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3/9/2016 Chapter4HumanFactorsDesignGuidelinesforAdvancedTravelerInformationSystems(ATIS)andCommercialVehicleOperations(CVO),FH

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FederalHighwayAdministration>Publications>ResearchPublications>Safety>98057>HumanFactorsDesignGuidelines
forAdvancedTravelerInformationSystems(ATIS)andCommercialVehicleOperations(CVO)

PublicationNumber:FHWARD98057

HumanFactorsDesignGuidelinesforAdvanced
TravelerInformationSystems(ATIS)and
CommercialVehicleOperations(CVO)

CHAPTER4:GENERALGUIDELINESFORADVANCED
TRAVELERINFORMATIONSYSTEM(ATIS)CONTROLS
ThischapterprovideshumanfactorsdesignguidelinesrelevanttothecontrolsassociatedwithATIS
devices.ATIScontrolsrepresenttheprimarymeansbywhichthedriverinteractswiththesystemand,
therefore,theirdesigniscriticaltosuccessfuluseofATISdevices.Thefollowingdesigntopicsare
includedinthischapter:

MANUALCONTROLS
SelectionofControlType
ControlMovementCompatibility
ControlCoding
SelectionofKeyboardsforATISDevices
ProvidingDestinationPreviewCapability

OTHER
DesignofSpeechBasedControls

SELECTIONOFCONTROLTYPE
Introduction:Selectionofcontroltypereferstotheapparatusbywhichthedrivermakescontrolinputs
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(i.e.,pushbuttons,pushpullknobs,rotaryknobs(discreteandcontinuous),levers,slides,
thumbwheels,toggleswitches,orrockerswitches).Selectionofappropriatecontroltypesisimportant
todecisionsregardingcontrollocation,becausesomecontroltypesaremoresuitedtoparticular
locations,and,conversely,particularlocationsareidealforcertaintypesofcontrols.
DesignGuidelines***
Thetablesbelowprovidesasummaryofthesuggestedcontroltypeswithrespectto
variousdesignandhumancomputerinterfacecharacteristics.Recommendationsfor
controlselectionsfromthevarioushumanfactorssourcesareingoodagreement(see
References1,2,3,and4).

ControlFunction

SuggestedControlType

Selectionbetweentwoalternativesor
discretepositionse.g.,on/off.

Toggleswitch,twopositionstalk,push
pullknob,pushbutton,orrockerswitch.

Selectionamongthreeormorealternatives
ordiscretepositionse.g.,modesof
operationforclimatecontrols.

Slide,multipurposestalk,discreterotary
knob,threepositiontoggleorrocker
switch,pushbuttons(forthreealternatives
only),keypad,ortouchscreen.

Preciseadjustmente.g.,radiovolume.

Continuousrotaryknoborthumbwheel.

Grossadjustmente.g.,intermittent
windshieldwiper.

Continuousrotaryknob,lever,ortouch
screen.

Largeforceapplicatione.g.,columntilt.

Lever.

ExpectedControlLocation

SuggestedControlType

Panel

Toggleswitch,rotaryknob,pushpullknob,
thumbwheel,slide,pushbutton,rocker
switch,touchscreen,orkeypad.

Stalk

Rotaryonendorinmiddleofstalk,push
buttononendofstalk,orsmallslide.

Pod

Pushbuttonorthumbwheel.

Steeringwheel,side

Stalkorlever.

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Steeringwheel,front

Pushbutton.

ControlTaskRequirement

SuggestedControlType

Blindoperation

Toggleswitch,rockerswitch,discrete
rotaryknob,orkeypad.

Tactilefeedback

Toggleswitch,rockerswitch,pushtolock
pushbutton,slidewithdetents,discrete
rotaryknob,orkeypad.

Visualidentificationofcontrolposition

Toggleswitch,rotary,slide,orlever.

Easycheckreadinginanarrayofcontrols

Toggleswitch,rotary,slide,orlever.

Fastactuation

Toggleswitch,twopositionstalk,rocker
switch,orpushbutton.

