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Can be customer location or provider PoP Location WAN Accelerator Deep Packet Inspection ( DPI)
Can be customer location
or provider PoP
Location
WAN Accelerator
Deep Packet Inspection
( DPI)
vE-CPE
Multiple Functions can be
virtualized
Intrusion Detection/
Prevention System
Both E-CPE ( Enterprise Access Router) and
PE ( Provider Edger) can be virtualized
QoS
V-PE
NG-Firewall
Firewall
What is NFV NFV aims at virtualizing Network Element or certain function of of Network
What is NFV
NFV aims at virtualizing Network Element or certain function of of Network Element in
Service Provider network by using commodity machines like x86 servers.
Technology Motivated
from
Standard IT virtualization technologies ( Cloud
Computing)
Use standard servers and commodity switches to reduce costs.
Innovate and rollout Services
quickly
Motivations/
Drivers of NFV
Reduce Power and space usage by using
commodity servers
Standardized and Open
interfaces
Operation innovation through
common tools
Intrusion
Detection System
Security
Firewall
Basic Concepts
Mobile Base
station
Node B, eNodeB
Mobile Network
Elements
MME
Mobile Core
Many Types of
Equipment
GGSN, SGSN
Target Areas of NFV
"Commoditiazation"
Setup Box
HLR, RNC
Home
Enivronment
Home Router
CPE
CG-NAT
Switching
BNG
Routing
Virtual Network
VNF
Function
Virtualizes a Network Element or some
function of a network element
Example includes VNF for
Router, Switch, Base Station etc
VNF Manager
Manages VNF
Management through Open
Interface
EMS
Element Management
System
Manages VNF- This can
be proprietry
NFV Management
System Manages VNF- This can be proprietry NFV Management & Orchestration Os-Ma OSS/BSS Orchestration Or-Vi

& Orchestration

Os-Ma OSS/BSS
Os-Ma
OSS/BSS
Orchestration Or-Vi Ve-Vnfm VNF Manager Vi-Vnfm VIM-Virtualized NF-Vi Infrastructure Manager
Orchestration
Or-Vi
Ve-Vnfm
VNF Manager
Vi-Vnfm
VIM-Virtualized
NF-Vi
Infrastructure
Manager
Service, VNF & Se-Ma Infrastructure Description
Service, VNF &
Se-Ma
Infrastructure
Description
EMS 1 EMS 2 EMS 3 VNF 1 VNF 2 VNF 3
EMS 1
EMS 2
EMS 3
VNF 1
VNF 2
VNF 3
Description EMS 1 EMS 2 EMS 3 VNF 1 VNF 2 VNF 3 Virtual Virtual Virtual
Virtual Virtual Virtual Compute Memory Network Virtualization Layer Vi-Ha Compute Memory Network
Virtual
Virtual
Virtual
Compute
Memory
Network
Virtualization Layer
Vi-Ha
Compute
Memory
Network

Vn-Nf

NFVI

Layer Vi-Ha Compute Memory Network Vn-Nf NFVI What is VNF? VNF (Virtual Network Function) represents the

What is VNF?

VNF (Virtual Network Function) represents the function to be virtualized.

Virtual Network Function Component

VNF can be composed of multiple functions that together make the VNF

be composed of multiple functions that together make the VNF Virtualization of E-CPE and PE Can
be composed of multiple functions that together make the VNF Virtualization of E-CPE and PE Can
Virtualization of E-CPE and PE Can also host some or all of the functions of
Virtualization of E-CPE
and PE
Can also host some or all of
the functions of Ve-CPE
Layer 2 or layer 3
capabilities
NFV Use Cases
SGW
Serving Gateway
Mobile Core and
IMS
4G
PGW
Packet data network
gateway
Serving GPRS
SGSN
support node
3G
Gateway GPRS
GGSN
support node
IMS
Call session
CSCF
control function
Media Gateway
Control function
MGCF
Benefits
Elasticity, Flexibility,
Quick reconfiguration
Mobile Base
Two Models
Complete base station or part
of base station is virtualized
Station
These functions include but not limited to
Firewall, DHCP,NAT and VPN
Many functions of CPE are taken
to service provider cloud
Virtual CPE
Virtualization of Home
environment
Differences and

SDN was originated in labs by Academia.

Differences and SDN was originated in labs by Academia. Both refers to software centric network Similarities

Both refers to software centric network

Similarities
Similarities

SDN emphasizes separation of data and control plane; NFV aims at virtualizing network hardware gear.

