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. . , . . , . .

URSS

22.18 22.251 30.121 32.973-018

,
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ANSYS : . . 2-, .
.: , 2010. 456 .



ANSYS. -

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60x90/16. . . 28,5. . 3076.


.
117312, , - , 11, . 11.

ISBN 978-5-9710-0279-6

. . , . . ,
. . , 2007, 2009

E-mail: URSS@URSS.ru
./: 7 (499) 13S-42-16
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u rss

http://URSS.ru

8078 108731

9 7 85971 0 0 2 7 9 6

.
, ,
, ,
.

............................ ......................................................................................
1.
1.1.
1.2.
1.3.
1.4.
1.5.
1.6.

............................................... ......
................ .....................................
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........ ....................................
.....................................
.......... .......
.............

5
7
7
10
15
18
21
24

2. ..................................................................................... 35
2.1.
.............................
35
2.2. -
.................................................................. 40
2.3.
./- ........... ............................ 44
2.4. ............................................................... 155
3. ...............................................................

157

4. ........................................................................... 242
4.1. -
.......................................... ................................................... 242
4.2.
J- ................. ............ 247
5.
5.1.
5.2.
5.4.
5.6.
5.7.
5.8.

APDL....................... ....................................................
APDL............................................................... ..
Toolbar: .......... .........................................
APDL .....................................
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APDL.........................................................................
GET-................ ........................................................

300
301
301
324
337
339
341

.............................................................................................................

347

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1.
....................................................... ................. 350
2.
........................................................................ 356
3.
....................................... 4................ 361
4.
.......................................... .............................. 367
5.
........................................................ ....................... 373
6. -
......... ....... .............................................................. 380
7.
..................... ................................................... 387
8.
........................................................................ 392
9. ..... 400
10. -
............................................................. ....... ................. 408
11. -
............................................. ......... ............................... 410
12.

......................................... ......... ................................ 412
13.

.................................................................. 418
14.

,
.................................................. 424
15.


............................... ......... ................ 430
16. -
........................... ......................... 438
17. ANSYS 11.0......... ..................... 441


(ANSYS , [1]),

ANSYS.

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21 dl

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15

= 0,50,089 + 0,442 -0,853 .


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17

. 1.4.
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J=

10
t dl

(1.15)

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= ^ P d v = P v - j v d P 0

() ( ,
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( = const)
7

=1 ! * = 1 [^
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l 8 ] p d v = J - ] dP d v .
td l
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18

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20

. 1.5. ().
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= 240 , = 380 ,
/ = 62 %, = 8,9-10-9, = 3,45.
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= 286 , = 436 , m = 0,13
;
J c = 150/2 45; J c ~ 90 /
70.

21

45 ( ), + 400, < = 1090 ,

/ '

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= 1200 , 1= 65 [ .
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/ =65 %, \ = 174 / ,
fC = 158 / , = 1,510"12,
= 3,12 20; & = 165 / , K fC = 97 >/,
= 10'12, = 3,26 40.
10 (), 10-20 ,
~ 123 / 20; =
= 73 / 80.
22 (), , , =255 , =510 ,
1= 100 >/^.
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122 (), =550 , = 630 , {=


= 200 [ .
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23

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24

. 1.6.

0,2

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1
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lg
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25

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2=~1=[4(/4)-{{1)-(0)],

26

= j [ 2 u i {L) + 2ui {Q)-4ui { L / 4 )'\.


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u = ( l - p ) u 1+ j/p ( l- r ? ) u 2 + ^ p ( l+ r ; ) u 3,

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= -.

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)

= ( i - ) t+ ^

27

+ ^ (1+ ) =

(1.28 )
='1+ \ 0 -:7 )(2 - 1 ) + 0 + 7)(

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>1= 1/2.
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28

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29



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~ Jk\j + K tj
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a x + I OijTij
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2.J. 3 3 dl
(
1 2 ).

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2 /

/*\2

+ + )

(1.31)

30

G =

f p

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01

12) d u f ]

+ ^ + 2 p
dl
i r (
+
\

(1) { >

dl

(1) <9uP

dx +
\

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+Pii):L + 2Pi

dx.
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p\^dx [2\
pf^ dx .

(k, j = 1, 2) (1.31)

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0

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=

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() , \0 v0

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(1.32)
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31

. . 30
fxx = cos 1- sinsin
v

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/
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0
30

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2
2 /
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/
t1+sinsin
fyy = cos 2
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0
30
=Sin-COS-COS

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r , . 0 . 30 \
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COS
2
2
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(1.34)

,-.

9 - l + 2sm
COS

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F =sin /r + 1l~ 2^co s 2
v
2\
2

(
/r + l + 2cos2

Fx =

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/
1

2
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2
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* -
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32

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. 1.12.

j = - l e/7
t dl

]
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(1.35)


= /( 1 - v2) .

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(. 1.12).
,
. / / + /,
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33

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34

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36

y.v

crack front

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f (2ae+l)sin-s in
4 G \ 2 I
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+ 0 (r );
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V;

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; G ; > , 1
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3 -4 v

37

3 -
1+ v

v ; () .
(2.1) 0 = 180

=
(1 + );
2 G \2 n
KiV=
2 G V 2 :

(1+);

(2.2)

_ 2
W
G

( , . 2.3, ) (2.2)

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1+ v r

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1+ <Jr 9

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III
= \[ 2G-M-,
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l+ae v r
/

='12

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1+ v r

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38

. 2.3.
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|;

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(2.5)

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v = 0 , J
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2^204.
1+

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ANSYS KCALC.
ANSYS :
;
KCALC;
.

39

.
vml43.dat, ANSYS,
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KCALC

(. 8 ).
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.
1. .
ni = n t i p

nj = N O D E { - d e l r / 4 , 0 , zic)
nk = N O D E ( - d e l r , 0 , zic)
L S E L , S , L I N E , ,13
ASLL,S,0
ASEL,R,LOC,Y,0
LSLA,S
NSLA,S,1
nl = N O D E ( - d e l r / 4 ,0, zic)

n m * N O D E { - d e l r , 0, zic)
ALLSEL,ALL,ALL
P A T H , k i / 5, ,48
P P A T H , 1 , ni
P P A T H , 2 , nj
PPATH,3,nk
P P A T H , 4 , nl
PPATH,5,nm

ni
,
Z = z i c ( n _ t i p )
( ),
1/4 n _ t i p
()
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13
, 13
( ) Y = 0
,

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1/4 n _ t i p
()
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() ki,
5
ni - n m


, .
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( , , z ) , *SEL (LSEL, ASLL, NSLA . .)
(
), PATH
.

40

2. KCALC.
()
: K C A L C , K P L A N , M A T , K C S Y M , K L O C P R
K C A L C :
K P L A N ( :
0 /
1 );
( );
K C S Y M ( :
0, 1 -
2
3 - );
K L O C P R ( )
!
KC A L C , 0,1,3
!

KCALC
K l9 ,
, .
3.
.
* G E T , K I 1 , K C A L C , ,,1
* G E T , K I 2 , K C A L C , ,/2
* G E T , K I 3 , K C A L C , ,, 3

! (I ) K I 1
! (II) K I 2
! ( ) , K I 3


KI1, KI2 KI3
.

2.2. /-

-
(1.14)

, , ; W =
=

= J crmnd^nn ( );

41

(jc,) , .
,

; ds . ,
j(W d y )

j\ W n xds) ANSYS,

ds.
-

-. -
, -
, (. 2.3, ).
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APDL, , , j i n _ f .mac,
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8 9 .
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1. .
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, - .
Z= z i c , z i c
XY ,
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.
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( n j i , n j j , njk, n j l , n j m , njn).
j i n _ f (ARGi - ARG6).
L S E L , S , L I N E , ,18
ASLL,S,
ASEL,R,LOC,Y,0
LSLA,S
NSLA,S,1
n j i = N O D E ( - a i c 2 , 0 , zic)
ALLSEL,ALL,ALL
njj = N O D E ( - a i c 2 , - a i c 2 , zic)
n j k = N O D E ( a i c 2 , - a i c 2 , zic)
n j l * N O D E ( a i c 2 , a i c 2 , zic)

18
, 18
( ) Y - 0
,

,
j i
(1- )

nj j
(2- )
n j k
(3- )
n j l
(4- )

42
njm = NODE{-aic2,aic2,zic)

n j m
{5- )
19
, 19
1( ) Y = 0
,

,
n j n
(6- )


L S E L , S ,L I N E , ,19
A S L L , S , 0.
ASEL,R,LOC,Y,0
LSLA,S
NSLA,S,1
n j n = N O D E ( ~ a i c 2 , 0, zic)
A L L S E L ,A L L ,A L L
eicl = e i c / ( 1 - (nuic*nuic))

2. j in f ,
, .
j i n f ,nj i , n j j ,nj k , n j l , n j m , n j n

j i n _ f . m a c
(
n j i - n j n ) ,
J I N T _ F

3. j i n _ f .
JINT.
!1 ! ! ! I ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
ETABLE,SENE,SENE
E T A B L E ,V O L U ,V O L U
S E X P ,W ,S E N E ,V O L U , 1 , - 1
P A T H , J I N T _ F , 6 , ,48
PPATH,1,ARG1
P P A T H , 2,ARG2
PPATH,3,ARG3
PPATH,4,ARG4
P P A T H , 5,ARG5
P P A T H , 6,A R G 6
PDEF,W,ETAB,W
PVECT,NORM,NX,NY,NZ
P C A L C ,M U L T ,W N X ,W ,N X

PCALC,INTG,J,WNX,S
* G E T , J A , P A T H , ,L A S T , J

PD E F , I N T R , S X , SX


( SENE)

( V OL U )

W = S E N E / V O L U ( W)
J I N T _ F ,
.

(
A R G 1 - A R G 6)







X - ( WNX)
W N X
S

J A
( JINT)

S X


PDEF,INTR,SY,SY
PDEF,INTR,SXY,SXY
P C A L C ,M U L T ,T X ,S X ,N X
P C A L C , M U L T , C l ,S X Y , N Y
PCALC,ADD,TX,TX,Cl
P C A L C ,M U L T ,T Y ,S X Y ,N X
P C A L C ,M U L T ,1 f S Y ,N Y
PCALC,ADD,TY,TY,Cl
*GET, DX,.PATH, , LAST, S
DX = D X / 1 0 0

DXG - DX*COS(alpha)
DYG = DX*SIN(alpha)
PCALC,ADD,XG,XG,,,,-DXG/2
P C A L C , A D D , Y G , Y G , ,,,-DYG/2
PDEF,INTR,UX1, UX
PDEF,INTR,UY1,UY
PCALC,ADD,XG,XG,,,,DXG
P C A L C ,A D D ,Y G , Y G , , , , D Y G
P D E F , I N T R , U X 2 ,U X
PDEF,INTR,UY2,UY
PCALC,ADD,XG,XG,,,,-DXG/2
PCALC,ADD,YG,YG,,,,-DYG/2
= 1/DX
P C A L C ,A D D ,1 , U X 2 ,U X 1 , ,-
P C A L C , A D D , C 2 ,U Y 2 , U Y 1 , , -C
P C A L C , M U L T , C l , T X , Cl
P C A L C , M U L T , C 2 ,TY, C2
PCALC,ADD,Cl,Cl,C2
PCALC,INTG,J,Cl, S
* G E T , J B , P A T H , ,L A S T , J

JINT * JA-JB
PDEF,CLEAR

43


SY

S X Y

X
T X = S X * N X + S X Y * N Y ( )

Y
T Y = S X Y * N X + S Y * N Y ( TY)



X
1%

X

Y
X X - D X G / 2 (
X)
Y Y - D Y G / 2 (
Y)
U X
X - D X / 2
U Y
X - D X / 2
X - D X G / 2 X + D X G / 2 (
X)
Y - D Y G / 2 Y + D Y G / 2 (
Y)
U X
X + D X / 2
U Y
X + D X / 2

D U X / DX

DUY/DX

(TX*DUX/DX

UX:
U Y :

+ TY*DUY/DX)


J I N T ( S)

J B
( JINT)


44

4.
-.
KI1J * SQRT(eicl*JINT)

! (I ) J -
! K I 1 J


(1.35)
, = y fW l.

(2.7)

-
(1.11)
+ K l ) + ^ * , 2

(2.8)

,
[9,10,16,17,1].

2.3.
-

12
- .
:
;
,
;
;
- ();
-
;
;

.

[25].
.

. [26]
38. = 210 , v = 0,3.

45

, ANSYS
. ,
.
, , . .
.

, ANSYS,
[16-19], ,
,
,
- (2.7).
, :
- ( 10);

() ( 11);
- ( 12).
ANSYS
:
;
.
1.
, ,
Utility Menu > File > Read Input from ...
, ,
. 2.1. ,
-. .
(Working Directory).
,
.
2.
.
,
.
Enter .

AN SYS.
1 . (
1 25.506-85).
. 2.4.
: b ; t .

46

. 2.1

M o d e l _ l .inp, j _f_1 .mac

Model_2.inp,

j_f_l.mac

Model_3.inp,

j_f_l.mac

Model_4.inp,

j_f_JL.mac

Model_5.inp, j_f_l.mac

Model_6.inp,

M o d e 1 _ 7 .i n p , j _ f _ 1 .mac

M o d e l _ 8 .i n p , j i n _ f .mac

Model__9.inp, jin_f.mac

Model_l.inp, j_f_l.mac

11

Model_l.inp,

j_f_l.mac

12

Model_l.inp,

j_f__l.mac

:
1...16.
(Working Directory).
: = 100
= 20 .
- : ,
, 1/8 ,
.
- (. 2.5):
11567;
2432;
0.025.
. 2.6 2.7.

. 2.2.

ANSYS
.
1. , 25.506-85 [25, . 19]

47

C4J

:
6 ;
/-( 5.. .0,25)6;
= (1,25.. .1,6)6;
h = (0,1...0,2)6;
= (0,15...0,25)6;
= 0,36; '
= 0,036;
I = 36.

:
6 = 1 ;
/ = 0,26 = 0,2 ;
;
h = 0,156 = 0,15 ;
/ - 0,16 = 0,1 ;
= 0;
L - 3 .

. 2.4.

; ; t ;
(

21

, I =

, =0,38 1+ 2,308() + 2,439(A)2!


( 0,<21<0,5).

2. , 25.506-85 [25, . 36]


K = Y{,
tb 1

/= 1,77+0,227(A)-0.51(A)2 +2,7(A)3.

(2. 10)

48

2.2

\.

-!, Vm

ANSYS,

88

ANSYS, J -, (2.7)

87,75

0,997

(2.9)

87,91

0,999

(2.10)

87,29

0,992

(2.11)

87,91

0,999

(2.12)

87,2

0,991

3. , [19]
{ =/1|^1-0,025()2 + 0 ,0 6 ( )4

sec

V2

( 2 . 11)

= , .
b
4. , [9]

K=

1 - - + 0,32 62

----.

(2.12)

. 2.2.
] ,
ANSYS .
PC Intel Pentium IV - 2,6 GHz/1 Gb -120 .

. 2.8.

. 2.9.

= 100 . 2.10,

. 2.3.
1 = <V /[l, 655 + 1,9 5 2 ( ')-6 ,8 8 9 ( )2 + 2 4 ,144(/)3] ,

' = (. . 2.4).
b

49

ANSYS

ELEMENTS

..

?\\

FRACTURE

. 2.5. -

ANSYS

NODAL SOLUTION
=1
SUB * 1

TIKE-l
U3UM
R 3Y 3=0

<A V 3)

D M X * . 7J.5E-03
.4MW =. 7 0 8 E - 04
= . 7 1 5 2 - 0 3

. '. '

*&
'*#%
*

:
* * S

>:

f . v

*
6:

#: * :

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<

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. .

