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Over Six years of experience in Structure field, Design different types of Structures
Building, BIM Modeling with capability for efficient use of computerized software
related to Structure field.
B.Sc., Civil Engineering, Helwan University, Egypt, 2005, M.Sc.In Reinforced
Concrete, Faculty of Engineering, Helwan University (on going).
Member of the Egyptian Syndicate of Engineers and Member of British institute of
civil Engineers.
Structural and BIM Engineer at Dar al-Handasah Company , Approved technical
instructor for Revit Structure .
Deputy Project Manager/technical manager of University To Work initiative at
ECG, (This initiative aims to produce world class skilled students among Egyptian
universities and qualified them by developing their technical and soft skills and
molding their character to comply with market needs).

Foreword
The future of the design and construction industry is going to be
driven by the use of technology and for Today's challenges for the
industry Complex projects, tighter budgets and deadlines,
Internal and external collaboration, Information overload and
Project risks . The best example emerging today is the use of
three-dimensional, intelligent design information, commonly
referred to as Building Information Modeling (BIM). BIM is
expected to drive the construction industry towards a Model
Based process and gradually move the industry away from a 2D
Based process, This Model Based process where buildings will
be built virtually before they get built out in the field is also
referred to as Virtual Design and Construction (VDC). This guide is
for contractors who recognize this future is coming and are looking
for a way to start preparing themselves so that when the future
arrives, they will be ready. This guide is intended to help
contractors understand how to get started.

Definition of BIM
Unfortunately, there is currently no industry standard agreed definition of
BIM , the definition of BIM is best described by Graphisoft, which
describes BIM as three separate but linked activities:

Building Information MODELLING


Is a business process that allows all stakeholders to have access to the
same information at the same time through seamless interoperability
between technology platforms.

Building Information MODEL


Is the output of the business process, a virtual computer model of a project
that holds selected data (e.g. design, quantity, time, cost, asset etc).

Building Information MANAGEMENT


Provides the benefits that can be divided from The Building Information
Model. These include centralized and visual communication,
sustainability, efficient design integration of other disciplines, site control,
as built documentation etc.

The "I" in BIM is sometimes even more compelling in BIM, think


about cost estimating test, think about specification writing, think
about energy load analysis, think about heating and cooling, think
about structural loads, all this things require data, we have this
data instead of manually computing all of this various things that
we need to get a paper design, why not let the computer do while
computer do best?, so this is what BIM is all about, again let's focus
just in "M", let us also think about the "I" and if we have got the
two together and fully coordinate the package in a way that Revit
would give us, then what we have got is a fully implemented BIM
solution

Buildings

are

more

complex

than

ever

before.

Documentation sets span all disciplines, and are hundreds of pages


long. The numbers of people that will touch a set of drawingsto
produce them, evaluate them, or use them to build the building
have become huge. Integrated building systems continue to
expand with the growth of technology. Today, we have more
security, electrical, data, telecom, HVAC, and energy requirement
than ever before.

Building Information Modeling or BIM brings with it many


advantages for the digital design of buildings. Yet with BIM comes
issues and risks that a design professional must consider. Enhanced
usage of electronic design and construction processes holds promises
for saving Time and money, reducing claims and increasing the quality
of performance, especially on complex projects. One must consider and
recognize however the individual risks associated with this new
process. Building information modeling supports the continuous and
immediate availability of project design scope, schedule, and cost
information that is high quality, reliable, integrated, and fully
coordinated.
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A brief history of BIM


1970 BIM term first used
1982 First version of AutoCAD released and Graphisoft founded
1983 First version of AutoCAD for Windows released
1985 Bentley founded
1987 First version of GraphisoftsArchiCADreleased
1997 Revit founded, First version of IFC released
1999 Revit first released
2002 Revit bought by Autodesk

WHERE WE ARE?

Stage 0 2D Documents
0A Manual drafting
0B CAD 2D drafting

Stage 1 Modeling
1A 3D CAD modeling
1B intelligent 3D modeling

Stage 2 Collaboration
2A One-way collaboration
2B Two-way collaboration

Stage 3 Integration
3A Local server
3B Web-based server

Building Information Modeling Benefits:

Building information modeling supports the continuous and immediate


availability of project design scope, schedule, and cost information that is
high quality, reliable, integrated, and fully coordinated. Among the many
competitive advantages it confers are:

Increased speed of delivery (time saved).

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Better coordination (fewer errors).

Clash Detection enables effective identification, inspection, and reporting


of interference clash in a 3D project model between various 3D solid
objects. Using Clash Detection can help you to reduce the risk of human
error during model inspections.

Decreased costs (money saved)

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BIM makes it easier to estimate quantities of materials needed for a


project which reduces waste and saves money. Material waste in
the construction industry has been studied by the Construction
Industry Institute and Lean Construction Institute who have found
that waste accounts for 57% of money lost in the construction
industry and 26% in the manufacturing sector. This 2008 data
shows that there was a $400 billion aggregate loss resulting from
such factors as miscommunication among project partners and
informational inaccuracies which BIM can catch and prevent.1
Thus the construction industry is starting to implement BIM and
building owners as well can reap the benefits.

Greater productivity.

BIM assists to incorporate facility performance with user


assessments. The results from user assessment studies and
instrument measures of the physical condition of the building can
easily be allotted on floor plans utilizing geographic information
systems. The construction firms may link these data to their
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geographic information systems for future planning and design


purposes.

Higher-quality work.

BIM provides object-oriented models with rich semantics and


relationships encoded, supporting the automated analysis of the
performance of building products and designs. This basically leads
to improved design, implementation and management at all stages
of the buildings life cycle.

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BIM afford manufacturers, designers and integrators advantages in


design efficiency and quality control. A single, connected model
improves communication within the design and construction teams and
the parametric elements of the model create a robust database. The
Building owner and facility manager can utilize the data within the
model during the Occupation of the building. Harvesting the
information in that data base can help everyone be more efficient and
also create new opportunities for revenue expansion.

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Benefits to clients & contractors:


How can we persuade clients that BIM is worthwhile?

BIM Benefits are :


improved design reliability
reduced design risk
reduced waste
enhanced co-ordination
fewer errors
improved decision making
greater productivity
better quality of output
supports sustainability
improved safety
quantity takeoffs
enhanced communication
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effective resource utilization and co-ordination of activities


potential for downstream uses for facilities management
understanding of design intent
improved spatial co-ordination
improved client engagement
better visualizations
ability to provide software free walk rounds to others
more reliable and consistent schedules
ability to identify clash detections more easily
greater team ethic
improved environmental analysis earlier in the design
ability to export to other software to review
program against model less time documenting and more time
designing
less surprises
better and more well considered designs
more time to get the design right
easier understanding for lay persons
better outputs including three dimensional documentation
earlier problem resolution
better calculations a tall stages of the project
improved delivery of client vision
creation of better environments
reduced litigation
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ability to deliver more complex solutions in less time


forecasting for the whole life of the project
easier to carryout design reviews

What Technologies Can Be Used to Implement Building


Information Modeling?
Although building information modeling is an approach and not a
technology, it does require suitable technology to be implemented
effectively. Examples of some of these technologies, in increasing order of
effectiveness, include
CAD
Object CAD
Parametric building modeling

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The figure preceding shows the overall effectiveness or benefit level of


each of these three different technologies (vertical axis) measured against
the effort required to achieve those benefits (horizontal axis). In addition,
the horizontal dashed line represents the minimum degree of effectiveness
that can be properly characterized as building information modeling.
Below this building information modeling threshold are existing,
traditional industry processes that are well-supported by traditional
drafting and task automation. Above this line are increasing degrees of
building information modeling effectiveness.
The three solid lines show the effectiveness achievable at a given level of
effort using these three different technologies.

CAD Technology
The gray line in the chart represents CAD-based software; that is, software
that is based on the familiar geometry-based CAD technology used in the
industry for several decades. This technology supports drafting
automation very effectively and with little effortbetter than any other
technology, in fact. However, to achieve increasing levels of efficiency, this
technology requires greater and greater levels of effort. Higher levels of
administrative and management overhead are introduced, layer and
naming standards must be maintained and
Enforced, and the quality of the information coming from the CAD-based
files depends heavily on the discipline and reliability of the users entering
the data. Very high levels of effort, including programming and partner
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product development, can achieve effectiveness

in the building

information modeling range. However, the level of effort required is so


high that CAD-based technology is rarely used at this level.

Autodesk CAD Technology


AutoCAD software is an example of a product based on CAD
technology. With enough discipline and some programming effort, it can
be used to deliver some of the benefits of building information modeling.
Few examples of this kind of use exist, but certainly the third-party
scheduling, facility management, cost estimating, structural design, and
similar applications that have been built on the AutoCAD platform are
examples of building information modeling applied to specific slices of the
building industry.

