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1.............................................................................................................................................................3
2. ......................................................................................................................................3
3. ...................................................................................................................................................4
4. ..................................................................................................................5
4.1. ...........................................................................................................................................5
4.2. .................................................................................................................................................7
5. ................................................................................................................8
5.1. .........................................................................................................................................8
5.2............................................................................................................................................................10
5.3..............................................................................................................................................................12
5.4. ............................................................................................................................13
6. .................................................................................................................14
6.1.- ...................................................................................................................14
6.2. ......................................................................................................................................15
6.3. .................................................................................................................17
6.4. .............................................................................................................................19
6.5. .......................................................................................................22
6.6. ..................................................................................................................................23
7. .................................................................................................................27
7.1. .....................................................................................................................27
7.2. ..........................................................................................................27
7.3. ..............................................................................................................................................29
8. ..................................................................................................32
9. ......................................32
10. .....................................................................................................................................32
11. .......................................................................................................................33
12. ............................................................................................................33
13. ..............................................................................................................................33

1.

-01 ( )
+, Na+, Ca++, Li+, H+ Cl- , , ,
( Ca, pH Li) ( Li).
(K, Na) (K, Na, Ca, pH, Cl)
(Li, K, Na, Cl).
-
.
:

.........................................205 .;

..............................................6515%;

.............................................. 22022 , 50 .

2.

2.1.

2.2.

................................................................0.20 - 40.0 /;

Na...........................................................20.0 200.0 /;

Ca.............................................................0.10 6.00 /;

pH..................................................................6.000 8.000 .;

Cl............................................................20.0 200.0 /;

Li...............................................................0.20 5.00 /.

...........................................................................0.3 /;

Na...........................................................................4 /;

Ca........................................................................0.1 /;

pH...............................................................................0.03 .;

Cl............................................................................4 /;

Li..........................................................................0.1 /.

2.3.

( ) 60 .

2.4.

150 (100 ).

2.5.

1- 1 .

2.6.

2- 24 .

2.7.

20 .

2.8.

, : 400300300.

2.9.

, - 10.

2.10.

, , * - 40.

-01

3.

-01......................................................................................................... 1.

......................................................................................................... 1.

(..0005).........1 .

(.0.0013).......................................................................1 .

................................................................................................................ 1.

............................................................................1.

4.

4.1.

1
1.
, , .
1, 2, ,
(. 2).

2
( 30 )

.
, .
,
.

-01
,
.
.
3.
.


4.2.


.
( 1 2),
+, Na+, Ca++, Li+, H+ Cl-.

:

E=E-S*lg(cX),

S=S+0,1984*(t-20);
E - ... cX=1, ;
S - t=20 ., /;
cX - , /;
t - , ..
1 2:

E1=E-S*lg(cX1)
E2=E-S*lg(cX2),

1 2 - 1
2 , ; cX1 cX2 - 1
2 , /.
2- , :
S=(E2-E1)/lg(cX1/cX2).
, 1 2, S.
1 :

E1=E-S*lg(cX1)
E=E-S*lg(cX),

1 - 1
, ; cX1 cX - 1
, /.
2- , :
cX=cX1*10(E1-E)/S.
, E1,
cX .

-01

5.

5.1.


,
.
. (.
. 6.6.3). .
, (1.K, 2.Na, 3.Ca, 4.pH, 5.Cl),
, 5, ..
K, Na .. 2-, 3-, 4- 5-
.
,
4. (1.K, 2.Na, 3.Cl).
4 . 4
, () (. 5)
.

(2 .)

Cl Na

(2 .)

(2 .)

4 (1.K, 2.Na, 3.Cl)

( )
3 . .
,
.
.


. .

Cl
.

Cl


.
.

Na
Cl. Na
Cl. Cl
.

K
Na. K
Na. Na
.

K.

K .

3 ,
() .

3 .

.
.

, 5.

(.

.0.0028, . 5) (. .00.0009, . 5).

5 -
( 5)
. ( 5)
, .
.
.
,
.
. .

-01

5 -

!!!
, ..
.
.


, ,
.
5.2.

: (K, Na, Cl, Li)


(K, Na, Ca, pH, Cl).
(. .6.6.3) . (.
.6.6.4).
!!! ,

.
() 5000 6 .

1 (K, Na, Ca, pH, Cl) (1 /) .00.0034..................6 .

2 (K, Na, Ca, pH, Cl) (100 /) .00.0013............3 .

1 (K, Na, Cl, Li) (1 /) .00.0032...........................6 .

2 (K, Na, Cl, Li) (100 /) .00.0008....................3 .

(1 /) .00.0033....................................4 .

(100 /) .0.0001...................................................1 .

(100/) ..0002..................................5 .
10

(100/) .00.0102..............................................1 .