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:
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:< ; :<

:<<; ; |
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<,: -. /

-*~;-:

- '. - .: - :-

708 -01

.2 1 3 E - D 3
. 1 4 2 -03

.35 7 - 0 3
.286-0

.50DE-03
.4298-03

. 6 4 1 "03
.572 -03

FRACTURE

. 2.6. ()

.71SE-03

50

ANSYS

NODAL SOLUTION
T E?=1
SUB = i
T IM E * !
8EOV
(AVfir)
DMX = . 7 1 5 B - 0 3
3MN * . 2 0 9 E + 0 8
3MX = . 9 0 3 *-09

. 127 +0
, 733R +08

. 2 3 0 E -0 9
. 180 +09

.3 4 0 f> 0 9
.2 8 * ? + 0 9

. 447S+09
. 393B +09

. 50C E+09

FRACTURE

. 2.7. (Ila)

DEC
9 2005
11 :0 2 :3 2
N O D AL S O L U T I O N
STEP=1
SU B = 1
TIM E=1
SEQV
(AVG)
Powfc r G r a p h i c s
EFACET=1
AVRES=Mat
DMX = . 7 1 5 E - 0 3
SMN . 2 0 4 E + 0 8
SMX = . 9 0 3 E + 0 9
ZV
=1
* .0 1 7 7 3 6
*XF
= .2 0 1 6 5 6
*YF
012227
*2F
. OS
CAPPED 2-B U FFER
A
. 6 9 4 E + 0 8

= . 16SE+G9

266E+09
D
* . 364E+09
E
.4 6 2 E + 0 9
F
* . 5 60E+ 09
G
= . 65BE+09
H
= . 756E + 09
I
854E+0S

. 2.8. ()

51

=1
3UB * 1
1 =1
PATH PLOT

8 _1
SML 2

< )

1 S 3 2 .3 9 4 .
1 3 6 S .9 0
9 9 . S 5 fi
1 0 3 3 .1 5 2 .
s e s . 738.

1
J
-----------1

7 0 0 . 324.
5 3 3 .8 1 0 .
3 6 7 .4 9 6 .

2 0 1 .0 8 2 .

W u ,w '

.0 2
.0 1

.
.0 3

.0 6
.0 5

.0 8
.0 7

.1
.0 9

DIST

FRACTURE

. 2.9. ()

: sig l, sig_2, sig_3 ,

. 2.10. ()
() = 100

52

2.3
\.
( = 100 )

,
0,2
0,251

05

,
/-, Vm

57,1

72,6

87,8

104,5

,
(2.9), -Vm

7,4

72,2

87,9

104,7


( 1).
( -)
.
ANSYS
,
. ANSYS Com
mand Prompt, .
APDL Programmer's Guide,
APDL 5 .
.
, ,
.
,
, 1/4 .
,
.
10 % (ANSYS ,
/8,
, ).
, ,
ANSYS
( KSCON).
- ,
ANSYS ,
1/4 (
KSCON . ).
ANSYS v m l 4 3 . d a t , ,
, ;

. -

53

. ,
: , ,
, ,
.
,
, ;
(. . 2.1): XY
, X .
.
,
. ,
X v
Y.
ANSYS
:
4 1;
,
15-30 .
,
, ( MSHMID, 1).
.
, , vml43.dat. ,
(MSHMID, 1)
.
KSCON

:
KSCON, NPT,DELR, KCTIP,NTHET,RRAT

KSCON:
NPT .
DELR .
ANSYS ,
/8 ( ).


. 1 %
.
/40,

(1/10)
(1/4).
KCTIP :
KCTIP ~ 0: ;

54

K C T I P = 1: 1/4

.
ANSYS , . .
KCT I P = 1.

, ,
,
.
.
NTHET .
ANSYS ,
30-40. :
45 , 30
.
15 45
.
22,5,
(90).
,
. ,
NTHET = 4.
RRAT .
ANSYS
2- 1- 0,5 ( , 1-
), 0,75 .
2-

0,5 < RRAT < 1,0.
.

- ,
AN SYS.
,

J -.

K I1 - K I 3 .
- j _f _1 . m ac (
;
j i n _ f .m ac),
( n j i - n j 1).
J - J I N T ,
, ,
J -, K I 1 J .

Flfl f
ro1ii,e$

Options

Tool*

Help

ANSYS

PRO D U CT LAUNCHER
KfLfcASfc 0

Launch

Cuslomteaaon ' Presences

8oh>e
Setup

1#^5
* -

w:: *:..:

V ' ft : :- . .

.; 3 :. :. -' :

>

* .

..........

. 2.11.
A*4V4 4 i*4 * y ir I* Oi^AUHUi- HertufMotfd I) :>:

:'
, , ,

Preference*
| (fl *
ffl Solution
i) oeneroi Postproc

, . ,

AN

NODES
FEB

1*1 lmHMtPMtpro
T.vo*ogk-IOp

1? 2005
1 6 :0 0 :0 7

&

$%

ROM Tool
D esign O p t

0 Prob DeH)fl
0 RodtottonQo*
N - Stots

<>:?&}
i
I '?
<
:>:
-! :-

< 1Fditor

; Hnfah

ft--:: ^

^
. 2.12. ANSYS

56

_ i n i x!

ANSYS Multiphye ics/LS-DYNA


ANSYS COMMAND LINE ARGUMENTS
liodelj.
INITIAL JOBNAME
START-UP FILE MODE
- READ
STOP PILE MODE
- READ
GRAPHICS DEUICE REQUESTED
- 3D
GRAPHICAL ENTRY
- YES
LANGUAGE
- -us
INITIAL DIRECTORY D:\Work_Ansys\ansys904crack

00264555
UERSION-INTEL NT
RELEASE- 9
CURRENT JOBNAME-Mode1_1 15:16:12 FEB 17, 2005 CP/SHOW SET WITH DRIVER NAME 3D

RASTER NODE,

UP20041104
1.172
GRAPHIC PLANES

RUN SETUP PROCEDURE FROM PILE- C:\Program Files\Ansys Inc4v90\ANSYSSapdl4start9!


an 8
/INPUT FILE* menust.tnp

LINE*

/INPUT FILE- C:\Program FllesNAnsys Inc4u90\ANSYS4apdl\start9@.ans

LINE

ACTIVATING THE GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE <GUI>. PLEASE WAIT...


treating the GUI panes
treating the GUI m e n u b a r
treating the GUI status
treating the GUI Graphics Context
treating the Application Context
treating the GUI toolbar
treating the GUI toolbar - "ANSYS Standard Toolbar
treating the GUI toolbar - "ANSYS Main Menu"
treating the GUI toolbar - "ANSYS Toolbar"
treating the GUI toolbar - "ANSYS Graphical Uiew"
CUTTING PLANE SET TO THE WORKING PLANE
ading ANSYS Help System
leone to ANSYS
PRODUCE NODAL PLOT IN DSYS- 0
TURN OFF WORKING PLANE DISPLAY
PRODUCE NODAL PLOT IN DSYS-

PRODUCE NODAL PLOT IN DSYS-

. 2.13.

1.
ANSYS:
.
:
Start > Programs > ANSYS 9.0 > ANSYS Product Launcher
File Management
Working Directory Job Name: M o d e l _ l .
Browse...

. 2.14.

57

. 2.15.

ANSYS Run. . . 2.11.


.
. (Jobnam e)
, ANSYS .
, :
Start > Programs > ANSYS 9.0 > ANSYS

Output Window, . . 2.12 2.13.

SAVEJDB ANSYS Toolbar
(. 2.14):
Toolbar > SAVEJDB

ANSYS Model l .db,
M o d e l _ l . dbb.
:
Utility Menu > File > Save as Jobname.db
Utility Menu > File > Save as ...
:
SAVE

2. .
,
.
Utility Menu > File > Change Title ...
Model_l [/TITLE] Enter new title Change Title
OK (. 2.15).
:
/TITLE,Model 1

58

. 2.16.
? j ^ A S 4 Y 4 V M l l i | l i y M < 1 4 r > Y V W > h i ( t y M f > n o ( . 1>

. 2.17.

. 2.18.
3. .
Utility Menu > Parameters > Angular Units ...
Degrees DEG [*AFUN] Units for angular-parametric
functions Angular Units for Parametric Functions OK (. 2.16).
:
*AFUN,DEG

4. .

, ,
(),
.

()

59

Notepad ANSYS.
,
.
:
(. 2.17) ANSYS Command Prompt,
Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters ... (. 2.18).

=.
.
(
, ! ,
; Enter):
bic
hie
tic
lie
zic

1. 0

3.0*bic
0.l*bic
0 ,2*bic
0.0

()
(m )
()
()
Z- (),

J- ( ,
)

:
ric * 0.10*lic
aic = 8*ric
xl = lie x2 = lie x3 = lie
x4 = lie +
x5 = lie +
x6 = bic/2
yl = ric
y2 = aic/2
y3 = hic/2
nic = 4

aic/2
ric


<)

()
()

ric
aic/2

nl = N I N T (xl/ric/2)
n2 = N I N T ((x6-x5)/ric/2)
n3 = N I N T ((y3-y2)/rIc/4)


( )
1, 15, 24
6, 18, 27
19...23

( NINT ( )
5.)
:
eic = 2.10511
nuic = 0.3

! ()
!

:
0 = 1.08

()

60
f

M u l t 1 S D Y N A U l i(it

Ur p r n i

rssni

Element Type
IS Real Constant*
M aterial Props
Sections
Q Modeling
Meshing
Checking Ctrfs
Numbering Ctris
Archive Model
ffl Coupling / Ceqn
S FLOTRAN Set Up
FSI Set Up
EE) M ultifield Set Up
Loads
( Physics
Path Operations
Solution
General Postproc

. 2.19.

. 2.20.
( )

5. .
Main Menu > Preprocessor (. 2.19)
.
:
/PREP7

6. .
Main Menu > Preprocessor > Element > Add/Edit/Delete
Element Types Add (. 2.20).
Library of Element Types
Not Solved, Mesh Facet 200; ,
1 ( Element type reference number) OK

(. 2.21).
Element Types
1 MESH200 Options... (. 2.22).
MESH200 element type options (. 2.23) QUAD 8-NODE
Element shape and # of nodes 1 ( K2 )
.

. 2.21. (MESH200)

. 2.22.

. 2.23. (MESH200)

61

62

. 2.24. (SOLID95)

. 2.25. ()

MESH200 ,
,
. ,
, ,

. 1 MESH200
(
, . . ).
ANSYS.
Element Types Add.
Library of Element Types Solid,
20node 95; , 2 (
Element type reference number) OK (. 2.24).

63

. 2.26.
>*< butropk PruircrHes for

. 2.27. -

Element Types Close (. 2.25).


MESH200 :
,
SOLID95 (
, . . );
MESH200.
:
,1,MESH2Q0,7
,2,SOLID95

(Main Menu > Preprocessor > Rea! Constants >


Add/Edit/Delete) .

64

()

7.
.
-
: .
Main Menu > Preprocessor > Material Props > M aterial Models
Define Material Model Behavior (. 2.26)
Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic.
Linear Isotropic Material Properties for Material
Number 1 (. 2.27) :
e ic ( ),
n u ic PRXY ( ).
Major
(PRXY). Minor (NUXY),
.
Define Material Model Behavior.
:
MP,EX,1,eic
MP,PRXY,1,nuic

MP,NUXY,1,nuic

8. .
-
.
Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints >
In Active CS
NPT Keypoint number Create Keypoints in Active Coordinate
System 1, X,Y,Z Location in Active CS
Apply. ,
;
Apply , ,
. NPT Keypoint number
,
,
.
.
4 {, 0}: (. 2.28).
, x l, 1 . . ;
ANSYS .

NPT
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

X
!
2

4
5

0
xl

0
xl

65

Y
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
2
2
2
2
2

. 2.28.
:
,1/0,0
, 2,xl,0
, 3 ,2,0
,4,,0
, 5,4,0
, 6,5,0
,7,,0
,8,, 1
, 9,0, 2
,10,1,2
, 11, ,2
, 12, 5,2
, 13,,2
, 14, 0,
, 15,1,
, 16, ,
, 17,5,
, 18,,

1
2
3
4 ( )
5

7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

66

. 2.29.

. 2.30.
I

67

ANSYS

POINTS
MAR
POIN NUM

5 7

1 12

5 2005
17:54:26

I __ X

1 2 ib j6

*7

Model 1
. 2.31.
,
,
.
,
():
Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering ...
Keypoint numbers, LINE Line numbers
AREA Area numbers Plot Numbering Controls,
OK (. 2.29).
:
/PNUM,,1
/PNUM,LINE,1
/PNUM,AREA,1


():
Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Window Controls > Window Options ...
At top left none [/TRIAD] Location of triad Window
Options, (. 2.30).
:
/TRIAD,LTOP

(. 2.31):
Utility Menu > Plot > Keypoints > Keypoints

68

:
KPLOT

9. .
;
.
Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines >
Lines > Straight Line
,
( ; ,
,
):

L1

L2

L3

L4

L5

L6

Cancel.
: LI, L2, L3 .

(. 2.32, -,
Pan, Zoom, Rotate:
Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Pan Zoom Rotate ...
//
/:

Ctrl + ;
Ctrl + ;
;
(
);
Apply.

. 2.33.

. 2.32.

. 2.34. L7 3 8


( 4)

( L7) 3 8:
Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Arcs >
By End KPs & Rad

69

70
L-K

MAR

Model 1

4 11

...........

.............-

___

____

........... ..............

5 2005
19:33:43

______
____________________
I

III.
IP

. 2.35.

3, 8 ( ) Apply,
; 4 ( ) Apply/
; r i c RAD Radius of the
arc Arc by End KPs & Radius, ,
(3, 8 4), (. 2.33).
. 2.34.
4 8 L8:
Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines >
Straight Line

4


L8

( L9) 8 5 (. 2.35):
Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Arcs >
By End KPs & Rad
8, 5 > Apply > 4 > Apply >
RAD = r i c > OK.
:
Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines >
Straight Line


H 2\11

LIN58

71

MAR

19

201 1*22

13
I

I
10
SfB* 13

1_Ll L l

M odel 1

5 2005
19:46:16

-23

I.1R

-U-

1314

. 2.36.


1
2
8
6
7
9
10
11
12
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17


9
10

12
13
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
15
16
17
18


L10
L11
L12
L13
L14
L15
L16
L'l 7
L18
L19
L20
L21
L22
L23
L24
L25
L26
L27

72

(. 2.36):
Utility Menu > Plot > Lines
:
LPLOT

10.

.
(. .
)
. :

. ,
.

.

MeshTool (. 2.37):
Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > MeshTool
MeshTool (
)
.

.

,
:
MeshTool > Size Controls: > Lines > Set
2 37
MeshTool

L l, Apply;
n l NDIV No. of element divisions
Element sizes on picked lines,
Apply (. 2.38 2.39).
, Apply
, Element sizes on picked lines.
L2, Apply; 4 NDIV
No. of element divisions 1/2.5 SPACE Spacing ratio,
Apply.
SPACE ,
.
L2 , . 2.40, . .
2,5 ,
. , :
MeshTool > Size Controls: > Lines > Flip, .

73

. 2.38.

. 2.39. L1

:
L5 > Apply > NDIV = 4 > SPACE = 2.5 > Apply;
L6 > Apply > NDIV - n2 > SPACE >
Apply;

L7 > Apply > NDIV = n i c > SPACE >


Apply;

74
1

: , . rj

L-K

MAR aj1 2005


;25 43

....