SupportingRationale:Controlsvarynotonlyintermsoftheirfunctions,applications,andmethodsof
operations,butalsowithrespecttosuchcharacteristicsastheirrelativespacerequirements,the
likelihoodofaccidentalactivation,andtheeasewithwhichthepositionofthecontrolcanbeidentified.
Thesecharacteristicsshouldbeconsideredwhendeterminingthemethodofoperationandcontroltype
forsecondaryautomotivecontrols.
SpecialDesignConsiderations:Selectionofacontroltypeisaniterativeprocess,involvingtrade
offsbetweenavarietyofcompetingdesignconcerns.Inparticular,controlselectionrequiresan
analysisofthefollowingdrivervehiclesystemconsiderations(adaptedfromReference1):(1)the
functionofthecontrol,(2)thedesiredlocationofthecontrol,(3)therequirementofthecontroltask,(4)
thevehicleenvironment,and(5)theconsequenceofdrivererror.
CrossReferences:
ControlMovementCompatibility
ControlCoding
KeyReferences:
1.Chapanis,A.,&Kinkade,R.G.(1972).Designofcontrols.InH.P.VanCott&R.G.
Kinkade(Eds.),Humanengineeringguidetoequipmentdesign(rev.ed.)(pp.345379).
Washington,DC:U.S.GovernmentPrintingOffice.
2.Boff,K.R.,&Lincoln,J.E.(Eds.).(1988).Engineeringdatacompendium:Human
perceptionandperformance.WrightPattersonAirForceBase,OH:Armstrong
AerospaceMedicalResearchLaboratory.
3.Woodson,D.E.,&Conover,D.W.(1964).Humanengineeringguideforequipment
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designers.Berkeley,CA:UniversityofCaliforniaPress.
4.MILSTD1472D.(1989).Humanengineeringdesigncriteriaformilitarysystems,
equipmentandfacilities.Washington,DC:U.S.GovernmentPrintingOffice.
*Primarilyexpertjudgement
**Expertjudgementwithsupportingempiricaldata
***Empiricaldatawithsupportingexpertjudgement
****Primarilyempiricaldata

Top

CONTROLMOVEMENTCOMPATIBILITY
Introduction:Controlmovementcompatibilityreferstotheexpectedrelationshipsbetweencontrol
actuationmovementsandthecorrespondingmovementsorchangesinthesystembeingcontrolled.
Makingcontrolmovementsconsistentwiththedriver'sexpectationscandecreasereactiontimes,
learningtimes,andcontrolerrors,andincreasedriversatisfactionwiththevehicle'scontrols.
DesignGuidelines***
Controlmovementsshouldcorrespondtotheexpectationsoftheuser.Seetable
belowforrecommendedcontrolmovementtosystemfunctionrelationships.
Expectationsforuptoincreaseareprobablystrongerthanthoseforclockwise
toincrease.