Object CAD Technology


The blue line on the chart represents software based on object CAD
technology. Object CAD seeks to simulate building components in a CADbased environment, focusing on the 3D geometry of the building, the
generation of 2D documentation from that 3D geometry, and the
extraction of object data from the building components to provide
information about quantities and object properties. This technology has
been

applied

in

both

multiple-file-based

and

single-file-based

implementations, and is sometimes referred to as a single building


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model or some type ofvirtual model. This technology can be applied


very effectively to help coordinate the various representations of the
building in documentation, and because it carries rich data about the
building in the object structure, it can also be extended into building
information modeling.
This technology is well-established in design and documentation software
today, and all but one of the building information modeling
implementations in the industry to date have been based on this
technology. Object CAD technology also allows for great variety in levels
of use, and because it is based on CAD, it can be particularly easy to
implementand often yields immediate benefitswith little or no process
change. However its effectiveness remains contingent on user discipline
and reliability, and it cannot ensure the presence of the high-quality,
reliable, integrated, and fully coordinated information required for the
highest levels of building information modeling benefits.

Autodesk Object CAD Technology


Autodesk Architectural Desktop and Autodesk Building Systems are
examples of software built on object CAD technology, adding intelligent
architectural and engineering objects to the familiar AutoCAD platform.
These products can be used to deliver building information modeling
benefits with significantly less effort than AutoCAD. Since they are built
on AutoCAD, however, they can also be used very productively as design

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and documentation tools for CAD-based processes unrelated to building


information modeling, and that is how many of our customers use them.

Parametric Building Modeling Technology


The orange line on the chart represents parametric building modeling
technology. Parametric building modeling is analogous to the decision
support systems used in the financial community. These systems combine
a data model (geometry and data) with a behavioral model (change
management) that gives meaning to the data through relationships. This
provides an integrated system that can be used to simulate the behavior of
a real-world systemin this case, a building. Examples of the most
advanced features of this kind of system are real-time self-coordination of
the information in every view, and the assurance of the quality of the
information coming from the system. Some other important characteristics
of software based on parametric building modeling technology include:
Information about the entire building and a complete set of design
documents are stored in an integrated database. All of the information is
parametric and therefore completely interconnected.
Any change to the relationships among objects is always instantly
reflected throughout the rest of the projectin all representations of the
project.
All relationships within the model are available for user definitionnot
just relationships (such as a window hosted by a wall) that have been

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preprogrammed by the developers. This includes graphical definition by


the end user of parametric objects.
Just as a spreadsheet is a tool for thinking about numbers, software built
on parametric building modeling technology is a tool for thinking about
buildings. And just as a change made anywhere in a spreadsheet is
expected to update everywhere with no further intervention from the user,
so a change made anywhere in a parametric building modeler is
immediately reflected everywhere.
Current file-based CAD and object CAD tools may be used to some degree
to support building information modeling, but require myriad supporting
technologies and the aggregation of information across diverse,
independent

applications.

Only

purpose-built

integrated

data

architecture built around a parametric building model can provide the


immediate and fully coordinated representation of a project across all
views, drawing sheets and schedules that is necessary to eliminate errors
and provide clarity and confidence in decision making. Autodesk offers
products based on all three building design and documentation
technologies, and fully understands the pros and cons of each. As shown
on the chart, parametric building modeling technology is uniquely suited
to supporting the highest level of building information modeling
effectiveness at the lowest level of effort. Parametric building modeling
uniquely offers the concurrent and immediate availability of all of the
important information about the building that results in higher quality
work, greater speed and productivity, and decreased costs. However, as
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also shown on the chart, this technology requires the wholesale adoption
of building information modeling to put it to use. There is no way to use
this technology in a traditional, non-building information modeling
environment. Using this technology can deliver tremendous business
benefits, but doing so requires a departure from traditional ways of
working. Moving from CAD-based technology to object CAD technology
can be an incremental or evolutionary change, but moving to parametric
building modeling technology for building information modeling requires
a new way of working.

Autodesk Parametric Building Modeling Technology


Autodesk Revit software is an example of parametric building
technology. It is purpose built for building industry professionals ready
for a new way of working and the correspondingly high level of building
information modeling benefits that go with it. Unlike the evolutionary
path of Autodesk Architectural Desktop, Revit is inherently a building
information modeler, and there is no effective way to use Revit in any
other way. It delivers only a fully integrated, self-coordinating building
information model. Because the building industry relies heavily on
graphical information, some aspects of these three technologies appear
similar at the presentation level. All of them capably represent building
plans, sections, and elevations for example. But the underlying capabilities
are Entirely different, in the same way that the presentation of data on an
interactive report form driven by a database can look similar to a word23

processing document .What is driving each presentation, however, is


fundamentally different.

The Power of BIM

Parametric Change Management


The Parametric flexibility offered in Revit is compelling. During the design
process,

Revit

Architectures

parametric

change

management

automatically keep the architectural 2D drawings updated with the


integral 3D model, resulting in early phase collision detection and
generating high-quality, photo-realistic design visualizations.

3D Environment
3D models provide far more effective
communication of design intent than 2D
apps. Unlike 2D application, 3D model
provides high resolution view. When
you encounter a design conflict that
requires complex resolution, you can
zoom the critical parts including facade,
joint sections, supporting structure, etc.
and have a closer look all around.

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Compatibility of File Import-export


Revit can import, export and link varied types of files including DWG,
DGN, etc.

Automated 2D Floor Planning Tools


Floor planning is the pivotal component in a construction document set.
Revit's smart building components and 3D symbol expedite floor planning
and schedules. A typical CAD program can't match the quality and speed
of Revit's floor planning tools.

Automatic Sheet Set Management


Revit automatically scales dimensions, text, annotation tags, line types and
hatch patterns based on the viewport's scale. As sections, elevations,
details are placed on a sheet they are automatically numbered and their
reference labels are updated in the plans, sections or elevations that
reference them.

Optimization of Schedule and Cost


Once the developer obtains a Bill of Quantities (BOQ) either using
quantity takeoff or from a standard library, Revit enables them to prepare
accurate project estimates with a detailed rate analysis process, manage
tenders, administer the contract, manage formal change orders, conduct
field inspections and finally closely track construction to determine
whether it is on schedule and adheres to budgets.
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BIM For Architectural


Building Information Modeling or BIM creates flawless integration
between design, engineering, analysis, construction, and operations for the
complete lifecycle of facilities. Architects and Designers get unrestricted
freedom to discover more design options for producing more improved &
informed design decisions, and to forecast costs and performance. With
the help of BIM technology the computer tells the designer when he has
placed a wall in the middle of a window as the pieces used to assemble the
building model-the floors, walls, roofs, doors, windows, and other
components-have been programmed to "know" what they are. BIM can be
used to express the quantity of the building materials and their costs after
the final design is completed.
BIM can mechanically coordinate all design and construction documents
and this leads to eliminate errors and omissions. The architectural and AE
firms are well positioned to deliver better buildings in scheduled time and
within budget to get more revenue. The architects can visualize complex
derivatives and geometry of entire scheme as BIM creates complex and
integrated models easily.BIM, maintains co-ordination and consistency all
through the design development phase and any alteration within the
project will consequence updating of related drawings and documents.
All Meta data (non-geometric information) like list of materials used, Bill
of quantities, doors and windows schedule ,etc, are automatically
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generated from a BIM model. These Meta data are utilized directly for
reports devoid of cross-verification. Engineering firm utilize BIM to
analyze late changes smoothly and rapidly return the data to the architect
for examination.

BIM For Structural


BIM can easily explore & examine all the structural design alternatives
with flexible interdisciplinary coordination. The structural engineers can
easily accommodate with a late change and reduce the disruption of
frequent or late changes in the project.
Building information model provides the functional relationships among
building elements and systems that range from walls, beams, ducts, pipes,
distribution panels etc.
By applying BIM in their project structural professionals can coordinate
design intent, structural performance and execution and build high
performance building.BIM with its parametric change management
eliminates errors and at the same time automate the communication of
changes between the partners in the AEC process. A change occurred to
any parameter or element in the design is immediately replicated in every
representation of that element in the design along with the right
technology, bi-lateral links with obtainable specialized tools for analysis.
Any other parameters that are linked to the change are also changed
suitably. This result in improving quality as not engineers can rely on the
results as well as design team partners also count on the information
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supplied to them to be the best possible quality.BIM models can be


utilized for multiple third-party analysis and this will lead to greater gains
in documentation, drawing production and co-ordination, and integration
of design changes. The structural engineers can save a huge time over a 2D
workflow as BIM can automate and coordinate the formation of
construction

documentation

across

project.

The

construction

documentation can be customized without any difficulty allowing for


incorporation of standards.BIM creates virtual structural model which can
be applied for coordination with architects, mechanical, electrical, and
plumbing engineers, and civil engineers. That same digital model is
incorporated with analysis, design, and construction documentation, and
is utilized as the basis for digital design-to-fabrication strategies and
construction. With BIM, structural engineers are able to track material
quantities and search design options that leads to a more sustainable
design.BIM empower structural engineers to examine building design
options for long term application and future flexibility, maximizing design
competence and minimizing waste and overall embodied energy. BIM
generates rich intelligent information that can be utilized for simulation
and analysis. This facilitates structural engineers to provide informed
decisions and optimize the structure for stability, flexibility and long term
use.