.1*

ill

ft--

1__ 1

Model 1

. 2.40. L2

L9 > Apply > NDIV = n ic > SPACE >


Apply;

L10 L ll > Apply > NDIV - 2 > SPACE


> Apply;
L12 > Apply > NDIV = 4 > SPACE = 2.5 > Apply;
L13 L14 > Apply > NDIV = 2 > SPACE
> Apply;
L15 > Apply > NDIV = n l > SPACE
> Apply;
L16 L17 > Apply > NDIV = 2 > SPACE
> Apply;
L18 > Apply > NDIV = n2 > SPACE >
Apply;

L19 L23 > Apply > NDIV = n3 >


SPACE > Apply;
L24 > Apply > NDIV = n l > SPACE
> Apply;
L25 L26 > Apply > NDIV = 2 > SPACE
> Apply;
L27 > Apply > NDIV = n2 > SPACE
> .


ANSVSI

L-K

75

MAR 11 20QS
21:41:41

Mbdel 1

. 2.41.
ANSyS

MAR 11 2005
21:42: ^0

------------L

Model 1

. 2.42.
L3, L4 L8, ,
,
) .
. 2.41 - 2.43
: .
MeshTool, .

76

AR5YS

LINKS

SEP 24 2005
01:18;47

LINE HUM

Y
__x

.12

_LX

/
1
1

'

\
.Is

JA

Model 1
. 2.43.
(
):
L,1,2,nl
L,2,3,4,1/2.5
L, 3, 4
L,4,5
L, 5, 6, 4, 2. 5
L, 6,7, n2
LARC,3,8, 4, ric
LESIZE,7, , ,nic
L, 4,8,
LARC,8,5,4,ric
LESIZE,9,,,nic
L, 1, 9, 2
L,2,10,2
L,8,11,4,2.5
L,6,12,2
L,7,13,2
L, 9,10,nl
L,10,11,2
L,11,12,2
L,12,13,n2
L,9,14,n3
L,10,15,n3
L,11,16,n3
L,12,17,n3
L,13,18,n3
L,14,15,nl
L, 15,16,2
L, 16,17, 2
L, 17,18,n2

Ll
L2
L3
L4
L5
L6
L7 ()...
...
L8
L9 ()...
...
L10
L11
L12
L13
L14
L15
L16
L17
L18
L19
L20
L21
L22
L23
L24
L25
L26
L27

11

11. .
.

; , ,
,
( 1).

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas >
Arbitrary > By Lines
, (
):

L1
L2
L3
L4

L11
L7
L8
L9
L13
L14
L20
L21
L22
L23

L15
L12

L10
L16

L5
L6
L15
L16
L17
L18

L7
L8
L17
L18
L24
L25
L26
L27

L11

L12
L13
L19
L20
L21
L22

L9

1
2

4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Cancel.
: 4
, ;
2 5 ,

(Mapped) .
:
AL,1/11,15/10
AL,2,7,12,16,11
AL,3,8,7
AL,4,9,8
AL,5,13,17,12,9
AL,6,14,18,13
AL,15,20,24,19
AL,16,21,25,20
AL,17,22,26,21
AL,18,23,27,22

1
2

4
5
6
7
8
9
10

78

i ----------------------------------------------------------------AREAS
ARB A MUM

.3

m
1

ANSYS
BBP 19 2 0 0 5
0 2 :0 1 :0 4

2___X

Kodel 1

. 2.44.
ill

II p^l?$8Si*
:

$
t*<

'*
I |*. *

-1

&
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>
*

:*

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;

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:
. - : $
. >;.>: >; -
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:' -

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. v . ' V .-.4 V

I %< %\

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g

V S ..

Kodel 1
. 2.45.
:
Utility Menu > Plot > Areas
, 2.44 - 2.46
( )
.

79

. 2.46.
:
APLOT

.
:
Toolbar > SAVEJDB
:
SAVE


12. .
( )
(. 2.47).

MeshTool > Element Attributes: > Areas > Set


Pick All; Area Attributes ,
1 MESH200 TYPE Element type number,
(. 2.48).
..........:

/ 7 '

"

. 2.47. MeshTool

80

. 2.48.
:
, 1
TYPE,1

13. .
d e l r ,
(, r i c
):
delr * ric/4

( 4).
Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls >
Concentrat KPs > Create
4 ( ); Concentration Key
point , NPT Keypoint for concentration
(4); DELR Radius of 1st row of elems
d e lr ; RRAT Radius ratio (2nd row/1 st) ;
NTHET No of elems around drcumf n ic ; KCTIP midside
node position Skewed 1/4pt, OK (. 2.49, 2.50).
,
;
,
1/4 .

kscon:
NPT , . . ;

DELR ;
KCTIP ;
1/4
;
NTHET ;
RRAT .

ui

81

7*

11

I 25 2005
0 3 l46:58

um nm
* __X

>U
Ml

L
IB

ll

JJL

*>|

Hodel 1
. 2.49. ( 4)

. 2.50.
:
KSC0N,4,delr,1,nic

DELR .
/40 (.
d elr = r ic /4 r ic = 0 .1 * lic).
KCTIP :
KCTIP - 0: ;
KCTIP = 1: 1/4
.
KCTIP = 1.

82
j,

NTHET .

,
22,5, NTHET = 4
(. n i c = 4)
RRAT .

, 0,5.

. 2.51.
14. ( , 4).

( )
(. 2.51).
MeshTool > Mesh: > Areas >
MeshTool > Shape: > Quad > Free
:
MSHAPE,0,2D
MSHKEY,0

15.
4 ( ).
:
MeshTool > Mesh: > Mesh
4, .

, Close.
. 2.52.
KSCON (
, . .).
:
AMESH,3,4,1

83

KLBMENTff

11 2005
01:33:57

__

Modl 1
. 2.52. ,

7SPEY5

NODK0

11 2005
01:37:15

^#1
Model 1

. 2.53.
,
1/4 (. 2.53):
Utility Menu > Plot > Nodes
:
NPLOT

84

. 2.54.

. 2.55.

16.

2 5.

(. 2.54).
MeshTool > Shape: > Quad > Mapped
:
MSHKEY,1


2 5 (. 2.55). ,
,
( ):

85

SLSMKNT0

24 200$

06

i_

M odel 1

. 2.56.

. 2.57.

MeshTool > Pick corners > Mesh


2 ( ) > >
8, 11, 2, 3 ( 10 ,
L 16 L 11).
5 ( ) >
> 5, 6, 11,8 ( 12 ,
L13 L17).
Cancel , Map Mesh Area by

Corners.

2 5 . 2.55.
. 2.56.

86

ANSYS

24 2005
01:56:22

_X

Model 1

. 2.58.
ANSYSI

ELEMENTS

24 2005
02:03:30

__

/ -

VkX

M o d el 1

2.59. -
:
,2,8,11,2,3
,5,5,6,11,8

17.
(1 6-10).

1 6-10:
MeshTool > 3 4 sided > Mesh (. 2.57)

87

. 2.60.
: 1 6-10 > .
MeshTool, Close.
. 2.58,2.59.
:
AMESH,1,6,5
AMESH,7,10,1

- .

.
:
Toolbar > SAVEJDB
:
SAVE

18. .
nz:
nz = 8

:
Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Extrude >
Elem Ext Opts

88
|^ |( Ktrudc Art*Hs by XY2 CWfset

*tr*ieArw*byXZOffK

lip fl
i.ftivt IV *iliirtiwi;

&
%
W
%
.;

. 2.61.

ANSYS

ELEMENTS
MAT

NUM

OCT 24 2 0 0 5
2 0 :0 3 :3 1

M odel 1

. 2.62. -
Element Extrusion Options: TYPE Element type number
2 SOLID95 ( ); Element sizing
options for extrusion / VAL1 No. Elem divs nz (
); (Yes) ACLEAR
Clear area(s) after ext ( );
(. 2.60).
:
TYPE,2
EXTOPT,ESIZE,nz
EXTOPT,ACLEAR,1

19. .

tic Z:
Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Extrude >
Areas > By XYZ Offset

89

Model 1

. 2.63. -
Pick All; Extrude Areas by XYZ Offset DX,DY,DZ
Offsets for extrusion t i c DZ (DX DY ); (. 2.61).

, Close,
. 2.62 2.63:
.
:
VEXT,1,10,1,,,tic,1,1,1

, ,

1/4 (. 2.64):
Utility Menu > Plot > Nodes
:
NPLOT

- .

.
:
Toolbar > S A V E D B
:
SAVE

Dtaea 2

90

AN5YSI

NODE

25 2005
15:28;50

* w

Model 1

. 2.64.

. 2.65.
Y -

. 2.66.
X [, ]

91

. 2.67.

20. .
(
, . .);
.
XZ ( Y= 0):
Utility Menu > Select > Entities ...
Nodes > By Location > Y coordinates, Min,Max
0 > From Full > Apply (. 2.65).


( ), . .
, X [, 6\:
Utility Menu > Select > Entities ...
Nodes > By Location > X coordinates, Min,Max
, > Reselect > Apply (. 2.66).
:
NSEL,S,LOC,Y,0
NSEL,R,LOC,X,x3,x6

(. .
XZ):
Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply >
Structural > Displacement > On Nodes
Pick All; Apply U,ROT on Nodes Lab2 DOFs to be
constrained UY, VALUE Displacement value 0;
(. 2.67).
. 2.68.

92

. 2.68. XZ
( )

:
D,ALL,UY,

, :
YZ ( = 0):
Utility Menu > Select > Entities ...
Nodes > By Location > X coordinates, Min,Max
0 > From Full > Apply.
X (. .
):
Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply >
Structural > Displacement > On Nodes
Pick All; Apply U ,R O T on Nodes Lab2 DOFs
to be constrained UX (,
), VALUE Displacement value
0; .
:
NSEL, S,LOC,X,0
D,ALL,UX,0

XY ( Z = 0):
Utility Menu > Select > Entities ...

1
ELEMENTS

93
ANSYS
2 6 2 0 0 5
0 1 :0 0 :4 2

M odel 1

. 2.69. ( )

Nodes > By Location > Z coordinates, Min,Max


0 > From Full > Apply.
Z (. .
XY):
Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply >
Structural > Displacement > On Nodes
Pick All; Apply U,ROT on Nodes Lab2 DOFs
to be constrained UZ (,
), VALUE Displacement value 0;
.
:
NSEL,S,LOC,Z,0
D,ALL,UZ, 0

. 2.69.
21.

.
,
, ,

.
( = h id 2):
Utility M enu > Select > Entities ...

94

. 2.70.
Areas > By Location > Y coordinates, Min,Max
h i e / 2 > From Full > OK.
:
ASEL, S,LOC,Y,hic/2

(
,
, . . ):

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply >
Structural > Pressure > On Areas
Pick All; Apply PRES on areas as VALUE Load
PRES value -p 0 ;
(. 2.70).
, Close.
:
SFA,ALL,1,PRES,-0

()
():

Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Symbols ...


Symbols [/PSF] Surface Load Symbols
Pressure; Show pres and convect as Arrows;
(. 2.71).
:
/PSF,PRES,NORM,2

Utility Menu > Select > Everything


:
ALLSEL

95

. 2.71.

(
):
Utility Menu > Plot > Areas (. 2.72)
:
APLOT

96

. 2.72.

22. .

Z:
Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply >
Structural > Displacement > On Nodes
Pick All; Apply U,ROT on Nodes Lab2 DOFs
to be constrained UZ (,
), VALUE Displacement value 0;
.
:
D,ALL,UZ,0

.
,
,

.
:
Toolbar > S A V E D B
:
SAVE

97

A N 4Y 4 M u l h |i b y s H

23. .

s /I S-DYNA IJtilrty

Main Menu > Solution



(. 2.73).

AN6VS

:
Preferences
Preprocessor

/SOLU

232SSS2

24. .
.

( ANSYS
,
):

Analysis Type
ffi Define Loads
Load Step Opts
5E Management (CMS)
0 Re culls Tracking
Solve
0 Manual Re 2onng
ffl F S IS e tU p
ffl Multffield Set tip
ffi ADAMS Connection
Diagnostics
Q Unabridged Menu
(S General Post proc

Main Menu > Solution > Analysis Type >


New Analysis
New Analysis ,
Static, (. 2.74).

. 2.73.

:
ANTYPE,STATIC

SPARSE .
SPARSE (, . .

, );
v

Analysis

-.4

c?vx..

&'y.

'

- ^ ^ - / . :
- - %*>*. - - 4

1..

* - .4 .

>'

' J

. 2.74.

98

. 2.75.

ANSYS ,
:
Main Menu > Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Controls
Solution Controls
Sol'n Options, Equation Solvers
Sparse direct, (. 2.75).

( ,
Pre-Conditioned Conjugate Gradient, PCG,
;
,
.)
:
EQSLV,SPARSE

:
Toolbar > SAVE_DB
:
SAVE

25. .
:
Main Menu > Solution > Solve > Current LS

SOLUTION

99

OPTIONS

problem . ............

-
DEGREESOF ..... UK UV UZ
HHRLV8I8 .................. (SIENOV-STBTf)
EQUATION 8. OPTBM............. SPARSE
globally rssowo ..... ..... m o t e
LORD

STEP

OPTIONS

LOflO81EP NUnSER.................
i
TIRE ATENO OF DC LOU) 8 W .......... 1.0000
m m of m m ............
i
CHRMGE H U M t V C M I I T I O W . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0
PRINTOUTPUT0......... . . . PRDnDUT
OUTPUTCONTROLS............ ALL OATA
FOR TNE LUST SUBSTEP

. 2.76.

. 2.77.

. 2.78.

. 2.79. -
/STATUS Com
mand; , . 2.76,
.
Solve Current Load Step (. 2.77).
Verify
, Yes (. 2.78).

100

ANSYS .


.
- ,
Solution is done!,
, Close (. 2.79).
:
SOLVE

.

M o d e l ^ l . r s t ,

(
).

()

26. .
Main Menu > General Postproc

(. 2.80).
:
/POST1

27. .
:

J^A N SYS

ipliysM I S i>YNf\ IK ility

J j Preferences
Preprocessor
S Solution

E > .il

pioi

Data 4k Ftfe Opts


Results Summary
f f i R e a d Results
Failure Criteria
Plot Resuits
List Results
ffi Query Results
@ Options Outp
E3 Results Viewer
W rite PGR File
S Nodal Calcs
ffi Element Table
Path Operations
Surface Operations
Load Case
Check Elem Shape
W rite Results
ffi ROM Operations
SubmodeHng
Fatigue
Safety Factor
ffi Define/ M o d t f y
Nonflnear Diagnostics
Reset
Q Manual Rezoning
TfrneHbt Postpro

. 2.80.

Main Menu > General Postproc > Read Results > Last Set
M o d e l_ l. r s t
, .
ANSYS
,
.
, (,
).
:
SET,LAST

:
Main Menu > General Postproc > Options for Outp

101

. 2.81.
, [RSYS] Results coord system Options for
Output Global Cartesian,
(. 2.81).
.
,
,
. ,
,
(. . 2.1). [RSYS] Results coord
system Local system Local system reference no.
.
:
RSYS,0

:
Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot >
Nodal Solu
4

Contour Nodal Solution Qata Nodal Solution > DOF


Solution > Displacement vector sum >>OK (. 2.82).

, . 2.83:
:
PLNSOL,U, SUM

(
ANSYS ):

102

>::v *5;.V

i &&&

jg j Favorites
Nodal Solution
DOF Solution
X-Component of displacement
^

Y-Component of displacement
2'Component of displacement

Total 5tran
Elastic Strain

3 Plastic Strain
jg ) Creep Strain
jftrt Thermal Strain
fgfeU Total Mechanical and Thermal Strain

!
. 2.82. ( )

ANSYS

NODAL SOLUTION

NOV 1 7 2 0 0 5
0 0 :2 5 :1 1

8 -1
8UB 1
TIM E=1
USUM
(AVG)
RSYS=0
DMX = . 7 1 5 E - 0 3
8MN = . 7 0 B E -Q 4
8MX . 7 1 5 K - 0 3

x
z __x

.243E-03

.708E-04
15*71-03
M odel

.4158-03
.3298-03

III
.5868-03
. 500E-03

. 2.83.