RecommendedControlMovementtoSystemFunctionRelationship

SystemFunction

ControlMovement

On

Up,right,forward,pull

Off

Down,left,rearward,push

Right

Clockwise,right

Left

Counterclockwise,left

Up

Up,rearward

Down

Down,forward

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Increase

Up,right,forward,clockwise

Decrease

Down,left,rearward,counterclockwise

SupportingRationale:Thecontrolmovementtosystemfunctionrelationshipsarerecommended
basedonareviewofseveraldifferenthumanfactorssources(seeReferences1and2).Theoptimum
directionofmovementforagivencontroldependsonanumberoffactors,including:(1)thepositionof
theoperatorrelativetothecontrol,(2)thepositionanddirectionofmovementofanyassociated
display,(3)thechangeresultingfromthecontrolmovement,and(4)thecontrolmovementto
systemfunctionrelationshipsforothercontrolsthatthedriveruses.
SpecialDesignConsiderations:AccordingtoReference3,itmaybenecessarytoviolateone
compatibilityrelationshipinordertotakeadvantageofanotheroneinthedesignofasystem.An
exampleofthisistherotarystalkcontrol.Inordertoincreasesomeparameterusingthelefthand
stalk,thecontrolmustberotateduporcounterclockwise.Althoughupisthecorrectmovementfor
increasingasystemfunction,counterclockwiseisnot.Therefore,thedesignermustdeterminewhichof
thedriver'sexpectationsisstrongerorwhichcanbeviolatedwithoutaffectingthedriver'sabilityto
effectivelyusethesystem.
CrossReferences:
SelectionofControlType
ControlCoding
KeyReferences:
1.Chapanis,A.,&Kinkade,R.G.(1972).Designofcontrols.InH.P.VanCott&R.G.
Kinkade(Eds.),Humanengineeringguidetoequipmentdesign(rev.ed.)(pp.345379).
Washington,DC:U.S.GovernmentPrintingOffice.
2.Sanders,M.S.,&McCormick,E.J.(1993).Humanfactorsinengineeringanddesign
(5thed.)NewYork:McGrawHill.
3.Rogers,S.P.,&Campbell,J.L.(1991).Guidelinesforautomobilehandcontrollocations
andactuationsbasedupondriverexpectanciesandergonomicprinciples(TR9471).
SantaBarbara,CA:AnacapaSciences,Inc.
*Primarilyexpertjudgement
**Expertjudgementwithsupportingempiricaldata
***Empiricaldatawithsupportingexpertjudgement
****Primarilyempiricaldata

Top

CONTROLCODING
Introduction:Controlcodingreferstothedesigncharacteristicsofcontrolsthatservetoidentifythe
controlortoidentifytherelationshipbetweenthecontrolandthefunctiontobecontrolled.Proper
codingofcontrolswillincreasetheprobabilitythatthecontrolswillbequicklyandaccuratelylocatedby
drivers,thusreducingtheeyesoffroadtime.
DesignGuidelines***
Useoneormoreofthefollowingdesigncharacteristicstoidentifycontrols:
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LocationCoding:Inordertoensurediscriminableanduniquecontrollocations,
controlsmustbeseparatedbydistancesthataresufficienttoavoidconfusion
amongpositions(seetablebelowentitled"RecommendedMinimumControl
SeparationDistances").
ShapeCoding:Thisismosteffectivewhenusedincombinationwithlocation
coding.Errorsinthedriver'shandpositionareindicatedbythefeelofthecontrol.
SizeCoding:Thisismosteffectivewhenusedincombinationwithlocationcoding.
Asmanyastwoorthreesizescanbeusedtodiscriminatecontrols.Ingeneral,
sizecodingismosteffectiveifthediameteroftheoutermostcontrolis1/2"(1.27
cm)largerthanthenextclosestcontrolonthestalk.

RecommendedMinimumControlSeparation1Distances

Push
Buttons
(No
Array)

Push
Button
Arrays

Rocker
Switches

Toggle
Switches

Thumb
Wheels

Discrete
Rotary
Controls

Continuous
Rotary
Controls

0.5in

2.0in

0.5in

0.5in

0.5in

0.5in

0.5in

(1.27
cm)

(5.08
cm)

(1.27cm)

(1.27cm)

(1.27
cm)

(1.27
cm)

(1.27cm)

(NoArray)

Push
Button
Arrays

2.0in
(5.08
cm)

2.0in
(5.08
cm)

1.5in
(3.81cm)

1.5in
(3.81cm)

1.5in
(3.81
cm)

2.0in
(5.08
cm)

2.0in
(5.08cm)

Rocker
Switches

0.5in
(1.27
cm)

1.5in
(3.81
cm)

0.5in
(1.27cm)

0.75in
(1.91cm)

0.5in
(1.27
cm)

0.5in
(1.27
cm)

0.5in
(1.27cm)

Toggle
Switches

0.5in
(1.27
cm)

1.5in
(3.81
cm)

0.75in
(1.91cm)

0.75in
(1.91cm)

0.5in
(1.27
cm)

0.75in
(1.91
cm)

0.75in
(1.91cm)

Thumb
Wheels

0.5in
(1.27
cm)

1.5in
(3.81
cm)

0.5in
(1.27cm)

