zond-geo.ru/zmovies/Work_with_areal_survey.exe.


ZondRes2D

( II :

)
Options/Topography/Import topography.
,
44

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

. (
),
.
, :
, . Options/Topography/Import topography
,
(. 13). X Alt (
,
).

. 13. .

, , .
,
(
).
, ,
0 ,
(. 14).

45

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

. 14. .
No , Yes
.
Options/Topography/Edit topography ,
.

Options/Topography/Restore

topography

Options/Topography/Remove topography , ,
.

.



.
(. 15). 9 :
ID

Used

, .

C1

C2

P1

P2

Weight

*.
46

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

, ,
.

. 0
1. ,
.

. 15. Electrode editor


,
.
Advanced/Distribution
(Potential distribution) ( Sensitivity isoline, - Sensitivity contour).

(. 16).

. 16. () ()
.
,
.
47

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

Option/Program setup.


,
.
Default .
General (.17).

. 17. Program setup, General


Inversion ,
.
, ,
(.18).
48

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

. 18. .

.
Smoothness constrained
.
( ) (.19).

. 19. Smoothness constrained.



:

A W WA C C m A W
T

(10)

,
.

,
.
Occam
[Constable,
1987].

(.20).

49

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

. 20. Occam.

:

A W
T

WA C T C m AT W T f C T Cm

(11)


Smoothness factor. ,
.
Marquardt
(Ridge regression) [Marquardt, 1963].
,
(.21).

. 21. Marquardt.

:

A W
T

WA I m AT W T f

(12)

, .

50

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

Marquardt, (

), Smoothness constrained
Occam.
Focused
[Portniaguine,
2000].

, ,
(.22).

. 22. Focused.

:

A W
T

WA C T RC m AT W T f C T RCm

(13)


Threshold ( Model).
,
( ,
). ( )
Ri e ri
:
Ri

e2
e 2 ri

Blocks

(14)

.
(.23).
,
Marquardt:
51

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

A W
T

WA I m AT W T f

(15)

. 23. Blocks.

( Focused),
Cell summarization.
, .
.
ProfileR

ProfileR

A.

Binley

(http://www.es.lancs.ac.uk/people/amb/Freeware/Profiler/Profiler.htm).
Stop criteria .
Iterations ,
.
RMS error , c
.
Reduction ,

%)

.
Model common limits Min resistivity, Max resistivity
.
Model (. 24).

52

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

. 24. Program setup, Model


Smoothing factor
( ).
,
: 0.5 - 2;
: 0.005 - 0.01.

(.25). Occam Focused.

. 25. Occam
smoothing factor: 0.01 () 1.0 ().
4.5 %, 6 % .
53

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

Depth smoothing ()
.

. .
Smoothness

ratio

. -
<1, - >1. ,
, 0.2 1 (.26).

. 26.
Smoothness ratio: 1 () 0.3 ().
Focusing parameters
Threshold
(
).
(0.001-1) (.27).
( ).
.

54

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

. 27. Focused
Threshold: 0.01 () 0.1 ().
Sharpness

(0), -
(1) (.28). (0.7).

. 28. Focused
Sharpness: 0.8 () 0.2 ().
Filter .
Own, (
). Other, ,
. ,
, . ,
,
Other
Threshold,
.
55

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

Use reference model .



(.29).
Occam Focused.
, .
,
. ,
.

. 29. (),
Occam (), ().
Cell grouping (

). ,


, . ,
.
56

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

: (Layer)
; (New layer) ;
(Width) ( ),
, .
.
Width
. ,
, .
.
New Layer.
:
(.30), , ,
(. 30), ,
, , -
(.30).

. 30. .

57

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

, Options/Cutting. Cell
grouping ,
Options/Cutting angle .
Number of surface layers (0-2) ,
. 1-2 ,
.

.
Data
, (.31).

. 31. Program setup, Data

Calculation

scheme

(Secondary,

Total)

. Secondary
.
, , ,
.

(Total)
58

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

(1 2
) .
. Secondary
, , .
Automatically switch electrodes ,

.
Robust weighting scheme
,
.
.

. , ,
.
ZondRes2D
.

.
Options/Inversion/Optimization/Display process.
.

.

. , ,
.

Bufer .
, .
Bufer/Open ,

59

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

.
.

(
) (
).
,

.
ZondRes2D
, . .
,
. Smoothing factor Use
reference model .
Smoothing factor, .

