(NOVEMBER 2011)
Situation 1 The probability of event A happening is 3/5 and the probability of
event B happening is 2/3
1. What is the probability of both A and B happening?
A. 3/5
B. 1/5
C. 2/5
D. 4/5
2. What is the probability of only event A happening i.e. event A happening and
event B not happening?
A. 4/5
B. 1/5
C. 3/5
D. 2/5
C. 3/5
D. 13/15
E.
Situation 2 Answer the following problems:
4. Six congruent circles are arranged in a circle way that each circle is tangent
to at least two other circles. If the radius of each circle is 2 cm, find the
perimeter of the polygon formed by connecting the centers of each circles.
A. 12 cm
B. 24 cm
C. 30 cm
D. 32 cm
6. A solid rectangular block has a volume of 30 cm3. If all side measure are
integers, which of the following is the least possible surface area?
A. 92
B. 82
C. 86
D. 62
E.
Situation 3 Answer the following problems:
7. What is the distance between the intercepts of the line x + 2y 6 = 0?
A. 6.231
B. 6.708
C. 8.639
D. 5.449
C. 3 x 13
D. 3 x 13
E.
F.
C. 45
D. 30
C. 34.89
D. 43.21
C. 17.32
D. 51.96
E.
Situation 2 The strut shown in the figure carries an axial load of P =
148 kN.
F.
4.
4.
4.
4.
4.
4.
Determine the bearing stress between the
pin and the strut:
A. 463 MPa
B. 345 MPa
C. 285 MPa
D. 563 MPa
C. 321 MPa
D. 341 MPa
C. 123.9 MPa
D. 167.3 MPa
E.
Situation 3 The column shown in
the figure is loaded with a vertical
load P = 3 kN and a lateral load H =
0.45 kN. The column is 3 m high
and is made of steel with 300 mm
outer diameter, 6 mm thick and
weighs 150 N/m.
F.
7. What is the maximum stress at the base
due to the load P?
A.
B.
C.
D.
1.78
1.37
2.54
0.87
MPa
MPa
MPa
MPa
C. 3.46 MPa
D. 2.89 MPa
9. If the column is a solid timber with a diameter of 250 mm, what is the
A. 0.089
MPa stress at the base? C. 0.045 MPa
maximum
shearing
B. 0.164 MPa
D. 0.012 MPa
E.
Situation 4 The frame shown in the figure is acted upon by wind
load pressure of 1.44 kPa. These frames are spaced 6 m apart normal
to paper. Consider the roller support at B and the joint at D as pin.
10.
11.
C. 18.3 kN
D. 12.7 kN
12.
C. 18.5 kN
D. 16.3 kN
C. 12.7 kN
D. 35.7 kN
E.
F. Situation 5 The
sheet pile shown in the
figure is provided with
tension rods spaced 3
meters
apart.
The
wooden stringers has d
= 300 mm and can be
considered
simply
supported
at
each
connection
to
the
tension rod. Allowable
bending and shearing
stresses of the stringer
are 14.7 MPa and 1.48
MPa, respectively.
G.
H.
13.
14.
C. 42.4 kNm
D. 63.9 kNm
15.
C. 290 mm
D. 338 mm
C. 288 mm
D. 254 mm
E.
Situation 6 The 6 m long prestressed cantilever beam shown in the
figure carries a concentrated live load of 18 kN at the free end and a
uniform dead load due to its own weight. Unit weight of concrete is 20
kN/m3. The strands are 12 mm in diameter with total prestressing
force of 540 kN applied at an eccentricity e above the neutral axis of
the crosssection.
16.
What is the maximum stress (MPa) in the bottom fiber of the beam at
the free end when the eccentricity e = 0?
A. 7.86
B. 13.45
17.
C. 2.25
D. 10.35
What is the stress in the top fiber of the beam at the fixed end when
the eccentricity e = 100 mm?
A. +5.4 MPa
B. +6.3 MPa
18.
C. +8.1 MPa
D. +3.6 MPa
What is the required eccentricity e such that the stress in the top fiber
of the beam at the fixed end is zero?
A. 230 mm
B. 160 mm
C. 200 mm
D. 260 mm
E.
F. Situation 7 Reinforced concrete beams having widths of 400 mm
and overall depths of 600 mm are spaced 3 meters on the centers as
shown in the figure. These beams support a 100 mm thick slab. The
superimposed loads on these beams are as follows:
G.
H. The columns E and H are omitted such that the girder BEHK supports
the beams DEF at E and GHI at H. Assume EI = constant for all
beams. Unit weight of concrete is 24 kN/m 3.
19.
20.
21.
C. 67.21
D. 41.23
C. 121.1
D. 98.4
C. 154
D. 112
E.
F. Situation 8 Channel sections are used as purlin. The top chords of
the truss are sloped 4H to 1V. The trusses are spaced 6 m on center
and the purlins are spaced 1.2 m on centers.
G.
H.
22.
Loads:
Dead load = 720 Pa
Live load = 1000 Pa
Wind load = 1400 Pa
Wind Coefficients:
Windward = + 0.2
Leeward =  0.6
Properties of C200 x 76
Sx = 6.19 x 104 mm3
Sy = 1.38 x 104 mm3
Weight, w = 79 N/m
Allowable bending stress, Fx = Fy = 207 MPa
23.
C. 123 MPa
D. 151 MPa
C. 143 MPa
D. 103 MPa
24.
25.
Determine the factored shear force Vu that the column can resist if the
nominal shear strength provided by the ties is 375 kN.
A. 378
B. 426
26.
C. 467
D. 532
27.
C. 335
D. 389
If the factored shear force parallel to the 600 mm side is 400 kN,
determine the required spacing of transverse reinforcement in accordance
with the provision for seismic design.
A. 126 mm
B. 164 mm
C. 241 mm
D. 100 mm
E.
F. 5.21.4 Special Provision for Seismic Design
G. 5.21.4.4 Transverse Reinforcement
5.21.4.4.1 Transverse reinforcement as specified below shall be
provided unless a large amount is required by Sec. 5.21.7
H.
(1) The volumetric ratio of spiral or circular hoop reinforcement, s,
shall not be less than that indicated by:
I. s = 0.12fc / fyh
J.
212
Ag
f 'c
0.45
1
K. s =
Ac
fy
105
L.
(2) The total cross sectional area of rectangular hoop reinforcement
shall not be less than that given by:
M.
N.
0.3
Ash =
Ash =
s hc f ' c Ag
1
f yh
Ac
0.9
s hc f ' c
f yh
213
214
O.
(3) Transverse reinforcement shall be provided by either single or
overlapping hoops. Crossties of the same bar size and spacing as the hoop
may be used. Each end of the crosstie shall engage a peripheral longitudinal
reinforcing bar. Consecutive crossties shall be alternated end for end along
the longitudinal reinforcement.
P.
(4) If the design of the member core satisfies the requirement of the
specified loading combinations including earthquake effect, Eq. (213) and
(105) need not to be satisfied.
Q.
5.21.4.4.2 Transverse reinforcement shall be spaced at distance not
exceeding (a) onequarter of the minimum member dimension, (b) six
times the diameter of longitudinal reinforcement, and (c) as defined by
Eq. 215
R. sx =
100+
350h x
3
215
S. The value of sx shall not exceed 150 mm and need not be taken less
than 100 mm.
T. Where:
U.
V.
W.
X.
hc = crosssectional dimension of column core measured centertocenter of outer legs of the transverse reinforcement comprising area A sh,
mm
Y.
Z.
28.
A. 4,154
B. 2,732
29.
30.
C. 3,873
D. 3,313
C. 98 mm
D. 185 mm
C. 2,850
D. 4,120
E.
F.
G. Code:
1. Threshold torsion: For Nonprestressed members, it shall be permitted to
neglect torsion effects if the factored torsional moment Tu is less than:
H.
I.
Tu <
Acp 2
1
'
f
12 c Pcp
( )
J.
V u 2 T u Ph 2
(
) +(
)
bw d
1.7 Aoh
Vc 2 '
+ f c
bw d 3
M.
Tu =
2 Ao At f yt
s
cot
N.
O.
Where Ao shall be determined by analysis except that is shall be
permitted to take Ao equal to 0.85Aoh; shall not be taken smaller than 30
degrees nor larger than 60 degrees. It shall be permitted to take equal to:
P.
(a) 45 degrees for nonprestressed members or members with less prestress than
in (b); or
Q.
(b) 37.5 degrees for prestressed members with an effective prestress force not
less than 40 percent of the tensile strength of the longitudinal reinforcement.
R.
4. The additional area of longitudinal reinforcement to resist torsion, A l, shall not
be less than:
S.
Al =
At
f
ph yt
s
fy
( )
cot2
U.