0.5in
(1.27cm)

0.5in
(1.27
cm)

0.75in
(1.91
cm)

0.75in
(1.91cm)

Discrete
Rotary
Controls

0.5in
(1.27
cm)

2.0in
(5.08
cm)

0.5in
(1.27cm)

0.75in
(1.91cm)

0.75in
(1.91
cm)

1.0in
(2.54
cm)

1.0in
(2.54cm)

Continuous
Rotary
Controls

0.5in
(1.27
cm)

2.0in
(5.08
cm)

0.5in
(1.27cm)

0.75in
(1.91cm)

0.75in
(1.91
cm)

1.0in
(2.54
cm)

1.0in
(2.54cm)

ntrol

Push
Buttons

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1Separationismeasuredbetweentheoutermostadjacentedges.

SupportingRationale:Severalsources(seeReference1and2)haveprovidedrecommendationsfor
minimumdistancesbetweencontrols.Mostoftheserecommendationshavebeendevelopedfor
applicationinenvironmentsotherthanautomobiles.However,theyprovidehelpfulinformationregarding
locationcodingandavoidanceofinadvertentactivationofadjacentcontrols.
Shapecodingisaneffectivewaytoincreasetheidentifiabilityofcontrolsandismostoftenusedon
rotaryknobs.Moststandardhumanfactorsreferencesprovidegraphicsshowingknobshapesthatare
rarelyconfusedwithoneanother.SeeReference3forsomeoftheseknobdesigns.
Sizecodingismostappropriatewhengangedcontrolsareused(i.e.,twoormoreknobsmountedon
concentricshafts).Differentknobdiametersmustbeusedifthegangedcontrolsaretobe
discriminablefromoneanother.Inautomobiles,forexample,volumeandtonecontrolsontheradio
systemareoftenganged.SuggestionsfordifferentknobdimensionscanbefoundinReferences2and
4.
Therearethreemethodsoftexturecodingthatarerarelyconfusedwithoneanother:smooth,fluted
(horizontallines),andknurled(crisscrosspattern).However,differentmethodsandamountsofeither
flutingorknurlingmaybeconfusedwitheachother.
SpecialDesignConsiderations:Becausedriversaremostoftenoperatinginvehiclecontrolswithout
takingtheireyesofftheroadway,itisimportantthattheybeaseasytolocateandactivateas
possible.Codingcanbeextremelyhelpfulforaccomplishingthis.However,insituationswheregloves
areused,redundantcodingusingcolorsandlabelsmaybecomenecessary.
CrossReferences:
SelectionofControlType
ControlMovementCompatibility
KeyReferences:
1.NuclearRegulatoryCommission.(1981).Guidelinesforcontrolroomdesignreviews
(NUREG0700).Washington,DC:U.S.GovernmentPrintingOffice.
2.Boff,K.R.,&Lincoln,J.E.(Eds.).(1988).Engineeringdatacompendium:Human
perceptionandperformance.WrightPattersonAirForceBase,OH:Armstrong
AerospaceMedicalResearchLaboratory.
3.Hunt,D.P.(1953).Thecodingofaircraftcontrols(TechnicalReport53221).Wright
PattersonAirForceBase,OH:WrightAirDevelopmentCenter.
4.MILSTD1472D.(1989).Humanengineeringdesigncriteriaformilitarysystems,
equipment,andfacilities.Washington,DC:U.S.GovernmentPrintingOffice.
*Primarilyexpertjudgement
**Expertjudgementwithsupportingempiricaldata
***Empiricaldatawithsupportingexpertjudgement
****Primarilyempiricaldata

Top

SELECTIONOFKEYBOARDSFORATISDEVICES
Introduction:SelectionofkeyboardsforATISdevicesreferstotradeoffsandheuristicsassociated
withfixedfunctionvs.variablefunctionkeyboards.AsdiscussedinReference1,examplesofafixed
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functionkeyboardincludecashregisterterminalsandhandheldcalculatorsexamplesofavariable
functionkeyboardincludekeyboardsforvideogameswithdifferentcontrolsfordifferentgames,shifted
keysofcomputerkeyboards,and,ingeneral,"soft"keysthatcanbechangedviasoftwarecontrol.
DesignGuidelines**(FromReference1)
Usefixedfunctionkeyboardswhen:

