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Design Of Water Tank & Sewage Treatment Plant For JNNCE Campus

INTRODUCTION

Dept. of Civil Engg., JNNCE Page 1


Design Of Water Tank & Sewage Treatment Plant For JNNCE Campus

1. INTRODUCTION
Jawaharlal Nehru National College of Engineering is a prestigious institution managed by
National Education Society. It is located on the outskirts of Shimoga city, at about 4km from the
heart of the city. The college campus is spread over an area of about 52 acres.

It was established in 1980, by great visionaries & freedom fighters, with the intention of
imparting technical education to the ambitious students of the region. The college which had less
than 100 students in the beginning has now after 28 years more than 3000 students studying in it.
The college has grown both in terms of infrastructure & the educational standards. Presently it is
one of the most sought after engineering colleges in Karnataka. Apart from engineering, various
P.G courses such as M.Tech, MBA, MCA have also been started and recently Polytechnique
courses have also been started, thus increasing the student strength even more.

The college, in these 28 years has shown a slow & steady growth. With this growth the
demand for better infrastructure also grew. As and when the requirement arose, new buildings
were constructed. Each time a new building was constructed, separate water connection was
given and each building was provided separate overhead tank and sump arrangement. Thus the
college as of now doesn’t have a single water supply and distribution system.

Thus in this project an attempt has been made to design a water tank and a sewage
treatment plant for the entire campus assuming that the college was actually planned to have
been developed in this manner.

The project work consisted of the following

1. Survey work of the campus.

2. Design of water tank.

3. Design of oxidation pond.

Dept. of Civil Engg., JNNCE Page 2


Design Of Water Tank & Sewage Treatment Plant For JNNCE Campus

SURVEY WORK OF THE CAMPUS

Dept. of Civil Engg., JNNCE Page 3


Design Of Water Tank & Sewage Treatment Plant For JNNCE Campus

2. SURVEY WORK OF THE CAMPUS


Detailed survey of the campus was carried out for about 20 days using the Total Station.
Total Station is a single instrument which can be used to perform all the steps involved in the
survey work such as leveling, distance and angle measurements etc., with high level of accuracy.

The survey work was carried out by rectangular coordinate method using the plinth level
of the administrative block as the reference Bench Mark with an RL 100.00m.

In the rectangular coordinate method each point is assigned its rectangular coordinates in
all three dimensions, so that all the points can easily be plotted using a software such as AutoCad
and since the level of the point is also recorded, the ground profile can also be known for a series
of points, which facilitates the location of highest or least RL.

Thus in course of the survey, important points such as building corners, road edges,
points on curves, diversion points on compound wall etc., were recorded, cross checking the
work with other accessories such as tape at regular stages of the work, so that all the information
necessary for the planning stage were made available.

After the survey work, the data in the form of points and their coordinates was transferred
to the computer from the instrument. Then using these points, the layout of the college was
prepared using AutoCad software.

Dept. of Civil Engg., JNNCE Page 4


Design Of Water Tank & Sewage Treatment Plant For JNNCE Campus

DESIGN OF OVER HEAD TANK

Dept. of Civil Engg., JNNCE Page 5


Design Of Water Tank & Sewage Treatment Plant For JNNCE Campus

3. DESIGN OF OVER HEAD TANK

After deciding the location of the tank, next step was to design the tank. It was decided to
go for a flat bottomed RCC circular overhead tank, with 6 columns and bracings forming the
staging, because of its easy and convenient design procedure.

Before going for the actual design, certain data required for the design were collected
which included the admission data of students, hostel intake, number of staff- both teaching and
non teaching etc. After analyzing the collected data, the average student strength of 2008 & 2009
batch was taken as the design strength since there was 15% rise in student intake from the year
2008 onwards.

3. 1 Site selection for OHT

After the layout of JNNCE was prepared, the points of highest RL and lowest RL were
located on it. Also it was observed that at these points the conditions were suitable for the
location of the water tank and the oxidation pond respectively.

Some of the factors considered for the site selection of water tank were as follows

1. The site should be located preferably at the point of highest RL.

2. Sufficient space or area should be available without any horizontal or vertical


restrictions.