.
, .
,
(. . 6.5.1).
1, 2
, . ,
, ,
(. 2).
.
c
(K, Na, Ca, pH, Cl) ( .00.0110) c (K, Na, Cl,
Li) ( .00.0100). 1, 2,
, , .
1. -.
, , .
, , ,
.
, .
- ,
.
. .
!!!
. .
( ) , -
, , .
, (. . 6.4.3).
. -.
, , .

, ,
. (. .6.5.2).

11

-01
5.3.

( )
6. /
. . (. . 6.6.2).

6
:

, 6;

12


5.4.


RS-232.
!!! , 220
, .
.

, ,
220 .
9-

2- ) RS-232.

.

RS-232

, 9600 ,
, 8 , 1 -. ASCII.


: 0 , 1 , 2 , 3
, 4 , 5 . T F

TRUE

FALSE,

..

,
T .

( )
.

: (1 2 ) / (2 ) /
(2 ) / (2 ) / (2 ) / (2 ) / (1
) / (1 2 ) / ( ) / T
F (1 ) / .. . ,

7,

RS-232:

2/16/55/01/02/08/5/K/6.55/T/Na/163.4/T/Ca/0.722/T/pH/7.879/T/Cl/123.3/T/.
: QC (2 ) / (2 ) / (2 ) / (2 ) / (2
) / (2 ) / (1 ) / (1 2 ) /
( ) / T F (1 ) / ..
. , , 7,
, RS13

-01
232: QC/16/59/01/02/08/3/K/6.55/T/Na/162.8/T/Ca/0.711/T/pH/7.616/T/Cl/122.5/T/.

14

6.

6.1.

6.1.1.

.
. ,
. , ,
3- .
, . ,
.
, , 4 .
.
!!!
. .
, 5 ,
.

6.1.2.

. (. .
6.5.4) ;

6.1.3.

. 6.1.2
:

!!! .
( ),

6.1.1.

,
.

15

-01

12:04

. .

- .
.

. -

1-

1-

2-

. .

6.2.

Li-


3- . 1- : ,

. 9,
.

, ,
. ,
.
, . ,
, 8.

16


12:04

. .

8 .
( )
, 1600 (
). 1600
, (
).
,
,
10 .

17


,
, .
, ,
- , !!!, . .

.
. ,
. ,
,
.
, ?.
, ,
.
6.3.


3- : ,
. .
( ) ,
. .
. .
, ,
.
!!!
, .
. pH
Ca ,
Ca pH .
, ,
(ISE).
Cl ,
. ,
,
Cl.
Cl .

19

-01
6.3.1.

.
.
, , .
(.
. 7.3.2). 3- .

6.3.2.

.
.
( ), ,
.
( ) ,
.
.

6.3.3.

.
.
,
,
/.
, ,
.
/,
.

.
/
.
30-
.
,
. 15
. ,
,
.
???. (
), .
,
.

10

( .
20


. ) ,

/.
(N),
(), (SD, /)
(CV, %). ,
, . (. 10)
,
. (. . 6.3.2).

( ), + ( ), - ( ),
(). .
,
,
. ???. .
( ),
. ,
( ).
6.4.


,
.

, . .,
, .
, ,

, .
. ,
( 2- ),
.
,
, .
-
.
6.4.1.

.

, 2- .
K, Na pH 40.0 73.0,
21

-01
Ca Li 20.0 36.5,
Cl 35.0 68.0.

, .
6.4.2.

.
. ,
( )
, .
.
.
.
.

1 2
, -
,

)
(. . 6.4.3).

K, Na pH
40 73, Ca Li - 20 36.5,
Cl - 35 68.
,
.

1 5000 - 12000.


50. , (
)

11

.
,
,
, . 5.1.
!!!

.

22


6.4.3.

.
. ,
( )
, .
.
.
.

, 300.

300,


(. . 6.5.1).

, 1,
, 60. ,
2, , 120.

12


. 999, ,
.
, (
) .
6.4.4.

.
.
.
. ,
.

23

-01
6.5.


( )
, , .

6.5.1.

( ) .
( )

pH Na. 50 ,
.
(..0002)
(.00.0102).
.
.

(
)

(
)

( )
( , )


( )


( )


( , )


.
(, ) .
6.5.2.

.

, 1 2
. , ,
.

24


6.5.3.

.
1- , 2- 24 . 1 2- . , ( 1
30) , 1 . - 5.
,
(. . 7.3.2).

6.5.4.

.

(. .6.1.2).
. ,
, ,
.

6.6.


/, , ,
, , , Li-.

6.6.1.

/.
/ .
( ) ,
, .

6.6.2.

. /
.
. /
. ,
.
. .
, .

25

-01
6.6.3.

.
. ,
.
(. . 5.1).
15
. , , 1,

2,
..
6 :

(1.K, 2.Na);

(1.K, 2.Na, 3.Cl);

(1.K, 2.Na, 3.Ca, 4.pH);

(1.K, 2.Na, 3.Ca, 4.pH, 5.Cl);

(1.Li, 2.K, 3.Na);

(1.Li, 2.K, 3.Na, 4.Cl).