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BIM For MEP


Creation of Virtual Intelligent 3D Model
We generate 3D Model which proficiently and flawlessly unites the
geographic information, 3D geometry, spatial relationships and
characteristics for demonstration of HVAC, Electrical and Plumbing
layout and connections inside the buildings.

Scheduling
We show the scheduling of various activities of HVAC, Electrical and
Plumbing services along with their criticality and slack periods. Most
design parameters for MEP systems are available for scheduling. Create
multiple types of customized schedules (for example, lighting schedules,
and mechanical and electrical equipment schedules) that are linked to
your BIM Models Systems model.

Mechanical HVAC Space Design


Create room color-fill plans by using design parameters to communicate
design intent. Visually to quickly facilitate design reviews and present
your design criteria to clients for review and validation.

Mechanical Duct and Pipe System Modeling


Mechanical functionality offers 3D modeling for ductwork and piping to
create HVAC systems. Intuitive layout tools make 3D modeling fast and
easy for even the first-time user to master. Easily modify the model by
dragging design elements to move or change them on the screen,
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in almost any view. All model views and sheets update automatically
whenever a change is made anywhere for accurate and coordinated
designs and documents at all times.

Plumbing System Modeling


Gain full 3D parametric modeling of plumbing system layout with BIM
Models MEP. The software automatically places all risers and drops as
you design your plumbing system. Intuitive layout tools make 3D
modeling fast and easy. Modify your design by simply dragging design
elements to move or change them on the screen, in almost any view. All
model views and sheets update automatically whenever a change is made
in any view for accurate and coordinated designs and documents at all
times.

Sloped Pipe and Invert Elevations


Model sloped piping for all plumbing systems according to industry code.
Simply define the rise over run and lay out your plumbing design.

Electrical Panel Schedules


Automatically create panel schedules as you lay out your design. Balance
the loads or change circuits for a device directly through the panel
schedule. Easily edit the panel circuits through a built-in panel circuit
editor.

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Interference Checking
Use this tool during the design process to coordinate major building
elements and systems, helping to prevent collisions between elements and
reducing the risk of construction cost overruns.

Clash Detection and Risk Mitigation


While starting construction work internal conflicts between various
components is occurred. In order to resolve and eliminate these we offer
cost effective design coordination by performing clash detection between
various components and activities before starting of construction activities.
Hence, this serves as a very effective tool for Risk Mitigation of
construction activities.

Construction Documentation
We can easily extract HVAC, Electrical and Plumbing 2D drawings of high
quality from the 3D Model. Automatically generate plan, section,
elevation, detail, and schedule views that accurately capture the design
information in your design model. All views of the model are
synchronized at all times from a common database where changes made
to any one view propagate to all views simultaneously. Coordination is
managed by change propagation within the model.

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Parametric Components
Parametric components are the basis for all building components designed
in BIM Models MEP. They offer an open, graphical system for design
thinking as well as an opportunity to express design intent at increasingly
detailed levels. Use parametric components for even the most elaborate
assemblies for mechanical, electrical, and plumbing engineering systems.
Best of all, no programming language or coding is required.

Extraction of Project Information


We remove Material Specifications and Quantities, Time schedules
showing the sequence of activities, Cost Estimation and Area charts to
make easy Building Lifecycle management.

Creation of Libraries
We have expertise in creating Intelligent Libraries may be called as
parametric families of various MEP components of Building. They contain
a centralized library of components such as ducts, electrical symbols,
piping etc as per the design and specifications provided which can be used
across many projects.

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Energy Simulation
We give assistance for analyzing design alternatives to improve the energy
efficiency without effecting the cost effectiveness and thermal comfort of
the buildings. We also help in evaluating the lighting effects visually and
quantitatively for any given design. We can specify the lighting intensity.

High Quality Construction Documents


We are capable of easily take out high quality HVAC, Electrical and
Plumbing 2D drawings from the 3D Model.

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BIM For HVAC


With its 3D modeling capabilities, BIM streamlines the HVAC building
design and delivery process for HVAC / Mechanical Contractor. BIM
generates a complete set of high quality detail, shop, coordination or asbuilt drawings of a complete HVAC model. The shop drawing is utilized
for heating system design, cooling system design and ventilation system
design. The shop drawings are very useful for operating a well-organized
project from starting with the submittal drawings to the project closeout
documents. As BIM generates of parametric, or intelligent, 3D models and
any change made to the model is reflected all through the entire drawing.
BIM shop drawing can be imported into Navisworks for collision
detection with HVAC trade. There are various types of BIM software like
AutoCAD MEP, AutoCAD Revit MEP, PractiCAD, CADPipe HVAC and
AutoCAD, CAD Duct etc. useful for generating shop drawings for HVAC
and MEP trade.

BIM For Electrical

BIM is applied as a common documentation storehouse for electrical trade


that can coordinate electrical trades, develop prefabrication openings,
reduce rework, raise productivity, decrease labor costs, and get better
consistency of the work product.
BIM will integrate all the electrical parts in a single respiratory model for
efficient electrical building design. The complete building model along
with mechanical, electrical and plumbing systems, will be transferred to
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an integrated database in which everything is interrelated. This database


presents authentic, coordinated and consistent design information and
documentation that differentiates BIM. As for illustration an electrical
engineer prefers to observe the architectural workset frequently but clasp
the perceptibility of the structural workset on or off to go with the design
requirements. Application of BIM for electrical project can improve
constructability and speed up the schedule, save time and money for the
owner including the project team.BIM creates a collaborative environment
among the team members. The general contractor (GC) will be involved in
designing and executing the BIM execution plan to find out what will be
modeled and at what level of detail. It will help to generate effective
electrical-coordination.
BIM mechanically coordinates all design documentation. Electrical
documentation, for example, electrical plans and panel schedules become
reliable as all the drawing sheets, views, schedules, reports and so forth
are existing in the same underlying database.BIM generates a virtual
model of all the electrical systems in 3D and allocate that information with
the whole project team. The drawings, specifications, and construction
details are integral to the model, which includes building geometry,
spatial relationships, geographic information, and quantity properties of
building components. Therefore, any design issues/construction clashes
among the electrical trade can be identified, manipulated, analyzed and
resolved in a virtual surroundings well before the commencement of the
actual
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construction.

BIM

offers

data-centric

approach

with

comprehensive view of the building model and systems. The electrical


engineer can evaluate the electrical requirements on mechanical
equipment contained in the design and apply BIM to mechanically
configure voltage and power load requirements to dynamically revise in
panel schedules and mechanical equipment specifications. The intelligent
property database corresponds to the I in BIM can be dug out from the
model to schedule and annotate the drawings for the application of
electrical engineering, take-off, and prefabrication. As for instance, by
utilizing intelligent property data to conduit and parts, the electrical
engineer is able to instantly execute a take-off of the conduit to verify the
number of linear feet or quantity of hangers. The method drags live data
from the actual model components in the drawing by annotating all of the
conduit elevations.BIM creates realistic lighting visualizations for electrical
engineers to study lighting levels and design directly in the system.BIM
creates electrical system modeling with electrical devices and equipment
such as lighting fixtures, transformers, generators, panel boxes, etc.
Electrical engineers will be in a position to model the power and lighting
circuitry of the building spaces. At the time of electrical system modeling,
the electrical engineers arrange the light fixtures, power devices and
equipment in the model and then forms a circuit connected to a
distribution panel. The electrical engineers can easily characterizes wire
types, voltage ranges, distribution systems and demand factors to
guarantee the compatibility of electrical connections in the design and
check for overloads and mismatched voltages.Electrical circuit model
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generated from BIM facilitate electrical engineers to work out the


estimated demand loads on feeders and panels. These loads are being
utilized to effectively size equipment in the design environment. Load
balancing becomes simple while managing circuits.BIM Systems can
estimate lighting levels in rooms mechanically depending on the lights set
in the space. The electrical engineer can just describe the reflectivity values
of the room surfaces, connect industry-standard IES data files to lighting,
describe the calculation workplane height and the average estimated
illumination value for the room will be automatically calculated. The
electrical engineers may keep calculated illumination in a report for the
purpose of the design document.

What is Revit ?
Revit

is Building Information Modeling software developed by

Autodesk. It allows the user to design with both parametric 3D modeling


and 2D drafting elements. Building Information Modeling is a Computer
Aided Design (CAD) paradigm that employs intelligent 3D objects to
represent real physical building components such as walls and doors.In
addition, Revit's database for a project can contain information about a
project at various stages in the building's lifecycle, from concept to
construction to decommissioning. This is sometimes called 4D CAD where
time is the fourth dimension.

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Why Should You Revit Your Firm?