Usevariablefunctionkeyboardswhen:

Onesetoffunctionsisfrequently
employed

Severalsubsetsoffunctionsare
frequentlyused

Functionsmustbeexecuted
quickly

Pacingofentriesisnotforced

Correctfunctionselectionis
critical

Sophisticatedpromptingandfeedback
areavailable

AdvantagesandDisadvantagesofFixedandVariableFunctionKeyboards(fromReference1)

FixedFunctionKeyboards

Advantages

Simplicityofoperation

Fewerkeys

Functionisevidentfromkey

Lessvisualsearch

Minimalsoftwaresupport

Lessarm/handmovement

Logicalkeygrouping

Canbemodifiedbysoftware
changes

Numerousfunctionsrequire
numerouskeys

Increasedfunctionselectiontime

Disadvantages

Frequentvisualsearch
Frequentarm/handmovement
Changesrequirehardware
modification

VariableFunctionKeyboards

Decreasedclarityofkeylabeling
Increasedpromptingandfeedback
requirements
Increasedtrainingrequirements

SupportingRationale:Theguidelinesprovidedabovereflectareviewandanalysisoffixedvs.
variablefunctionkeyboardsreportedinReference1.Theyreflectcommonusageofbothfixedand
variablefunctionkeyboards,aswellasgeneralheuristicsfortheirselection.
SpecialDesignConsiderations:ItmaybedesirabletodesignATISdevicessothattheyincludeboth
fixedandvariablefunctionkeyboardelements.FunctionsthatarecommonacrossATIStaskssuch
as"Enter"or"Back"or"On/Off"mightbestbeaccomplishedbyusingdedicated,fixedfunction(or
"hard")controls.Functionsthatinvolveselectingfromamongalternativesthatvaryfromtasktotask
(selectionof:systemfunctions,mapscale,travelmode,etc.)mightbebestaccomplishedbyusing
nondedicated,variablefunction(or"soft")controls.
Also,whilemanydevicescanprovidethedriverwiththeabilitytocommunicatewithanATIS(e.g.,
touchscreens,speechcontrols,trackballs,pushbuttons),keyboardsarebestfortasksthatinvolve
greatamountsoftextinput,suchasenteringaddressesforRoutingandNavigationapplicationsor
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enteringpreferencesandservicesselectioninformationforMotoristServicesapplications.
CrossReferences:
SelectionofControlType
KeyReferences:
1.Greenstein,J.S.,&Arnaut,L.Y.(1987).Chapter11.4:Humanfactorsaspectsofmanual
computerinputdevices.InG.Salvendy(Ed.),Handbookofhumanfactors(pp.1450
1489).NewYork:J.Wiley&Sons,Inc.
*Primarilyexpertjudgement
**Expertjudgementwithsupportingempiricaldata
***Empiricaldatawithsupportingexpertjudgement
****Primarilyempiricaldata

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DESIGNOFSPEECHBASEDCONTROLS
Introduction:Designofspeechbasedcontrolsreferstosystemsthatrecognizehumanspeechand
treatspeechcommandsasinputstotheATISsystem.AsdiscussedinReference1,automatic
speechrecognition(ASR)systemsmaybecharacterizedwithrespecttothreesetsofdesign
characteristics.First,speakerdependentsystemsrecognizespeechfromonlyonespeakerthathas
beencalibratedtothesystemspeakerindependentsystemscanrecognizespeechfrommany
speakers.Second,isolatedwordrecognitionsystemsrequirethatspeakersprovideapauseorgap
betweenwordsinamessagecontinuousspeechrecognitionsystemsdonotrequireanypause
betweenwords.Third,ASRsystemsvarywithrespecttothesizeofthevocabularythatthey
recognize.
DesignGuidelines**
Speechcontrolsshouldbeusedtoaidcomplextasksthatinvolvehighcognitive,
visual,and/ormanualrequirements.
VocabularysetsforASRsystemsshouldbefamiliartodriversandshouldavoid
usingsimilarsoundingwordsorphrases.
Driversshouldbeprovidedwithimmediatefeedbackoftherecognitionresultsor
thesystem'sresponsetothespeechinput.