Av + 2At = 0.062
f 'c
bw s
f yt
V.
but shall not be less than (0.35bws)/fyt
6. Where torsional reinforcement is required, the minimum total area of
longitudinal torsional reinforcement, Al min, shall be computed by:
W.
Al min =
5 f ' c Acp A t
f
ph yt
12 f y
s
fy
( )
Acp
Al
AB.
AC.
torsional
AD.
AE.
At
mm
AF.
AG.
AH.
AI.
AJ.
AK.
AL.
AM.
AN.
AO.
Answer Key:
AP.1
D
AV.7
B
BA.
12 C
AQ.
2B
AW.
8C
AR.
3A
AX.
9D
BB.
13
D
AS.
4A
AY.1
0
A
AT. 5
B
AU.
6A
BT.
BU.
BV.
BW.
BX.
BY.
BZ.
CA.
CB.
CC.
CD.
CE.
CF.
CG.
CH.
CI.
CJ.
AZ.
11 B
BC.
14 C
BD.
15 C
BE.
16 C
BF.1
7
D
BJ. 2
1
D
BG.
18
D
BK.
22
D
BH.
19 A
BL.2
3
A
BI. 2
0
B
BO.
26 C
BP.2
7
D
BQ.
28
D
BM.
24 C
BR.
29 A
BN.
25 C
BS.
30 B
CK.
CL.
Solutions
CM.
Situation 1
CN.
CO.
CP.
CQ.
CR.
CS.
CT.
CU.
CV.
CW.
Since pulley is frictionless, the tensions at slack and tight sides are
CX.
T = W = 30 kN
CY.
By inspection, = 30
CZ.
a = 2 sec 30 = 2.309 m
DA.
equal.
d = 4 tan 30 = 2.309 m
DB.
FH = 0
BH = Tc cos30 + T
BH = 51.962 kN
DC.
FV = 0
BV = T  Tc sin30
BV = 17.321 kN
DD.
RB =
2
H
+ BV 2
RB =
(51.962)2+(17.321)2
RB = 54.772 kN
DE.
DF.
DG.
DH.
Situation 2
DI.
P = 148 kN
DJ.
DK.
P
Ap
fp =
148,000
fp =
320
fp = 462.5 MPa
DL.
DM.
fV =
PV = P = 148 kN
PV
AV
fp =
148,000
402.124
fp = 368.05 MPa
DN.
DO.
fV =
PV = P cos 30
Pv = 148 cos 30
Pv =128.172 kN
PV
AV
fp =
128,172
804.248
fp =159.4 MPa
DP.
DQ.
DR.
Situation 3
Parts I and II:
Outer diameter, Do = 300 mm
Inner diameter, Di = 288 mm
Area, A =
2
2
2
4 (300 288 ) = 5,541.77 mm
DS.
Moment of inertia, I =
4
4
6
64 (300 288 ) = 59.901 x 10
mm4
Moment due to P, Mp = P x e = 3 x 0.1 = 0.3 kNm
Moment at base due to H, MH = H x L = 0.45 x 3 = 1.35 kNm
Weight of column, W = w x L = 150 x 3 = 450 N
DT.
f1 =
W
A
f1 =
450
5541.77
f1 =  0.081 MPa
DV.
f2 =
P M p c
A
I
f2 =
6
3000 0.3 x 10 (150)
5541.77
59.901 x 106
f2 =  1.293 MPa
DX.
M p c
I
f2 =  3.381 MPa
DZ.
Part 1:
Maximum base stress due to P:
fmax = 0.081 1.293 = 1.374 MPa
EA.
Part 2:
Maximum base stress due to lateral load:
fmax = 0.081 3.381 =  3.462 MPa
EB.
Part 3:
Shear, V = H = 450 N
Diameter, D = 250 mm, r = 125 mm
Shear stress, fV =
4V
3 r2
fV =
4 (450)
3 (125)2
fV = 0.012 MPa
EC.
Situation 4
ED.
EE.
Bay, s = 6 m
w=cxpxs
EF.
w1 = 0.08(1.44)(6)
w1 = 6.912 kN/m
EG.
w3 =
0.5(1.44)(6)
w3 = 4.32 kN/m
EH.
= arctan (2/6)
= 18.435
EI.
F1 = w1 x 4 =27.648 kN
EJ.
F2 = w2 x 6.325 =
5.464 kN
F2x = F2 sin
= 1.728 kN
F2y = F2 cos
= 5.184 kN
EK.
F4 = w4 x 4 = 13.824 kN
EL.
MA = 0
w2 = 0.1(1.44)(6)
w2 = 0.864 kN/m
w4 = 0.4(1.44)(6)
w4 = 3.456 kN/m
F3 = w3 x 6.325 =
27.322 kN
F3x = F3 sin
= 8.64 kN
F3y = F3 cos
= 25.92 kN
F3y(9)
27.648(2) + 13.824(2) + 8.64(5) = 12B V + 1.728(5)
+ 5.184(3)+ 25.92(9)
BV =  10.944 kN (downward)
EM.
FV = 0
AV + BV + F2y + F3y = 0
AV =  20.16 kN (downward)
EN.
MD right = 0
(See figure below)
F3(3.162) + F4(4) + BH(6) + BV(6) = 0
FH = 0
(entire frame)
AH + BH + F1 + F4 F2x + F3x = 0
AH + (12.672) + 27.648 +13.824 1.728 + 8.64 =0
AH = 35.712 kN (to the left)
EP.
EQ.
Situation 5
ER.
ER.
ES.
ET.
F1 =
1
K
2 a soil
H2 x L
F1 = 2
(1/3)(17.3)(5.4)2(3)
F1 = 252.234 kN
y1 = (2.1 + 3.3)/3 = 1.8 m
EU.
F2 =
1
K
2 a water
H2 x L
F2 = 2
(9.8)(2.7)2(3)
F2 = 107.136 kN
y2 = (2.7)/3 = 0.9 m
EV.
EW.
EX.
EY.
EZ.
Mpin = 0
w L2
8
Mmax =
56.758(3)2
8
FA.
fb =
6M
b d2
6 (63.853 x 106 )
b(300)2
Fb
= 14.7
b = 289.6 m
FB.
fV =
3V
2 bd
FV
3 (85,137)
2b (300)
= 1.48
b = 287.6 m
FC.
Situation 6
FD.
wD =
x bh
wD = 20 x (0.4)(0.6)
wD = 4.8 kN/m
FE.
FF.
M = 18(6) + 4.8(6)(3)
M = 194.4 kNm
fpa =
Ps
bh
540,000
fpa = 400(600)
FG.
FH.
FI.
fpe = 0.0225e
6M
Stress due to moment, fM = b h2
FJ.
FK.
6 Ps e
b h2
FL.
FM.
mm:
FN.
6M
2
bh
FO.
FP.
6 (194.4 x 10 6)
400(600)2
FQ.
Part 3: Value of e such that the stress in the top fiber
at fixed end is zero:
FR.
6M
b h2
FS.
0 = 2.25 0.0225e +
FT.
e = 260 mm
FU.
FV.
6 (194.4 x 10 6)
400(600)2
Situation 7
Unit weight of concrete,
= 24 kN/m3
Weight of beam:
wb =
Ac
wb = 24(0.4)(0.6)
wb = 5.76 kN/m
FX.
Weight of slab:
ps =
ps = 24(0.1)
ps = 2.4 kPa
FY.
FZ.
GA.
wu1 =
[ ( )]
( 13.96 )( 3 )
3
3
6
7.5
[ ( )]
pu s
s
3
6
L
x2
wu1 =
x2
wu1 = 39.646 kN/m
GB.
GC.
GD.
Moment at G, MG =
w u L2
12
MG =
47.71(7.5)
12
MG =  223.643 kNm
GE.
Reaction at G, RG =
1
2
wu L
RG =
1
2
(47.71)(7.5)
RG = 178.91 kN
GF.
Maximum factored shear in beam GHI, Vmax = RG =
178.91 kN
GG.
GH.
M=
w u L2
24
GI.
GJ.
M=
47.71(7.5)2
24
M = 111.82 kNm
Situation 8
GK.
GL.
GM.
Wind coefficient:
Windward coefficient = 0.2
Leeward coefficient = 0.6
GN.
Dead load;
wD = 720(1.2) +79
wD = 943 N/m
GO.
Live load;
wL = 1000(1.2)
wL = 1200 N/m
GP.
Wing:
www = 1400(1.2)(0.2)
www = 336 N/m
GQ.
GR.
wlw = 1400(1.2)(0.6)
wlw = 1008 N/m
GS.
GT.
