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Ariel Chen

Qualitative Analysis of Cations Lab Report

Step

Procedure

Add HCl to known solution in TT1.


Centrifuge. Pour colored solution
into TT2.

Add 2 ml of distilled water to the


precipitate and place the test tube in
a boiling water bath for three
minutes. Stir. Centrifuge for a few
seconds. Pour the supernatant liquid
into another test tube. Immediately
add two drops of K2CrO4 to the
liquid.
Add one ml of NH3 to the white
precipitate from Step 2. Stir. Black
residue. Centrifuge, then decant the
solution into another test tube and
discard the black residue.
Add HNO3 to the solution from
Step 3 until the solution is acid or a
permanent white precipitate is
formed.
Neutralize the solution from
procedure 1 (TT2) by adding NH3
solution until the solution is basic.
Check with litmus paper after
stirring thoroughly. Add one ml in
excess. Add one ml of NH4Cl.
Colored ppt. Centrifuge and
separate the solution into another
test tube. Set the solution aside for
Procedure 10. Treat the precipitate
by Procedure 6.
Dissolve the precipitate from
Procedure 5 by adding 6-M HC1
dropwise. Stir aer each addition.
Make basic to litmus with 6-M
NaOH. Stir. Then add 1-2 ml in
excess. Precipitates. Centrifuge and
separate the solution into another
test tube. Set the solution aside for
Procedure 8. Treat the precipitate by
Procedure 7.
Dissolve the precipitate from
Procedure 6 by adding dilute 6-M
HC1 dropwise. Stir. Add three drops

Known Solution
Results
Conclusion
White ppt
Ag+, Pb2+,
forms. Other
and/or
ions present
Hg22+
in solution in
present
TT2

Yellow
precipitate

Pb2+ present

Hg22+
Black residue
present

Unknown Solution (#1)


Results
Conclusion
White ppt
forms. Other
ions present in
solution in TT2

Ag+, Pb2+,
and/or
Hg22+
present

Yellow
precipitate

Pb2+ present

No white ppt
from Step 2

Hg22+ and
Ag+ both
absent

White
precipitate

Ag+ present

Colored ppt

Fe3+ and/or
Al3+ present

Colored ppt

Fe3+ and/or
Al3+ present

Precipitate
forms

Precipitate:
Fe(OH)3

Precipitate
forms

Precipitate:
Fe(OH)3

Deep red
color:
Fe(SCN)2+

Fe3+ present

Deep red color:


Fe3+ present
2+
Fe(SCN)

Ariel Chen
Qualitative Analysis of Cations Lab Report

10

of 0.1-M KSCN solution.


Acidify the solution from Procedure
6 by adding dilute HC1 dropwise.
Stir after each
addition and check with litmus. Add
drops of NH4Cl and make basic by
adding
NH3 solution. White/gray ppt.
Centrifuge and separate the
solution. Discard the solution and
treat the precipitate by Procedure 9.
Dissolve the precipitate from
Procedure 8 by adding dilute 6-M
HCl dropwise. Stir. Add one ml of
the aluminon test reagent. Add 6-M
NH3 solution until the solution is
just basic. Stir. Check
with litmus. Warm the solution in a
water bath.
Add 10 to l5 drops of
dimethylglyoxime to the solution
from Procedure 5. Warm in a water
bath.

White/gray
ppt

Al(OH)3

White/gray ppt

Al(OH)3

Red ppt
(lake)

Al3+ present

Red ppt
(lake)

Al3+ present

Red ppt

Ni+ present

No ppt

Ni+ absent

Unknown Solution #1
Ions present: Al3+, Fe3+, Pb2+
Ions absent: Ag+ , Hg22+ , Ni+
Discussion
1. Cl- is the precipitating reagent for the silver group. A solution of NaCl would also work as well, because it
provides the chloride ion in solution.
2.
Ag+(aq) + Cl-(aq) AgCl(s)
AgCl(aq) + 2NH3(aq) Ag(NH3)2(aq) + Cl-(aq)
Ag(NH3)2+(aq) + Cl-(aq) + 2H+(aq) AgCl(s) + 2NH4+(aq)
3. Hg + e Hg
Hg Hg + e
4. AgCl(s) Ag+(aq) + Cl-(aq)
AgCl(s) + 2 NH3(aq) Ag(NH3)2+(aq) + Cl-(aq)
5. Fe3+(aq) + 3NH3(aq) + 3H2O --> Fe(OH)3(s) + 3NH4+(aq)
Fe3+ (aq) + 6NH3(aq) Fe(NH3)63+(aq)
6. Al(OH)3 (s) + OH- (aq) ---- > Al(OH)4- (aq)
Al(OH)3 + 3H2O + 3H+ ---> [Al(H2O)6]3+