/ .
,
( ).
. , ,
, .
. 20
. ,
.
.

. ,
, .
. , (1.K, 2.Na,
3.Ca, 4., 5.Cl) K, Na, Ca Cl
, (1.K, 2.Na, 3.Ca, 4.pH, 5.Cl).
,
Ca pH,
(K, Na, Ca, pH, Cl) (. . 6.6.4).
Li,
(K, Na, Cl, Li).

26


6.6.4.

.
: (K, Na, Cl, Li)
(K, Na, Ca, pH, Cl) (. .5.2). .
.
.
, 10 .
,
, .
, (K, Na, Cl, Li),
Ca pH (. . 6.6.3).
(K, Na, Ca, pH, Cl), Li.

6.6.5.

. . .
, - . . .

.
, -
. ,
, .
, ,
.
( ) ,
.
.
6.6.6.

.
.

, .
,
.

27

-01
6.6.7.

.
().
. (
) 100%. 5%
105%. 5%
95%. pH
, pH. pH 0,000.
pH 0,020
0,020. 0,020 -0,020.
(
), . (
) . (
, ).
( ) ,
. .
( )
( ) .
.

6.6.8.

Li-.
Li. Li
Na+. Li
0.2 0.4 / , Li+ .
, Li2CO3, Li+
. , ,
Li. Li
, Li+.
Li .
.

28

7.

7.1.

7.1.1.


,
, .
, , ,
. ,
, ,
.

7.1.2.

, .
. ,
4-8oC.
(15-30oC). 1 ,
.
7.1.3.

30

.
. ,
4-8oC, 15-30oC.
7.1.4.

( Ca, pH Li)
. 1 1:9,
.. 1 9 1. ,
4-8 oC,
15-30oC.

7.2.


- -
.
, ,
, .
.

29

-01
7.2.1.

-
,
, .
. , ,

.
, ,
, -
.

7.2.2.



, (+) , (++) - ,
.
:

,
, ..;

1 % 0,7
/ ( Hct=45%) - .
,
.
,
.
. - .
7.2.3.


, , .
15 . ,
.

- , .
, , ,
,
. , ,
.
30



.
,
.
, , ,
.
.

, .. .
7.2.4.



. 2
, .
, , , ,
- . .
( ) ,
(, ++, + Na+).
, -
, , .
,
.. . ,
,
, ++.
.

7.3.

7.3.1.


.
: , ( ),
( ), , , .
( ) .
.
:
- <>, - <>, - <>, - <>, - <>,
- <>.

31

-01
,
. .
,
.
.
, ,
2, pH . pH
, .
pH,
Ca.
nCa ( , pH = 7.40).
nCa=Ca*10
0.22*(pH-7.4)

0.24*(pH-7.4)

nCa=Ca*10

. nCa .

, ,
pH. Ca
.
7.3.2.


(. . 7.3.1)

()

1-

!!!


!!!

:
,

!!!

!!!

100

,
,
, , ..
,
. , ,
. (. . 6.5.3).
32


(. . 6.6.6).

, .
Ca, Li.
Li Na+.
Li 0.2 0.4 / , Li+
. , Li2CO3,
Li+ . , ,
Li. Li
, Li+.
Li-. (. . 6.6.8).
!!!
. .

100 . ,
, 150 , .
50- ( )
.
( ), .

. (. . 6.5.1).

( ).
(. 6.6.5).
()
(. . 6.6.7).
!!! .

. ,
,
.
.

,
. ,
.

33

-01

8.


,
,
2.
2

9.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.


1
2

1.

10.

.00.0014

5.1

.00.0015

Na

5.1

C.00.0019

Ca

5.1

.00.0020

pH

5.1

.00.0016

Cl

5.1

.00.0036

Li

5.1

.0.0028

1.0

5.1

.00.0009

1.0

.00.0034

1 (K, Na, Ca, pH, Cl)

1 /

5.2

.00.0013

2 (K, Na, Ca, pH, Cl)

100 /

5.2

.00.0032

1 (K, Na, Cl, Li)

1 /

5.2

.00.0008

2 (K, Na, Cl, Li)

100 /

5.2

.00.0033

1 /

5.2

.0.0001

100 /

5.2

..0002

100/

5.2

.00.0102

100/

5.2

.00.0110

c (K, Na, Ca, pH, Cl)

.00.0100

c (K, Na, Cl, Li)

.00.0007

5.1

5.2
5.2
1

5.3


, ,
.
1,5
.
.


, 21 1984
.
34

11.


-,
.
, ,
.

12.


, ,

, .

.
,
.

13.



, .
- 24 ,
6 .
.
.

-
.
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