GU.
w N L2
8
Mx =
Mx =
2079.015 (6)2
8
Mx = 9.356 kNm
GV.
fbx =
Mx
Sx
fbx =
9.356 x 106
6.19 x 10 4
fbx = 151.14.MPa
GW.
My =
w T L2
8
519.754 (6)2
8
My =
My = 2.339 kNm
GX.
fby =
My
Sy
fby =
2.339 x 10
4
1.38 x 10
336)
wN = 1811.262 N/m
GZ.
HA.
wT2 = 0.75(wT)
Mx =
wT = 0.75(519.754)
wT = 389.815 N/m
w N 2 L2
8
Mx =
1811.262 (6)
8
Mx = 8.151 kNm
HB.
fbx =
Mx
Sx
fbx =
8.151 x 10 6
4
6.19 x 10
My =
w T 2 L2
8
My =
389.815 (6)
8
My = 1.754 kNm
HD.
fby =
My
Sy
fby =
1.754 x 106
1.38 x 10 4
HF.
HG.
f bx f by 131.675 127.114
+
=
+
Fbx F by
207
207
= 1.25
Situation 9
bw = 400 mm
fy = 415 MPa
h = 600 mm
Allowable shear stress of concrete, Fvc =
0.816 MPa
fc = 21 MPa
HH.
HI.
HJ.
HK.
HL.
Part 1:
Vs = 375 kN
HM.
Vn = Vc + Vs
Vn = 174.787 + 375
Vn = 549.787
HN.
Vu = Vn
Vu = 0.85(549.787)
Vu = 467.319 kN
HO.
HP.
Part 2:
s = 225 mm
Av = 3 x
HQ.
Vs =
Av f y d
s
Vs =
339.29(415)(535.5)
225
Vs = 335.12 kN
HR.
Vn = Vc + Vs
Vs = 174.787 + 335.12
Vs = 509.906 kN
HS.
Vu = Vn
Vu = 0.85(509.906)
Vu = 433.42 kN
HT.
Part 3:
Vu = 400 kN
HU.
Vs = Vu Vc
HV.
Av f y d
Vs
s=
Vs = 400 174.787
Vs = 225.213 kN
s=
339.29(415)(535.5)
225.213
HW.
s = 334.8 mm
HX.
HY.
HZ.
Ash =
0.3
0.3
s hc f ' c Ag
1
f yh
Ac
s( 308)(21) 240,000
1
415
166,400
339.29 =
)
s = 164 mm
IA.
Ash =
0.9
0.9
s hc f ' c
f yh
339.29 =
s( 308)(21)
415
s = 242 mm
IB.
c) 100 +
350h x
3
350h x
3
= 126 mm
ID.
Situation 10
IE.
Mu = 440 kNm
Vu = 280 kN
Tu = 180 kNm
b = 400 mm
h = 500 mm
Allowable shear stress in
IF.
IG.
Part 1:
Mu = 440 kNm
IH.
b =
cover = 40 mm
fc = 20.7 MPa
fy = 415 MPa
fyt = 275 MPa
Bar diameter, d = 12 mm
concrete, Fvc = 0.76 MPa
b =
0.85(20.7)(0.85)(600)
415(600+ 415)
b = 0.0213
II.
IJ.
IK.
max f y
f 'c
= 0.3203
IL.
Mn max = 5.378(400)(435)2
Mn max = 407 kNm
IM.
IN.
IO.
IP.
Mu = Mu1 + Mu2
IQ.
IR.
As1 = max bd
As1 =0.01598(400)(435)
As1 = 2,780 mm2
IS.
Mu2 = T2 (d d)
65)
As2 = 533 mm2
IT.
IU.
IV.
IW.
Vn =
Vu
Vn =
280
0.85
Vn = 329.412 kN
IX.
Vc = Fvc bw d
Vc = 0.76(400)(435)
Vc = 132.24 kN
IY.
Vs = Vn Vc
Vs = 329.24 132.24
Vs = 197.17 kN < 1/3
IZ.
S=
A v f yh d
Vs
s=
s = 137.2 mm
JA.
JB.
Therefore, s = 137 mm
JC.
Part 3:
Al =
At
f yt
2
ph
cot
s
fy
( )
= 45
x = 400 46 x 2 = 308 mm
y = 500 46 x 2 = 408 mm
Aoh = x y = 308(408) = 125,664 mm2
'
c
bw d
Ao = 0.85Aoh = 106,814
mm
ph = 2 (x +y) = 1432
mm
JD.
Tn =
Tu
180
0.85
211.77 kNm
JE.
Tn =
2 Ao At f yt
cot
s
211.77 x 106 =
2 ( 106,814 ) At (275)
cot 45
s
JF.
Al =
JG.
At
f yt
2
ph
cot
s
fy
( )
At
s
= 3.605 mm
Al = 3.605(1,432)
275
)
415
cot2
45
Al = 3, 420 mm2
JH.
JI.
JJ.
JK.
JL.
JM.
MATHEMATICS, SURVEYING & TRANSPORTATION
ENGINIRING
(MAY 2012)
1. X and Y are inversely proportional with each other. Given that X = 15,000 when
Y = 162,500. Find X when Y = 328,400.
A. 7,422.35
B. 6,567.45
C. 7,849.56
D. 8,956.32
2. The sum of seven consecutive integers is zero. What is the smallest integer?
A. 4
B. 1
C. 3
D. 2
3. The sum and product of three distinct positive integers are 15 and 45,
respectively. What is the largest integer?
A. 5
B. 9
C. 15
D. 7
4. What is the curved surface area of a spherical segment (with two bases) if the
diameters of the bases, which are 25 cm apart, are 100 cm and 140 cm,
respectively.
A. 11,673.43 cm2
B. 10,567.93 cm2
C. 13,783.34 cm2
D. 12,328.75 cm2
5. The area of a park on a map is 500 mm2. If the scale of the map is 1 to 40,000,
determine the true area of the park in hectares (1 hectare = 10 4m2)
A. 40
B. 80
C. 160
D. 12
2
3
csc x cot x dx
A. 1
B. 0
C.
D. 1
C. y = C1 e4x + C2 ex
D. y = C1 e4x + C2 ex
E.
F.
G.
H.
I. STRUCTURAL ENGINIRING & CONSTRUCTION
(MAY 2012)
1. A vertical load of W is supported by the tripod shown. If the capacity of each leg
is 15 kN, what is the safe value of W?
A.
B.
C.
D.
34.48kN
36 kN
32.12 kN
42 kN
D. 10 mm
3. A vertical steel rod is fixed at the top and supports an 8kN load at the lower
end. The rod is 10mm n diameter and 25 mm long. Unit weight of steel is 77
kN/m3. What is the total elongation of the rod?
A. 12.732 mm
B. 12.853 mm
C. 12.973 mm
D. 12.612 mm
C. 92.3 MPa
D. 84.2 MPa
C. 5.24 kN/m
D. 3.84 kN/m
C. 123.9 kNm
D. 99.2 kNm
7. A 12 m long beam is simply supported at the left end and at 3 m from the right
end. The beam will be subjected to a uniformly distributed moving load. What
total length of the beam must be subjected to this load to produce maximum
A. moment
9m
C. 7.5 m
negative
at midspan?
B. 3 m
D. 4.5 m
E.
F. Situation 1 The
hook is subjected to
three forces P, Q
and S as shown. P =
35 kN and Q = 45
kN.
8. Determine the angle
such that the resultant of
the three forces is 80 kN
acting horizontally to the
right.
A 22.85
B 21.78
C 24.98
D 23.12
1. If angle = 60, find the magnitude of the force S such that the resultant
force is horizontal to the right.
A 48 kN
B 51 kN
C 42 kN
D 45 kN
2. Find the magnitude of the force S such that the three forces are in equilibrium.
A. 43.87 kN
B. 40.93 kN
C. 45.98 kN
D. 38.65 kN
E.
F. Situation 2
The horizontal
distance from
A at one end of
the river to
frame C at the
other end is 20
m. The cable
carries a load
of W = 50 kN. The sag d of the cable is 1 m.
G.
3. Find the distance x1 such that the tension in segment AB of the cable is equal
to that segment BC.
A. 9 m
B. 10 m
C. 12 m
D. 11 m
C. 165.43 kN
D. 187.92 kN
C. 21.12 m
D. 19.76 m
E.
F. Situation 3 The 1.8mdiameter circular plate
shown is supported by
equally spaced posts along
its circumference. A load P
= 1150 kN is placed at
distance x = 0.45 m from
post A.
6. Neglecting the weight of the
plate, what is the reaction at post
A?
A.
B.
C.
D.
834.2
766.7
191.7
194.6
kN
kN
kN
kN
C. 194.6 kN
D. 191.7 kN
8. Considering the weight of the plate, what is the reaction at C? the plate is 45
mm thick and the unit weight of steel is 77 kN/m3.