IssuestoConsiderWhenDesigningASRSystems

TaskRelatedIssues

EnvironmentRelatedIssues

SingleversusDual
Task

ExternalNoise(e.g.,
traffic,roadnoise)

Workload

InternalNoise(e.g.,
entertainmentsystem,
conversation)

HeadMovement
Requirements

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OperatorRelated
Issues

Age
Articulation
RegionalAccents
LevelofTraining
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DrivingSituation
(e.g.,effectsof
stress)

Vibration

Gender

Acceleration/Deceleration
Gforces

Requirementsfor
Feedback
Vocabulary
Requirements

SupportingRationale:Reference2providesconsiderablediscussionofissuesandresearchrelatedto
speechcontrolstheguidelinespresentedabovehavebeenadaptedfromdesignprinciplespresentedin
Reference2and,toalesserextent,Reference1.Theguidelinespresentedabovereflectlimited
experienceintheuseofspeechasacontroldevicefromtwotechnicaldomains:(1)militaryinformation
systemsandflightcontrol,and(2)thetelecommunicationsfield.Casestudiesandanecdotalresults
fromseveralapplicationsofspeechcontrolscanbefoundinReferences1and2.Althoughvarious
commercialspeechrecognitionsystemshavebeendevelopedforautomotiveapplications,published
empiricalresultsarefewandhavenotalwaysprovidedconsistentdesignguidance.
SpecialDesignConsiderations:AsnotedinReference2,keyissuesinthedesignand
implementationofASRsystemsinclude:
Recognitionaccuracy:Loweraccuracieswillreducesystemperformanceanduseracceptance.
Backgroundnoise:Ambientnoise(traffic,radio,speechdisplays)caninterferewithASRsystem
performance.
Speechvariability:Humanspeechvariesconsiderablywithrespecttovolume,frequency,pitch,
andtoneunderdifferentconditions.Speechvariabilitycancontributetoreducedrecognitionof
speech.
Taskselection:Selectionoftasksforwhichspeechshouldbeusedmustreflecttask
characteristicsandaclearunderstandingofthetradeoffsassociatedwithusingspeech
controlsvs.manualcontrols.
CrossReferences:
ATISDesignforSpecialPopulations
KeyReferences:
1.McMillan,G.R.,Eggleston,R.G.,&Anderson,T.R.(1997).Nonconventionalcontrols.
InG.Salvendy(Ed.),Handbookofhumanfactorsandergonomics(pp.729771).New
York:J.Wiley&Sons.
2.Simpson,C.A.,McCauley,M.E.,Roland,E.F.,Ruth,J.C.,&Williges,B.H.(1987).
Speechcontrolsanddisplays.InG.Salvendy(Ed.),Handbookofhumanfactors(pp.
549574).NewYork:J.Wiley&Sons.
*Primarilyexpertjudgement
**Expertjudgementwithsupportingempiricaldata
***Empiricaldatawithsupportingexpertjudgement
****Primarilyempiricaldata

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PROVIDINGDESTINATIONPREVIEWCAPABILITY
Introduction:Providingdestinationpreviewcapabilityreferstoprovidingtheuserwiththecapabilityto
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recenter(slew)themapandtochangetherangescale(magnification)toenablefullpreviewofroute
details.Theuserofanelectronicmapdisplayingrouteinformationmaydesiretopreviewtheorigin,
destination,oranysegmentoftheroute.Thesystemdesignshould,however,distinguishclearly
betweenarecenteredmapmode(i.e.,vehicleincenterofdisplay)andthenormaldisplaymode(i.e.,
vehiclemovesrelativetostationarymap)showingcurrentpositionoftheuser/vehicle.Failuretoclearly
distinguishbetweenthesetwomodescanresultinconfusionaboutcurrentlocation.
DesignGuidelines**
AllowATISuserstopreviewadetaileddepictionofthedestinationorotherkeynodesor
segmentsofaplannedroute.Thiscapabilitycanbeprovidedbythecombinationofamap
recentering(slew)functionandamapscale(magnification)function.