.715E-03

| our Nodal Solution Data

11

----------------

'*

! -

DOF Solution
Stress
X*Component of stress

Y-Component of stress
Z-Component of stress

e > XY Shear stress


0

YZ 5hear stress

2 Shear stress
1st Principal stress

2nd Principal stress


3rd Principal stress

1 0 Stress Intensity

Plastic equivalent stress

:
>%
.;*:Sf::
&
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: ;una5pj*.easnaps

*
^%\*

-------- MMMMM-- .
Deformed shape only

:&
. ...&
.j

&X <

X/&* & x

fff#:
111111

Y/AV.V

. 2.84. ( )

ANSYS

NODAL SOLUTION

NOV 17 2 0 0 5
0 0 :3 9 :4 8

ST K P*1
8UB = 1
TIM E=1
SEQV
(AVG)
DMX - . 7 1 S E - 0 3
8MN - . 2 0 4 E + C 8
8MX = . 9 0 3 E + 0 9

........... ; - - ' ^ ^
.2048*06
M odel

. 710+08

.12284)9

.1728+09

.2238409

.2738*09

.3248409

.4008+09

. 2.85. ( )

104
NODAL
8 -1

8UB 1

T IM E=1
SEOV
DMX * .
8MN .
SMX .

&.
.2041+08

.25SK+09
. 138E+09

.491E+09
.3742+09

.1271+09
.SC9E-09

.903E+C9

M o d e l _ l _____________________________________________ ______________________________________________________

. 2.86. ( )

Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot >
Nodal Solu
Contour Nodal Solution Data Nodal Solution > Stress >
von Mises stress > OK (. 2.84).
( ,
)
. 2.85 2.86:

:
PLNSOL,S,EQV


Z = z ic () n i - nk

28. , .

,
; .
,
1
;
.

( n i , nj nk):

ROTATION ANGLE FOR WINDOW 1 18

105

33.39 ABOUT AXIS ZS

FOCUS POINT FOR WINDOW

1-0.21712

-0.14244

Hi.18870

FOCUS POINT FOR WINDOW

1-0.16312

0.16992

-.24359

view p o i n t f o r window

-0.63315

0.43985

-0.63691

ROTATION ANGLE POR WINDOW 1 IS

43.63 ABOUT AXIS ZS

DISTANCE MULTIPLIER FOR WINDOW 1

6.9240

DISTANCE FOR WINDOW 1

0.9710E-01

DISTANCE MULTIPLIER FOR WINDOW 1


DISTANCE FOR WINDOW 1
FOCUS POINT FOR WINDOW

0.8972E-01
1-1).14056

DISTANCE MULTIPLIER FOR WINDOW 1


DISTANCE FOR WINDOW 1

FOCUS POINT FOR WINDOW

0.21130

-0.23744

.9240

0.8290E-01

DISTANCE MULTIPLIER FOR WINDOW 1


DISTANCE FOR WINDOW 1

0.9240

0.9240

0.7660E-O1
1-0.14847

PARAMETER NI -

2.000000000

PARAMETER NJ -

1.000000000

PARAMETER NK -

132.0000000

0.20697

-0.232S6

. 2.87. ni - nk
( )

ni - NODE(,0,zic)
nj * NODE(2,0,zic)

nk = NODE(xl,0,zic)

! ni I
! Z = zic
I J,

, Z zic
,

, Z * zic

( NODE ( , , z) (
), { , , z}. - .)
, n i , n j nk,

( Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters ...),
Output Window . . 2.87;
2, 1 132.
, , . 2.88.

106

y "v / 'v!;/

M odel

. 2.88. n i - nk,
29. ( ).
k i , 3
n i , n j nk:
Main Menu > General Postproc > Path Operations > Define Path >
By Nodes
, . 2.89,
List of Items n i Enter ;
, n j Enter; nk Enter;
. ( Enter
.)
By Nodes Name Define Path Name:
k i; nDiv Number of divisions 48 (
);
(. 2.90).
PATH Command;
, . 2.91, .
(. 2.92):
:
PATH,k i , 3,,48
PPATH,1,ni
PPATH,2,nj
PPATH,3,nk

107

.....................
fjP jH y N octe*
-*: >: :::| :;: :*
;:>> ::.->$ - :::-

*am ..

XvX ::.:'i'-iiii.'-;-'
.

X:X: :: -:

# ***
:*::* ->::: * .3 kj

&*

&

'I
?;:

.. ..

Jf- **
j 3(

:- ::-: :

.............. .

..

ix&'&j
. 2.90.

. 2.89.

. 2.91.
Main Menu > General Postproc > Path Operations > Plot Paths
30. .
ANSYS

.
Main Menu > General Postproc > Nodal Calcs > Stress Int Factr

108
v V :, : Sft & ''
!ELEHStiTS; [

: j

1 ' "

> I :: / 4 : $ <:-1.
I ;. >:>.

: {
^ ^

v -!
-

--"'.'

2 0 05
20: 45

| i
.* : - - *

: J
'. >; -' |
:: ::::
&

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:
9 ?: 1
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'

$: *

jj::>::*>:

:*:>$#
;# .?--':

\ ::\ "

>:

. >: *: - >-\v *>

\
^1

.> >; ' : ' 4


:: :: !

.
.

:;

g |
)
**

%>; &<|

M odel

. 2.92. ,
Stress Intensity Factors KI, Kll, Kill KPLAN Disp extrapolat
based on Plane strain ( ); MAT Material
num for extrap 1; KCSYM Model type
Half - symm b.c. (
); KLOCPR Print local disps? (No),
(. 2.93).

,
.

{ ,
, .

kcalc :
KPLAN - :

KPLAN = 0: / ;
PLAN = 1: ;
;
KCSYM :

KCSYM = 0 ,
;

KCSYM = 1:

KCSYM = 2: ;
KCSYM = 3: ;

109

. 2.93.

* 11STRESSW
TBfSlTY ***
R
SSU
M
EPlfl*SIM
W
*
RSSUf I) HUf-CW Ct K t t L KITH S U tflR Y BOUOKY CtM ITlOM (USE 3 MODES)
FXTW W UfTI*
u iih

IS OEFfflEO 8Y KCOES:
as iw c m cc - t ip node

US . PROPERTIES FOR W IB IflL IM K R

0.0000

IK

. . .
XI .,

. .
,

0.0000

. 2.94.

KLOCPR :
KLOCPR = 0: ;
KLOCPR = 1: .
:
KCALC,0,1,0


KCALC Command; , { # 0 ,
= 0 (. . 2.94),
. { = 0.880268.

: File > Save as ...


Save,
KCALC. l i s ; , - (,
KCALC. t x t ) Save.
KCALC Command.

110

. 2.95.

. 2.96. \
3 1.

KI1, KI2, KI3.


ANSYS:
S

Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Qata ...


Get Scalar Data Results Data,
Other operations, (. 2.95).
Get Data from Other POST 1 Operations
Ki 1 Name of parameter to be defined,
Strs intens fact, KI, Apply (. 2.96).
{
KI1.


(, KI2
KI3, . 2.97).

KI1, KI2 KI3


( Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar
Parameters ...), Output Window . . 2.98.

111

. 2.97. [

1
PRINTOUT RESUMED BY /GOP
GET

XII

FROM

KCflL

ITEH-K

UALUE-

88025852.1

1TEM-K

UALUE-

9.

ITEM-K

UALUE-

I.

PRINTOUT RESUMED BY /GOP


GET

KI2

FROM

KCftL

PRINTOUT RESUMED BY /GOP


GET

FROM

KCAL

. 2.98. KI1, KI2 KI3


( )

:
*GET,KI1,KCALC , ,,1
*GET,KI2,KCALC,,,2
*GET,KI3,KCALC,,, 3

112

32. j _f _1. mac J-.


{
( )
APDL.
Windows Notepad
j _f _1 .mac ANSYS ,
M o d e l_ l. db, Model__l. r s t .
.m ac !
j _f _1 .m ac .
J - .
( ,
).
!!j!!j!!!!I!!!!t!jj!!j!jjj !I!j!jIjjj I!I 1 Ijj !!
J- ,
(
ARG1 - ARG4) - ( ).
J- JINT.

t
() . . , . .

(CAD-FEM GmbH)

I I I I I 11 1I I I I I I I \ I I I I 11 !M
ETABLE,SENE,SENE
ETABLE,VOLU,VOLU
SEXP,W ,SENE,VOLU,1,-1
PATH,JINT_F,4,50,48
PPATH,1,ARG1
PPATH,2,ARG2
PPATH,3,ARG3
PPATH,4,ARG4
PDEF,W,ETAB,W
PVECT,NORM,NX,NY,NZ
PCALC/MULT,WNX,W,NX

PCALC,INTG,J,WNX,S
*GET,JA,PATH,,LAST,J

PDEF,INTR,SX,SX
PDEF,INTR,SY, SY
PDEF,INTR,SXY,SXY

!!!!!!!!!!!!! I !!!!!!!! 1

( SENE)

( VOLU)

W = SENE/VOLU ( W)
JINT__F,
4

(
ARG1 - ARG4)







- ( WNX)
WNX
S

JA
( JINT)

SX

SY

SXY


PCALC,MULTTX,SXNX

PCALC,MULT,C l ,SXY,NY
PCALC, ADD, TX, TX, Cl
PCALC,MULT,T Y ,SXY,NX
PCALC,MULT,Cl,SY,NY
PCALC,&DD, TY, TY, Cl
*GET, DX, PATH, ,LAST, S
DX - DX/100
PCALC,^DD,XG,XG,,,, -DX/2
PDEF, IJflTR,
UX1, UX .

PDEF,INTR,UY1,UY
PCALC,ADD,XG,XG,,,,DX
PDEF,INTR,UX2,UX
PDEF,INTR,UY2,UY
PCALC,ADD,XG,XG,,,,-DX/2
= 1/DX
PCALC, ADD, Cl ,U)C2,UX1, C,-C
PCALC,ADD,C2,UY2,UY1,, -C
PCALC,MULT,Cl,TX,Cl
PCALC,MULT,C2,TY,C2
PCALC,ADD,Cl,Cl,C2
PCALC, INTG, J,.Cl, S
*GET,JB, PATH, ,LAST, J

JINT = 2*(JA-JB)
PDEF,CLEAR


X
TX = SX*NX + SXY*NY ( )

Y
TY SXY*NX + SY*NY { TY)



X 1%
X X-DX/2
UX
X-DX/2
UY
X-DX/2
X-DX/2 X+DX/2
UX
X+DX/2
UY
X+DX/2

DUX /DX

DUY/DX

(TX*DUX/DX

U X :
U Y :

+ TY*DUY/DX)


JINT ( S)

JB
( JINT)


33. , .

, , Z= z ic .

( n j i - n j 1):
nji = NODE(x5,0,zic)
njj = NODE(x5,y2,zic)
njk = NODE(xl,y2,zic)
njl = NODE(xl,0,zic)

nji
(1- )
njj
(2- )
njk
(3- )
njl
(4- )

114

*j|
DISTANCE FOR WINDOW 1

0.1283

DISTANCE MULTIPLIER FOR WINDOW 1


DISTANCE FOR WINDOW 1

0.9240

0.1111

FOCUS POINT FOR WINDOW

1 0.19250

0.46715E

L 0.38641-01

FOCUS POINT FOR WINDOW

1 0.19533

0.42721E

L .29287-01

view point for window

-0.63S55

ROTATION ANGLE FOR WINDOW 1 IS


FOCUS POINT FOR WINDOW

1 0.17710

DISTANCE MULTIPLIER FOR WINDOW 1


DISTANCE FOR WINDOW 1

-0.72568

0.26357
1.91 ABOUT

0.39232E-01 Q.43905E-01
0.9240

0.1027

PRODUCE ELEMENT PLOT IN DSYS =

188.0000000

PARAMETER NJJ -

196.0000000

PARAMETER NJK

148.0000000

PARAMETER NJL -

132.0000060

PARAMETER NJI

. 2.99. n j i - n j 1
( )

. 2.100. n j i - n j 1,

, n j i - n j l ,
Output Window . . 2.99; :
nj i = 188; n j j = 196; n j k = 148; n j 1 = 132.
, , . 2.100.


ANSYS Mull Iphystcs/LS-DYNA U tility Menu (M o d e lJ )

115

V . . . V . . * . . V . . V . V * .V .V .V .V . V . a V .V /> V .'.***V .V eV .V W .V .V .V .V .

. .

* 2.101 j f _l . mac n j i , nj j, n j k, n j 1

AS

PATH UARIABLE UX2


HUES
312.SO
PATH UARIABLE UX1
TIMES
-312.50
NUMBER OF PATH UARIABLES DEPINED IS 20

PLUS
PLUS

0.0000

DEFINE PATH UARIABLE C2


AS
PATH UARIABLE UV2
TIMES
312.5
PATH UARIABLE UV1
TIMES
-312.50
NUMBER OF PATH UARIABLES DEFINED IS 21

PLUS
PLUS

0.0000

DEFINE PATH UARIABLE Cl


AS
PATH UAR1ABLE TX
TIMES PATH UAR1ABLE Cl
HUMBER OF PATH UARIABLES DEFINED IS 21

TIMES

1.0000

DEFINE PATH UARIABLE C2


AS
PATH UAR1ABLE TV
TIMES PATH UARIABLE C2
NUMBER OF PATH UARIABLES DEFINED IS 21

TIMES

1 .0 0 0 0

DEFINE PATH UAR1ABLE Cl


AS
PATH UARIABLE Cl
TIMES
1.0080
PATH UARIABLE C2
TIMES
1.0000
NUMBER OF PATH UARIABLES DEFINED IS 21

PLUS
PLUS

0.0000

DEFINE PATH UARIABLE J


AS THE INTEGRATION OF
PATH UARIABLE Cl
WITH RESPECT TO PATH UARIABLE S
FINAL SUMMATION -13159.
NUMBER OF PATH UARIABLES DEFINED IS 21
GET

JB

FROM

PARAMETER JINT -

PftIH

ITEM-LAST J

UftLUE- -13159.8234

32985.98215

ftLL PfiTH DATft EXCEPT GEOMETRV ERASED

. 2.102. JINT (J-)

34. J- Z = z i c ,
n j i - n j l
I f l.mac.
j _f _1
, (. 2.101) :
j _ f _ l , n j i , n j j , njk, n j l
, Close.
J-,
JIN T , Output Window . . 2.102;
JIN T = 32985.98215.
35. \

J-.

I = /( 1 - v2) (2.8) (2.9) K i = yjE' J .
:

116

DEFINE VARIABLE J
AS THE INTEGRATION OF
PATH VARIABLE C l
WITH RESPECT TO PATH VARIABLE 8
FINAL SUNTMTION - 1 3 1 5 9 .
NUMBER OF PATH VARIABLES DEFINED IS 21
GET

JB

FROM

PARAMETER JIN T -

PATH

UALUE- - 1 3 1 5 9 .8 2 3 4

ITEM-LAST J

3 2 9 8 5 .9 8 2 1 5

ALL PATH DATA EXCEPT GEOMETRY ERASED


***** N O T E

DELETED BACKUP FILE NAME- M o d e l_ l.d b b


HEW BACKUP*FILE NAME- N o d e i a . d b b .
Aid. CURRENT ANSYS DATA WRITTEN TO FIL E NAME- M o d e ljU d b
FOR POSSIBLE RESUME PROM THIS POINT
DELETED BACKUP FILE NAME- M o d e l_ l.d b b .
NEW BACKUP*?ILE NAME- h o d e l _ l . d b b .
ALL CURRENT ANSVS DATA WRITTEN TO FILE NAME- M o d e l j l .d b
FOR POSSIBLE RESUME FROM THIS POINT
PARAMETER E lC l PARAMETER X I1 J -

. 2.103. e i c l K I 1 J
( {)

I
ALL PATH DATA EXCEPT GEOMETRY ERASED

ihhNOTE

****
DELETED BACKUP FILE NAME- M o d e l_ l.d b b .

CP

2 3 .9 5 4

T IN E - 0 3 :3 4 :4 3

****** NOTE ******


NEW BACKUP FILE NAME- M o d e l_ jl.d b b .