A. 194.6 kN
B. 191.7 kN
C. 834.2 kN
D. 766.7 kN
E. Situation 4 The
billboard, 3 m high by 4 m
wide, is supported as show
in the figure. The total
weight of the billboard is 30
kN. H = 1.5 m, = 60.
Wind pressure, q =
1.6 kPa
Wind pressure
coefficient, c = 1.0
9. The horizontal component of the reaction at A is nearest to:
A. 19.54 kN
B. 21.89 kN
C. 16.38 kN
D. 12.45 kN
10. What is the axial stress strut BC whose cross sectional dimension is 6 mm x
76 mm?
A. 94.1 MPa
B. 87.3 MPa
C. 76.5 MPa
D. 102.6 MPa
C. 96.3 MPa
D. 99.1 MPa
E. Situation 5
A girder
weighing 18
kN/m is
suspended on
a parabolic
cable by a
series of
vertical
hanger. The length of the beam is 24 m and the sag of the cable is 3
m.
12. What is the vertical component of the reaction at A?
A. 240 kN
B. 250 kN
C. 216 kN
D. 275 kN
A. 487 kN
B. 412 kN
C. 432 kN
D. 521 kN
14. If the allowable cable tension is 360 kN, what is the minimum sag?
A. 4.5 m
B. 3.5 m
C. 5 m
D. 5.5 m
16.
C. 89.4 MPa
D. 90.2 MPa
C. 34.7 MPa
D. 40.2 MPa
17. If the allowable tensile stress in the wall is 124 MPa, to what value may the
gas pressure be increased?
A. 3.765 MPa
B. 2.873 MPa
C. 4.123 MPa
D. 3.397 MPa
0.75
0.88
0.65
0.52
MPa
MPa
MPa
MPa
D. 0.65 MPa
B. 0.0054 MPa
C. 0.0132 MPa
D. 0.0115 MPa
E. Situation 8
The barge
shown in the
figure supports
the load w1 and
w2. For this
problem, w1 =
145 kN/m, w2
= 290 kN/m, L1
= 3 m, L2 = 6
m, L3 = 3 m.
21. What is the length of barge L so that the upward pressure is uniform?
A. 15 m
B. 12 m
C. 20 m
D. 18 m
C. 194 kN
D. 174 kN
23. At what distance from the left end will the shear in the barge be zero?
A. 4 m
B. 5.5 m
C. 5 m
D. 4.5 m
C. 48 kN/m
D. 42 kN/m
C. 32 kN
D. 48 kN
C. 32 kNm
D. 48 kNm
E.
F. Situation 10 A 10m long beam is simply supported at the left end
and at 2 m from the right end. The beam will be analyzed for
maximum shear at the midspan that can be induced by a moving load.
27. What is the ordinate of the influence diagram at the midspan?
A. 0.3
B. 0.45
C. 0.25
D. 0.5
28. What is the ordinate of the influence diagram at the free end?
A. 0.3
B. 0.45
C. 0.25
D. 0.5
29. The beam will be subjected to a uniformly distributed moving load. What
total length of this beam must be subjected to this load to produce maximum
shear at the midspan?
A. 4 m
B. 6 m
D. 5 m
C. 3 m
E. Situation 11
The trussed
beam shown is
5.4 m long. A
man of weight
W is standing
at the middle of the beam. Neglect the weight of the beam.
30. The capacity of the rod is 2kN, what is the safe maximum weight of the man
in kg?
A. 132 kg
B. 129 kg
C. 156 kg
D. 187 kg
31. If the man weighs 85 kg, what is the tensile stress in the rod if its diameter
is 10mm?
A. 12.89 MPa
B. 14.35 MPa
C. 17.87 MPa
D. 16.78 MPa
C. 5.34 m
D. 7.32 m
F.
C. 160 mm
D. 140 mm
E.
34. Determine the minimum value of y in mm.
A. 34.9
B. 26.8
C. 13.2
D. 19.5
C. 0.67
D. 2.78
F.
36. Determine the safe value of P based on tension on gross area.
A. 450 kN
B. 420 kN
C. 500 kN
D. 480 kN
C. 453 kN
D. 486 kN
E. Situation 14
A 6m long
fixedended
beam carries a
uniformly
distributed
load of 20
kN/m. Use E =
200 GPa and Ix = 67.5 x 106 mm4.
F.
39. Determine the moment at the fixed end.
A. 60 kNm
B. 55 kNm
C. 65 kNm
D. 50 kNm
C. 65 kN
D. 50 kN
C. 5 mm
D. 6 mm
F.
G. Properties of W 450 x 70:
H.
mm2
bf = 150 mm
tf = 15 mm
d = 450 mm
A = 8700
C. 142.20 MPa
D. 123.87 MPa
C. 2435 MPa
D. 23.15 MPa
E. Situation 16 A built up
section consisting of W 350
x 90 with two 12 mm
plates welded to form a
box section as shown in
the Figure S01. The section
is used as a column 10
meters long. The column is
fixed at both ends and
braced at midheight about
the weak axis (Yaxis). The
code provision is given in
Figure NSCP01. Use Fy = 248 MPa.
F.
G. Properties of W350 x 90:
bf = 250
H.
tw = 9.5 mm
Ix = 266 x 106
Iy = 44.54 x 106
A = 11,550 mm2
mm
tf = 16.4
mm
d = 350 mm
45. Determine the effective slenderness ration of the column with respect to
lateral buckling about the xaxis.
A. 42.76
B. 34.89
C. 37.66
D. 35.98
46. Determine the effective slenderness ration of the column with respect to the
lateral buckling about the yaxis.
A. 34.89
B. 35.98
C. 37.66
D. 42.76
C. 3219
D. 2663
G.
Fa =
[ ]
KL 2
Fy
r
1
2
2 Cc F . S .
( )
F.S. =
KL 3
KL
)
r
5
r
+
3 8 Cc
8 C3c
3(
( )
I.
J.
Fa =
12 2 E
KL 2
23
r
( )
tw = 12 mm
Ix = 38.1 x 106 mm4
Iy = 2.91 x 106 mm4
= 21 mm
A = 4560 mm2
N.
48. What is the compressive stress in the column due to an axial load of 900
kN?
A. 98.7 MPa
B. 91.2 MPa
C. 89.4 MPa
D. 102.5 MPa
49. What is the maximum bending stress in the column due to a moment of 70
kNm, about the xaxis of the section?
A. 114.8 MPa
B. 123.9 MPa
C. 96.5 MPa
D. 1181.1 MPa
50. What is the critical (maximum) effective slenderness ratio of the column?
A. 48.2
B. 76.1
C. 54.4
D. 65.2
Impact factor =
15
L+37
I. Properties of W 850x185:
J.
A = 23,750 mm2
d = 850 mm
bf = 290 mm
tf = 20 mm
tw = 15 mm
Ix = 2662 x 106 mm4
Iy = 81.52 x 106 mm
51. Calculate the maximum bending stress in the beam due to dead load.
A. 123 MPa
B. 107 MPa
C. 92 MPa
D. 98 MPa
52. Calculate the maximum bending stress in the beam due to live load plus
impact.
A. 79 MPa
B. 62 MPa
C. 68 MPa
D. 56 MPa
53. Calculate the maximum average web shear stress in the beam due to live
load plus impact.
A. 7.6 MPa
B. 8.5 MPa
C. 9.1 MPa
D. 12.4 MPa
H.
tf = 18
mm
mm
tw = 10
I. k = 38 m
C. 180 mm
D. 200 mm
55. Using the width in Part 1, wat is the required plate thickness? Assume that
the critical section in bending for bearing plate is distance k from the axis of
the beam.
A. 28.4 mm
B. 32.1 mm
C. 24.5 mm
D. 21.2 mm
56. Determine the web yielding stress at the web toe of fillet.
A. 102 MPa
B. 85 MPa
C. 127 MPa
D. 111 MPa
E.
F. Situation 20 The floor framing plan of a reinforced concrete
structure is shown in the figure. The beams are 280 mm wide and 520
mm deep and the slab is 110 mm thick. Other than concrete weight,
the floor is subjected to additional (superimposed) dead load of 3 kPa
and live load of 5.2 kPa. Unit weight of concrete is 23.5 kN/m 3.
G. Due to space consideration, the columns E and H are to be removed.
This will make girder BEHK support the beams DEF at E and GHI at H.
H. Use tributary area method.
57. Determine the uniform service dead load on beam DEF.
A. 19.87 kN/m
B. 21.34 kN/m
C. 17.38 kN/m
D. 16.21 kN/m
C. 11 kN/m
D. 12 kN/m
59. Determine the factored concentrated load at E due to loads on beam DEF.
A. 287.9 kN
B. 145.8 kN
C. 254.5 kN
D. 321.2 kN
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
K.