Both refers to commoditization. Commoditization is a by-product of SDN but the main focus of NFV

SDN does not need NFV for its implementation and vice versa; but if implemented together can synergize each other

How SDN can help NFV

together can synergize each other How SDN can help NFV The following functions are virtualized: Baseband
The following functions are virtualized: Baseband radio processing unit, Phy, MAC, RLC, RRC For C-RAN,
The following functions are virtualized:
Baseband radio processing unit, Phy, MAC, RLC, RRC
For C-RAN, above functions ( in BBU) and also
switching/load balancing is virtualized
NFV NFVI Infrastructure Complete hardware and software environment in which VNFs are deployed For example-Physical
NFV
NFVI
Infrastructure
Complete hardware and software
environment in which VNFs are deployed
For example-Physical resources like
x86/Commodity Server and Virtual resources
Compute, Memory and Network
Resources
The physical part of
of NFVI
For example
Commodity servers
New Topic
Responsible for decoupling hardware
resource from software resource
Abstracts hardware resource
into software resource
Example:
Virtualization Layer
HyperVisor
Virtual Compute, Memory and
Network
The result of abstraction of
hardware resources
Example-Virtual
Machine
VIM
Virtualization
Infrastructure Manager
Manages NFVI
Resource management of
Compute, Memory and Network
Creates end to end
services among VNFs
Orchestration
Two functions
Two functions
Manages resources to be utilized among among VIMs in case there are multiple VIMs in
Manages resources to be utilized among among VIMs
in case there are multiple VIMs in network
among among VIMs in case there are multiple VIMs in network NFV Use Cases NFV relation
NFV Use Cases NFV relation with SDN
NFV
Use Cases
NFV
relation
with
SDN
VIMs in network NFV Use Cases NFV relation with SDN Definitions Network Functions Virtualization Different
Definitions
Definitions
network NFV Use Cases NFV relation with SDN Definitions Network Functions Virtualization Different Blocks SDN makes
network NFV Use Cases NFV relation with SDN Definitions Network Functions Virtualization Different Blocks SDN makes
Network Functions Virtualization
Network Functions
Virtualization
with SDN Definitions Network Functions Virtualization Different Blocks SDN makes it more efficient and flexible

Different Blocks

Network Functions Virtualization Different Blocks SDN makes it more efficient and flexible for VMs/VNFs to

SDN makes it more efficient and flexible for VMs/VNFs to communicate within same host or distributed host architecture

within same host or distributed host architecture Or-Vi NFVI NFV Infrastructure VNF Virtual Network

Or-Vi

NFVI NFV Infrastructure VNF Virtual Network Function Architecture
NFVI
NFV Infrastructure
VNF
Virtual Network
Function
Architecture
Infrastructure VNF Virtual Network Function Architecture VNF SDN can make communication between Management/

VNF

SDN can make communication between Management/ Orchestration and VNFs more flexible and efficient.

Orchestration and VNFs more flexible and efficient. SDN can be said as enabler for NFV Increasing

SDN can be said as enabler for NFV

flexible and efficient. SDN can be said as enabler for NFV Increasing VNF resilience VNFC Functional
Increasing VNF
Increasing VNF

resilience

VNFC

Functional View

of VNF

Some vendors may implement network element as one VNF, others as collection of VNFCs

SWA-1

SWA-1 SWA-2 SWA-3 SWA-4 SWA-5

SWA-2

SWA-1 SWA-2 SWA-3 SWA-4 SWA-5

SWA-3

SWA-1 SWA-2 SWA-3 SWA-4 SWA-5

SWA-4

SWA-1 SWA-2 SWA-3 SWA-4 SWA-5

SWA-5

of VNFCs SWA-1 SWA-2 SWA-3 SWA-4 SWA-5 NFVI is the totality of all software and hardware
of VNFCs SWA-1 SWA-2 SWA-3 SWA-4 SWA-5 NFVI is the totality of all software and hardware
of VNFCs SWA-1 SWA-2 SWA-3 SWA-4 SWA-5 NFVI is the totality of all software and hardware
of VNFCs SWA-1 SWA-2 SWA-3 SWA-4 SWA-5 NFVI is the totality of all software and hardware
NFVI is the totality of all software and hardware on which VNFs are built up
NFVI is the totality of all software and
hardware on which VNFs are built up
Stands for NFV
Infrastructure
Has three main
domains
Computational and
Storage resources
Compute domain
Description
Hypervisor communicate with NIC through vSwitch,
this could by severe performance issue
Hypervisor abstracts physical resources of compute domain
to virtual domain( virtual machine)
Hypervisor
domain
VNFC to VNFC communication if they
are geographically separated
Responsibility of different
communication like
Network Infrastructure
domain
Communication of Orch. And
Management with VNF/VNFC
Communication channel
between different VNFs
Virtual Machine
Virtual machine is the virtualization
container in which VNF/VNFC runs
Virtual Machine has processor, memory and NIC as a physical machine
has-Hypervisor creates virtual machine from physical machine
On demand self
service in NFVI
End to End service should be possible through variaty of transport
media and through different networks
Broad network
access of NFVI
5 essential characteristics of cloud
applied to NFVI ( as per NIST)
Resource Pooling
NFVI should be able to support VNF of other operators-Multi Tenancy
Rapid Elasticity of
NFVI
Upscale, downscale of computing, storage and network resources
should be possible because of service load or power consumption
Measured service in
NFVI