CP -

2 3 .9 5 4

TIME- 0 3 :3 4 :4 3

ALL CURRENT ANSYS DATA WRITTEN TO FILE NAME- M o d e l_ l.d b


FOR POSSIBLE RESUME FROM THIS POINT
CP -

2 4 .6 1 5

TIME 0 3 : 3 4 : 4 4

CP -

2 4 .6 1 5

TIME* 0 3 :3 4 :4 5

DELETED BACKUP FIL E NAME- H o d e l _ l .d b b .


NOTE ******
NEW BACKUP FILE NAME- M o d e l j l . d b b .

ALL CURRENT ANSYS DATA WRITTEN TO FIL E NAME- M o d e l j l . d b


FOR POSSIBLE RESUME FROM THIS POINT
PARAMETER E lC l
PARAMETER X I1 J

B .2313186813E + 12
8 7 3 5 1 4 3 8 .9 8

PARAMETER LR -

0 .2 0 0 8 0 0 0 0 0 0

PARAMETER YR -

0 .8 7 2 9 6 0 9 3 8 4

PARAMETER PB -

1 8 0 8 0 0 0 0 .0 0

PARAMETER K I4 -

8 7 2 9 6 0 9 3 .8 4

. 2.104. K I4 (
{)

117

NOTE
BACKUP FIL E NAME* M o d e l_ l.d b b .

CP -

ALL CURRENT ANSVB DATA WRITTEN TO FILE NAME


FOR POSSIBLE RESUME FROM THIS POINT

2 3 .9 5 4

TIME- 8 3 :3 4 :4 3

n o d e l_ l.d b

NOTE
DELETED BACKUP FILE NAME- H o d e l_ J ..d b b .

CP

2 4 .6 1 5

TIME* 8 3 :3 4 : 4 4

NOTE
NEW BACKUP FILE NAME- M o d e l s . d b b .

CP

2 4 .6 1 5

TIME- 8 3 :3 4 :4 5

ALL CURRENT AN8VS DATA WRITTEN TO FIL E NANE- M o d e l_ l.d b


FOR POSSIBLE RESUNE FROM THIS POINT
PARAMETER E lC l
PARAMETER K I1 J

8 .2 3 1 3 1 8 6 8 1 3 E + 1 2
8 7 3 5 1 4 3 8 .9 8

PARAMETER LR PARAMETER YR -

8 .8 7 2 9 6 9 9 3 8 4

PARAMETER PB PARAMETER K I4

8 7 2 9 6 0 9 3 .8 4

PARAMETER ALFA
PARAMETER P I PARAMETER KI5

3 .1 4 1 5 9 2 6 8 8
8 7 9 1 6 2 8 4 .6 8

. 2.105. KI5
( \)
eicl - e i c / (1-(nuic*nuic)) !

KI1J = SQRT(eicl*JINT)
!
{1) J-
. KI1J

Output
Window . . 2.103; : e i c l - 0.231318681312; K I1 J =
= 87351438.98.
36. {
(2 . 10).
:
lr = 2*lic/bic
yr = SQRT(lr)*(1.77+0.227*lr-0.51*(lr)**2+2.7*(lr)**3)
pb = p0*bic*tic
KI4 = pb*yr/tic/bic

Output
Window . . 2.104; KI4 = 87296093.84.
37.
(2 . 11).
:
alfa = (/)
pi = 3.1415926
KI5=pO*SQRT(pi*x3)* <1C).025*alfa**2+0.06*alfa**4)*SQRT(l/COS(alfa*90))

118

ANSYS M ull ip h y sic

. 2.106.
QUIT

. 2.107.

Output
Window . . 2.105; KI5 = 87910284.6.
.
, ,
, KI1, KI2 KI3.
,
-, K I1J.
,
(2.11) (2.12), KI4 KI5, .
. 2.2,
.
:
Toolbar > SAVE DB
:
SAVE

38. ANSYS.
QUIT ANSYS
Toolbar (. 2.106):
Toolbar > QUIT
Exit from ANSYS Quit - No
Save! ( ,
) (. 2.107).
:
Utility Menu > File > E x it...
:
/EXIT,NOSAVE

1.

119

2. .
. 2.108.


.
: = 100
= 20 .
- : ,
, 1/8 ,
.
2.
- (. 2.109):

11567;
2432;

0.025.
. 2.110 2.111.

. 2.4.
ANSYS

:
1. {, [31]

K i = ^ b Y>'

(2.13)

/ \ 2
I
/V
1,98 + 0,72 - -8,48 | | +27,36

2. , [16]
, = a V ^ [ l ,122 -0 ,15 4 (a)+ 0 ,8 0 7 (a)2-1.894(a)3+2,494(a)4] . (2.14)

21

. 2.4.
PC Intel Pentium IV - 2,6 GHz/1 Gb ~ 120 .

. 2 . 112.

. 2.113.

120

:
6 ;
/ = (0,15...0,25)6;
= (1,25...1,6)6;
= (0 , 1 ... 0 ,2 )6 ;
/ = (0,15... 0,25)6;
R = 0,36;
= 0,036;
= 36.

:
6 = 1 ;
/ = 0,26 = 0,2 ;
;
6 = 0;
t = 0,26 = 0,2 ;
R ;
= 0 ;
L = 3 .

. 2.108.

2.4
\.

>/

ANSYS,

89,59

ANSYS, -, (2.7)

89,35

0,997

(2.13)

89,61

(2.14)

90,67

1
1,012

ELEMENTS

ANSYS

: $

FRACTURE

. 2.109. -

1 NODAL SOLUTION

ANSY5

=1
3UB 1
=1

( avo )

R 9 Y 3 -0

7 2 1 B -Q 3
* . 7 2 1 - 3 3

. 1 0 5 -0 3
.8 0 1 - 4

. 3 2 1 - 03
. 2 4 G E -0 3

.4 6 1 8 -0 3
. 4 0 1 -0 3

................
. 6 4 1~ 0 3
. 5 6 1 -0 3
. 7 2 1 5 -0 3

FRACTURE

. 2.110. ()

122

i NODAL

SOLUTION

ANSYS

=1

= i
TIM B=1

8 BOV
(A V G )
DHX . 7 2 1 E -0 3
8MN = 6 1 7 9 1 3
MX = . 9 2 3 + 0 9

!??
D 2 0000

. 673B +0B
. 341E+08

.13 4
E+09

. 101E+09

..2 0 0 E + 0 9
.1 6 7 8 + 0 9

.2 6 7 B + 0 9
.2 3 4 E + 0 9

.3 0 0 8 + 0 9

FRACTURE

. 2.111. ()

ANSYS

DEC
9 2005
1 2 :5 8 :2 3
NODAL SOLUTION
8TEP=1
SUB = 1
TIM B=1
SBQV
(AVG)
P o w e rG ra p h ic s
EFACET=1
AVRES=Mat
DMX = . 7 2 1 E - 0 3
8KN - 8 1 7 9 5 0
SMX = . 9 2 3 E + 0 9
ZV = 1
* D IB T = .0 1 4 7 0 5
*XP
= -.2 9 8 5 5 7
*YF
* .0 1 0 7 0 3
*ZF
= .0 5
CAPPED Z -BUFFER

* . 521+08
= . 155+09
8
* . 257+09
D
= . 360+09
= . 4 6 2 4- 0 9

F
* . S65E 4-09
= . 667+09
G
. 769+09

- . 872 +09
I

FRACTURE

. 2.112. ()

123

ANSYS
DEC 9 2005
1 3 :1 8 :2 3

=1
3UB
=1
=1
K O V

8IG 1

1 10'*6)

D IST

FRACTURE

. 2.113. ()
: sig_l, sig_2, sig_3 ,

3.
.
. 2.114.
: , , = 8 .
- :
, 1/4
,
;
,
(.) () ;
( )
,
ric (. 3).
- (. 2.115):
19554;
4193;

0,0125.
. 2.116 2.117.

. 2.5.

124

i

L,/2 2+0,25

*0,25

:
6 ;
/ = (0,45...0,55)6;
= (0,25...0,45)6;
/ = 0,56;
= 0,066;
1 = 46;
I , = 4,.256;
J = 0,256.

:
6 = 1 ;
/ = 0,56 = 0,5 ;
= 0;

t = 0,56 = 0,5 ;
= 0;
L **46 = 4 ;
L\ = 4,256 - 45 ;
0.

. 2.114.

ANSYS *
.
1. , [25]

(2.15)
tb 2

; L
,

; 4 -

{1
(I
4 =3,494 1-3,396 - +5,839 {
\o j
^6

I
N
0,45 0,55

125

2.5

\.

Vm
210,9
209,4
212,8
212,9

ANSYS,
ANSYS, /-
(2.15)
(2.16)
BLBKBtfTfl

0,993
1,009
1,01

ANSYS

FRACTURE

. 2.115.

2. ,
=

if

*i.i

1
93 _ 0 7 +14,
tb '

25,1 l a 3 + 25,8a4),

(2.16)

I
a = ------ , a < 0 , 6 .
b
. 2.5.
PC Intel Pentium IV - 2,6 GHz/1 Gb ~ 180 .

. 2.118.

. 2.119.

126

ANSYS

NODAL SOLUTION
=1
= 1

TIKB-1

: >

USUH
|AVG)
R 3Y 30
DM* - . 0 0 5 3 3 6
- . 9 1 7 -0 4

;|;>

. 0 0 5 3 3 6

>

>: :

- * :<

;::* -:*

::
:*:

:.*:

-
&
.* *-*

-4
,
- - , , , , ; V'.:, ;
-

&

.01257

9 1 7 -0 4

.0 0 3 0 0 5

.6">4-03

>'

.0 0 3 5 8 3

.0 0 2 4 2 3

.0 0 4 1 7 1

.005336

FRACTURE

. 2.116. ()

ANSYS

NODAL SOLUTION
STEP1
3UB =1

TIM B-1
HRQV
(AVGJ
DMX = .0 0 5 3 3 6
3MN =76 3 7 7
* . I94E+1C

60C 000

.1 I2 E + 0 9
. 561E +09

iVlYlVltii iVilV. i'iflibflnflillYi'liii


.2 2 3 8 * 0 9
. 334B + 09
.4 4SE+0 9
. 16TB+09
. 278B +09
. 9 +09
.5 0 0 8 + 0 9

FRACTURE

. 2.117. ()

127

70VISYS

DEC
9 2005
1 3 : 09 : 1 2
NODAL SOLUTION
ST E P -1
SUB = 1
T IM E = 1
SEQV
(AVG)
P o w e rG ra p h ic s
E F A C E T -1
A V R E S -M a t
DMX = . 0 0 5 3 3 6
8MN = 7 6 3 7 7
SHX =. 1 9 4 E + 10
2V - 1
* D I8 T = .0 3 6 S S 8
XF = . 4 9 8 9 7 8
*YF = . 0 2 5 9 6 9
* 2F = . 0 5
CAPPED 2 -B U F F E R
A
= . 108E+09

= .324E+09

= . 540E+09
D
= . 7S6E+09
E
* . 9 7 3 E + 09
F
= . 1 1 9 E + 10
G
= . 140E+10
H
= . 162E+10
I
. 1 8 4 E f 10

FRACTURE

. 2. 118. ()

ANSYS
DEC

8=1
8 UB =1
1=1
PATH PLOT
8IG_1
8I<y_Z

9 2005
1 3 :0 6 :1 2

<xlO*6)
79.79,___

a iG 3
2964.452
2 606.77.

1 1 7 6 .0 8 7 .

FRACTURE

. 2.119. ()
:
sig l , sig 2 , sig 3 ,

128

**

4.
.
. 2.120.
: = 26 .
- :

, 1/4
,
;
,
, (.
4).
- (. 2.121):
27855;
6769;
,. /

0,0125.
. 2.122 2.123.

. 2 .6 .
{ [25]

* 1 = 7 5>
tjb

(2.17)

1,99-0,41 - +18,7

-38,5

+53,8

, [17]
Kl = tJ b Y '

0,05 * * 0 ,7

(l,941-1,74 + 4,07 2-2,5283) .


( 1- )
. 2.6.
PC Intel Pentium IV - 2,6 GHz/1 Gb ~ 300 .

. 2.27.

. 2.124.

129

Lr

'
W
'3*

II

:
6 ;
f = (0,25...0,5)6;
/ = (0,2 ...0,6)6;
U = 46;
L - 36;
d = 0,656;
= 0,066;

:
6 * 1 ;
t - 0,46 = 0,4 ;
/ = 0,46 = 0,4 ;
L[ = 46 = 4 ;
L = 36 = 3 ;
d = 0,656 = 0,65 ;
0;
= 0.

. 2.120.

2.6
\.


ANSYS,
ANSYS, 7-
(2.17)

/
152,1
152,1
153,4

1
1

1,009

ELEKENT8

ANSYS

FRACTURE

. 2.121. -

ANSYS

NODAL SOLUTION
3TBP=I
3UB *1
TIMEC1

<AVO;
kava*o
OKX - . 0 0 1 3 8 ?
= . 140-
ukx

.0 0 1 3 8 ?

1 0 -0 3

. 410E 03
.2 1 9 E - 0 3

. 6 9 5 E -U 3
.5 5 7 E - 0 3

. 9 7 3 E -0 3
. 4 -0 3

.UU1Z5
.0 0 1 1 1 2

FRACTURE

. 2.122. ()

.0 0 1 3 3 9

131

ANSYS

SOLUTION
0 =1
3 UE 1

1
1
8 BOV

(AVC)

DNX " . 0 0 1 3 8 ?
1 1 3 V4 S
8 = .9 4 Z B * 0 9

100000

. 111 *09
.5 5 6 8 + 0 8

.Z 2Z B +09
. 16">*-09

. + 0 9
.2 7 9 8 * 0 9

. 444 +09
.3 8 9 8 + 0 9

. 500-9

RACTURB

. 2.123. ()

DEC 9 2 0 0 b
1 3 : 2 3 :
NODAL SOLUTION
8*1
BUB *1
TIME~1
SEQV
(AVG)
P o w e rG rap h ic e

EFACBT=1
AVRES*Mat
DMX
001392
SMN = 1 1 4 5 2 2
SMX . 159E * 10
2V 1
* D I 8 T " .043061
= . 3 9 8 6 5 6
*YF * . 0 3 0 3 7 8
'Z F = .1
CAPPED Z-BUFFER
A
" . 862E+0B

.2 6 4 R + 0 9

= . 440B+09
D
K .6 1 7 B + 0 9
E
* . 793E+09
F
* . 969E + 09
G
* . 1 1 4 E + 10
H
. 1 3 2 E + 10
1
* . 1 S 0 E + 10

FRACTURE

. 2.124. ()

132

"ANSYS

POfJTl

DBC . 9 2005
1 3 * 2 1 :0 9

*1
*-1
PATH

aia_i
8IG~2
819 3

OUQ*f)
2994.561

"^T
- SPW'
in#,
&3
r.

-.4.'V

vV'. ;,rt 7
/i

4Wv<*
, >A..W
i

.
/

"'.'Uvt
>4

7.,*-/?!'
%'sh.

a irv*
l ;:*

*%M$i
:>.'yj m
-If#

if."'
>V

'. '

.^

.01

.0:
* ;
:. '_4v^V-

.0 5
D I8T

;
v/'? -/}
;

V-

, -mei
.' ^V^v-

.09

:: 4, ,- *.

' -

:.T 1

t '

FRACTURE

. 2.125. ()
:
sig_l, sig_2, sig_3 ,
5. .
. 2.126.
: = 12,5 .
- :

, 1/4
,
;
,
, (.
5).
I

- (. 2.127):
26875;
6517;

0,00625.
. 2.128 2.129.