L.
M.
Situation
21 The
floor
framing plan
of a
reinforced
concrete
structure is shown in the figure. Then the columns E and H are
deleted, girder BEHK carries the reaction of BEF at E and GHK at H.
this girder maybe considered fixed at B and K. the uniform load on this
girder is 5 kN/m and the concentrated load at E and H are each 270
kN.
60. Calculate the maximum shear at B due to uniform and concentrated loads.
A. 321 kN
B. 289 kN
C. 265 kN
D. 253 kN
C. 290 kN
D. 270 kN
62. Calculate the maximum positive moment in the girder due to uniform load
only.
A. 11.72 kNm
B. 13.21 kNm
C. 9.65 kNm
D. 10.12 kNm
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
K.
M.
63. What is the maximum foundation pressure in kPa?
A. 256 kPa
B. 274 kPa
C. 287 kPa
D. 321 kPa
C. 82 kPa
D. 54 kPa
65. What is the minimum required gross allowable soil bearing capacity to carry
the given loads?
A. 310 kPa
B. 280 kPa
C. 290 kPa
D. 300 kPa
F.
66. Calculate the nominal strength of the beam for positive moment neglecting
the contribution of the top reinforcement.
A. 567.2 kNm
B. 503.2 kNm
C. 456.1 kNm
D. 526.5 kNm
67. Calculate the nominal strength of the beam for negative moment.
A. 289.88 kNm
B. 321.98 kNm
C. 432.12 kNm
D. 238.43 kNm
68. Calculate the required nominal shear strength of the beam if it is subjected
to a factored shear of 220 kN.
A. 289.4 kN
B. 269.5 kN
C. 258.8 kN
D. 231.9 kN
C. 168 kNm
D. 183 kNm
70. If the design ultimate moment capacity of the beam is 280kNm, determine
the required number of 20 mm tension bars.
A. 8
B. 6
C. 9
D. 7
71. If the beam will carry an additional factored load of 240 kN at midspan,
determine the required number of 20 mm tension bars.
A. 14
B. 9
C. 10
D. 12
E. Situation 25 The
section of a column
is shown in the
figure. For this
problem, b1 = 300
mm, b2 = 180 mm,
d1 = 250 mm, d2 =
350 mm. fc = 28
MPa, fy = 414 MPa.
72. Determine the location of
the gross concrete area
measured from yaxis.
A. 281 mm
B. 262 mm
C. 274 mm
D. 253 mm
73. Determine the location of the plastic neutral axis of the column measured
from the yaxis. Neglect the area of concrete occupied by the steel.
A. 272 mm
B. 302 mm
C. 282 mm
D. 292 mm
74. Determine the factored moment Mu due to factored load Pu = 3200 applied
400 mm from the yaxis. Assume that the column is reinforced such that
plastic neutral axis is 290 mm from the yaxis.
A. 352 kNm
B. 387 kNm
C. 326 kNm
D. 376 kNm
C. 486
D. 452
76. If the ties are spaced at 230 mm o centers, what is the maximum value of
Vu, in kN?
A. 446
B. 521
C. 389
D. 416
77. If the factored shear force parallel to the 600 mm side is 400 kN, determine
the required spacing of transverse reinforcement in accordance with the
provisions for seismic design.
A. 154.8 mm
B. 112.5 mm
C. 125.8 mm
D. 208.1 mm
C. 7.08 MPa
D. 7.54 MPa
79. What is the maximum compressive stress in the beam when e = 120 mm?
A. 14.32 MPa
B. 18.72 MPa
C. 15.58 MPa
D. 16.92 MPa
80. Determine the value of eccentricity e such that the resulting stress at the
top fiber of the beam is zero.
A. 100 mm
B. 120 mm
C. 200 mm
D. 150 mm
F.
81. Determine the initial stress at the bottom fibers due to prestressing force
along?
A. 42.3 MPa
B. 48.6 MPa
C. 52.8 MPa
D. 37.6 MPa
82. Determine the stress at the bottom fibers due to service load and
prestressing force. Assume that there is a loss of prestress of 20% at service
loads.
A. 8.9 MPa
B. 9.87 MPa
C. 12.32 MPa
D. 6.56 MPa
83. Calculate the additional load can the floor carry so that the stress at the
bottom fibers at the midspan is zero.
A. 5.43 kPa
B. 7.98 kPa
C. 4.89 kPa
D. 3.04 kPa
C. 504 kN
D. 587 kN
85. Calculate the factored shear on footing at critical section for twoway action.
A. 1432 kN
B. 1873 kN
C. 1648 kN
D. 1256 kN
C. 13
D. 11
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
Situation 30
Answer the
following questions:
C. Static
D. Dynamic
88. Which of the following forces determines whether a body will be at rest or in
motion?
A. Resultant
B. Equilibrant
C. Work
D. Momentum
C. Work
D. momentum
E.
F. Situation 31 Answer the following questions on axial deformation of
rigid bodies:
90. Within proportional limit, the stress is directly proportional to strain.
A. Elastic limit
B. Youngs Modulus
C. Poissons Ratio
D. Hookes Law
C. Youngs Modulus
D. Elastic Limit
92. Within elastic range, the slope of the straight line portion of the stressstrain
curve.
A. Youngs Modulus
B. Elastic Limit
E.
F.
G.
C. Hookes Law
D. Poissons Ratio
H.
I.
J.
K.
L.
M.
N.
O. ANSWER KEY:
P.
Z.
AI.
AR.
26
Q.
AA.
11
AB.
12
S.
AC.
13
AS.
27
AK.
20
W.
AF.
AG.
16
Y.
BI.
BA.
35
BQ.
49
BR.
50
AM.
22
AN.
23
AO.
24
BB.
BC.
36
AU.
29
X.
AH.
17
AT.
AL.
AD.
14
AE.
15
AZ.
34
BY.
BJ.
T.
U.
BH.
41
AJ.
R.
V.
AQ.
BD.
37
BS.
51
BK.
44
AW.
31
AX.
32
AP.
BF.
BG.
40
BU.
53
BM.
BO.
47
AY.
BP.
CA.
58
CB.
59
CE.
62
BW.
55
BX.
CJ.
CK.
67
CF.
CP.7
2
A
CQ.
73
D
CR.
74
B
CS.
75
A
CT.
CL.
CD.
61
BV.
BN.
46
CH.
65
CI.
CC.
60
BL.
AV.
BE.
38
BT.
BZ.
57
CG.
64
CM.
69
CU.
76
C
CV.7
7
C
CN.
70
CW.
78
D
CO.
71
CX.
79
D
CY.
DA.
82
DB.
83
CZ.
81
DC.
84
DD.
85
DF.
DH.
88
DI.
DG.
87
DJ.
DW.
DX.
DY.
DZ.
EA.
EB.
EC.
ED.
EE.
EF.
EG.
EH.
EI.
EJ.
Solutions
DK.
91
DL.
92
DE.
DV.
DM.
93
DN.
94
DO.
95
DP.
DQ.
96
DR.
97
DS.
98
DU.
10
0
DT.
EK.
EL.
LAD =
LAD =3.1321 m
LAB = LAD =
3.1321 m
LAC =
2.42 +1.82
= 3m
EM.
FACy =
2.4
3
2.4
FABy = 3.1321
EN.
EO.
EP.
MBD = 0
FACy(2.7) = W(0.9)
EQ.
ER.
Set FAC = 15 kN
MCE = 0
2(FABy)(2.7) = W(1.8)
ES.
ET.
0.8FAC(2.7) = (0.9)
FAC = 0.4167 W
W = 36 kN
5.4(0.7662FAB)= W(1.8)
FAB = 0.43501 W = FAD
Set FAB = 15 Kn
W = 34.482 kN (governs)
2
EU.
EV.
= arctan(3/1) = 71.565
EW.
EX.
FV = 0
EY.
F t = T x Ac
(2) = 22.619 kN
6 x T sin = 22.619
T = 3.974 kN
105 = 3,974 x
(dc) 2
dc = 6.9 say 7 mm
EZ.
FA.
D
= 10 mm
L=
25 m
P=8
kN
= 77
kN/m3
FB.
Area, A =
2
2
4 (10) = 78.54 mm
E = 200
GPa (for
steel)
FC.
Weight of rod,
W=
Vs =
77,000[78.54/10002](25)
W = 154.189 N
FD.
FE.
PL
AE
8,000(25,000)
78.54 (200,000)
FF.
= 12.732 mm
FG.
1
WL
2
AE
1
(151,189)(25,000)
2
78.54 (200,000)
FH.
Total deformation,
FI.