, .
: 1D
, .
, 1D , http://zondgeo.ru/zmovies/referencemodel.exe.

,
, ,
Options/Inversion/Set boundaries. ,

,
.
, , , .

.
60

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

, ,
. 32.
http://zond-geo.ru/examples/video-lessons/ ,
(http://zond-geo.ru/zmovies/Boundaries.exe http://zondgeo.ru/zmovies/BoundaryInversion.exe) .


,
.
.

. 32. A. . . .

-
. ,
5%.

,
Options/Data/Data Misfit (.33).
,
Optons/Extra/Display electrode RMS (.33).

61

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

. 33. . ,
. .

, ,
.
Options/Extra/Remove data with big misfit. Options/Extra/Get synthetic for
big misfit (
).
Options/Inversion/Invert only visible graphs,
, .

, .

.


.
, ( ),
( ),
- .

,
62

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

.
(full waveform)
,
Cole-Cole.
.

Time lapse/domain/Time lapse inversion (
).
.

:
,
(.
).
-

(Options/MT Data, . - ).


Options/Model/Block-section (.34),
Options/Model/Smooth-section (.34)
Options/Model/Contour-section (.34).

63

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

. 34. :
Block-section (), Smooth-section (), Contour-section ().

:
,

Display model mesh

, .

Resistivity
block-section

Display objects
border

Display color bar

,
.
,
.

Setup

Zoom&Scroll

Print preview

Set minimum

Set maximum


.
64

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

Set incremental factor

.
Automatic

Log scale

Set halfspace value

Set cursor value


Colors as histogram


,
, .
Setup (, ..)
Block-section Smooth-section 6:

, Contour-section 4:

( ).


. Block-section.

(Contour-section) - Option/Model/Sensitivity.

(Smooth-section)

(Block-section)

(.

).

.
65

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

. Options/Cutting
, ( ) (Cut by angle, . 35)
(Cut by sensitivity).
Options /Cutting/Extend bottom
.

. 35. (Options/Cutting/Cutting
angle): A , B 30, 55.
Options/Extra/Model&Data histograms

(. 36).
.

. 36. Histogram
66

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014


, .
,
,
,
.
, ,
.
ZondRes2D

( ,
,
, ,
).

. ZondRes2D
,
,
Zond ,
.

()


().
ZondRes2D
,
,
: File/Create synthetic survey.

(
67

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

Electrodes array, . 37, 38): (Pole-Pole, A-M),


(Pole-Dipole, A-MN), (Dipole-Dipole, AB-MN), (Wenner, A-M-N-B),
(Schlumberger, A-MN-B) (Gradient, A-MN-B).

. 37.
Sub array type ,
( ). ,
(Forward, A-MN), (Reverse, MN-A) (AMN&MN-A).
Arrays geometry
: (Minimal
separation, m), (Electrodes number),
(Number of shifts),
( , Cable shift, n).
Electrodes array worksheet (. 39)
.
.
AO ( . 31),
n

a ( ),

step [K]
(, step [K]=3 ,
).
68

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

. 38. Electrodes array settings (


)

. 39. Electrodes array worksheet (


).
Data survey Electrodes array worksheet
.

ABEM protocol (*.xml) MAE instrument (*.sem)

.
69

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014


Mesh constructor (
). Start resistivity ( Start polarizability)
( ) .
Apply
,
.
, ,
File/Change electrodes array,
.


ZondRes2D .
File/Open file.

, ,
.

: Options/Extra/Open in modeling mode.
, File/Change Electrodes array
.

ZondRes2D

. ZondRes2D
: (Options/Model/Block-section)
(

).

( ,
). ,
.
70

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014


, Options/Mesh constructor.
.
,
: ,
,
ZondRes2D. .


, ,
Mesh constructor.

Log scale

Set maximum

Redivide

( ).
Thick mesh

Thin mesh

.
Redivide

Thick mesh


(
).

Thin mesh

71

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014



.
.
,
, .
.
.

: (
), (Options/Model/ModelEditor
toolbar) .
:

Model

tools

Zoom,

Display

cell

setup
Cell to cursor

value

Edit mode

Selection\Free

form selection

.
.

Selection\Recta

ngular selection

. .

. .

Selection\Magic

wand

.
, .
72

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014


.
.

Selection\Remo
ve selection
Mesh

options\add

column /row

Mesh

options\remove

column /row
.