. 2.7.
ANSYS

.

:
6 ;
/ = (0,45...0,55)6;
t - 0,56;
1,256;
</ 0,256;
F - 0,556;
(0,25...0,45)6;
= 1,26;
=(1/16)6.

133

:
6 = 1 ;
/ = 0,56 = 0,5 ;
t = 0,56 = 0,5 ;
- 1,256 - 1,25 ;
d - 0,256 = 0,25 ;
0,556-0,55 ;
J - 0;
= 1,26 = 1,2 ;
~ 0.

. 2.126.

>>

'"

2.7
*

ANSYS,
ANSYS, J-
(2.18)
(2.19)

/
238,2
238,9
241,5
241,6

1
1,001

1,013
1,014

i
BLBMBNT3

/UNISYS

FRACTURE

. 2.127. -

AMSYS

MODAl SOLUTION

*"1
BUB =1
TIMB^l

8VS

(AV4)

. * .0 0 2 8 6

3MW

33*

= .0 0 2 6 6

::*< .;: :. :< .

&
$$?!
' :^

IHP
|

, -

'* &!

WS:$%
<&
-*$>$;*
; #>

. 2.128. ()

i NODAL

135

ANSYS
SOLUTION

SUB =1
TIME=1
8BQV
(AUG)
.0 0 2 8 6 3
8MN = 63*08-*
3MX .

700000

. ?.01 ' 0 9
.101E + 09

. 60+09

.400E f0S
. 300E+09

.5 G 0 E 'D 9

. 800+09
.7 0 0 B + 0 9

. 00+09

FRACTURE

. 2.129. ()

DEC
9 2005
1 3 :3 3 :0 1
NODAL SOLUTION
ST E P-1
SUB = 1
T IM =1
SEQV
(AVG)
Powe i S t a p l i i c s

EFA CET=1
AVRE S=Mat.
DMX = . 0 0 2 8 2 9
SUN * 6 5 0 6 4 3
SMX - . 3 1 6 E + 1 0
ZV =1
* D T 8 T .0 2 1 3 3 8
*XF
747688
*YF
= .0 1 4 7 1 9
* ZF
* . 125
CAPPED Z -BUFF
= . 176+09

= . 527F. + 09

* . 878+09
= . 123+10
D

- . 158+10
F
193 - 0
G
= . 228+10

. 263+10
I
. 2 9 8 0

FRACTURE

. 2.130. ()

136

to a v i

DBC 9 2005
1 '29' &

bob * 1
9TZK8-1

29 1

(*0*0|

FRACTURE

. 2.131. ()
:
sig l, sig_2, sig_3 ,
1. , [25]

(2.18)

K ' " V b Y>'

, ,
3 =13,74 1-3,381 11-+-5.572:
\

0 ,4 5 ^ 0,55 |.

2 . {, [16]

(2.19)

9,172-13,829()+11,822(a)2-3 .0 5 6 (a)3] ;

= ~ .

. 2.7.
PC Intel Pentium IV - 2,6 GHz/1 Gb ~ 320 .

13 7


. 2.130.

. 2.131.
6. - .
. 2.132.
: = 12,5 .
- :

, 1/4
,
;
,
, (.
6 ).
- (. 2.133):
97923;
21569;

0,0125.
. 2.134 2.135.

. 2 .8 .
ANSYS
{ [17]

"

I V

+1,9+1,1

l+ 0 ,2 5 ( l- a 2) [ l - ZL /, ( ) ,

(2.20)

2)

f i( a ) ,
/, ( ) =
I

[,74 - 6,30+ 6,322 - 2,433] ;

. 2.8.
PC Intel Pentium IV - 2,6 GHz/1 Gb - 1200 .

. 2.136.

. 2.137.

138


:
b ;
X - 0,56;
t = 0,5 b\

\ - ;

2 - 2 - ,

= 0,4 .


:
b = 1 ;
* = 0 ,5 6 = 0,5 ;
t = 0,5 b = 0,5 ;
= b = 1 ;
2 = 2 b = 2 ;
/ = 0,4 b = 0,4 .

. 2.132.

ANSYS
BL2MEHT

FRACTURE

. 2.133. -

139
ANSYS

NODAL SOLUTION
=1
3UB - I

TIM
E*-!
U8UH

(AVG)

3*0
= .0 0 5 1 9 7
3MN - .0 0 1 1 2 4
.0 0 5 1 9 7

-001124

1*
^iWrtifoiYirYiiYi
.0 0 2 0 2 9
.0 0 2 9 3 4 " ............... '. 0 0 3 8 2 9 '
.04744
.0 0 1 5 7 7
.0 0 2402
.0 0 3 3 8 7
.0 0 4 2 9 2
.0 Q 5 1 9 1

fc'PACTURE

. 2.134. ()

ANSYS

NODAL SOLUTION
=1
3UD *1
1=1
8BQV
(AVO)
= .0 0 5 1 9 7
SKN = 1 2 7 9 5 ?
. 2 9 2 8 * 1 0

miim

. 150 +07

.1 * 0 9
.6 8 0 8 * 0 8

.2 6 8 8 + 0 9
.2 0 1 8 + 0 9

.4 0 0 * 0 9
.3 3 1 B + U 9

.5 2 4 + 0 9
.4 6 7 8 4 0 9

. 6UUB+U*

FRACTURE

. 2.135. ()
2.8
{. -

Kt, -/

ANSYS,

282,6

ANSYS, ./-

280,8

0,994

(2.20)

283,4

1,003

140

ANSYS

DBC 9 2005
13:46: IS
NODAL SOLUTION
STEP-1
SUB >1
TIME-1
8BQV
(AVG)
Pow * r G r a p h io

BFACBT-1
AVRE8-Mt
DNX ". 005197
8NN -127959
8NX -.292B+10
XV
-1
*DIST-.036177
*XF
I.397
*Yf
->.025361
*2F
125
CAFPBD Z-BUFFIR
A
-.162B+09

-.487B+09

B11B+09
D
-.1HB+10

.146B+10

-.1788+10

a -,211B+10
H
I

-.2438+10
.2768+10

FRACTURE

. 2.136. ()
>

' AMSVSI

0*1

DBG 9 2005
1 3 t4 3 i40

8UB*1

TIHB-1
PATH PLOT

$ 5 1 7 .2 2 1
19*2*167

1 6 6 .6 9 0

FRACTURE

. 2.137. ()
sig_1, sig_2, sig_3 ,

141

7. .
. 2.138.
: = 100
= 78,5 .
- :
, ,
, ;
.
- ,
(. 2.139). 7.
- :
981;
304;
0,025.
. 2.140 2.141.

. 2.9.
ANSYS

.

1. {, [19]
~ D'Jd

(2.21)

ip >

YJ ,
-1

, =0,7978
1+

28
\

-0,8012 L
/D

s .
2 . , [17]

(2 .22)
5

Y ,
( d
' d
0,7961 + 0,453 1+0,978
VD

+ 0,284
v-Dy /

142

-------------

Ly

N .

:
D ;
= (0,6...0,7)>;
L = 10Z).

:
D = 2 ;
d = 0,65> = 1,3 ;
L = 4> = 8 .

. 2.138.
3. , [25]
(2.23)

Y[ = 6 ,5 3 1-1,817

kD j

____________________ (

+ 0,9167

0,6D < d< 0,lD

\D /

;=,12 s
d
2 s < 0 ,0 8 d .

, s = 0.
. 2.9.
PC Intel Pentium IV - 2,6 GHz/1 Gb ~ 30 .

. 2.142.

. 2.143.

ANSYS

BLEMENT3

FRACTURE

. 2.139. -

ANSYS

NODAL SOLUTION
3 ttSl

8 UP =1
TIMJS=1
UM
(AV)
R3Y3*0
DMX = .0 0 1 1 7 7
3MX * .0 0 1 1 7 7

1 f 4

II&*** $*'^I
%

*:&#*
mm
*:

i.arii

.52-0

78SK-03

.2 2 -0 3
1 1 -0 0

. 392R-03

6 5 4 8 -0 3

. 00104 0
915B -Q 3

FRACTURE

. 2.140. ()

.0011

144

ANSYS

NODAL 80LUTION

8TBP=1

*1

;: ?: - V: -- ' -*

T IK E *1
SEQV
<AV6>
DUX = .0 0 1 1 7 7
- . 5 3 0 1 + 0 ?

' '' : v

* :,:- , *

X. , -

%;

, ,v - ..

.V. '
- < . . - ; * < V
X; ::: .::-; - , >: v:'*x:x:v ^* :* !
- ' - ;
=:
/^;.
;; v. ::
::: - >:
* X,

0*.110B+10

"'... ................

"

:> >

' '

. .
'.X "
& & ? # # & $ $ '$ !
' ,
. fti
*
,
-- ^ 'V V i.
X.

*>>'

.8 0 0 + 0 7

. 951E+Q 8
. 5162+O B

.1 B 2 E + 0 9
.1 3 9 8 + 0 9

.2 6 9 8 * 0 9
.2 2 6 E + 0 9

.3 S 6 E * 0 9
.3 1 3 B + 0 9

.4 0 0 B + 0 9

FRACTURE

. 2.141. ()

DEC 9 2 0 0 5
1 3 :4 9 :5 4
NODAL SOLUTION
STPP*1
SUB = 1
1 1
SEQV
(AVGJ
P o v o e rG ra p h ic s
E FACET1
AVRER=Mat
DMX = . 0 0 1 1 7 7
8HN * . 5 3 0 E + 0 7
SKX = . 1 1 8 E + 1 Q
3V * 1
D IS T -.1 B 9 7 0 S
*XF = . 6 6 0 9 9 4
*YF s . 1 4 3 8 2 6
CAPPED Z-BUFFBR
A
* . 70SE+08

* .201E+09

a .3 3 2 E + 0 9
D
-.4 6 2 E + 0 9
E
. 593E+09
F
= .723E+09
G
* . 853E+09
H
= . 984E+ 09
I
= . 111E+10

FRACTURE

. 2.142. ()

145
..ANSYS

DEC
STEP=1

- 1
1=1
PATH PLOT
3 IG _ 1

9 2005
1 3 :4 8 :2 4

(xl0 * 6 *

1_2
3 IG 3

1693

1 18.631

0
DIST

FRACTURE

. 2.143. ()
:
sig_l, sig_2, sig_3 ,

2.9
.

Kh Vm

ANSYS,

153,1

ANSYS, ./-

153,9

1,005

(2.21)

179,2

1,17

11 (2 .22 )

198,3

1,295

(2.23)

183,2

1,196

A N SY S
,
(2.22) (2.23), 2 0 -3 0 %. , -

(2 .2 1 ) ( 2 .2 2 ) ( -

).

0,65.

146

8. .
. 2.144.
: = 90 .
- :
;
.


:
W ;
:
W= 0,015 ;
;
= 0,00636 ;
0 = (0...700)
0 = 45 ;
;
\ = 0,045 ;
t = 0,015 .

) =3W;
t=W.

=I

. 2.144.
ELEM
ENTS

ANSYS

. 2.145. -

147
2.10

\.

{, -Vm ,

5,96

J, /

ANSYS,

12,92

11 (2 .22 )

13,7

11 (2.23)

ANSYS,

764,5

1lo ), (2.7)

988,1

ANSYS

1,062

6,35

1,065

1,292

- (. 2.145):

13239;
2632;

0,0133. 8 .
. 2.146 2.147.

. 2 . 10 .

, [17]

K x=Fx< j^ d ,

(2.24)

=Fn<7\[7ti ,

(2.25)

Ft , F|, .
^ , Fu ,
, . 2.148.
F\ = 1,08 = 0,52 ( H\iW= 1;
II2 /W = 1; 0 = 45 .; a/W= 0,424).
. 2.10.
PC Intel Pentium IV - 2,6 GHz/1 Gb ~ 180 .
, ANSY S
,
(2.24) (2.25), 6.5 %,
.
, -,
, (2.7) .
, ,
./-. J -
.
,
(1.14).

ANSYS

MODAL SOLUTION
8TBP1

=1
TIK E=1
U8UM
{AVG)
P. BY3*0
DMX = .4 2 7 8 - 0 4
8MX = . 4 2 1 8 - 0 4

::
. 19 -04

. 9 4 9 -0 5

0
. 4 7 5 E -0 5

.1 1 2 8 - 0 4

.2 3 7 8 - 0 4

3 8 0 8 -0 4

.2 8 5 1 - 0 4
. 2 -0 4

.4 2 7 8 - 0 4

. 2.146. ()

ANSYS
NODAL SOLUTION

. 564B +08

. 167K +0 9

. 270E*09

.3 8 9 8 + 0 9

.5 0 0 B + 0 9

. 2.147. ()

149

. 2.148. [17]

2.11


AT,, "3/2

ANSYS
13,57

, -' 3/2

6,667

, _3/2

2.27

9. .
. 2.149.
: = 90 .
- :
;
.
- (. 2.150):
27443;
5936;

0,01875. 9.
. 2.151 2.152.
. 2.11.
PC Intel Pentium IV - 2,6 GHz/1 Gb ~ 250 .

150

:
;
/ ;

- \
= (0.. .45) ;
= .


:
= 0,015 ;
/ = 0,0045 ;
= 0,015 ;
= 30;
= 0,045 .

. 2.149.

ANSYS

FI.PMKNT2

. 2.150. -

151

ANSYS

NODAL SOLUTION
8 -1

*1
TIMB -1
hum

ASYe-12

(AVG)

DMX . 4 2 7 1 - 0 4
3MX = . 4 2 7 B -0 4

. 9 4 9 K -0 5
. 4 1 5 -05

. 14 -04

.2 3 7 2 - 0 4

, 3 3 2 S -0 4

. 42T B -04

. 2.151. ()
AMSYS
NODAL SOLUTION

. 2 7 7 E-*0C

. 8 8 +08

.1 4 0 9

. 187 +39

.2 4 0 - 0 9

. 2.152. ()

10.
- .
I
( 1 ).
: = 100
= 20 .

152

2.12

5603

11567

37223

1152

2432

8112

0,05

0,025

0,0125

] , 3 2 ( ANSYS)

88,46

88,03

87,94

\ , -5 2 ( (2.9))

87,29

87,29

87,29

1,013

1,008

1,007

70

120

180

- ,
.
. 2.12, . 2.153.
. 2.12.

11.

.
1
( 1 ).
: = 1 0 0
= 20 .
- 1 (. . 2.5).

:
* ;
* , a i c (.
);
* .

. 2.13.

153

ANSYS

ANSYS

BLEMBNT8

**
FRACHJRB

. 2.153, . - : a 1; 2

154

FRACTURE

. 2.153. - 3

2.13

, , - 3/2 ( ANSYS)

88,10

88,03

89,51

| , - '2 ( (2,9))

87,29

87,29

87,29

1,009

1,008

1,025

12. J-
.
1 (
1 ).
1: = 1 0 0
- 20 .
- 1 (. . 2.5).
./-
(. 2.154):
, a i c (. 2.154, );

, (. 2.154, )\
, (. 2.154, ).

155

. 2.154. - : 1; 2; 3
2.14

iypa

./ , --1

32,99

33,06

33,98

./ , - ', J-
(2 .8)

33,50

33,50

33,50

0,985

0,987

1,014


. 2.14.

2.4.

:

,
,
,
;
,
./-,
0,3 %,
;
A N SY S
,
, ,
;
, . 2 . 1 2 , ,
,
, .
;

156

. 2.13 ,
;
, 2.14 ,
.
4 , 4,
( ^
).
, (
)
, ANSYS, *
, . ,
( , )
, . ^
, .

( 5 %,
). ,
.

3
'I


ANSYS .