Revit allows for a higher degree of collaboration and communication,
and vastly improves a team's ability to be better coordinated, "The inbuilt flexible features and parametric facilities in Revit offer the project
team

greater

agility

and

help

them

make

informed

decisions,

synchronized design, and accurate construction documents. A successful


BIM implementation results in well-managed, accurate quantities, change
management (automatic changes), earlier visualization, detection of
potential spatial conflict before construction, better project planning using
4D and 5D techniques, improved energy analysis and collaboration with
different project disciplines.

Parametric Family
Revit is the best 3D Parametric Modeling Software. The parametric
components carry information about their relationships to other objects in
the building in contrast to the blocks and solids used in AutoCAD.
AutoCAD dimensions only display the distance between two entities. But
in case of Revit, when the dimension value is changed the objects
associated to the dimension are moved.

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Revit Family vs. AutoCAD Block


AutoCAD enables users to store symbols as blocks in individual DWG
files. Revit stores similar parametric components with varied styles in
family, allowing quick organization and data sharing.

Work-sharing of Projects
Revit allows multiple users to work on the same project file and merge
their changes with every save.

Access to Single File


AutoCAD enables designers to store and retrieve project data from
multiple files. In case of Revit, all project data is stored in the single
environment (Revit project file).

Multiple Design View


Autodesk Revit makes extensive use of various views of the parametric
building model. Autodesk Revit allows the designer to work with
components in any view, be it plan, elevation, section, perspective or from
within a schedule.

39

No Command Line or Layers


Unlike AutoCADs Freeze/Thaw/On/Off by view point feature, Revit has
the Category Visibility features. Even color and line type are also
controlled by category.

Benefits of Using Revit to Improve Building Performance


Applying Revit to designing a building can deliver a plethora of
economic, environmental, and societal benefits that go far beyond
the advantages of AutoCAD. Revit Architecture has many benefits
over AutoCAD:
o

Identify Ways to Reduce Field Cycle Time

Greater Coordination and Collaboration

Short Turn Around Time (TAT)

Waste Minimization

Increase on-site Renewable Opportunities

Detects Errors and Mitigate Risks

Increase the public's confidence in Stewardship

Increase Employee Productivity

40

41

Early Collaboration
BIM fosters collaboration in the early phases of a project between team
members through the use of consistent and more complete information
more effectively than do traditional approaches. This allows design
decisions to be made that optimize the whole building at a stage when
they are far less expensive to analyze, rather than the traditional approach
of optimizing individual components. This should minimize the need to
make changes later in the design or during the construction process when
even small changes can have enormous effects on both the construction
cost and life-cycle cost of the building. Figure 1 illustrates this concept.

42

The building process

43

It is built based on information coming from the documented


information exchanges that naturally occur as a facility evolves
through time

That there is an information backbone that allows information to be


collected once and reused many times because it is interoperable.

44

In the end you dont just end up with a facility, you end up with a
completely documented facility.It is not unlike getting software with
documentation or a car with an owners repair manual.

Considerations and Limitations of BIM


BIM has the potential to improve the communication and coordination
between the different stakeholders of a project. BIMs benefits range from
simple improvements in efficiency and coordination to greater client
satisfaction. With all of the perceived benefits of BIM, AV professionals
should also be aware that there are a number of considerations and
current limitations that must be taken into account.

45

Cost of Software and Hardware


Every organization currently utilizing 2D or 3D CAD drafting software
can attribute a cost element against purchasing, maintaining and
upgrading software licenses to keep a competitive market advantage.
Current trends show that the cost of BIM software packages tends to be
more expensive than CAD software packages available on the market.
With the introduction of BIM software, the requirements on hardware
have increased significantly. Currently, CAD software can be operated
(with limitations) on a vast majority of professional laptops. Yet with the
introduction of BIM software, dedicated high-specification workstations,
equivalent to those required by advanced modeling and rendering
software, are required. Software and program requirements are ahead of
hardware availability. With BIM software, it is essential to know exactly
what parameters of the hardware improve performance and what
elements have no major effect at all. More details on the hardware
requirements for BIM software may be found in the Getting Started
section.

Cost of Training
With new software, there is a great demand to train staff quickly so that
the investment can be justified. It is not realistic to assume professionals
with CAD proficiency will be able to learn new BIM software quickly or
without specialized training. Given the fundamental differences between
BIM and CAD, training should be considered a requirement for all
46

professionals involved with designing and producing documentation. BIM


provides the ability for every member of the team to be involved in the
design and modeling process, giving them complete control of the end
product. Investment in training for early adopters provides them a
competitive edge with projects that have clearly specified requirements to
be documented utilizing BIM.

Transition from Drafting to Modeling


When moving from a CAD-based drafting environment to a BIM-based
modeling environment, a change in the workflow will surround what
used to be simple drafting tasks such as copying markups or picking up
redlines. These tasks now require a higher-level skilled design drafter who
has an understanding of the project and the materials used. The costs
associated with training and maintaining a skilled design modeler are
higher than a draftsman with no knowledge of the trade. Some companies
may even be compelled to stay out of the BIM world altogether due to the
time- and knowledge-intensive nature of BIM. The transition from
traditional CAD will also place an increased level of responsibility on the
designer to ensure that all system components are coordinated with the
other design professionals such as architecture and engineering services
and that site issues are reduced to a minimum. Companies have a few
different business models to consider when thinking about staff training
with respect to BIM.

47

The first option involves the training of current designers to


undertake all of their design work in the BIM environment.
The second involves up-skilling all of their drafting staff to a
higher technical level to undertake design responsibilities.
The third is a combination of the first two where there is a specific
set of rules and guidelines for mark-ups so that design mark-ups
can be translated into the model clearly and efficiently. In any case,
the BIM process allows for coordinated delivery earlier in the
design process so that potential double handling or redesign is
avoided. This benefit outweighs the cost of any additional training
to up-skill staff no matter what business model for the delivery of
BIM projects.

Compatibility Between Software Platforms


One of the biggest issues with early adaptors of BIM is the issue of interproduct compatibility. Due to the relatively new nature of the market,
every software manufacturer is doing something different with its
software. This interoperability challenge can make it difficult for projects
to function if different team members own different software packages.
This interoperability issue is not limited to different software platforms;
due to the rapid development of the BIM software industry newer
versions of programs within the same platform can have interoperability
issues. One alternative to the current product-specific models is a vendorindependent, neutral-file format. One such file format is the Industry
48

Foundation Classes (IFC) format which captures both geometry and


properties of intelligent building objects (objects with associated usable
metadata) and their relationships within Building Information Models,
thus facilitating the sharing of information across otherwise incompatible
applications.

Changes to the Delivery Process


The delivery process is the method by which a project is taken from initial,
conceptual programming, through design and construction to the delivery
of a completed facility to the owner. Prior to the introduction of BIM for
design and documentation, traditional project delivery methods such as
Design-Bid-Build (also called Design-Award-Build) dominated the
construction industry. While these traditional methods are still very much
in use, there has been a strong movement toward more streamlined
processes to reduce construction times and enhance collaboration of team
members. The Design-Build delivery method is one example of this
streamlining. By taking the competitive bid phase out of the middle of the
delivery process and placing the entire design contract under the scope of
the general contractor, there is no longer a procedural or contractual
separation between the design and construction of the project. The owner
only has to carry one contract for both design and construction services.
This allows for the construction to begin well in advance of the completion
of all design documentation as the design documentation is produced in
concert with the construction almost on an as-needed basis. While the
Design-Build methodology is perhaps more efficient than Design-Bid49

Build, these traditional methods both share some fundamental flaws


which the newest delivery method, Integrated Project Delivery (IPD), is
capable of eliminating. Because IPD is so new there is no official definition,
however the California chapter of the AIA offers this working definition:
Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) is a project delivery approach that
integrates people, systems, business structures and practices into a process
that collaboratively harnesses the talents and insights of all participants to
reduce waste and optimize efficiency through all phases of design,
fabrication and construction. Integrated Project Delivery principles can be
applied to a variety of contractual arrangements and Integrated Project
Delivery teams will usually include members well beyond the basic triad
of owner, architect and contractor. At a minimum, though, an Integrated
Project includes tight collaboration between the owner, the architect, and
the general contractor ultimately responsible for construction of the
project, from early design through project handover.