Mesh
options\resize
column /row
Clear model

Clear

parameters

.
,
. :
.

: , ,
.


(Options/Model/ModelEditor
toolbar). ,

.

73

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

, ,

, (
),
, .

Zoom&Scroll (
Resistivity block-section
)

Model tools. ,

,
. ,
, .
SHIFT
. SHIFT
.
.
, .
CTRL
.

.
.

Cell setup (.40).
.
Value .
Fixed .
Min value, Max value .
,
.

74

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

. 40. Cell setup.



( )

.
,
, Zond
calculated data, , .
, Options/ Import/Export / Import
model/data (

75

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

), ,
Zond model with calculated.
Bufer,
( ).
Cell summarization

Cell

summarization

(Options/Extra/Model

smooth/rough)

( ) (. 41).
Blocks.
.
.

. 41. () () ()
Cell summarization.
76

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

Blocks,
(Contrast factor),
. Start layers ,
.
Smooth, (Smooth factor),
. End layers ,
.



, ,
. ZondRes2D
.


.
, .
ZondRes2D
.

() ,
().
:

.
- .
,
.
.
, .
77

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

,
.
, .

, .
.

.
.
, ,
,
, , .
,
( ,
).
.
( ).
,
.
.
.
. .
.

.
, .
. ,
.
.
, ,
.
. .

,
.
,
.
Body parameters (. 42).

78

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

. 42 Body parameters
, , , , ,
. Color, Pen, Brush, Gradient
( ), ,
.

, .

Modeling/Get values from background Modeling/Set
values to background.
( ),

, . 43.

79

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

. 43 , ZondRes2D.
Save polygons
Load polygons Modeling . Export
to CAD Autocad dxf.


. , ,

Thin mesh

, ,
Modeling/Set values to background.
.

http://zond-

geo.ru/zmovies/polygonalmodeling2d.exe http://zond-geo.ru/zmovies/polygonalmodel.exe.

()
( ).

Modeling/Gravimagnetic, (
).
80

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

/
Body parameters,

Modeling/Gravimagnetic/Inversion.
. , (
) ,
.

http://zond-geo.ru/zmovies/ert&magnetic.exe.



. ,

,
.

.
ZondRes2D
Buffer . Model 1 Model 5
, .
, ,
. ,
.
,
Bufer .

81

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

. 44. Buffer/Open.
.
,
, .
, ,
(From Buffer) (To
buffer). From Buffer
.
Bufer/Open ,
(. 44).
82

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

ZONDRES2D ( *.z2d) (

). ,
. ,
, .
,

File/Save file. ,
, (Observed)
(Calculated) ,
, (Model, WorkSheet) *.BMP
.
Picture settings Options/Graphics/Bitmap output settings (

83

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

).
Zond project data

Zond calculated data

Zond observed data

ProfileR observed data


ProfileR.

ProfileR calculated data


ProfileR.

Res2dInv observed data


Res2dInv.

Res2dInv calculated data


Res2dInv.

Worksheet

BMP.

Model


BMP.

Picture settings.
Program configuration

Zond model with

calculated
Surfer:

Grid file

*.dat

), ( *.bln)
( *.lvl).

Section file

SectionCorrector.
c *.mod2d,
.

ZondRes2d

(Options/Import/Export/Import

model/data)

Zond.

84

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

File/Project

information.

:
- ;
- / ;
- ;
- ( ):
- ;
- ;
- ;
- .

( , , ..).

85

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

. ZondRes2D
.
() ,
: , ,
,
, Zond,
,

.
,
, .

. Options/Import/Export
: ,
, ,
Zond,
( ).

Options/Borehole/Load borehole data (.45).

. sample with_bhdata.

. 45.
.
86

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

Options/ Import/Export/ Import model/data -


ZOND (. 46).

.

. 46. .

,
(. 47).

. 47. , ,
.

87

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014


*.dat, ( graphics-plot)
,

(.48).

sample_with_exported_graphic. *.dat
, .

.

. 48.
.
SHIFT

.
Save/Load selection
. ,
(Blocks-section), Selection
Save selection ( Selection ).
:
. ,
88

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

Load selection

. ,
.
,
Extract 1d log / Load 1d log.
X .
X.
, ,
.
(

Options/Import/Export/Background image. , , ,
, .
*.bmp *.sec,
.
*.bmp
(. 49),
.