,
.
12 /-
. ,
2 ,
J -. ,
7 -
() .
, :
- ( 10);
71

] J - ~ ( 11).
t(b - 1)

-
(MISO). [26]
38 4543-71 (: 850 ,
; : 570 , ).


1497-84.
.
:
= 905 ;
c 0i = 1010 ;
= 1180 ;
\|/ = 52 %;
5 = 14,8 %;

= 1625 .

158

Tabl* Diti

ANSYS

MZ30 Table Material

JUL

2004
H i 2 7 :2 7

1=0.00

<10**)

1440.

14 1 5 . l i - J 7

1120.

19

10

20

2L

22

23
^

( f

SIG

\
\

640.
4SO.
1

160.

.312
156

1 .2 4 *

936

624
.4 6 6

1.092

3
1 .4 0 4

EPS

Test

a)
Table Data

AKEYS

MI90 Table For Material

DEC 3 2005
2 0 :2 5 * 1 2

T1*0>00

(xl0**6)

SIG

,\u

.436

.73
EPS

1.022

1 . 3

Test

6)

. 3.1. :
a ;

159

3.1

1
2

0,00000

0,0

0,0000

0,0000

0,00143
0,00287
0,00359
0,00431
0,00503
0,00575
0,00646
0,00718
0,00790
0,00862
0,01004
0,01149
0,01437
0,01724

300
605
780
905
965
996
1005

0,0014
0,0029
0,0036
0,0043
0,0050
0,0057
0,0064
0,0072
0,0079
0,0086

300,4
606,7
782,8
908,9
969,9

3
4
5
6

7
8

9
10
11
12

13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

0,02011

0,02298
0,02873
0,03448
0,04597
0,05746
0,06895
0,08044
0,09194
0,10343
0,11492
0,12641
0,13790
0,14652
0,15560

1020

1030
1035
1045
1060
1085
1095
1105
1125
1145
1150
1170
1180
1180
1180
1180
1180
1180
1175
1150
1100

780

0,0100

0,0114
0,0143
0,0171
0,0199
0,0227
0,0283
0,0339
0,0449
0,0559
0,0667
0,0774
0,0880
0,0984
0,1088
0,1190
0,1292
0,1367
0,1446

1002
1011

1027
1038
1044
1055
1072
1101

1114
1127
1151
1178
1190
1224
1248
1261
1275
1284
1319
1356
1393
1430
1457
1485


, .

.

160

. 3.1, *
. 3.1.
,
1.5. , ^
. !
.
; *
.
^

,
( . 3.1; STRN , STRS ).
1 '

!
eic = 2.1+11
nuic = 0.3
gx - e i c / (2*(1+nuic))
spc = 900.Oe+6
s02 * 1010.Oe+6
sb = 1180.Oe+6
eb = 0.093
sk = 1625.Oe+6
delta = 0 . 1 4
fi
= 0.52

()

skjp sb*(l + 1.4*fi)


!
fibjp f i * ((sb-s02)/ (sk-s02))
eb_j? = log (1/(1-f ibjp))
ek - l/(l-fi)
e02 * s02/eic+0.002
epc - spc/eic
!
epc_i = LOG(1+spc/eic)
!
spc_i = spc*(1+spc/eic)
e02_i = L O G (1+(s02/eic+0.002))
s02_i = s 0 2 * (1+(s02/eic+0.002))
eb_i = LOG(l+eb)
eb_i_p = LOG(l+eb_p)
sb_i = sb*(l+eb_i_p)
sb_i = sb*(l+eb_i)
ek_i = LOG(l+ek)
sk i = sk
*DIMfSTRN_1,,30,1
*DIM,STRS_1,,30,1
*DIM,STRN_2,,25,1
*DIM,STRS_2,,25,1

!
!

!
! (. . 3.1)
STRN_1(1)
STRN 1(8)

0.00000,0.00143,0.00287,0.00359,0.00431,0.00503,0.00575
0.00646,0.00718,0.00790,0.00862,0.01004,0.01149,0.01437

>j

161

|TRN_1(15) = 0.01724,0.02011,0.02298,0.02873,0.03448, 0.04597,0.05746


|TRN_1(22) * 0.06895,0.08044,0.09194,0.10343,0.11492, 0.12641,0.137 90
|TRN_1(29) - 0.14652,0.15560
|TRS_1(1) = O.OE+6,300E+6,605E+6,780E+6,905E+6,965E+6,996E+6
BTRS_1(8) = 1005E+6, 1020E+6, 1030E+6,1035E+6, 1045E+6, 1060E+6, 1085E+6
TRS_1(15) = 1095E+6,1105E+6,1125E+6,1145E+6,1150E+6,1170E+6,1180E+6
TRS_1 (22) 1180E+6,'1180E+6,1180E+6,1180E+6,1180E+6,1175E+6,. 1150E+6
BTRS_1(29) = 1100E+6,780E+6

( ,
,
)
,
( . 3.1),



*00,1,1,23,1
STRN_2(I) = L O G (1+STRN_1(I))
STRS_2 (I) = STRS 1(I)*(1+STRN 1(1))
*ENDDO
STRN_2(24)
STRS_2(24)
STRN_2(25)
HTRS 2(25)

! ,
!
!

eb_i
sb_i
ek_i
sk i

eic = STRS_2(5)/STRN_2(5)

MP,EX,1, eic
MP,NUXY,1,nuic

!
!


( )
,MISO, 1,1,21
,0.0
!
!
TBPT,DEFI
TBPT,DEFI
TBPT,DEFI
TBPT,DEFI
TBPT,DEFI
TBPT,DEFI
TBPT,DEFI
TBPT,DEFI
TBPT,DEFI
TBPT,DEFI
TBPT,DEFI
TBPT,DEFI
TBPT,DEFI
TBPT,DEFI

STRN_ 2
STRN]"2
STRN]"2
strn]2
s t r n ""2
STRN~ 2
s t r n ]~2
s t r n "~2
s t r n "~2
s t r n ]~2
s t r n ]~2
s t r n ]~2
strn]2
strn"
2

5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

STRS 2(5) ! < -


STRS 2(6)
STRS_2(7)
STRS_2(8)
S T R S _ 2 (9)
,STRS_2 10)
,STRS_2 11)
,STRS_2 12)
,STRS_2 13)
,STRS_2 14)
,STRS_2 15)
,STRS_2 16)
,STRS_2 17)
,STRS 2 18)

162
TBPT,DEFI,STRN_2(19),STRS J2 (19)
TBPT,DEFI,STRN_2(20),S T R S _ 2 (20)
TBPT, J3EFI,STRN_2 (21) ,STRS_2 (21)
TBPT,DEFI,STRN_2(22),S T R S _ 2 (22)
TBPT,DEFI,STRN_2(23),S T R S _ 2 (23)
TBPT,DEFI,STRN_2(24),STRS_2(24)
TBPT,DEFI,STRN_2(25),S T R S _ 2 (25)

<-
<-

TBPLOT,MISO,1


.
2.

2 ,
. , ,
, -
= .
, - 4
, *
.
!

/FILNAME,Model_16,1
/TITLE,Model 16

! Jobname = Model_16
! ( Model__16)
!

(. 6 2),
- . *
, .

SAVE
FINISH
N__STEP = 1 0
* D I M , K I _ 1 , ,N_STEP, 1
* D I M , K I _ 2 , ,N _ S T E P , 1
*DIM,KI_3,,N_STEP, 1
* D I M , J I _ 1 , ,N _ S T E P , 1
*DIM,JI_2,,N_STEP,1
* D I M , U Y _ 1 ,,N_STEP, 1
*DIM,pr_l,,N_STEP,1
/SOLU
ANTYPE,STATIC
NLGEOM,ON
OUTPR,ALL,ALL
OUTRES,ALL,ALL


!
!
!


NROPT, FULL
IQSLV, SPARSE

163

! SPARSE

DO,I_STEP,1,N_STEP,1
fyl_cur = fyl*(I_STEP/N_STEP)**0.5
TIME, I__STEP
f,nrigl, fy, fyl_cur
80LVE
!
ENDDO
SAVE
FINISH

!
[

/POST1

*DO,I_STEP,1,N_STEP,1
SET,INSTEP
csys,0

(. 6 2)
.

I J- Z = zic ()

(. 6 2),
/-.

eicl = e i c / (1-(nuic*nuic))
nji,njj,njk,njl

KI1J * SQRT(eicl*JINT)

KI_1(INSTEP)
KI_2(I_STEP)
KI_3(IjSTEP)
JI_1(I_STEP)
UY_1(I_STEP)
pr_1 (I_STEP)
*ENDDO
FINISH

=
=
=

*
-



j_f_l.mac
(
nji - njl),
JINT
(I)
J-
KI1J

KI1
KI2
KI3
JINT
UY(nuy)
2*fyl* (I_STEP/N STEP)**0.5

164

, J-
,
I _ 1 , K I _ 2 , K I _ 3 , J I _ 1 , UY_ 1 , p r _ l ( I _ S T E P )
.

1. .
. 2.4.
: = 869 .
- . 2.5.
. 3.2...3.4.
PC Intel Pentium 64 / 3 , 2 GHz /4 Gb
~57 .

= 869 . 3.5.

. 3.6.
J - . 3.7...3.9.
J-
= 652 . 3.10,
J - . 3.2.
3.2
J-.

= 652
,

./-, -' 1

0,1

0,15

0,2

0,25

0,48

0,8

1,24

2,49

6)

. 3.2. ():
= 326 ; = 434 ; = 543

,|*

iwiKv

. |

.7;0*

'4 ** 4

165

,1>|

. 3.3. ():
= 326 ; = 434 ; = 543

I X

.001111

. 5 ? 7
. >?
.003333
.
.08777
.01

. 3.4. :
= 326 ; = 434 ; = 543
DEC
9 2005
1 7 :2 5 :0 8
NODAL SOLUTION
8TBPS2 5
SUB * 2
T IM E * 2 S
SEQV
(AVG)
Powe r G r a p h i c s
EFACET3 1
AVRE6 M at
029967
DMX
SMN * . 1 4 0 E + 0 9
SMX = . S 0 1 E + 10
2V
-1
* D IS T = .0 6 1 8 4 1
*
= .2 0 1 1 0 4
-.0 5 3 6 4
*YF
* 2F
* .0 5 0 1 6 9
CAPPED 2-8U F F 1
A
* . 410E+09

951E+09
c . 149E+10
D
**. 2 0 3 E + 1 0
E
-.2 5 7 E + 1 0
F
* .3 1 2 E flO
G
366E+10
H
420E+10
I
= . 474E+10

. 3.5. ()

166

ANSYS

031
STEP^ZO
SUB =2
t i m b =20
PATH PLOT
3IG_1
BIG_2

DEC 9 2003
17s19:45

( x ! 0 # t 6)

.03

*01

*07

.05

09

DIST

FRACTURE

. .. ()
:
sig_l, sig_2, sig_3 ,
AIMSVSI
DEC

(10*4)
ftftftn

..

9 2005
1711341

. . .

7200.
6400.

5600.
4000.

J,

U m -1

4000.
32
2400.
1600,
900.

(*10**6)

200
100

400
300

600
500

BOO
700

1000

900

Pa

FRACTURE

. 3.7. - :
, ;
J - , 1

167

1
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DSC

9 2005
17:11:36

<**|

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1.2

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3.6

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FRACTURE

. 3.8, :
, ;
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FRACTURE

. 3.9. J -
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168
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9 2005
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(10*)

.115

245

.175

*205

.2*5

length crack,

. 3.10. - ( )
= 652
?
. (*
) , 2 ,
2 ,
, *
. 1. !
.

1. ANSYS: *
.
S 2 .

Start > Programs > ANSYS 9.0 > ANSYS Product Launcher
File Management
Working Directory Job Name: M o d e l_ ll,
Run.
2. .
S 2 .

Utility Menu > File > Change Title ...


M o d e l_ ll [/TITLE] Enter new title Change Title
.

169

:
/TITLE,Model_ll

3. .
J 2.

Utility Menu > Parameters > Angular Units


Degrees DEG [*AFUN] Units for angular - parametric
functions Angular Units for Parametric Functions OK.
:
*AFUN, DEG

4. .
S 2 ,

().

:
bic
hie
tic
lie
zic

1. 0
3.0*bic
0.l*bic
0.2*bic
0.0

ric = 0.10*lic
aic = 8*ric
xl = lie x2 = lie x3 = lie
x4 = lie +
x5 - lie +
- bic/2
yl = ric
y2 - aic/2
y3 = hic/2
nic = 4

aic/2
ric


()

()
()

ric
aic/2

nl = NINT(xl/ric/2)
n2 = N I N T ((x6-x5)/ric/2)
n3 - NINT((y3-y2)/ric/4)
eic = 2 .1134ell
nuic = 0.3
st = 9.05e+8
0 = 8.698

()
()
()
()
Z- (),

J- ( ,
)


( )
1, 15, 24
6, 18, 27
19...23
() -

()
!

()

170

-
5. .

S 2.
Main M enu > Preprocessor
:
/PREP7

6. .
S 2.
M ain M enu > Preprocessor > E lem ent Type > A dd/E dit/D elete
Element Types Add.
Library of Element Types
Not Solved, Mesh Facet 200; ,
1 ( Element type reference number) .
Element Types
1 MESH200 Options...
MESH200 element type options QUAD 8-NODE
Element shape and # of nodes 1 ( K2 )
.
Element Types Add.
Library of Element Types Solid,
20node 95; , 2 (
Element type reference number) .
Element Types Close.
:
, 1,K E S H 2 0 0 , 7
, 2 , SOLID95

()


.
7.

S 2 .
7.1. - .

S 2
.
-
ANSY S.
Main Menu > Preprocessor > M aterial Props > M aterial M odels

taterial Mode*Number l

171

yp-'pip

-f *
* W : 'y't
f W
# *W #

[ Favorites
Structural
d l Linear

Orthotropic

Anisotropic
Nonlinear
Density
Jjg Thermal Expansion
Damping

;: >:;>;<< >
* 1

X --'V v

> <r ?{>;<V..*

V'/

'^ v! v' !C>'-,,vv' *!. !!.vi',;.


................................

:S I

mm

** - v . w . . v . .v . .v

& . ' -

.,: ? *

%%

v.

::

:***: *v>

. 3.11.

LinearIsotropicPro^rtifcs

,:,.;i.

:::::X; :;:>:- '


&;<?:

<.% #:*: %*

*.,V.%> V*

11

**%****>
&
**:S
v.

. A * v i .S V ^ X<<44\ :

AV.V

|I ; >: i M
fbfQ ^' ''
y& i'.y* :- '
iv-g1'p
1 1 .

..

.* ...|......~ .- . .-

. 3.12. -

Define Material Model Behavior (, 3.11)

Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic.


Linear Isotropic Material Properties for Material
Number 1 (. 3.12) :
e i c ( ),
n u i c PRXY ( ).
.

172
(^DefineMot^natM
mfc*!Bph^viot

i f i: il w- }<?! , 'i

Rete Indeoendemt
^

Isotropic Hardening Ptasfcdty

Wee* PiastJdty

6near

'>>;

?%

-5-^^-.

. 3.13.
:
, E X , 1,eic
, P R X Y , 1,nuic

, N U X Y , 1,nuic


.
7.2.

2.