3. Hard soil should be available at shorter depth with required SBC

4. The site should be preferably located closer to the builtup area so that the length
of the pipeline required for conveyance & distribution gets reduced.

Taking into account all these factors, the water tank was decided to be located near the
administrative block as shown in the college layout where almost all of the above conditions are
satisfied.

Dept. of Civil Engg., JNNCE Page 6


Design Of Water Tank & Sewage Treatment Plant For JNNCE Campus

3.2 Estimation of water requirement

I) No. OF STUDENTS

B.E - (630 x 4)

P.G - (130 x 2)

Diploma - (150 x 3)

TOTAL - 3230

II) No. OF STAFF - 350

TOTAL - 3580

III) HOSTEL STRENGTH - 570

From National Building Code of India : Part IX-1, Cl. 5.2

Daily water supply ; 1) For educational institutions = 45 lpcd

2) For Hostels = 135 lpcd

Hence water supply required = (3580 x 45) + (570 x 135)

= 2,38,050 liters

Increasing this by a factor 1.25,

Total water requirement = 2,97,562 liters

Hence Volume of water req. = 3,00,000 liters.

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Design Of Water Tank & Sewage Treatment Plant For JNNCE Campus

Dept. of Civil Engg., JNNCE Page 8


Design Of Water Tank & Sewage Treatment Plant For JNNCE Campus

3.3 Design of OHT


3.3.1. DATA :
Capacity of tank = 300 m3
Grade of concrete = M20
Grade of steel = Fe415
Method adopted – WORKING STRESS METHOD

3.3.2. PERMISSIBLE STRESSES :


From IS:3370 stresses relating to resistance to cracking are ;
σct= 1.2 N/mm2 σst= 150 N/mm2
For strength calculations, stresses in concrete and steel as recommended in IS:456 are ;
σcc = 5 N/mm2 m = 13
σcb = 7 N/mm2 Q = 1.14
j = 0.897

3.3.3 Dimensions of the tank :


Let D = inside diameter of the tank. Assuming an avg. depth of 0.6D, we have

Provide a free board of 0.2m, hence height of the cylindrical portion=5m.

Dept. of Civil Engg., JNNCE Page 9


Design Of Water Tank & Sewage Treatment Plant For JNNCE Campus

3.3.4. DESIGN OF TOP DOME :

Adopt thickness of dome slab = t = 100mm


Live load on dome = 1.00 kN/m3
Self weight of dome = (0.1 x 24) = 2.4 kN/m3
Finishes = 0.2 kN/m3

If, R = Radius of the dome.

D = Diameter at the base (=9m)

r = Central rise (=1.5m)

Now , cos θ = (4.5 / 6) = 0.8

Dept. of Civil Engg., JNNCE Page 10


Design Of Water Tank & Sewage Treatment Plant For JNNCE Campus

Since the stresses in dome are within safe permissible limits, provide nominal
reinforcements of 0.3%

Provide 8 mm dia. bars @ 160 c/c , both circumferentially & meridionally.

3.3.5. DESIGN OF TOP RING BEAM :

Provide 4- 12 mm dia. bars [Ast = 452 mm2], with 6mm dia. stirrups @150 c/c(nominal).

If, Ac = c/s area of ring beam , we have

Solving we get Ac = 39,576 mm2

Hence adopt a ring beam of size 210mm by 210mm

Dept. of Civil Engg., JNNCE Page 11


Design Of Water Tank & Sewage Treatment Plant For JNNCE Campus

3.3.6. DESIGN OF CYLINDRICAL TANK WALL :


For the tank H=5m, D=9m

Since maximum Hoop tension occurs @ 0.6H (=3m) from the top
From IS:3370, table 17.2(a), hoop tension coefficient = 0.639

Provide 16mm dia. bars @ 200 c/c along the outer face of the tank

From IS:3370, table 17.2(b),

the maximum –ve moment occurs @ the base, co-efficient for –ve moment = 0.0090

Maximum +ve moment occurs @ 0.7H from the top, coefficient for +ve moment = 0.0019