= 0.1203 mm
Outside diameter, D =
Inside diameter, d = D 2t =
Torque, T =
FK.
FL.
16 TD
( D 4d 4)
FN.
= 12.853 mm
FJ.
FM.
16 (4 x 106 )(85)
(854 754 )
= 84.22 MPa
5
Cracking moment, M = 38 kNm
Weight of beam = 4kN/m
FO.
M=
w L2
8
38 =
w(6)
8
w = 8.444 kN/m
FP.
FQ.
FR.
MA = 30(2)+
10(2.8)(1.4)
MA = 99.2 kNm
FS.
FT.
FU.
FV.
FW.
FX.
FY.
FZ.
Maximum negative moment at B will occur when the uniform load is
within CD only. Total length = 3 m
GA.
Situation 1
GB.
Given:
P = 35i
Q = (45 cos 60)i
Part 1:
GD.
80i
GE.
Resultant, R =
R=P+Q+S
80i = 35i + (22.5i38.9j) + S
S = 92.5i + 38.97j
Sx = 92.5 kN , Sy = 38.97 kN
GF.
= arctan
Sy
Sx
= arctan
= 22.85
Part 2:
GG.
horizontal
Resultant is
to the right with
60
GH.
Rxi + 0j
R=P+Q+S=
Rxi = 35i + (22.5i 38.97j)
+ S(cos 60 i + sin 60 j)
Rxi + 0j = (12.5 0.5S)I +
(38.97+0.866S)j
GI.
0 = 38.97 + 0.866S
S = 45 kN
GJ.
Part 3:
38.91
92.5
GK.
0
P+Q+S=
35i + (22.5i
38.97j) + S = 0
S = 12.5i + 38.97j
Sx = 12.5
kN
Sy = 38.97
kN
GL.
S=
12.52+38.97 2
S = 40.927 kN
GM.
GN.
GO.
Situation 2
Part 1:
The tensions in the cables are equal when their angles of
inclination
are equal. Since A and C are on the same elevation, therefore x 1
= x2 = 10.
GP.
Parts 2 & 3:
GQ.
GR.
= 180 
= 15.12
GS.
polygon:
T1
sin
GT.
T2
sin
W
sin
GU.
T1 =
50
sin 86.19
sin15.12
= 191.21
kN Part 2
GV.
T2 =
50
sin 78.69
sin15.12
= 187.92
kN
GW.
Length of cable:
L = x1 sec + x2 sec
Situation 3
Parts 1 & 2:
Neglecting the weight of the plate:
GZ.
MA = 0
2RB (1.35) = 1150 (0.45)
RB = 191.667 kN = RC
HA.
FV = 0
RA = 1150 2 (191.667)
RA = 766.67 kN
HB.
HC.
Part 3
Considering the weight of the plate:
W=
W = 77 x
W = 8.817 kN
Vs
(1.8)2(0.45)
MA = 0
2RB (1.35) = 1150 (0.45) + 8.817(0.9)
RB = 194.61 kN = RC
HD.
HE.
Situation 4
HF.
HG.
HH.
a = 1.5 cot 30
MC =0
HI.
HJ.
HK.
HL.
a = 2.598 m
At joint A:
FH = 0
18.915 x 10
2
( 16 )
4
41.085 x 103
=
6(76)
HM.
HN.
HO.
HP.
Situation 5
W1 = 18(12)
W1 = 216 kN
HQ.
=
arctan(3/6)
= 26.565
HR.
polygon:
HS.
T = W1 csc
T = 216 csc
26.565
T = 483 kN
HT.
AV = T sin = 216 kN
HU.
H = W1 cot
HV.
Part 3:
When T = 360 kN
W
T
HW.
= arcsin
= arcsin
HX.
216
360
HY.
HZ.
IA.
IB.
Situation 6
Given:
IC.
ID.
Part 1:
IE.
pD
2t
IF.
Part 2:
2.2(584)
2(8)
= 80.3 MPa
= 36.87
IG.
pD
4t
2.2(584)
4 (8)
= 40.15 MPa
IH.
Part 3: Note: in thin walled cylindrical tanks, tangential stress twice as
critical as longitudinal stress.
II.
IJ.
t allow
= 124 MPa
pD
2t
124 =
p( 584)
2(8)
p = 3.397 MPa
IK.
IL.
Situation 7
A=
I=
64
Vol = 3 + 22 +
(0.28)2(3) = 7.064 kN
IM.
IN.
IO.
f=
Pt M C
A
I ; c = D/2 = 140 mm
f=
1.65 x 10 (140)
3000
f =  0.1147 0.7656
IP.
IQ.
IR.
Part 3:
IS.
Shear, V = H = 450 N
Diameter, D =280 mm, r = 140mm
4V
3 r
Shear stress, fv =
4(450)
fv = 3 ( 140 )2
fv = 0.0097 MPa
IT.
Situation 8
IU.
IV.
IW.
IX.
IY.
Upward pressure, q =
IZ.
JA.
W
L
1305
15
= 87 kN/m
JB.
Situation 9
JC.
JD.
JE.
JF.
Part 1:
JG.
q=
Force
L
q=
2 x 112 (1.5)
7
q = 48 kN/m
JH.
JI.
JJ.
JK.
JL.
Situation 10
JM.
JN.
JO.
From the influence diagram, the uniform load must be within AB and
CD to produce maximum area. The total length is 4 + 2 = 6 m
JP.
JQ.
Situation 11
JR.
= arctan(0.9/2.7)
= 18.435
JS.
JT.
FV = 0
2T sin = W
JU.
Part 1: T = 2kN
W = 2(2) sin 18.435
W = 1.265 kN = 1265 N
JV.
Mass, M =
W
g
M=
JW.
JX.
JY.
1265
9.81
M = 128.99 kg
Part 2:
M = 85 kg
By ratio and proportion from the previous question:
T
85 kg
JZ.
2kN
128.99 kg
T = 1.318 kN
KA.
Stress, ft =
T
Ar
ft =
ft = 16.78 MPa
KB.
Part 3:
Length of rod = 2
2.72 +0.92
Situation 12
1,318
( 10 )2
4
KE.
KF.
KG.
KH.
KI.
KJ.
KK.
KL.
= 11 MPa
q = 5 MPa
fV = 1 MPa
KM.
arctan(0.75/1.2)
KN.
= 32
At joint C:
2F sin
20
F = 18.868 kN
KO.
F
100 (150)
= 1.258
MPa
KP.
R1 = F sin
KQ.
Considering R2:
KR.
On surface ab: =
KS.
Fab =
KT.
R2 = fab x Aab
KU.
Shear: Fv = 1 MPa
R 2 = Fv + A v
KV.
Situation 13
R2 = F cos
= 10kN
pxq
p sin +q cos 2
2
= 16 kN
= 32
= 8.227 MPa
KW.
MPa
KX.
P = Ft x A
KY.
KZ.
P = Ft x An
LA.
LB.
P = 148.8(3024)
P = 450 kN
P = 200(2196)
P =439.2 kN
LC.
AV =
2[63x2 +38
2.5x23](12)
AV =2556
mm
LD.
LE.
P = Ft x At + FV x AV
P = 498.72 kN
LF.
LG.
P = 200(960) + 120(2556)
Path 2:
Tension:
At = (63x3  2.5x23)(12)
At = 1578 mm2
AV = [63x2 + 38
2.5x23](12)
AV = 1278 mm2
LH.
Ft =
0.5Fu = 200 MPa
FV = 0.3Fu
= 120 MPa
LI.
P = Ft x At + FV x
AV
P = 200(1578) +
120(1278)
P = 468.96 kN
LJ.
LK.
Situation 14
Part 1: Moment
at fixed end:
LL.
MA = 
w L2
12
MA = 
20 (6)
12
MA = 60 kNm
LM.
LN.
Vmax = RA
Vmax =
20 (6)
2
Vmax =
LO.
LP.
w L4
384 EI
mid
LR.
LS.
LQ.
wL
2
= 60 kN
20(6)(1000)4
200,000 (67.5 x 106 )
mid
mid
= 5 mm
Situation 15
Total load:
w = 20 +
70 (9.81)
1000
= 20.834 kN/m
LT.
w L2
12
MB = LU.
Mmax = 
20.834 (10)2
12
LV.
LW.
= RB
LX.
Vmax =
LY.
Vmax = 104.168 kN
LZ.
wL
2
MC
Ix
fb max =
6
173.613 x 10 (
max
fb
450
)
2
274.7 x 106
fb max =
142.2 MPa
MA.
stress:
V
dtw
fv ave =
fv ave =
104.168 x 10
450(10)
MC.
MD.
