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s c

..
..

--

2016


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ufl 373.167.1:53
ccl 22.372
ltl 444
e85

85
e85

e .o.

q

// ..
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e, ..
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d.
4-
.
r
/
. : .
2- .
/f : ,
v, 2016.
2015. 96
96 .
.
(
(c ).
).
ISBN
978-5-222-27362-3
ISBN 978-5-222-23675-8
d , ,
. p ,
.
q , , , ,
.
373.167.1:53
22.372






:

20.02.2016.
84108/32. . 2.
5000 . .
344011, . --, . , 150
./: (863) 261-89-50, 261-89-75

ISBN 978-5-222-27362-3

: .., .., 2013


: , 2014


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1.
1.1.

.


; = const; a = 0.
: S = x x0, x0, x .
  
: r = x x 0 .

S = r = x x 0
.
0 0

 

: x = x 0 + 0t.


r

, r ; t : =
t
, .


r.
S
, S ; t =
t
, .
0

x =x=x
x0 -V
+ t
t
0

S = t
S = t
= const

x0

S
t

.
.
.


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: = 1 + 2 ,

;
 1 ; 2
.

a = const.
 
 
 0
a =
, 2 , 0 ; t
t

, .


at 2
 
.
: x = x 0 + 0t +
 

2

+
at
.
:
0



a = const; const; a > 0.
:
at 2
S = 0t +
.
2

:
at 2
x = x 0 + 0t +
.
2
:
= 0 + at.

 
: 0 > 0, a > 0, . . 0 , a
.


= 0 + at

x=
x0 + t+at
0t +/2at2/2 x
x=x+v
2

X0
0

ax

ax = const > 0

S
t




a = const; const; a < 0.

:
at 2
x = x 0 + 0t
.
2

:
at 2
S = 0t
.
2


4
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1.
:
= 0 at.


 : 0 > 0, a < 0, . . 0
, a .

ax

x = x0 + 0t at2/2

= 0 at

x0

ax = const < 0

S
0

0
a
t


.
g < 0 ;
g > 0 .

: g = 9, 81 2 .



gt 2
 
.
: y = y 0 + 0t +
2
,
0 0

y = y 0 + 0t +

(S = h)

h = 0t +

0 = 0
gt
2

gt 2
2

y = y0 +

gt 2
2

= 0 + gt

gt 2
2
= gt

2 20 = 2gh

2 = 2gh

h=

,

gt 2
y = y 0 + 0t
2

(S = h)
gt 2
h = 0t
2


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0 0

0 = 0

= 0 gt

t max =

0
g

2 20 = 2gh

h max =

20
2g

,
0


(0x = 0).
Y (0y = 0) W.

X
x

h
y

tg =
y

y
x


 

= x +y


x = 0


y = gt


gt 2
x = x 0 + 0t; y = y 0 +
2

x = 0 ; y = gt


gt 2
S = 0t; h =
2

= 02 + g 2 t 2

,
Y

0y

0 y
x

0x

0y

h
S

0
hm

0x


6
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y
S

1.
(0x = 0cos).
Y (0y = 0sin).
hmax .
hmax .

x = x 0 + 0 t cos

y = y 0 + 0 sin t

S = 0 t cos

h = 0 sin t

x = 0 x = 0 cos

gt 2
2

gt 2
2

y = 0 sin gt

= 02 2gh
t =

0 sin
g

h max =

02 sin 2
2g

S max =

02 sin 2
g

t = t =

t =

0 sin
g

2 0 sin
g

n 1
: = ; = ,
c

t
n ; t , .

.

T=

t
1
2
t
.
, [c]; T = T = T =
n

M1
R

M2


a


= ,
, ; t
t
c
.

7
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2 n

= 2 = .
t
t
S
2 R
=
; = t , S = 2R
T

; t = T .
2 R
= 2R .
=
T
: = R.
. ,
(
2
): a =
a = 2R, = 42 2R.
R
, ,
:
=

2 R
T
= 2 Rv

2
T
= 2 v

2
R
a = 2R

2 Rn
t

= R

2 n
t

=
R
a
=

a
R

a=

a =
a = 4 2v 2 R
a=

4 2 n 2 R
t2

a = 2 v

a=

2
T

1.2.
:





F = 0, = const.

,
,


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7.
7.1. . .

.
: .
: m n = 1, 675 10 27 ;
mn
= 183.
me
.
N.
.
: Z e = 1, 6 10 19 .
: m = 1, 6726 10 27 ;
mn
= 1836.
me
Z.
.
: e = 1, 6 10 19 .
: m = 9,110 31 .

() (n).
,
.
().
A = Z + N , N ; Z
.
(),
+Z. (Z .)
1014 1015 ,
Z .

().
:
Z ( );
( );
;
.

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1. .............................................................................................3
1.1. ...........................................................................................3
1.2. ...............................................................8
1.3. .................................................................................11
1.4. ............................................................................15
1.5. .............................................................17
2. ...........................22
2.1. - .....................22
2.2. ....................................................................25
2.3. .............................................29
3. .....................................................31
3.1. ..................................................................................31
3.2. ........................................................36
3.3. ..................................................................................44
3.4. .............................................................48
4. ......................................................................50
4.1. ..................................................................50
4.2. . ................................................................53
4.3. .
...............................................................................54
4.4. .................................................................57
5. .................................................................................................60
5.1. .....................................................................60
5.2. ................................................................................63
5.3. ...............................................68
6. .........................................................................71
6.1. - ...................................................71
6.2. . ...........................................................71
6.3. .....................................................................................72
7. ................................................................76
7.1. . . ........................76
7.2. . .......................77
7.3. ......................................................................78
7.4. ........................................................80
7.5. . .......................80
7.6. ...............................................................................82
7.7. . . ......................83
7.8. .
.........................................................................85
.........................................................................................87
...................................................................................95


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