. 49. Block-section .
, ,
( Resistivity block-section ,
Setup) half-space transparency.
*.sec ( sample_with_exported_graphic)
:
1- ;
89

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

2-

X1 Y1 X2 Y2.
sect.emf
0 0 152.4 53.3
Blocks section ,
. ,
(.50).

. 50. Block-section .
Smooth section ,
(.51).

. 51. Smooth-section .
(
, )
(, )
. . 52 Smooth-section.

90

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

, ZondRes2D,
http://zond-geo.ru/examples/video-lessons/.

. 52. Smooth-section .


, .
: RES2DINV (Geotomo Software, M.H. Loke),
SENSINV2D (Geotomographie, T. Fleschner), ABEM data ProfileR (A. Binley).

-.

Picture settings.
()
ZondRes2D
() ( ).
,
.
( )
*.txt Excel
Options/Import/Export/Import data from
text/excel. (. 53).
Start End , ,
, ,
.

91

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014


. , ,
.

. 53. .
Excel
Excel
Options/Import/Export to Excel/Data levels.
. :
, Level (K, 1/m), ;
, X, m,
( ); , app res,
,
.
Excel
Excel
Options/Import/Export to Excel/Model. Excel
,
, (. 54).

92

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

() ; ,
X - ;

Elev - .

. 54. Excel- .

ZondRes2D
,
( ).

,
(
).

, .
/
, ,
.
(

)
93

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

Modeling/Gravimagnetic/Load new data.


(, ,
),
Modeling/Gravimagnetic/Add new data.
(. 55).
,
. ,
() .
. - ,
. Start End
, .

. 55. .

. 56. Observation settings.


94

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

(. 56).
Modeling/Gravimagnetic/Field settings.
:
,

Gravimeter elev, m

Data type

Gradient base, m

,
:
Total field, nT

Inclination, deg

Declination, deg

,
, (

Profile azimuth, deg

)
,

Magnetometer elev, m

Data type



, (

Gradient base,m

)
(.
57).

Modeling/Gravimagnetic/Display GM window.

95

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

. 57. Gravity and magnetic data.


Modeling/Gravimagnetic/Substract median grav Substract median mag
, ..
.

: . (
)

/ ( .42).

(Modeling/Gravimagnetic/Inversion)

/ .
, ,
.

ZondRes2D
.

-
.
, ,
.
96

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

, ,
.
:
( ,
, ), M (), N (),
(). ,
, , .

Modeling/Self potential/Load data.
Modeling/Self potential/Display SP window
.
, (Modeling/Self Potential/Redox factor vs Z,
. 58) (

).

-
- (
) .

. 58. Gravity and magnetic data.

97

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

,
. 59.

. 59. .



Options/MT data/Load MT data,
*.m2d.
*.m2d, , *z1d,
: ().
.
, .
. ,
(), ()
.
.
: ro_a_tm (
TM ), ro_a_te ( TE ), phi_tm
( TM ), phi_te ( TE ).
,
98

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

( ).
.

:
0.0001 0.0001166

0.0001359

0.0001585

0.0001848

{
Point1name
0

0.788 5489.915738 0

ro_a_tm 897.408

992.547

1097.806

1214.112

1342.435

ro_a_te 531.065

572.484

616.483

662.444

710.411

phi_tm 15.846

15.951

16.07

16.212

16.363

phi_te

24.605

25.3

5.971

26.641

23.904

}
{
Point2name
0.103680119 0.76

5489.943395 0

ro_a_tm 411.023

458.506

511.063

569.166

632.274

ro_a_te 145.856

165.762

188.024

212.573

239.514

phi_tm 15.756

15.741

15.738

15.775

15.854

phi_te

8.194

9.846

11.47

13.058

6.53

}
Enter shift of stations,
( ) .
Options/MT data/Show MT plot
-.

Picture settings (. 60)
Vertical scale ( ), Horizontal scale (
99

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

), Print resolution ( DPI)


Font size.
BMP (Model)

Automatic.
.

. 60. Picture settings.




. txt ,
.

:
( ),
. .
(. 61):

0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5

118.3035394
126.9002384
123.4170888
116.1519574
117.240884
111.9424174
142.0405875
125.3686538
521.0730567
735.5232592

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
100

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

5.5
6
6.5
7
7.5
8
8.5
9
9.5
10
10.5
11
11.5
12
12.5
13
13.5
14
14.5
15
15.5
16
16.5
17
17.5
18

707.7315998
706.3561614
725.9945623
722.433627
717.0991126
716.9836552
725.5024012
722.3551713
731.5717173
723.5097884
726.8844987
725.962034
743.2485878
726.4061156
734.399887
727.9166309
116.1921851
517.9613065
125.3706264
111.2952478
131.911879
107.9217309
114.9327361
134.0939196
138.4457143
129.1165104

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

. 61. .