VQ
Ix t
Q = Ay
Q = 150(15)(210+7.5) + 210(10)(105)
Q = 709.875 x 103 mm3
t = 10 m
ME.
fv max =
Situation 16
MG.
Cc =
22E
Fy
2 2 (200,000)
248
Cc = 126.17
MH.
section:
Properties of builtup
A = 11,550 + 2 x
(350)(12)
A = 19,950 mm2
MI.
Ix = 266 x 10 + 2 x
6
12 ( 350 )
12
Ix
A
= 132.784 mm
Iy = 44.54 x 106 + 2
350 ( 12 )3
250 122
+( 350)(12)(
+
)]
12
2
2
Iy = 188.79 x 106 mm4
ry =
MK.
LRx =
LRy =
ML.
K y Ly
ry
Iy
A
K X LX
rx
Maximum
= 97.28 mm
0.5(10,000)
132.784
0.7(5,000)
97.28
KL
r
= 37.66
= 35.98
Part 1
Part 2
MM.
KL
r
Cc
MN.
MO.
Fa =
MP.
P = Fa x A
MQ.
2
Fy
2 FS
37.66
126.17
= 0.2984
5 3
3
+
3 8
8
FS =
FS = 1.775
Fa = 133.476 MPa
P = 133.476(19,950)
P = 2662.8 kN
Part 3
Situation 17
MR.
A = 2A1
A = 2(4560)
A = 9,120 mm2
MS.
Ix = 2Ix1
Ix = 2(38.1 x
106)
Ix = 76.2 x 106
MT.
Iy = 2(Iy1 + A x12)
Iy = 2 [2.91x106
+ 4560(69)2]
Iy = 49.24 x 106
4
mm
MU.
rx =
Ix
A
rx =
Iy
A
MV.
ry =
MW.
Part 1:
Axial load = 900 kN
Axial compressive stress:
MX.
ry =
fa =
P
A
76.2 x 106
9,120
49.24 x 106
9,120
fa =
fa = 98.68 MPa
= 91.41 mm
= 73.48 mm
900,000
9,120
MY.
Part 2:
Moment about xasis, Mx = 70 kNm
MZ.
Bending stress:
NA.
fb =
250
)
2
76.2 x 10 6
70 x 10 6 (
M xc
Ix
fb =
fb = 114.83 MPa
NB.
( KLr )
NC.
( KLr )
1( 4000)
91.407
1( 4000)
74.48
= 43.76
= 54.44 Critical
ND.
Situation 18
NE.
NF.
NG.
Moment of inertia
of the beam with cover
plate:
Ix = 2662 x
NH.
10 + 2 x
6
260 ( 16 )3
+260 ( 16 ) ( 433 )2
12
Ix = 4,222 x 106
NI.
NJ.
w d L2
8
MD =
12 ( 25 )
8
MD = 937.5 kNm
NK.
fb =
Mc
Ix
fb =
c = 441 mm
NL.
937.5 x 10 (441)
4,222 x 106
fb = 97.925 MPa
NM.
( PLPd )2
4 PL
Mmax =
NN.
base = 4.3 m
P = total load = 90 kN
Ps = smaller load = 18 kN
d = wheel
L = beam length =
25 m
NO.
Mmax =
NP.
Impact factor =
15
L+37
= 524.466 kNm
15
25+ 37
(ok)
NQ.
NR.
fb max =
Mc
Ix
fb max =
651.33 x 10 6 (441)
4,222 x 106
c = 441 mm
fb max = 68 MPa
NS.
NT.
NU.
Maximum shear occurs at the reaction where the heaviest
load is nearest.
NV.
NW.
MR1 = 0
NX.
NY.
25 R2 = 18(20.7) + 72(25)
R2 = 86.904 kN
fv ave =
107.93 x 10
850 (15)
V
dtw
fv ave =
Situation 19
Part 1:
Load, P = 250 kN
Allowable bearing stress of concrete, Fp = 0.35fc = 9.625
MPa
OB.
130
P = Fp A
250,000 = 0.625 x W x
W = 199.8 mm say 200 mm
OC.
Part 2:
Actual
bearing pressure:
OD.
fp =
P
130 (200)
9.615 MPa
OE.
x=
100 k = 62 MPa
OF.
t=
t=
3 f p x2
Fb
3 ( 9.61 ) ( 62 )
0.75(248)
t = 24.4 mm
Part 3: Web yielding stress at toe of fillet (end reaction):
OG.
fa =
P
( N +2.5 k ) t w
fa =
OH.
250,000
[ 130+2.5 ( 38 ) ] 10
fa = 111.11 MPa
OI.
Situation 20
OJ.
OJ.
OJ.
OJ.
OK.
OL.
Loads:
Dead load:
wd = beam weight + slab weight + dead load pressure
wd =
Ab +
Ac + pd x S
OM.
Live load:
w1 =pl x S
w1 = 5.2(2.5)
w1 = 13 kN/m
Part 2
ON.
OO.
OP.
OQ.
OR.
OS.
OT.
Situation 21
OU.
OV.
OW.
OX. Part 1: Shear at B due to concentrated and uniform loads:
OY.
OZ.
VB = RB1 + RB2
VB = (5)(7.5) + (270 + 270)
PA.
VB = 288.75 kN
PB.
PC.
PD.
Part 2: Maximum shear at E due to concentrated load
PE.
PF.
In Figure (2):
PG.
VE1 = 270 kN
PH.
VE2 = 270 270 = 0
PI.
VEmax = 270 kN
PJ.
PK.
Situation 22
PL.
PM.
m
PN.
PO.
Given:
PP.
Eccentricity, e =
PQ.
PR.
PS.
PT.
P = 1200 kN
M = 360 kNm
L = 2.5 m
Thickness of concrete, hC = 0.7
B = 3m
M
P
e=
360
1200
PU.
q= 
P
L(B)
6M
L B2
q=
1200
2.5(3)
6(360)
2.5 (3)2
PV.
PW.
PX.
Part 1
PY.
Part 2
PZ.
QA.
QB.
QC.
QD.
QE.
QF.
QG.
QH.
QI.
2
2
4 (25) = 1473 mm
2
2
4 (25) = 2454 mm
QJ.
QK.
QL.
600d
600 + f y
QM.
Balance, cbalance =
= 307 mm
QN.
1 = 0.85
QO.
top bar.
QP.
As = 2454 mm2
QQ.
QR.
Assuming fs = fy:
QS.
QT.
Asfy = 0.85 fc Ac
2454(415) = 0.86(21)Ac
QU.
Ac = 57,062 mm2
< Af
QV.
QW.
Ac = bf x a
57,602 = 1100 x a
QX.
a= 51.9 mm
QY.
QZ.
c = a / f
c = 61 mm <
cbalance (fs = fy)
RA.
RB.
Mn = T(d  a/2)
Mn = Asfy(d  a/2)
RC.
Mn = 2454(415)
(520 51.9/2)
RD.
Mn = 503.2 kNm
RE.
RF.
Part 2: Negative moment
RG.
RH.
RI.
RJ.
RK.
RL.
RM.
RN.
RO.
Assuming fs = fy and fs < fy:
RP.
T = Cc + Cs
RQ.
RR.
RS.
RT.
RU.
RV.
Asfy = 0.85 fc a b + As fs
RW.
fs = 600
c d '
c
a = 1c
RX.
RY.
RZ.
SA.
SB.
fs = 600
SC.
SD.
a= 1c = 68.6mm
c  70
c
SE.
SF.
SG.
SJ.
SK.
SL.
SM.
SN.
Part 3:
Factored shear, Vu = 220 kN
SO.
258.82 kN
SP.
SQ.
SR.
SS.
ST.
SU.
SV.
SW.
SX.
SY.
SZ.
TA.
TB.
TC.
TD.
80.68  70
80.68
Vu
220
0.85
Situation 24
Given: b = 300 mm
d = 480 70 = 410 mm
fy = 415 MPa
Bar diameter, db = 20 mm
fc = 28 MPa
1 = 0.85
min = 1.4/fy = 0.00337
TE.
Mu =
w u L2
8
53.738(5 )2
8
Mu =
TF.
Mu = 167.93 kNm
TG.
TH.
Part 2:
TI.
Mu = 280 kNm
TJ.
TK.
Solve for the Mumax to determine whether compression
steel is needed
TL.
TM.
TN.
TO.
TP.
TQ.
b =
0.85(28)(0.85)(600)
415(600 + 415)
b =
b = 0.02881
max = 0.75 b
b = 0.02161
max f y
f' c
TR.
max =
TS.
TT.
TU.
TV.
TW.
TX.
TY.
TZ.
UA.
UB.
UC.
UD.
UE.
UF.
UG.
UH.
UI.
UJ.
UK.
UL.
UM.
UN.
