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Caleb LaPoint
English 4
16 March 2016
Essential Question: What are the possible treatments and medical uses of Adult stem cells?
Working Thesis: Processes of extracting specific Adult stem cells are being used today to help
many medical issues.
Refined Thesis: The process of extracting, and using specific Adult stem cells in the reparation
and growth of new cells can lead to minor aesthetic treatments, or even lifesaving procedures
such as cancer treatments.
Annotated Bibliography
Stem Cell Treatments." Cell Surgical Network. N.p., 20 Nov. 2014. Web. 17 Mar. 2016.
The article Bone Marrow VS. Fat Derived Cells explains the difference between these
two adult stem cells currently being used in treatments today. Bone-marrow stem cells were the
first stem cells to be isolated and used in treatments. Adipose stem cells or fat derived stem cells
has just been recently researched and used. Both stem cells are considered (MSCs) or
mesenchymal stem/stromal cells. Meaning these cells has the ability to modulate oxidative stress,
and secrete various cytokines and growth factors. Bone-marrow cells have had much more

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research and applications than adipose stem cells and are taken from the marrow cavity primarily
from the hip bone. But adipose stem cells have shown to work just as well or even better in the
growth of new cells. Also since there is a huge abundance of fat derived cells there is no need to
for a laboratory to create stem cells. Both these stem cells are very important for helping patients
with orthopedic problems or even worse. This article is relevant to my topic by showing how
both are used and taken from the body is imperative to understanding the uses of these
specialized cells.
"Boston Children's Hospital." Boston Childrens Hospital. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Mar. 2016.
The article "How Are Adult Stem Cells Being Turned into Treatments?" explains entirely
how an adult stem cell is turned in to being used in a successful treatment. There are four major
steps and precautions that must be taken when extracting and using these cells for treatments.
The stem cell has to be able to divide in large quantities in order for a treatment to take place.
Some adult stem cells have trouble multiplying and scientist have been trying to help encourage
these cells to multiply. Recently discovered drug such as PGE2 help multiply red blood cells.
The stem cell also has to be able to create the appropriate cell type. The most important
precaution knows if it is safe to follow through with the procedure. Safeties must be taken to
make sure the patients immune system doesnt reject the donors cells. The donor must have the
exact same tissue cells or the patient can use her own tissue cells. And last of all the stem cells
must be able to stay alive, and function properly for the rest of the patients life. This article
relates to my topic because it shows the actual hands on treatments these specialized adult stem
cells can do.
"What Is a Stem Cell Transplant (Bone Marrow Transplant)?" Cancer.Net. N.p., 05 Dec. 2013.

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Web. 17 Mar. 2016.

The article Types of Stem Cell Transplant shows the two different ways in which
treatments extract and use stem cells and help with the elimination of cancer. The first transplant
is called an autologous transplant; this transplant uses the patients own stem cells. The first step
in the transplant is to retrieve the patients stem cells from their blood. They then freeze these
stem cells and begin to treat the cancer with either chemotherapy, or radiation therapy. After they
minimize the cancer the health team thaws the stem cells and put them back in through a vein. It
takes 24 hours for these cells to reach the bone marrow and to start making healthy new blood
cells. The second transplant is called an allogenic transplantation; the major difference is
receiving another persons stem cells. A major precaution taken when doing this procedure is
finding a donor with very similar leukocyte antigens, which are proteins found on white blood
cells. This is important because if the white blood cells dont recognize the foreign cells as
friendly then they will attack them. Once the patient finds a donor the team will begin to start the
cancer treatments as described above. The adult stem cells used in an ALLO transplant are not
frozen so doctors can give you these cells soon after cancer treatments. This article is relevant to
my topic because is explains the two different procedures that doctors use today to treat cancer
and other orthopedic procedures.