50

While IPD is seen as the possible future of project delivery that is being
fueled by BIM, it is still the exception and not the rule. Before IPD becomes
commonplace on all projects, a transitional period will ensue during which
delivery requirements will begin to change as well as the relationships and
expectations of the owner, designer, integrator and manufacturer.Owners
will become more involved in all aspects of the project simply because the
model will provide them immediate and vast information. Rather than
having to try to interpret a stack of 2D plans, owners now have access to
an immense amount of information which can be formatted to meet their
needs. This includes virtual walkthroughs, detailed equipment lists and
accurate cost estimates. BIM allows for the building to be built in a virtual
environment before being actually built. With this change, designers will
become more involved in decisions which might previously have been
51

considered means and methods and left to the contractor to figure out
during the installation. Some examples include more detailed routing of
infrastructure and placing devices in their exact location. BIM acts as a
central database for the project and as such it is regularly evolving. Due to
this constant state offlux, expectations must be set and agreed to among
team members regarding the expected level of completion at various
points during the project. Most projects consist of multiple models which
are linked together. These models are typically exchanged between team
members on a regular schedule whether it be weekly or daily. These
exchanges are independent of the major scheduled deliverables of the
project such as 50% Design Development or 90% Construction Documents.
When these models are shared, they are usually not in a completed state;
therefore, there must be an understanding between parties about the level
of completion and coordination expected for model exchanges between
the deliverables established by contract. The entire project team will have
increased communication and will begin to work as one entity rather than
separate team members who only exchange documents at predetermined
milestones. The model will become a consolidated design document which
evolves on a constant basis during design, through construction and into
the management of the facility. This consolidation requires a tighter and
more constant information exchange which sometimes takes place via colocating of team members either physically or virtually. In contrast to
traditional CAD-based design, BIM is a front-loaded process with
substantial benefits reaped toward the end of the process which consist of
52

manipulation of the databases data points. It should be noted that this


requires substantial effort up front to not only put information into the
database but to also collect more data from the very start. If the data is not
available at a given time, there should be an effort made to analyze what
data might or will be required so that the correct pigeon hole can be
created in the database from the very beginning. The model is only as
good as the data set that goes in. Traditional delivery methods invoke
inefficiencies because participants are contractually placed into silos of
scope. These silos have a two-fold detriment to the efficiency of a project.
First, when any knowledge needs to transfer from one team member to
another, such as from the design team to the contractor, there is
inefficiency created when the contractor has to take the time to get up to
speed on the design documents to be able to move forward with the scope
of work. Secondly, a team members success is only tied to the success of
the individual silo rather than the overall success of the project.

53

to 6 D

54

4D BIM Modeling: A New Perspective in the AEC


Industry
1910! A solid 102 years to the present, Henry Laurence Gantt, an American
mechanical engineer designed a chart popularly called Gantt chart, named
after him, to monitor progress of the project against time constraint. It has
long been a popular technique for project planning. But it lacks something
to be desired when it comes to visualizing a project timeline. 4D model is
the solution to it. 4D model is a 3D CAD model attached to the fourth
dimension of time via a schedule. Though the concept of 4D scheduling
has been around over 20 years, it has not been popular due to some
technical challenges associated with it. The continuous advancement in
technology and the emergence of Building Information Modeling (BIM)
have removed all challenges associated with 4D scheduling. With the
increasing success of BIM in the realm of designs, the adoption of 4D
modeling is becoming the norm today. Rich with information, BIM
modeling services deliver architects a wealth of design-centric tasks and
home builders a number of significant benefits including increased
coordination, constructability analysis, BOQ, quantification, and cost
estimation and so on. One of the most important developments in building
applications for BIM is the project planning where design and construction
come together. At the core of a project planning, there lies building design,
the backbone of a project planning. 4D scheduling plays an important role
in project planning. It includes vital data such as start and finish date of
each component and their criticality. 4D model delivers minute details to
55

the project team. It works as a platform for project team and other nontechnical stakeholders to visualize the assembling of a building over time.
With 4D construction simulation process, architects can evaluate various
options and choose the best alternative at project design phase.

4D Modeling Offers Significant Benefits over 3D


Modeling
4D model is a further development over 3D model. It challenges and
changes many of the practices of conventional scheduling. Some of
the significant considerations are as follows:
Visualization of the Project: 4D model enables the scheduler to view the
entire construction site in a nutshell. The scheduler is able to move around,
look outside, inside and under the building and verify the progress of
project. It helps the scheduler to detect inconsistency and avoid visual
incongruities in the representation. Better Integration and Cost Estimation:
Integrating human resources, equipment and material resources with the
BIM model, 4D scheduling helps to better schedule and cost estimate of
the project. 4D BIM also monitors procurement status of project materials.
Conflict Detection and Resolution: During design and construction phase,
potential spatial conflicts may arise between building components. It is not
easy to identify or predict these conflicts using 2D or 3D layouts. But, 4D
model identifies various issues related to space, schedule and sequencing,
and resolve them ahead of the construction process. Improved Time
Management: Integrated with BIM modeling, 4D scheduling helps the
56

owner as well as project team to easily visualize time constraints and


opportunities

of

improvement

and

investment

in

the

project.

Maximization of Critical Resources: 4D model allows the project team to


evaluate various alternatives resources and scopes of work over a period
of time to optimize the resources and labor accordingly.

4D Project Planning with BIM


By adding the schedule date to the model components, project team
improves the plan and integrates the communication among various
divisions. With the progress of time, project team programmatically links
schedule to BIM model to evaluate various construction options to make
the optimum decision. There are two methods for linking a BIM model to
a project plan-

1.Direct link between Revit and MS project, and


2.Exporting a Revit BIM and displaying it in 4D

57

First Method: Direct Link between Revit and MS Project.


Autodesk has developed a software tool which establishes a bidirectional
link between Revit and MS project to track the progress of the project
against pre-set deadline. The particular software tool contains a new Revit
function called Export to MS Project which exports presorted (by level and
category) building components to a MS Project and keeps the project
update for quick scheduling. Similarly, another Revit function categorized
as Import from MS Project, imports the attributes of affected Revit
components with start and finish dates to keep BIM (a Revit platform) up
to date. Thus, changes are incorporated and updated in either way. Project
team member can view the planning information in Revit and can show it
to the concerned home owners or building developers or stakeholders.
With the help of Revit, users can view the progress of the project against
time line set previously and what are the buildings components are
scheduled in the coming months. This information helps the project team
to analyze whether there are any lackadaisical responses. Each building
block can be assigned to a phase and updated from the MS project
automatically. Users can view the progress of a particular building
component or all components in all phases as desired. The progress of a
component is passed to MS Project during the Export to MS Project
process, and the BIM becomes updated during Import from MS Project.

58

Second Method: 4D Visualization


Innovaya(Innovaya specializes in developing custom software solutions
for various AEC applications)has developed a 4D planning and
constructability analysis tool called Visual Simulation 3.0 which integrates
Revit/BIM with the MS Project and presents 4D visualizations of the
building objects. With the Revit API function, it exports the Revit model to
the Innovaya file format. The model later is imported into Visual
Simulation. The tool includes a standard 3D/4D environment for both
standard model navigation as well as 4D visualization. With Revit, project
planning is developed and construction tasks based on building hierarchy
are created in Visual Simulation. These tasks are automatically linked with
the BIM objects. As the project progresses and the need for a detailed
project planning is felt, the tool establishes a link to MS Project with
import, export and synchronize functions. When a project plan is
established, users can visually link model objects and scheduling tasks,
thus optimizing task sequences and resulting in project time savings.
Users can play what-if scenarios in traditional Gantt chart and view the
ripple effect in the 4D model. Thus, 4D environment compactly featured
with a variety of time/schedule filters 4D environment allows users to
visually associate building model objects and tasks.
Innovaya has developed another tool called Visual Estimating 9.4 - the
BIM-based estimating solution to integrate AutoCAD and all Revit
applications with MC2 ICE and Sage Timberline Estimating.
59

5D Modeling
A fifth dimension is introduced when the concept of cost over time is
added to the 4D model. 5D allows you to explore what the
budget/estimated cost of a project might be at any given point in time
during the project.
Clients are interested in workflow and how it can help in completing a
project successfully. Many presentations use the model as a technical tool
to "wow" the client. That's not enough anymore. With 5D BIM your firm
can demonstrate the integrated workflow during the interview that will
illustrate the approach to the project much more transparently. Your team
60

can "talk to the model" and communicate to the client the schedule and
opportunities for saving the client money.

Plan - Pricing and Schedule


Price - the lowest reasonable price by a qualified GC is often the strongest
factor. But Owners are getting wise and identify contractors who lowbid
with the intention of using change orders to recover. With conceptual
estimates, GCs hone in on a true cost based on quantities, locations, and
past subcontractor efficiency rates. And it's exactly this formula
(quantities, locations, production rates), that lead to better subcontractor
negotiations. Subcontractors can be more accurate when bidding if the GC
is willing to share model data with them. This allows the subcontractor to
reduce their contingency and thus reduce their overall price. And when
subcontractors work together with the GC to resolve constructability
issues during virtual construction, instead of onsite, there's less need for
contingency. This leads directly to increased efficiency in labor
production. With more efficient schedules and better logistics, there's no
need for stops and starts and last minute rush towards completion. And
when your firm applies production control, you are able to track the target
cost versus the actual cost much more frequently. This identifies budget
overruns early and encourages a thoughtful resolution.