= 0.0019 x 10 x 52

= 2.375 kNm

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Design Of Water Tank & Sewage Treatment Plant For JNNCE Campus

Also vertical distribution steel = 0.3 %

3.3.7. DESIGN OF TANK FLOOR SLAB :


The tank floor slab is circular & is fixed on the periphery to the circular ring beam.
Load on the circular beam = w
= (Weight of water) + (Self weight of slab assumed as 450mm)
w = (10 x 4.8) + (0.45 x 24)
w = 58.8 kN/m

a) Maximum radial & circumferential moments ;


Positive moment at the centre of span is

Negative moment at the supports is

Circumferential moment is given by

Dept. of Civil Engg., JNNCE Page 13


Design Of Water Tank & Sewage Treatment Plant For JNNCE Campus

Adopt d = 475mm & D = 500mm

b) Reinforcements in circular slab ;


Using the above values of moments, the steel required is calculated.

Dept. of Civil Engg., JNNCE Page 14


Design Of Water Tank & Sewage Treatment Plant For JNNCE Campus

3.3.8. DESIGN OF BOTTOM RING BEAM :


a) Total load on the ring beam;
Weight of water = 3000 kN
Load from dome = (2πRrw) =254 kN
Weight of top ring beam = (π x 9.21 x 0.21 x 0.21 x 24) = 30.62 kN
Weight of cylindrical wall = (π x 9.2 x 0.2 x 5 x 24) = 693.6 kN
Weight of floor slab = (π x 4.52 x 0.475 x 24) = 725.24 kN
Weight of bottom ring beam(assuming a .4 x .6 section) = (π x 9.2 x 0.4 x 0.6 x 24)
= 124.8 kN

b) Moment and shear forces in the ring beam;


Assuming six columns supporting the ring beam, the moments are as follows;
Negetive B.M at the supports = 0.0148 WR
= 0.0148 x 4830 x 4.6
= 328.8 kNm
Positive B.M at the centre of span b/w supports = 0.0075 WR
= 0.0075 x 4830 x 4.6
= 166.635 kNm

Dept. of Civil Engg., JNNCE Page 15


Design Of Water Tank & Sewage Treatment Plant For JNNCE Campus

c) Design of support scetion ;


Bending moment = M = 328.8 kNm
Shear force = V = 402.5 kN

Adopt d = 900 mm and overall depth = 950 mm

Provide 4-32 mm dia. bars (Ast = 3217 mm2)

From IS:456, table 23 , = 0.372 N/mm2 shear reinforcements are required

Using 12 mm dia. 2L stirrups, the spacing is given by

Dept. of Civil Engg., JNNCE Page 16


Design Of Water Tank & Sewage Treatment Plant For JNNCE Campus

d) Design of centre of span section ;


Bending Moment, M=166.6 kNm

Provide 4-22 mm dia. bars (

DESIGN OF THE OXIDATION POND

Dept. of Civil Engg., JNNCE Page 17


Design Of Water Tank & Sewage Treatment Plant For JNNCE Campus

4. DESIGN OF THE OXIDATION POND

Oxidation pond combines the features of the aerobic and anaerobic ponds. Constructed of
intermediate depth (1.0m to 1.5m) , an oxidation pond consists of three zones; (a) aerobic zone at
the top, (b) anaerobic zone at the bottom, (c) facultative zone situated between the aerobic and
anaerobic zones, where decomposition of incoming organic wastes and products of anaerobic
decomposition are done by facultative bacteria. The aerobic layer acts as a good check against
odour evolution from the pond. The pond depth inhibits mixing; hence organic solids which
settle will remain on the bottom and will be subjected to anaerobic decomposition. The treatment
effected by this type of pond is comparable to that of conventional secondary treatment
processes. Hence the oxidation pond is best suited and most commonly used for treatment of
sewage.

4.1 Site selection for oxidation pond

The site for the oxidation pond was decided considering the following

1. The site should be located preferably at the point of least RL.

2. Sufficient space or area should be available without any horizontal or vertical


restrictions.

3. It should be located nearer to the compound or boundary so that the disposal


of treated effluent becomes easy.