Function

Description

ExampleImplementation

MapSlew/Recenter
MapScaleControl

CarinCenterofDisplay,
GeographicDefinition,
DefinitionofMapSegment

Touchscreen,orJoystick,or
Trackball

MapModeStatusIndicator
orLockOut

ControlofX,YScalingin
Miles/Kilometers
CautionWhenNotVehicle
Centered

MultistageToggleButtonor
Knob,UpandDownArrows
IndicatorLight,Recenter
ButtonorFunctionAvailable
OnlyWhenStopped

GrandViewofLongRouteDetailedViewofOneNodeRecentered

ImportantNote:ThemapdisplaydepictedaboveisprovidedsolelytoaugmentthisDesignGuidelinebyillustratinggeneral
designprinciples.Itmaynotbesuitableforyourimmediateapplicationwithoutmodification.

SupportingRationale:AsdescribedinReference1,theutilityofelectronicmapsismultipliedby
incorporatingthecombinationofamapscalecontrolandrecenterfunction.Thecombinationofscale
controlandarecenteringfunctionenablestheusertopreviewanyareaofthemapingreaterdetail.The
usercanhaveaAhighleveloverviewofalongrouteoracloserlookatmoredetailedfeaturespertinent
toturns,areasofpotentialnavigationerrors,thedestination,orotherareasofinterest.Withthe
magnifiedview,themapmustberecenteredtoachieveadetailedviewofamoredistantmaplocation.
SpecialDesignConsiderations:Invehiclenavigationdisplaystypicallydepictthevehiclenearthe
centerofthedisplayscreen.Whentheuserrecentersthemap,thevehiclesymbolwillnolongerbein
thenormallocationrelativetothescreen.Thiscanleadtouserconfusionaboutcurrentvehicle
location,particularlyiftheuser=sattentionisturnedelsewhereafterrecentering.Thebenefitsderived
fromempoweringuserstorecenterthemapmustbeweighedagainstthepotentialfor
misinterpretationsofcurrentlocation.Protectionagainstthistypeoferrorcanbedesignedintothe
systembydisplayingacautionindicatororbylockingouttherecenterfunctionwhenthevehicleisin
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motion.Ifusersareallowedtosleworrecenterthemapwhileinmotion,asimpleonebuttonreturnto
thenormal,uservehiclecenteredmodeisrecommended.Amodethatallowsthevehicletoalways
remaininthecenterofthescreenmayalsobeprovided.
CrossReferences:
SelectionofControlType
ControlMovementCompatibility
KeyReferences:
1.Clarke,D.L.,McCauley,M.E.,Sharkey,T.J.,Dingus,T.A.,&Lee,J.D.(1996).
Developmentofhumanfactorsguidelinesforadvancedtravelerinformationsystemsand
commercialvehicleoperations:Comparablesystemsanalysis.Washington,DC:Federal
HighwayAdministration(FHWARD95197).
*Primarilyexpertjudgement
**Expertjudgementwithsupportingempiricaldata
***Empiricaldatawithsupportingexpertjudgement
****Primarilyempiricaldata

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FHWARD98057

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TechnicalIssues:TFHRC.WebMaster@dot.gov
Topics:research,safety
Keywords:Research,Safety,AdvancedTravelerInformationSystems(ATIS),CommercialVehicleOperators(CVO)
Guidelines,HumanFactors,IntelligentTransportationSystems(ITS),InVehicleInformationSystems(IVIS),Motorist
ServicesGuidelines,RoutingandNavigationGuidelines,Safety/WarningGuidelines,AugmentedSignageInformation
Guidelines.
Updated:03/08/2016

UnitedStatesDepartmentofTransportationFederalHighwayAdministration

https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/98057/ch04.cfm#control

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