61

Schedule
The fastest reliable schedule is often the second most important factor in a
bid. And in some cases, it is the most critical factor. But GCs can have
difficulty explaining their schedules to a layperson, especially if they can't
express it in an easytounderstand graphical presentation.There are many
benefits to utilizing a 4D schedule in a bid. The combination of flow line
theory and production control allows a smaller, more efficient team to
stream through the site. And with more accurate planning, GCs can
remove the typical stops and starts that simply waste labor.

Qualifications
Team - Owners know that a topnotch team will deliver the best results.
They look specifically for teams they want to work with - a team who
communicates well and is trustworthy. Owners can quickly identify a
poorly-structured or overlycomplicated presentation. They need to hear
that a proposal is feasible and can be delivered as stated.With a 5D BIM
model driving your presentation, team members are able to more clearly
illustrate the key points in the language that a layperson will understand.
Even more compelling, though, is the ability to show the Owner exactly
what is meant. Showing a 5D model to an Owner follows the old adage, "a
picture is worth a thousand words."
In the words of a Northeast GC, "The 5D model made it possible to take
what I saw so clearly in my head and let the Owner see it, too. This is one
of the first benefits of BIM."
62

Techniques
Owners need to understand how the project will be planned and
managed. This is so much easier to express with a 5D model, especially
when the Owner is a layperson. Too often, construction companies try to
communicate the building methodology with nonintegrated, a nonvisual
technique, which only muddies the water.

63

64

6D Facilities & Asset Management

Reliable, Real-time Facilities Data all in One Location


The Space Management Module of FM Interact is a comprehensive system
for centralizing and storing real-time information about the buildings and
space you manage along with the groups and people that occupy them.
Instead of walking the hallways and floors to double check your data or
see where people sit, you can work with departmental liaisons to keep
your space and occupancy data accurate and up-to-date. The CAD and
BIM integration features take spatial information directly from drawings
or BIM models so you always have real-time data. And because FM:
Interact easily integrates with other systems already in use in your
organization, such as your HR database, occupancy information is quickly
updated too. This dramatically reduces the efforts needed to manually
pull it from spreadsheets while greatly increasing data accuracy. The FM:
Interact floor plan viewer makes it easy to view and share this information
in a Web-browser, enabling you to get an overall look into your entire
portfolio and giving access to critical facilities data enterprise-wide. So the
next time your executive team needs space and occupancy reports for a
meeting in ten minutes you have all the tools you need right in front of
you to get it to them.
Information typically tracked with the Space Management Module
includes:

65

o Gross, rentable, usable, and assignable areas by space, floor, building

and site
o Space types
o Space standards
o Building codes
o Building addresses
o Employee contact and location information

Having access to real-time facts and figures about your facilities enables
you to compare floors and buildings by key metrics, find space
inefficiencies

and

confidently

make

critical

portfolio

decisions.

Centralizing the information makes it easy to maintain with quick access


for everyone that needs it.

Manage Space Allocation And Charge Backs


Using your detailed space inventory, you can allocate spaces to various
departments to manage space across the various departments in your
organization. Because many groups split spaces and share common areas
such as conference rooms and hallways, calculating accurate charge backs
used to be time-consuming and error prone. With FM: Interact, you can
split individual spaces across multiple groups to get a more detailed view
of space use. Also, the system automatically prorates common areas, like
conference rooms and secondary circulation, for charge backs, eliminating

66

the manual calculation of rentable space which greatly improves report


accuracy and reduces the burden of preparing chargeback reports.

Track all Employees and Accurately Assign Workspace


Know where everyone is in an instant! Now you can track important
contact and location information for all employees and contractors such as
email addresses, phone and room numbers with the occupancy
management capabilities of the Space Management Module. The robust
search capabilities make this an ideal employee look-up system. Workers
may also be directly linked to the specific space they inhabit, enabling
accurate occupancy reporting. And because its so important to assign the
appropriate amount of work space based on job level, you can categorize
space based on job codes. This helps improve forecasting and ensures
everyone has the room they need to perform their appropriate job
function.

Manage Your Portfolio Enterprise-wide


Because the Space Management Module centralizes all space and
occupancy information, its easy to view, maintain and manage your
portfolio across multiple spaces, buildings and locations no matter
where you are. You can also grant access to appropriately share
information with the executives, facilities professionals and departmental
liaisons that need it. Gaining more visibility into your space portfolio
decreases costs, improves customer service and increases workplace
productivity for your entire organization.
67

The FM Interact Workplace Management Suite


Because the Space Management Module centralizes all space and
occupancy information, its easy to view, maintain and manage your
portfolio across multiple spaces, buildings and locations no matter
where you are. You can also grant access to appropriately share
information with the executives, facilities professionals and departmental
liaisons that need it. Gaining more visibility into your space portfolio
decreases costs, improves customer service and increases workplace
productivity for your entire organization.
o

reduced occupancy costs by 15%

reduced churn rate from 225% to 120%

reduced annual move spend by 88%

increased on boarding capacity by 60%

enterprise productivity savings of $1.5 million per year

increased customer satisfaction rate to 97%

Previously a manual process managed with spreadsheets and paper


drawings, the Space Management Module of FM: Interact enables an
enterprise-wide space management system the you can access right from
your workspace. Need to have your entire space portfolio at your
fingertips? The Space Management Module of FM: Interact can help. Learn
to manage your space and occupancy enterprise-wide from your computer
with the FM: Interact Space Management Module.
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The FM Interact Strategic Planning Module


Planning an organizations real estate portfolio is one of the most
challenging tasks facilities and real
estate

professionals

face.

Global

expansions, workforce reductions and


remote and contract workers are just
a few of the situations you might
have to anticipate. Short of a crystal
ball, how can you predict if you will
have to build a new building or exercise an upcoming break option for a
lease? The FM: Interact Strategic Planning Module can help. By entering
estimates such as headcount and space needs, the Strategic Planning
Module lets you create multiple what if scenarios and get a visual
depiction of what your space and occupancy might look like years into the
future. Not only does it take the pain out of planning, but it helps you
align your space portfolio with the business requirements of your
organization.
With the Strategic Planning Module you can:

Align real estate and facilities plans with business operations by


analyzing space requirements and forecasting future space needs.

Create multiple what if scenarios and interactive stacking plans to


uncover opportunities for portfolio savings.

Gather and forecast space needs by growth criteria (headcount, staff


69

detail, area, percentage growth)Run reports on space and occupancy


projections.

The FM: Interact Asset Management Module


While seemingly small
individually, together your
organizations assets make
up a large and costly
financial investment. Do you
have the tools to track them
effectively?
The FM: Interact Asset Management Module enables you to track multiple
classes of assets office equipment, furniture, lab equipment, or even
corporate artwork. You can link assets to CAD symbols on floor plans for
easy location, ownership, and access to product information, greatly
improving efficiencies in maintenance and personnel move
processes. Graphical queries let you search for and visually display your
assets on floor plans. The Asset Management Module can also be
integrated with other systems, such as bar-codes or enterprise resource
planning (ERP) systems, making asset tracking efforts more robust. Not
much gets done when employees dont have the tools they need, and your
organizations assets are much too costly to misplace. Let the Asset
Management Module help.

70

With the FM: Interact Asset Management Module, you can:

Track and then easily locate on floor plans corporate assets such as
furniture, equipment, computers, life safety systems, building systems and
artwork Track asset depreciation for financial reporting and compliance
Track ownership and product information such as serial numbers and
installation dates Fully integrate asset ownership and redeploy into the
Move Management Module Track data jacks in database and graphically
Track building equipment and any user required assets Interface with
barcode system .

The FM Interact Facility Maintenance Management Module


How much of your day do you spend logging, dispatching, tracking and
reporting on service requests? Keep this part of your job manageable with
the FM: Interact Facility Maintenance Module. Empowering users to
electronically submit service requests and then check their status via the
intranet eliminates the need for you to return countless phone calls. Once
in the system, work orders are forwarded to the appropriate facilities staff
for approval, assigned to technicians or vendors, and closed out
automatically giving you the day back to focus on more strategic efforts
for the organization. Have to be out of the office for the day? No problem

you

can

access

maintenance

requests

and

work

orders.

With the FM: Interact Facility Maintenance Module you can:


Effortlessly coordinate supervisors, technicians, workshops and outside

vendors to complete facilities maintenance tasks


Automate e-mail and Web messages to ensure deadlines arent forgotten

and ensure quality control for the facilities maintenance process


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Track and report on critical data associated with service requests, such as

repair costs, response time, and work history.


Provide self-service request forms and work order status views for

internal customers.
Stay up to date, even while out of the office, on all the progress of all

maintenance-requests.