4. A water body such as a pond, lake or stream must be situated near the site so
that the disposal becomes easy.

Considering all these factors the oxidation pond was decided to be located near the
compound wall beside the Thunga hostel as shown in the layout, where all of these conditions
are satisfied. Moreover a pond is located just outside the compound wall facilitating easy
disposal of the treated effluent.

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Design Of Water Tank & Sewage Treatment Plant For JNNCE Campus

4.2. Design of oxidation pond


4.2.1. Data

Location or Latitude of the site [SHIMOGA] = 14 N

Elevation = 600 m [Above MSL]

Mean monthly temperature = 30 c max & 10 c min

Now assuming 80% of water supplied to be converted as sewage,

Total sewage flow to be treated = 0.8 3, 00,000

= 2, 40,000 liters/day
Hence the total sewage flow = 240 m3/day
Also the desired effluent BOD = 30 mg/day
Assuming the sewage produced as purely domestic,
It’s initial BOD5 = 300 mg/l [avg. strength]

Pond removal constant @ 20 c = 0.1/day

4.2.2. Total BOD Load

Total BOD load on the OXIDATION pond = 2, 40,000 300 10-6

= 72 kg/day

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Design Of Water Tank & Sewage Treatment Plant For JNNCE Campus

4.2.3. Permissible areal BOD Loading

Areal BOD loading @ 14 latitude = 287.5 kg/ha.day (from IS:5611)

Correction factor for elevation = 1+0.003 EL

[Assuming that the sky is clear for 60% of days of an year]

= 270.255 kg/ha.day

4.2.4.Pond Area

4.2.5. Detention Period

Pond removal constant @ 10 c (min temp)

= 0.06317/day

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Design Of Water Tank & Sewage Treatment Plant For JNNCE Campus

4.2.6. Pond Volume & Depth


Total inflow = 240 m3/day

4.2.7. Pond System


Total pond area= 0.2664 ha = 2664m2
Adopt rectangular ponds with length to breadth ratio as 2.5

Hence provide a pond of area (81 33) m2,

Therefore actual area provided =2673m2

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Design Of Water Tank & Sewage Treatment Plant For JNNCE Campus

CONCLUSIONS

Dept. of Civil Engg., JNNCE Page 22


Design Of Water Tank & Sewage Treatment Plant For JNNCE Campus

5. CONCLUSIONS

1. The capacity of the OHT required is 300 m3.

2. The size of the oxidation pond required is 81m X 33m.

3. The project work is a case study where an attempt has been made to design the OHT and
oxidation pond to fulfill the requirements of the institution for another decade.

4. The site-map of the college prepared for this project can be used as a reference map for
the future planning of the campus.

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Design Of Water Tank & Sewage Treatment Plant For JNNCE Campus

SCOPE FOR FUTURE STUDY AND


IMPROVEMENT

Dept. of Civil Engg., JNNCE Page 24


Design Of Water Tank & Sewage Treatment Plant For JNNCE Campus

6. SCOPE FOR FUTURE STUDY AND IMPROVEMENT


It was possible to prepare the layout of the campus and design the water tank and
oxidation pond in the limited time. The following works are to be completed for the satisfactory
functioning of the system.

1. The design of staging for the water tank.

2. Design of the distribution system for the water supply.

3. Design of Underground Drainage system to carry the sewage to the oxidation


pond.

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Design Of Water Tank & Sewage Treatment Plant For JNNCE Campus

7. REFERENCES

1. National Building Code of India.

2. IS:3370 -Indian Standard Code of practice for concrete structures for the storage
of liquids.

3. IS:456-Indian Standard Code of practice for Plain & Reinforced Concrete.

4. SP-16-Design Aids for Reinforced Concrete to IS:456.

5. IS:5611-Indian Standard Code of Practice of stabilization of ponds.

6. “Design of R.C. Structures” by Krishna Raju.

7. “Waste Water Management” by B.C.Punmia , S.K.Jain & A.K.Jain.

8. “Concrete Structures” by V N Vazirani & M M Ratwani.

Dept. of Civil Engg., JNNCE Page 26