With other VNFs

Between VNFCs

Between VNF Manager and VNFC

With element Management system

With NFV

Infrastructure

With element Management system With NFV Infrastructure NFVI Five different types of interfaces By COTS type
With element Management system With NFV Infrastructure NFVI Five different types of interfaces By COTS type
With element Management system With NFV Infrastructure NFVI Five different types of interfaces By COTS type

NFVI

Five different types of interfaces

NFV Infrastructure NFVI Five different types of interfaces By COTS type COTS mean “Commercial Off the
NFV Infrastructure NFVI Five different types of interfaces By COTS type COTS mean “Commercial Off the

By COTS type

By COTS type COTS mean “Commercial Off the Shelf” . For example x86 Server Two types

COTS mean “Commercial Off the Shelf”. For example x86 Server

By COTS type COTS mean “Commercial Off the Shelf” . For example x86 Server Two types

Two types

Hypervisor

Agnostic

VNF can run in any hypervisor environment

Agnostic VNF can run in any hypervisor environment By Virtualization Environment ( By Hypervisor and Container)
Agnostic VNF can run in any hypervisor environment By Virtualization Environment ( By Hypervisor and Container)

By Virtualization Environment ( By Hypervisor and Container)

Scenario 1

Through Hardware switch

Through vSwitch in Hypervisor

1 Through Hardware switch Through vSwitch in Hypervisor How VNFCs communicate with one another There are

How VNFCs communicate with one another

There are

multiple ways

VNFCs communicate with one another There are multiple ways Scenario 2 Different ways to communicate Direct

Scenario 2

with one another There are multiple ways Scenario 2 Different ways to communicate Direct vs Indirect
with one another There are multiple ways Scenario 2 Different ways to communicate Direct vs Indirect

Different ways to communicate

Direct vs Indirect communication

ways to communicate Direct vs Indirect communication Scenario 3 Through vSwitch enhanced in performance by DPDK
ways to communicate Direct vs Indirect communication Scenario 3 Through vSwitch enhanced in performance by DPDK
ways to communicate Direct vs Indirect communication Scenario 3 Through vSwitch enhanced in performance by DPDK
ways to communicate Direct vs Indirect communication Scenario 3 Through vSwitch enhanced in performance by DPDK

Scenario 3

Through vSwitch enhanced in performance by DPDK

Through eSwtich embedded in NIC

Direct serial bus communication

eSwtich embedded in NIC Direct serial bus communication Scenario 4 &5 Scenario 6 VNF is fully

Scenario 4 &5

in NIC Direct serial bus communication Scenario 4 &5 Scenario 6 VNF is fully deployable on

Scenario 6

Direct serial bus communication Scenario 4 &5 Scenario 6 VNF is fully deployable on COTS Some

VNF is fully deployable on COTS

Some VNFC still needs some specialized hardware

on COTS Some VNFC still needs some specialized hardware VNF depends on the hypervisor environment it
on COTS Some VNFC still needs some specialized hardware VNF depends on the hypervisor environment it
on COTS Some VNFC still needs some specialized hardware VNF depends on the hypervisor environment it
on COTS Some VNFC still needs some specialized hardware VNF depends on the hypervisor environment it

VNF depends on the hypervisor environment it runs on

VNF depends on the hypervisor environment it runs on Hypervisor dependant Higher layer container dependant

Hypervisor

dependant

Higher layer container dependant

Performance can be increased (up) or decreased ( down)

VNF is dependent on higher layer container, for example Java environment

on higher layer container, for example Java environment Types of VNF References Not Elastic 1. ETSI

Types of VNF

References

Not Elastic

example Java environment Types of VNF References Not Elastic 1. ETSI GS NFV 002 V1.2.1 (2014-12)-NFV

1. ETSI GS NFV 002 V1.2.1 (2014-12)-NFV Architectural Framework

2. ETSI GS NFV-SWA 001 V1.1.1 (2014-12)- Virtual Network Functions Architecture

3. ETSI GS NFV-INF 001 V1.1.1 (2015-01)- Infrastructure Overview

4. ETSI GS NFV 001 V1.1.1 (2013-10)- Use Cases

Elastic up/down

By Elastic Nature

(2013-10)- Use Cases Elastic up/down By Elastic Nature Elastic in/out VNFC can be added (in) or

Elastic in/out

VNFC can be added (in) or removed (out)

Both up/down and in/out is possible

Full Elastic

(out) Both up/down and in/out is possible Full Elastic Distributed VNFs or VNFCs on different hosts

Distributed VNFs or VNFCs on different hosts

For scalability and redundancy purposes

Typically VNFs need layer 2 connectivity from infrastructure , layer 3 is provided by VNF themselves

redundancy purposes Typically VNFs need layer 2 connectivity from infrastructure , layer 3 is provided by
redundancy purposes Typically VNFs need layer 2 connectivity from infrastructure , layer 3 is provided by