Preventive Maintenance
Extend the life of valuable equipment and get hours back in your day by
automating preventive maintenance scheduling and work orders. The
Facility Maintenance Module enables you to keep an inventory and
detailed history of your building equipment and related maintenance
requirements. Receive e-mail reminders for routine tasks such as six
month checkups on air conditioning units and copiers,and automatically
creates a maintenance ticket in the system. All you have to do is
dispatch. With the FM Interact Facility Maintenance Module you can:
Maintain an inventory of building equipment with maintenance and cost

history.
Schedule e-mail reminders for yourself and your vendors for preventive
maintenance tasks
Create maintenance tickets automatically for scheduled maintenance
jobs.
Route work orders to internal staff and vendors
72

Run reports on various vendors and equipment to analyze costs

The FM Interact Sustainability Module


Going green is all the buzz right now. You know you need to do more
to make your buildings and organization more environmentally friendly
but where do you start? What elements should you consider? How can
you track the results of your projects? And how much is creating a more
sustainable workplace going to cost?
The FM Interact Sustainability Module helps facilities and real estate
professionals answer all these questions by bringing environmental and
financial impacts into balance. From a standard Web browser you can
manage critical information on energy performance or water usage, and
sustainability projects like energy retrofits. Easy-to-read dashboards let
you assess projects in a glance, and built-in certification standards for
numerous programs help you plot your own green course. And because
you have all the benefits of FM: Interact, its easy to run cost analysis
reports for your sustainability projects, or see which buildings are affected
and which ones to target next.
The FM Interact Sustainability Module enables users to:
Analyze building environmental impacts (energy, water, greenhouse gas

emissions, recycling, waste and others)


Integrate with EPAs Automated Benchmarking System to calculate a

buildings ENERGY STAR ratings, carbon footprint and more


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Forecast sustainability projects financial impacts (net present value,

internal rate of return, ROI, payback period) and environmental impacts


Manage building assessments and certifications using rating systems like

Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED), Green Globes,


or BRE Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM)
Engage occupants and management with enterprise access to

sustainability information and dashboards.

Key Steps to Successful BIM Implementation

BIM IMPLEMENTATION R EQUIRES PROPER PLANN ING,


PATIENCE AND FULL CO MMITMENT FROM ALL LE VELS
OF THE ORGANIZATION. WHEN INTRODUCING BIM TO AN
ORGANIZATION, PROCEE DING WITH ONLY A MIN IMUM
AMOUNT OF KNOWLEDGE IS A COMMON MISTAKE AND
CAN BE COSTLY.

Develop a BIM Action Plan


Developing a solid BIM action plan should be the first step toward getting
your organization up and running in a BIM environment. Without this
plan in place it is easy to lose track of what information is required to be
successful. The plan should consist of two major sections: analysis and
implementation.

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Analysis
A majority of the plan should be focused on information gathering about
current methods, procedures and business strategy. The transition to a
BIM workflow is a major shift for any organization on all levels; as such, it
is an excellent time to look deep into your workflow to find any
inefficiency that can be fixed. The analysis portion of a BIM action plan
should include:

Existing Processes Identification and Analysis


It is important to conduct a detailed analysis of existing internal and
external business processes to help establish a base line for where to start
to achieve the goals established later in the plan. This analysis should
include a detailedreview of how projects are currently being processed
through the organization from initial marketing through completion.

Technology Analysis
A detailed technology analysis identifies existing hardware and software
technologies and their associated costs utilized by the organization. A
review of current document and data management should also be
included in the analysis.

Personnel Analysis
A detailed review of personnel should be conducted to help establish a
few key pieces of information by providing answers to the following:

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What are the current roles of your project teams?

Who will need to be trained with the new software?

What level of training will each type of employee require?

How will the new requirements of a BIM-based project modify the


current make-up of your teams?

Do you still require pure drafters?

Can your current drafters become junior-level designers?

Cost Analysis
The transition from a CAD-based organization to a BIM-based
organization carries a significant cost impact on three major fronts:

Hardware:

Current

BIM

software

requires

higher-performance

workstation when compared to a CAD software on a comparable-sized


project. This BIM implementation may require a significant upgrade of
current systems to ensure efficient workflow.
Software: BIM software will need to be purchased. The best resource for
information regarding the best version of software and support to
purchase are the many resellers out there. With resellers you can discuss
the details of your needs and business plan to help identify the correct
route to take whether it is a single license or a full blown subscription
with technical support.

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Personnel:

Educating and training employees to use BIM software and

the new associated delivery processes costs money. This cost will most
directly be related to training but there will also be a temporary loss of
productivity while existing processes are transitioned to a new
methodology.

Training Plan
Training on a BIM platform is best completed using a Just in Time
method. A lot of the concepts involved with BIM are very different when
compared with a traditional CAD workflow and therefore are best learned
working on an actual project. A proven method of success is to have
multiple training days consisting of half a day for classroom instruction
followed by half a day of actual project work with the instructor available
for hands-on teaching. Training should start with only a small group of
employees on a single project so that they can help streamline the BIM
workflow prior to getting the entire organization up to speed.
It is also advantageous for at least a single employee to receive in-depth
training and then act as the BIM manager for the company. This person
can then be the go-to person for help and can lead the establishment of
standards.

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Case Study

This case study discusses the experiences of consultants and contractor as


they undertake their first multidisciplinary Building Information
Modeling (BIM) project. The project is a premium CBD high-rise office
building located in a top location in Sydney.

Project overview
1 Bligh Street is a 30story, premium CBD high-rise office
building, located in a prominent location in Sydney. On
completion, 1 Bligh Street will be a 42,000 m2 development,
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with an estimated cost of AUD$230 million. The building has the


potential to achieve a 5-star ABGR (Australian Building Greenhouse
Rating) and 6-star Green Star Rating without sacrificing indoor
environment quality.
1 Bligh Street is one of the first commercial projects in Australia to
implement multidisciplinary BIM collaboration. BIM played an important
role in the documentation and simulation of the project, which
contributed to its distinctive design and ambitious performance. The use
of BIM was set as a client requirement, and was included in the contract.
Ultimately, the client plans to use the as-built BIM model for facility
management purposes. 1 Bligh Street is located at the valley created by
the Macquarie Street ridge and the tall buildings in and around George
Street. The site context and its potentially wide range of far-reaching
views were an important factor determining the elliptical shape of the
building and its orientation.

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In this case study, 10 participants were interviewed across four companies.


The interviews took place between June and July 2008, in Sydney and
Melbourne. The interviews were concerned with a variety of topics within
the process, technology and policy areas surrounding BIM. The interviews
focused on the architects as the consultants leading BIM in this project.
Nevertheless, the consulting team and the contractor were also
interviewed

to

document

collaborating with BIM.

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and

analyses

their

experiences

while

The transition from CAD to BIM


Although architect us had a heavily customized CAD platform (still used
in some projects), containing tens of thousands of lines of customized
code, it was looking for a process to better document its projects and saw
BIM as a way to achieve it. The architects tried several applications, and
even ran an entire project in Autodesk Architectural Desktop (ADT).
While ADT was not regarded as proper BIM software by the design
technology director, it was considered an evolutionary path into BIM. At
the time, it was believed that a good (low risk) way to move from CAD to
BIM was to adopt the CAD approach offered by ADT, and benefit from its
already developed skills as high-end users of AutoCAD. However, as
commented by the design technology director: BIM requires a revolution,
you cannot do it with evolution and if you attempt to incrementally adopt
BIM in small steps you will not succeed in implementing it. Ultimately,
BIM is a disruptive technology and you have to take the pain of the
disruption at some point. Once the decision was made to go straight into
BIM, the transition proved to be surprisingly easy and smoother than an
incremental transition through ADT. Flexibility (being able to leave things
behind), together with choosing the right staff and project, were identified
as key to a successful BIM implementation.

BIM training
The architects training approach is that you cannot learn Revit, you
need to experience it, you need to live with Revit.Architects favors on81

the-job learning over sending staff to training courses. The best training is
the one that gives you answers to questions you have right now on current
projects. Also, the best person to assist you is the one sitting next to you
provided

he or she can help. Its a much better solution to rely on

someone who knows the project and knows the deadline instead of
sending someone to a (training)course. Given that this training strategy
requires a balance between people with good Revit experience and less
experienced
staff (at the modeling level), Architects strategy has an impact on how
project teams are put together. The design technology director also
stressed that BIM oriented training is considered differently and handled
differently to CAD training: With CAD you learn lines, arcs, circles; very
simple; and everything else is built from it. In Revit, you model
components that behave differently, as their real world analogues do.
Thus, an understanding of how all the disparate building elements are put
together is integral to learning BIM. As a consequence, training is not only
limited to the use of the software, but to the understanding of building
components. As declared by the leading modeler of 1 Bligh Street: [With
BIM] I have to constantly think about how things are being built, so Im
not just drawing some lines in 2D. I really understand the way that the
building has to work, so from an understanding point of view [BIM] is
incredibly more beneficial than drawing in 2D.

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BIM manual
The design technology director has documented most of the office Revit
procedures, and has composed an extensive manual (370 pages) in PDF
format which is accessible via the internal network. However, it is not
expected that everyone reads this extensive manual. The architects
consider the manual far from being a mere set of instructions put together
to achieve something. It is considered an encyclopedia which gathers
know-how and solutions to previously encountered problems. People are
encouraged to refer to the manual first when a problem arises.
As acknowledged by its author, the manual, despite its length, does not
cover everything. According to the design technology director, the
challenge of producing a good comprehensive manual is that BIM is nonlinear and one thing relates to many others: If you start to write about
something it goes all over the place. You cant consider areas without
thinking about schedules, area plans, colors chemes, etc. But color schemes
could be related to views, not areas and so on. Even though the manual is
regarded as a good starting point to troubleshoot problems, it is not
considered a requirement for a successful implementation.