, , , -
. . 62.

101

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

. 62. .
23 , ,
(.63).

. 63. .
.
0 1 0 13 1
4 1 0 13 1
4 1 0 19 2
11 1 0 19 2
11 1 0 27 3
16 1 0 27 3

( *.crt) ,
. CRT

.
2280.txt

2280

- ( )

18 2 2 1 0 1 0 0

102

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

18 .
2 - ( , 1 - 20).
2 - 0 - 3.
0 - ( ); - - carot1.crt
1 - ( )
; - - carot2.crt
2 - ; - - strati.crt
3 - ( ) ,
;

1 - 0 - 2.
0,1 ;
1,2 - ;

0 - (
, ) 0 n-1, n
.
1 - .
0 - 0, 1.
0 .

3246.txt

3246
102 2 2 1 0 1 0 0

Options/Borehole/Create/Edit borehole data (. 64).


,
,
.
()

,
(465 . 64).

.
103

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

. 64. .
(,
)

.
(H). (Z)
.
C . ,
C.
, , ,
. ,
,
( ),
. C
, .
, .
Set borehole width,

(Options/Borehole/Set column width).



Options. Remove background,
.

104

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014



*.bth.
http://zondgeo.ru/zmovies/addBH2d.exe.


:
.
( ontour-section),
(.65).
Options/Extra/Display Rho&Etha together.
, Options/Extra/Extra isolines color settings.

.

- (.65).
. Block Smooth section.
Options/Extra/Potential&sensitivity in
model/Potential isolines. ,

( 4: ).

(.65).
. Block
Smooth section. Options/Extra/
Potential&sensitivity in model/Sensitivity isolines .
,

(Options/Data

editor). ( 4:
).

105

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

. 65. .
. .
. .
.

) Geological editor,
Options/Geological editor.
,
, Zond
, ,
.

(. 66).
106

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

*.sec File/Open section,


Options/Load borehole data.

. 66. .

: (
, , ..),
.
(,
) .

(.

).

, , :


. 67. File/Remove picture
,
(. 68).

107

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

File/Save section
*.sec Zond .
Options/Output settings
(File/Print preview).

. 67. : .

. 68. : -
.

. ,
,
.
108

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

ZondRes2D
, , 3D
section viewer, Options/3D sections plot.
( ),

.
Lines (
), 3D View ( ), Options ( )
(
, ).

. 69. Lines 3D section viewer.


Lines
(. 69). .
,
.
*.mod2d,
109

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

ZondRes2D.

. X0, Y0,

X1, Y1
. ,
, ,
.
Lines.
.
Options
.

.
3D View (. 70).

. 70. 3D View 3D section viewer. .


( ) ,

.
110

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

, ,
..
, (
, , , .)


,
.

.
.

. ,
, . ,
, .
. 70 . 71.

. 71. 3D View 3D section viewer.


.
3D section viewer ,
.

111

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

. Project file,
*.prj,
. ,

.
XY plane, *.dat,
.
, , Surfer. Voxler 3d
grid *.dat, .

.
http://zondgeo.ru/zmovies/mline2dvisualiz.exe.


[Tsourles, 1999; Loke, 2000].
(
II : ). ,
,
(Options/Topography/Smooth topography) (.72).
.

. 72. () ().
112

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014


(Options/Extra/Include extended
nodes). .
, ***.
(0-5)
Option/Topography/Topo coefficient. 0
. 1 - , (.73).
:
max( Topo) Topox
z * x, z Topox z 1
Tcoeff
max( z )

(16)

Topo , z - .

. 73.
Topo coefficient 1 5.

Options/Topography/Remove topography.
Options/Topography/Restore topography.
,
Options/Topography/Edit topography.

, Options/Topography/Absolute coordinates,
, , .
Grid file
Absolute coordinates .

, ,
(Options/Inversion/Underwater options/ Invert).

113

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

Options/Inversion/Underwater options/ Resistivity.


Options/Inversion/Underwater options/ Sublayers number
.
.


ZondRes2D
. , . ,
.