UO.
max = 0.03203
0.85 f'c
2R
1 1 u
fy
0.85 f'c
=
0.85 (28)
2(6.169)
1 1415
0.85(28)
As = b d
As =
(singly reinforced)
As = 0.01755(300)(410)
As = 2159 mm2
db2 N
2159 =
(20)2 N
(From part 1)
UP.
Mu =
Pu L
4
(doubly)
UQ.
Mu1 = Mu max = 330.14 kNm
UR.
As1 = As max = 2,658 mm2
US.
UT.
Mu2 = Mu Mu1 = 137.79 kNm
UU.
UV.
Mu2 = T2(d d)
137.79 x 106 = 0.90 As2(415)
(41070)
UW.
As2 = 1,085 mm2
UX.
UY.
As = As1 + As2
As = 2,658 + 1,085
UZ.
As = 3,743 mm2
VA.
VB.
VC.
As =
db N
2
VD.
VE.
VF.
Situation 25
VG. Part 1:
VH. Geometric centroid:
VI.
A1 = 300(25) = 75,000
2
mm
VJ.
x1 = 125 mm
VK.
VL.
A2 = 180(350) = 63, 000
2
mm
VM.
x2 = 250 + 350/2
VN.
x2 = 425 mm
VO.
VP.
A = A1 + A2 = 138,000 mm2
VQ.
VR.
VS.
VT.
A x
= A1x1 + A2x2
=
75,000(125) + 63,000(425)
138,000
VU.
VV.
VW.
VX.
3,743 =
4 (20)2 N
= 262 mm
VY.
The plastic centroid of a column cross section is the point through
which the resultant column load must pass to produce uniform strain in
failure. It represents he location of h resultant force produced by the steel
and concrete.
VZ.
WA.
WB.
WC.
WD.
WE.
WF.
WG.
WH.
Cc1 = 0.85 fc A1
xc1 = 125 mm
Cc1 = 0.85(28)(75,000)
Cc1 = 1785 kN
Cc2 = 0.85 fc A2
xc2 = 425 mm
Cc1 = 0.85(28)(63,000)
Cc1 = 1499.4 kN
Cs1 = As1 fy
Cs1 = 6 x
WI.
WJ.
xcs1 = 125 mm
(20)2(414)
Cs1 = 780.37 kN
Cs1 = 4 x
WK.
Cs2 = As2 fy
(28)2(414)
WL.
WM.
WN.
WO.
WP.
xcs1 = 516 mm
Cs1 = 1019.69 kN
Resultant Force, C = Cc1 + Cc2 + Cs1 + Cs2
Resultant Force, C = 5084.46 kN
Location of C from xaxis:
WQ.
WR.
C x
WS.
= 291.9 mm
WT.
WU. Part 3:
WV. The eccentricity of a column
load is the distance from the load to
the plastic centroid of the column
WW.
WX.
Mu = Pu x e
WY.
WZ. Mu = 3200 x 0.11
XA. Mu = 352 kNm
XB.
XC.
Situation 26
XD.
XE.
0.816
XF.
XG.
XH.
XI.
XJ.
XK.
XL.
XM.
XN.
XO.
XP.
XQ.
XR.
XS.
XT.
XU.
XV.
bw = 450 mm
h = 600 mm
MPa
fc = 21 MPa
fy = 415 MPa
Allowable shear stress of concrete, Fvc =
Vn = 196.64 + 375
Vn = 571.64 kN
XW.
XX.
XY.
XZ.
YA.
Vu = Vn
Part 2:
s = 230 mm
YB.
Vs =
Av fy d
s
Vs = 327.83 kN
Vn = 196.64 + 327.83
Vn = 524.47 kN
Vu = Vn
Vu = 0.85(524.47)
Vu = 445.8 kN
Part 3:
Vu = 450 kN
Vs =
YO.
YP.
Vu
Vc
Vs =
s=
Av fy d
Vs
s=
196.64
339.29(415)(535.5)
332.78
s = 226.6 mm
Requirements for Seismic Design:
Ach = (600 2 x 40)(450 2 x 40) = 192,400 mm 2
Ag = 600 x 450 = 270,000 mm2
2
2
4 (12) = 339.29 mm
YX.
Ash = 3 x
YY.
YZ.
sh c f' c A g
1
Ash = 0.3 f yh
A ch
s(358)(21) 270,000
1
415
192,400
ZB.
450
0.85
Vs = 332.78 kN
YQ.
ZA.
339.29(415)(535.5)
230
Vs =
Vn = Vc + Vs
YN.
YR.
YS.
YT.
YU.
YV.
YW.
2
2
4 (12) = 339.29 mm
Av = 3 x
YC.
YD.
YE.
YF.
YG.
YH.
YI.
YJ.
YK.
YL.
YM.
Vu = 0.85(571.64)
Vu = 485.89 kN
339.29 = 0.3
)
s = 155 mm
sh c f' c
Ash = 0.09 f yh
ZC.
339.29 = 0.09
s(358)(21)
415
ZD.
s = 208 mm
ZE.
a) b/4 = 112.5 mm
b) 6(25) = 150 mm
c) 100 +
350  h x
3
ZF.
ZG.
ZH.
100 +
ZI.
350  h x
3
= 126 mm
ZJ.
ZK.
Situation 27
ZL.
ZM.
The compressive stress at the top and bottom of the beam due to P is
given by the formula:
ZN.
fc = 
Pe
bh
6Pe e
b h2
bottom fiber
ZO.
ZP.
ZQ.
ZR.
ZS.
Part 1:
When e = 0;
ZT.
fc =
ZU.
ZV.
ZW.
P
bh
fc =
1275 x 10
300(600)
fc = 7.08 MPa
Part 2:
ZX.
fc top = 
6Pe e
P
bh
bh
1275 x 103
300(600)
fc top = 
AAA.
fc bot = 
P
bh
6Pe e

bh
fc bot = 
1275 x 103
300(600)
Situation 28
Loads:
wd = pd x b = 2.5(2.5) = 6.25 kN/m
wl = pl x b = 6(2.25) = 15 kN/m
wb =
AAK.
AAL.
w L2
8
kNm
AAM.
26.42 ( 8 )
8
= 211.36
AAN.
ftop = 
P Pec
+
A
I
ftop = 
fbot = 
P Pec
A
I
fbot = 
Part 1
Mc
I
ftop = 
fbot =
Mc
I
fbot =
211.36 x 10 (270)
1890 x 106
AAS.
AAT. Part 3: Additional service loads to zero the stress at the bottom at
midspan
AAU. The additional load must induce a stress of 8.689 MPa at the
bottom fibers.
AAV. fbot =
Mac
I
8.689 =
M ( 270)
1890 x 10 6
M = 60.822 kNm
M=
w a L2
8
60.822 =
w = 7.603 kN/m
wa (8)2
8
AAW. pa =
w
b
7.603
2.5
pa =
pa = 3.04 kPa
AAX.
AAY.
Situation 29
Dead load, PD = 740 kN
Live load, PL = 460 kN
Pu
A ftg
1,818
2.4 (2.4)
= 315.625 kPa
ABD.
d = 0.36 m
ABE.
ABF.
Vu = qu x Area
ABG.
Vu = 315.625 x (2.4)(0.665)
Vu = 503.74 kN Part 1
Punching shear:
x1 = 0.4 + d = 0.76 m
x2 = 0.35 + d = 0.71 m
ABH.
Vu = qu x Area
0.76(0.71)]
Vu = 1647.7 kN Part 2
Vu = 315.625 x [2.42
ABI. Part 3:
ABJ.
x = (2.40.35) = 1.025 m
ABK.
(x/2)
Mu = qu x 2.4(x)
Mu = 315.625 (2.4)
(1.025)2/2
Mu = 397.924 kNm
ABL.
Mu = Ru b d2
ABM.
Ru =
397.924 x 10 6
0.90 ( 2400 )( 360 )2
ABN.
ABO. =
Ru = 1.421 MPa
]
[
0.85 f 'c
2 Ru
1 1
fy
0.85 f 'c
0.85(20.7)
2(1.421)
1 1
275
0.85 (20.7)
As = b d
As = 0.0054(2400)(360)
As = 4663 mm2
ABQ. N =
A
As
N=
N=
4663
( 20 )2
4
14.8 sa 15 bars
ABR.
ABS.
Situation
30
ABT. Answers:
ABU.
Part 1: Static
ABV.
Part 2: Resultant
ABW. Part 3: Kinetic
ABX.
ABY.
31:
ABZ.
Situation
Answers:
Part 1: Hookes
Law
ACA.
Part 2: Poisson Ratio
ACB.
Part 3: Youngs
Modulus
ACC.
ACD.
ACE.
ACF.
ACG.
ACH.
ACI.