Technical support
When a Revit-related problem arises in the office, staff first try to resolve
it within their team by asking more experienced users or by consulting the
manual. If still unresolved, the problem then goes to the design technology
director. If he cannot resolve it, he contacts the Autodesk reseller
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(AECSystems10). This approach, complemented by online forums


(e.g.RevitCity11), has allowed the company to resolve most, if not all, of its
Revit problems.

Project teams
Architects forms its project teams primarily based on the specific staff
experience with the type of project. BIM knowledge, and more specifically
Revit experience, is considered a factor (especially with junior staff), but
not a decider in who is in a specific project team. Senior members of the
team are selected based on their project capabilities. Junior staff have a
mixed level of experience so that they can learn from each other, as
previously explained in the training section. The 1 Bligh Street team is
composed of senior staff with sufficient project-specific experience, one
Revit leader (who learnt the software in the office), and a few other
members with different Revit experience so that the teams skill level
could improve together. The overall BIM approach is supervised by the
design technology director.

The model
One of the major problems that the architects had on the 1 Bligh Street
model was to define its level of detail, as stated by the project architect:
You need to choose your level of Detail very carefully, and it is not
prescribed. It is trial and Error. Still, Architects has identified three factors
that help Define the level of detail required in the model:
the information that is expected to be taken out of the model
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the purpose of the model


how the model will evolve.
Putting aside the redundant amount of work that unnecessary
Detailing creates, over detailing can also unnecessarily increase the file
size of the model which, among other problems, can (as experienced by
the project architect) slow down the model to the point that you cannot
use it efficiently. The design technology director is optimistic that the
performance of the BIM system will increase when running on a 64-bit
platform. The big file size of 1 Bligh Street (300 MB at the time of the
Interviews) created problems for the design team: It takes 10 minutes for
the file to boot up and appear on the screen. It made navigating and doing
changes to the model a slow process, and sometimes even hindered it:
Right now we want to rotate the building and we cant do that because of
the file size and all that is linked to it, said the project architect. Architects
has implemented three strategies to balance the size of the model without
compromising the required level of detail. First, only typical floors are
detailed. Second, it relies on 2D line work for detailing anything over 1:20
scale drawings. Finally, it creates different models for different purposes.
Although this last approach contradicts the principle of BIM (a single
model/database), this hybrid approach allowed it to produce different
models with different level of detailing depending on their use. Thus, it
had a main model, used for documentation and collaboration with other
consultants, and other models for high-end rendering.

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Multidisciplinary BIM collaboration


As mentioned earlier in this case study, multidisciplinary collaboration
using the BIM model only occurred between the architect and the
structural engineer. For this, both parties benefited from using the same
suite of Revit solutions(Architecture and Structure). As further explained
in the structural engineers section, importing and exporting between the
two disciplines was seamless, and did not require the use of Industry
Foundation Classes (IFCs see Glossary).In an attempt to achieve the
highest level of interoperability between packages (outside the Autodesk
products), a BIM consultant on behalf of the client suggested the use of
IFCs on 1 Bligh Street. Thus, an IFC approach, together with the
implementation of a centralized IFC server, was proposed early in the
project. However, Architects considered that an IFC server would require
additional resources not included within the scope of the project (e.g.
dedicated server and additional software licenses).Furthermore, in-house
IFC round-trip experiments done by Architects using the 1 Bligh Street
model highlighted the current limitations of this technology. One of the
first problems identified in these experiments was the large file size that
IFCs generate. Given that IFC models are uncompressed and not
optimized files (usually four times the original file size), they are difficult
and slow to manage. This proved troublesome for a file that was already
considered too big, even in its native format. There was also a considerable
amount of extra time required to generate an IFC file. As revealed by the
design technology director: The time that this process takes [using IFCs] is
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at least three hours between transfers, three hours compared to nothing


[when transferring from Revit Architecture to Revit Structure].The
architects also experienced data degradation when exporting to IFCs. They
attributed this to the fact that Revit has more categories than IFC classes,
creating data losing the process. For example, in the experiments done on
1Bligh Street, curtain wall mullions were fused with glass in the model
.Architects considered that in a project like 1 Bligh Street,where it feels that
technology is being pushed to the very limits of its current capabilities, it
could not afford to add a developing process to its workflow. It considered
it too risky to introduce IFCs in a commercial project. In addition to these
issues, IFC as a term (let alone the technology) is not widely understood in
the industry. When the architects offered to export the model in an IFC
format,people did not understand what they were talking about:[When
we said to people] We can export to IFC, [they replied] Into what?!
What is an IFC? How can we use it? No one understood that, said the
project architect.

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Structural engineers
While Instruct had used Revit Structures to document projects in the
past, the models were only used internally(BIM Stage 1), and the
functionality offered by the system was not fully incorporated. 1 Bligh
Street was Instructs first multidisciplinary BIM collaboration project.BIM
benefits The first reported BIM benefit experienced by Instruct was an
increase of productivity, stemming from being able to generate multiple
views (e.g. floor plans, elevations, sections)from a 3D model. This benefit
soon translated into an embedded quality assurance process, because all
the views are coordinated by the system rather than manually generated
in accordance with, but independent from, each other.
3D visualization also allowed Instruct to better understand structures, as
noted by the company director: Being able to look at something in 3D
gives you a far better understanding of what is going on, rather than an
old-fashioned 2D plan.

The structural BIM model

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The involvement of Instruct as structural engineers on 1 Bligh Street


started with Stage 1 DA (development application) and continued through
design competition, lodging of Stage 2 DA and preparation of the tender
documentation. The engineers were then engaged by the contractor to take
the design through to construction and completion. Instruct is responsible
for the entire superstructure building including floor plates, columns,
basic structure and foundations. The engineers estimated that their
involvement in the project will be between five to seven years in total.

BIM background
Before 1 Bligh Street, the engineers were using and comparing the
advantages and disadvantages of structural packages offered by
Bentley12 and Autodesk. As a result of their review process, they
considered that Autodesk Revit Structure13 would allow them to
comply with the BIM requirements set by the client for 1 Bligh Street, as
well as their overall BIM strategy.

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Services engineers, Mechanical services

Arup are the services engineers of 1 Bligh Street project responsible for
the mechanical, electrical and fire services, as well as being the faade
design consultants. While the engineers used Revit MEP (services) to
model a typical floor, it was not used to produce the documentation.
Services documentation was done in AutoCAD andAutoCAD
MEP.19 As recognized by the services engineers and the rest of the 1
Bligh Street team, mechanical, electrical and plumbing (MEP) services
were not part of the BIM model.Arups project director identified the tight
program and the complexities of producing services documentation using
BIM as the two main reasons that prevented MEP services being included
in the BIM model.

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1 Bligh Street was the services engineers teams first BIM project, and at
the time it lacked the content (families)required for the model. As opposed
to the view of the architects, the services engineers felt that the out-of-theboxcontent included was poor, and developing it would take a
considerable amount of time with an already tight deadline.

Nevertheless, Arup did some isolated simulations, including a thermal


simulation, to calculate the sizing of the air Conditioning equipment. In
parallel, the project director is also concerned that BIM could be perceived
as a potential threat for MEP subcontractors. As described, one of the
advantages for MEP subcontractors is that, when they receive a design
from a consultant, they can increase their profit by modifying what the
consultant has proposed in a way that achieves the same performance, but
in a more economical way. Therefore, the more documentation that is
given to the subcontractors, the less room there is for them to modify the
design.
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Moreover, as noted by the contractors (Grocons) design manager,


in a design and construct project like 1 Bligh Street, it is the contractor
through its subcontractors that produces the services documentation for
the design. Thus, it will ultimately be up to the subcontractors to develop
the services BIM model.

It is expected that 1 Bligh Street will have a complete BIM


model once the subcontractors model the services.

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Reference

Alan Edgar, Assoc. AIA ,OSCRE Workgroup Program Manager


Chair, National BIM Standard Committee ,December 11, 2007.

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BIM basic ( past , present , future ) march 2010 deecarmer.

An Introduction to the IPD Workflow for Vectorworks BIM Users


.

Assessing The Impacts Of Building Information Models


29 October 2010 Report to the Built Environment Innovation and
Industry Council.

Buildex Vancouver BIM Presentation 11Feb24

http://www.bimoutsourcing.com

http://www.mepcor.com/faq.php

http://www.scribd.com/jstamp02/d/30642301-NYU-BIMOverview

http://www.fmsystems.com/

http://www.revitservices.com/revit-clash-detection.htm

http://community.infocomm.org/

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