ZondRes2D ( ).
, ,
, .
, , .
(-
sample_with_z_source).
-
, .


(. 74).
, Options/Data/G-Res plot.

114

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

. 74. .


ZondRes2D
, .
.

- (
) ( timedomain.zd2).


(- - frequencydomain.z2d).
,
,
()
Cole-Cole.
115

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014


( *.z2d): time_#chann
.
, , ( ), Res
(U/I) (
ipi1, ipi2 ..) ( mod1, mod2 .. ,
pha1, pha2 .. ).
:
time_#chann

0.05

0.065 0.085 0.115 0.155

C1

C2

P1

P2

res

10

0.001 0.279 0.260 0.242 0.218 0.194

10

15

0.001 0.306 0.286 0.266 0.241 0.215

10

15

20

0.002 0.338 0.317 0.295 0.268 0.239

ipi1

ipi2

ipi3

ipi4

ipi5

:
time_#chann

0.0001592

0.000427

0.001145

C1

C2

P1

P2

res

10

0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 -0.004 -0.006 -0.010

10

15

0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 -0.005 -0.007 -0.012

10

15

20

0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 -0.005 -0.009 -0.014

mod1 mod2 mod3 pha1

pha2

pha3

Time
lapse/domain (
). ,

()

.
Time lapse/domain/ Channels .

(

116

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

).
, / .
Time lapse/domain/ Display channel plot (. 75),
( ) .
( )

,
. (Delete point),
(Smooth point), ,
(Origin point).

. 75. .

Time lapse/domain/ Recalculate chargeability,
,
.
117

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

Time lapse/domain/ Time lapse inversion


(
, ). Time
lapse/domain/ Next from previous,
. ,

. .
, (),

.

. 76. .

,
.

Time lapse/domain/ Max iter number for next.
Time lapse/domain/ Save timeshots
.
118

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

(. 76)
Time lapse/domain/ Fullwave form inversion. .
Models

, Cole-Cole ( c).
Parameters ,
()
(. 77). ReBuild
(value). "*",
.

. 77. .
Module, , ,
, . ,
, ,
.

119

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

,
() time-lapse ,
Cole-Cole .
Data .
, ,
().
Time lapse/domain/ Digital filter
,
.
, ,
http://zond-geo.ru/zmovies/TDvsFD.exe.



.
*.z2d :
( );
, res1, res2 ... Res (U/I)
, .. .

(- monitoringERT.z2d):
C1

C2

P1

P2

res1

res2

res3

res4

res5

5.57

5.57

5.57

5.60

5.63

1.55

1.55

1.56

1.59

1.62

0.84

0.84

0.85

0.88

0.91

10

0.48

0.48

0.49

0.51

0.52

10

12

0.44

0.44

0.45

0.49

0.46

12

14

0.25

0.26

0.26

0.29

0.24

, ,
, .
120

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

.
Time
lapse/domain (
). ,

.
Time lapse/domain/ Channels ,
. time,s
. , name,

( ).
Time lapse/domain/ Display channel plot ,
Res (U/I) (. 78).
(
)

.
,
. (Delete point),
(Smooth point), ,
(Origin point).

.
Time lapse/domain/ Time lapse inversion
. Time
lapse/domain/ Next from previous,
. ,

. .
, ,
.

121

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

. 78.
.

,
.

Time lapse/domain/ Max iter number for next.
Time lapse/domain/ Save timeshots
.
- http://zond-geo.ru/zmovies/monitoringERT.exe.

-
-

122

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

. -
Options/MT Data.
- *.m2d.
.
Load MT data Show MT plot , ,
- . With static
shift , () .
- Set weights of MT.
Invert MT data,
- .

DET

inversion

(TE), (TM) .

http://zond-

geo.ru/zmovies/MT_ERT.exe.

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Zond geophysical software


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1:


.
Style .
Interpolate ,
: min color, 1/3 color, 2/3 color
max color. const ( color)
. random
Line
. ,
Line .
Pointer
. ,
Pointer .
Border
. ,
Border .
Options .
Default .

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Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

2:

.
SHIFT .
Format .
Border
.
Color .
Pattern .
Outline
.
Shadow
.
Point .
Visible / .
Style .
Width .
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Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

Height .
Inflate margins ,
.
Pattern .
Border
.
Gradient .
Marks .
Style.
Visible / .
Draw every , ..
.
Angle .
Clipped , ,
.
Arrows
.
Border .
Pointer (
Point).
Length .
Distance
.
Arrow head .

None

Pointer. Line
. Solid .
Size , .
Format
.
126

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

Color .
Frame .
Pattern .
Bevel : , .
Size .
Size .
Transparent Transparency .
Text:
Font .
Outline .
Inter-char spacing
.
Gradient
.
Outline gradient , :
.
Shadow
.
Gradient
.
Shadow
.

127

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

3:

.
SHIFT
.
.
Style ,
, ..
Position
.
Symbols .
Title .
Text .
Format, Gradient Shadow ,
.

128

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

4:
( )

.
Box margins
Left margin ( ) .
Right margin ( ) .
Top margin ( ) .
Bottom margin ( ) .
User data limits
User limits - ,
Minimum Maximum
.
129

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

Minimum .
Maximum .
Color scale
Setings :

, , ,
.
*.lvl Surfer.
Num levels .
, .
Isolines , .
Font .

130

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

5:
.
.
SHIFT .

: options default.
,
.
Scales
.
Auto , .
, ,
Minimum Maximum.
Visible / .
Inverted .
Increment change .
Logarithmic - .
LinLog
options.
Base .

131

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

LinLog options ,
.

.
Dec Shift

( )

. ()
, .
Min dec () ,
.
Rounded limits ,
.
Minimum Maximum .
Auto , -
Change.
Offset
.
Title .
Style:
Title .
Angle .
Size . 0
.
Visible / .
Text:
Font .
Outline .
Inter-char spacing
.
Gradient
.

132

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

Outline gradient , :
.
Shadow
.
Labels .
Style:
Visible / .
Multiline .
Round first .
Label on axis .
Alternate .
Size . 0
.
Angle .
Min separation % .
Text:
Font .
Outline .
Inter-char spacing
.
Gradient
.
Outline gradient , :
.
Shadow
.
Ticks .
Axis .
Grid .
133

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

Ticks . Len
.
Inner .
Len .
Centered .
At labels only
.
Minor .
Grid .
Ticks .
Length .
Minor .
Len .
Count .
Position .
Position %
( ,
Units).
Start %
( ).
End %
( ).

134

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

6:
Options/Model/Block-section,
Options/Model/Smooth-section,
Options/Model/Contour-section.
4: ( ).

Setup
Resistivity block-section.
Options

Box margins
Left ( ) .
Right ( ) .
Top ( ) .
Bottom ( ) .

135

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

Object difference -
, .
Selection admissibility -
, ,
( Magic Wand).
Parameter alteration
( ), Edit,
Shift.
Font .

Colors

Palette :

136

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

, ,
*.clr Surfer.


(Options/Extra/Model&Data histograms).
Other
Body border ,
Parameter alteration .
Grid .
Selection - .
Fixed - .

( 4:
).

7:

137

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

,
.
SHIFT .
Format
. Marks .
1: .

138

Zond geophysical software


Saint-Petersburg 2001-2014

.
1.

.. . , 1997.

2.

Constable S.C., Parker R.L., Constable C.G. 1987. Occam's inversion: a practical algorithm for
generating smooth models from electromagnetic sounding data. Geophysics, 52, 289-300

3.

Dey A., Morrison H.F. 1979. Resistivity modeling for arbitrary shaped two-dimensional structures.
Geophysical Prospecting 27, 106-136.

4.

Loke, M.H., 2000. Topographic modelling in resistivity imaging inversion. 62nd EAGE Conference &
Technical Exhibition Extended Abstracts, D-2.

5.

Lowry, T., Allen, M.B. and Shive, P.N. [1989]. Singularity removal: A refinement of resistivity
modeling techniques. Geophysics, 54(6), 766-774

6.

Marquardt, D.W., 1963, An algorithm for least squares estimation of nonlinear parameters: J. Soc.
Indust. Appl. Math., 11, 431-441.

7.

Portniaguine O.N., Zhdanov M.S. Focusing geophysical inversion images // Geophysics. 1999. V. 64.
P. 874887.

8.

Tsourles, P.I., Symanski, J.E. and Toskas, G.N., 1999. The effect of terrain topography on commonly
used resistivity arrays. Geophysics, 64, 1357-1363.

9.

Xu S.Z., Duan B., Zhang D. Selection of the wavenumbers k using an optimization method for the
inverse Fourier transform in 2.5D electrical modeling// Geophysical Prospecting, 2000, 48, 789-796.

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