, .
Define Materia! Model Behavior (. 3.13)

Structural > Nonlinear > Inelastic > Rate Independent > Isotropic Hardening
Plasticity > Mises Plasticity > Multilinear.
Multilinear Isotropic Hardening for Material Number 1
(. 3.14)
.
, :
STRAIN ;
S T R E S S ;

( ).
Add Point .
Delete Point .
21 (
):

STRAIN

STRESS

0.0043007

9.08908

0.0050174

9.69858

0.0057335

1.00179

0.0064392

1.01159

0.0071543

1.02739

0.0078690

1.0381 9

0.0085831

1.04399

0.0099899

1.05559

0.0114240

1,07229

0.0142680

1.10069

0.0170930

1.11399

0.0199100

1.12729

0.0227200

1.15099

0.0283250

1.17799

0.0338990

1.18979

0.0449450

1.22389

0.0558700

1,24789

0.0666770

1.26149

0.0773680

1,27499

0.0889260

1,28499

1.1260000

1.62509

173

, -
STRESS/STRAIN
9.089-108 _
11, _

,
, . . -------------- = 2.1134 10 ; F
0.0043007
.
:
ic = 2 . 1+11
nuic = 0.3
qx = e i c / ( 2 * (1+nuic))

= 900.Oe+6
02 = 1 0 1 0 . Oe+6
sb = 1180.Oe+6
eb = 0.093
sk = 1625.Oe+6
delta = 0.14
fi
=0.52

!
!

Multilinear Isotropic Hardening Material Number 1

. 3.14.

175

Bkjp = sb*(l +
!
fibj? = f i * ((sb-s02)/ (sk-s02))
eb_p = l o g (1/(1-fibjp))
ek = 1/ (1-fi)
02 = s02/eic+0.002
epc = spc/eic
!
epc_i = LOG(1+spc/eic)
!
epc_i = spc* (1+spc/eic)
e02_i = L O G (1+(s02/eic+0.002))
s02 i - s02* ( 1+ (s02/eic+0.002))
e b _ i = LOG(l+eb)
e b _ i _ p - LOG(l+eb_p)
s b _ i = sb*(l+eb_i_p)
a b _ i - sb*(l+eb_i)
ek__i - LOG(1+ek)
sk_i = sk
*DIM,STRN_1,,30,1
*DIM,STRS_1,,30,1
*DIM,STRN_2,,25,1
*DIM,STRS 2,,25,1

!
!

!
! (. . 3.1)
STRN_1(1) = 0 . 0 0 0 0 0 , 0 . 0 0 1 4 3 , 0 . 0 0 2 8 7 , 0 . 0 0 3 5 9 , 0 . 0 0 4 3 1 , 0 . 0 0 5 0 3 , 0 . 0 0 5 7 5
STRN_ 1 ( 8) = 0 . 0 0 6 4 6 , 0 . 0 0 7 1 8 , 0 . 0 0 7 9 0 , 0 . 0 0 8 6 2 , 0 . 0 1 0 0 4 , 0 . 0 1 1 4 9 , 0 . 0 1 4 3 7
STRN_ 1 ( 1 5 ) - 0 . 0 1 7 2 4 , 0 . 0 2 0 1 1 , 0 . 0 2 2 9 8 , 0 . 0 2 8 7 3 , 0 . 0 3 4 4 8 , 0 . 0 4 5 9 7 , 0 . 0 5 7 4 6
STRN__1( 2 2 ) - 0 . 0 6 8 9 5 , 0 . 0 8 0 4 4 , 0 . 0 9 1 9 4 , 0 . 1 0 3 4 3 , 0 . 1 1 4 9 2 , 0 . 1 2 6 4 1 , 0 . 1 3 7 9 0
STRN__1( 2 9 ) = 0 . 1 4 6 5 2 , 0 . 1 5 5 6 0

STRSJL(l) - 0.OE+6,300E+6,605E+6,780E+6,905E+6,965E+6,996E+6
STRS_1(8) = 1005E+6,1020E+6,1030E+6,1035E+6,1045E+6,1060E+6,1085E+6
STRS_1(15) = 1095E+6,1105E+6,1125E+6,1145E+6,1150E+6,1170E+6,1180E+6
STRS_1(22) 1180E+6,1180E+6,1180E+6,1180E+6,1180E+6,1175E+6,1150E+6
STRS_1(29) = 1100E+6,780E+6
!
!
!
!
!
!
!


( ,
,
)...
,
( . 3.1),

!
!
*DO,1,1,23,1
STRN_2(I) = LOG(l+STRN_l(I))
STRS_2(I) = STRS_1(I)* (1+STRN_1(I))
*ENDDO
STRN__2(24)
STRS_2(24)
STRN_2(25)
STRS 2 (25)

*
=
=

eb_i
sb_i
ek_i
sk i

! ,
!
!

'

176
eic = STRS 2(5)/STRN 2(5)

MP,EX,leic
MP ,NUXY,1,nuic

!
!

!
! ( )
TB,MISO,1,1,21
,0.0
!
!
TBPT,DEFI
TBPT,DEFI
TBPT,DEFI
TBPT,
DEFI
TBPT,DEFI
TBPT,DEFI
TBPT,DEFI
TBPT,DEFI
TBPT,DEFI
TBPT,DEFI
TBPT,DEFI
TBPT,DEFI
TBPT,DEFI
TBPT,DEFI
TBPT,DEFI
TBPT,DEFI
TBPT,DEFI
TBPT,DEFI
TBPT,DEFI
TBPT,DEFI
TBPT,DEFI

STRN_2
STRN_2
STRN_2
STRN_2
STRN_2
STRN_2
STRN_2
STRN_2
STRN_2
STRN_2
STRN__2
STRN_2
STRN_2
STRN_2
STRN__2
STRN_2
STRN_2
STRN_2
STRN_2
STRN__2
STRN 2

<->
5),STRS 2(5)
6), STRS^ 2 ( 6 )
7), STRS' 2(7)
8),STRS 2 (8 )
9),STRS 2(9)
10 STRS _2 10 )
11 STRS _2 11 )
12 STRS 2 12 )
13 STRS 2 13)
14 STRS 2 14)
15 STRS 2 15)
16 STRS 2 16)
17 STRS 2 17)
18 STRS 2 18)
19 STRS 2 19)
20 STRS 2 2 0 )
21 STRS 2 1 )
22 STRS 2 2 2 )
23 STRS '2 23)
24 STRS 2 24) ! <-
25 STRS 2 25) ! <-

,
ARRAY; : STRN_1 STRS_1
()
, STRN_2 STRS_2, (
) .
Graph
(. 3.15).
, ANSYS MI SO

, .
, (
) .
:
TBPLOT,MISO,1

Define Material Model Behavior.

111

8. .
'

* *

S 2.

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints >
In Active CS
4

4 ' .

NPT Keypoint number Create Keypoints in Active Coordinate


System 1, X,Y,Z Location in Active CS
Apply.
. 4
(, 0} .
NPT
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
> 13
14
15
16
17
18

'

X
xl
2

4
5

0
xl

0
xl

* .

Y
0
0
0
0
40
0
!
2
2
2
2
2

:
, 1/ 0, 0
,2,1,0
,3,2,0
,4,,0
, 5,4,0
,6,5,0
/ 7,,0
,8,,1
, 9 , 0,2
,10,1,2
,11,,2

!
!
!
!
!
1
!
!
!
!
!

1
2
3
4 ( )
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

178

7TOSYS

T a b le D ace

21 2006
0 1 :1 7 :2 7

T l - 0 .0 0
HI SO T a b le P r e v i w

<1*+**>

SIG

too

.1

.U S

.919

.11
.til
EPS

.#?

I.**

1
l.H I

. 3.15.
(MISO)
i

,12,5,2
,13,6,2
,14,0,
,15,1,
,16,,
,17,5,
,18,,

!
!
!
!
!
!
!

12
13
14
15
16
17
18


9. .
S 2.

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines >
Straight Line
,
( ):

1
2
3
4
5
6


2
3
4
5
6
7

Ll, L2, L3 .


L1
L2
L3
L4
L5
L6

179


( 4)

( L7) 3 8:
Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Arcs >
By End KPs & Rad
3, 8 > Apply > 4 > Apply >
RAD = r i c > .

4 8 L8:
Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines >
Straight Line



4

L8

( L9) 8 5:
Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Arcs >
By End KPs & Rad
8, 5 > Apply > 4 > Apply > RAD =
-ric>O K .

:
Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines >
Straight Line

1
2
8
6
7
9
10
11
12
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

9
10
11
12
13
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
15
16
17
18

L10
L11
L12
L13
L14
L15
L16
L17
L18
L19
L20
L21
L22
L23
L24
L25
L26
L27

180

10. .
S 2.
MeshTool:
Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > MeshTool

, :
MeshTool > Size Controls: > Lines > Set
L l, Apply; n l NDIV
No. of element divisions Element sizes on picked lines,
Apply.
L2, Apply; 4 NDIV No.
of element divisions 1/2.5 SPACE Spacing ratio,
Apply.
:
L5 > Apply > NDIV = 4 > SPACE = 2.5 > Apply;
L6 > Apply >N D IV = n 2 > SPACE >
Apply;

L7 > Apply > NDIV = n ic > SPACE >


Apply;

L9 > Apply >N D IV = n i c > SPACE >


Apply;

L10 L ll > Apply > NDIV = 2 > SPACE


> A pply;
L12 > Apply > NDIV = 4 > SPACE = 2.5 > Apply;
L13 L14 > Apply > NDIV = 2 > SPACE
> Apply;
L15 > Apply > NDIV = n l > SPACE
> Apply;
L16 L17 > Apply > NDIV = 2 > SPACE
> Apply;
L18 > Apply > NDIV = n2 > SPACE >
Apply;

L19 L23 > Apply > NDIV = n3 >


SPACE > Apply;
L24 > Apply > NDIV = n l > SPACE
> Apply;
L25 L26 > Apply > NDIV = 2 > SPACE
> Apply;
L27 > Apply > NDIV = 2 > SPACE
> .
(
):

181

LI
L2
L3
L4
L5
L6
L7
...
L8
L9
...
L10
L11
L12
L13
L14
L15
L16
L17
L18
L19
L20
L21
L22
L23
L24
L25
L2 6
L27

1., 1, 2, nl
1,,2,3, 4,1/2. 5
,3,4
I*, 4 , 5
1,, 5, 6, 4, 2.5
1., 6, 7, 2
I.ARC, 3, 8, 4, ric
l.ESIZE, 7, , ,nic
li, 4, 8,
I.ARC, 8,5,4, ric
RESIZE,9,,,nic
1., 1,9,2
1,,2,10,2
1., 8, 11,4,2.5
I., 6,12,2
1., 7, 13, 2
I., 9, 10, nl
., 10,11,2
L,11,12,2
1., 12,13, n2
b, 9,14, n3
l 10,15,n3
L, 11, 16, n3
li, 12,17, n3
L,13,18,n3
L, 14,15,nl
I-, 15, 16,2
L, 16, 17,2
L,17,18,n2


11. .

S 2.

.
Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas >
Arbitrary > By Lines
, (
):

L1
L2
L3
L4
L5
L6
L15
L16
L17
L18

L11
L7
L8
L9
L13
L14
L20
L21
L22
L23

L15
L12
L7
L8
L17
L18
L24
L25
L26
L27

L10
L16

L11

L12
L13
L19
L20
L21
L22

L9

1
2

4
5
6
7
8
9
10

182

:
AL,1,11,15,10
AL,2,7,12,16,11
AL,3,8,7
AL,4,9,8
AL,5,13,17,12,9
AL,6,14,18,13
AL,15,20,24,19
AL,16,21,25,20
AL,17,22,26,21
AL,18,23,27,22

1
2

4
5
6
7
8
9
10

:
Toolbar > SAVE_DB
:
SAVE


12. .
S 2.

( )
.
MeshTool > Element Attributes: > Areas > Set
Pick ; Area Attributes , n j
1 MESH200 TYPE Element type number,
.
:
, 1
TYPE,1

13. .
S 2.

d e l r ,
:
delr = ric/4

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls >
Concentrat KPs > Create
4 ( ); Concentration
Keypoint , NPT Keypoint for concentration
(4); DELR Radius of 1st row of elems )
d e lr ; RRAT Radius ratio (2nd row/1 st)
NTHET No of elems around circumf n ic ;
KCTIP midside node position Skewed 1/4pt, OK

183

4 ,
;
, 1/4
.

:
KSCON,4,delr,1,nic

14. ( , 4).
J 2.


( ) .
MeshTool > Mesh: > Areas >
MeshTool > Shape: > Quad > Free

:
MSHAPE,0,2D
MSHKEY,0

15. 4
( ).
S 2.

:
MeshTool > Mesh: > Mesh

4, .

, Close.
:
AMESH,3,4,1

16.
2 5.
S 2.


.
MeshTool > Shape: > Quad > Mapped

:
MSHKEY,1


2 5 :
MeshTool > Pick corners > Mesh

184
---- ? - ........- ......... - -

........-

- - , -
---

2 ( ) > >
8, 11, 2, 3 ( 10 ,
6 1 ).
5 ( ) >
> 5, 6, 11,8 ( 12 ,
L13 L17).
:
,2,8,11,2,3
,5,5,6,11,8
17. (1 6-10).
S 2. ,


1 6-10:
MeshTool > 3 or 4 sided > Mesh
: 1 6-10 > .
MeshTool, Close.
:
AMESH,1,6,5
AMESH,7,10,1
- .
.

:
Toolbar > SAVEJDB
:
SAVE

18. .
S 2.

nz:
nz = 8

:
Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Extrude >
Elem Ext Opts
Element Extrusion Options: TYPE Element type number
2 SOLID95 ( ); Element
sizing options for extrusion / VAL1 No. Elem divs nz (-

185

); (Yes)
ACLEAR Clear area(s) after ext (
); .
:
TYPE,2
EXTOPT,ESIZE,nz
EXTOPT,ACLEAR,1
19. .
S 2.

tic Z:
Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Extrude >
Areas > By XYZ Offset
Pick All; Extrude Areas by XYZ Offset DX,DY,DZ
Offsets for extrusion t i c DZ (DX DY
); .

, Close.
:
VEXT,1 ,1 0 ,1 ,,,t i c , 1,1,1
- .

.

:
Toolbar > SAVEJDB
:
SAVE

?
f

20. .
S 2.

XZ ( Y = 0):
Utility Menu > Select > Entities ...
Nodes > By Location > Y coordinates, Min,Max
0 > From Full > Apply.

( ), . .
, X [, ]:
Utility Menu > Select > Entities ...

186

Nodes > By Location > X coordinates, Min,Max


, > Reselect > Apply.
:
NSEL,S,LOC,Y,
NSEL,R,LOC,X,x3,x6

Y (. .
XZ):
Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply >
Structural > Displacement > On Nodes
Pick All; Apply U,ROT on Nodes Lab2 DOFs tc|
be constrained UY, VALUE Displacement value of
.
:
D,ALL,UY,0

, :
YZ ( X = 0):
Utility Menu > Select > Entities ...
Nodes > By Location > X coordinates, Min.Max -;
0 > From Full > Apply.
X (. .
YZ):
Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply >
Structural > Displacement > On Nodes
Pick All; Apply U,ROT bn Nodes Lab2 DOFs td
be constrained UX (,
), VALUE Displacement value Oj
.
:
NSEL,S,LOC,X,0
D,ALL,UX,0

XY ( Z - 0):
Utility Menu > Select > Entities ...
Nodes > By Location > Z coordinates, Min,Max *4
0 > From Full > Apply.
Z (. .
XY):
i

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply >
Structural > Displacement > On Nodes

187

Pick ; Apply U,ROT on Nodes Lab2 DOFs to


be constrained UZ (,
), VALUE Displacement value 0;
.
:
N S E L ,S ,L O C ,Z ,0
D ,A L L ,U Z ,0

21. .
S 2 ,

.
:
Utility Menu > Select > Everything

Z:
Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply >
Structural > Displacement > On Nodes
Pick All; Apply U,ROT on Nodes Lab2 DOFs to
be constrained UZ (,
), VALUE Displacement value 0;
.
:
ALLSEL
D, A L L , U Z , 0

.
2,
. ,
.
.
,
,

.

:
Toolbar > SAVEJ ) B
:
SAVE


22. .
S 2.
Main Menu > Solution

188

:
*

/SOLU

23. .
S 2
;
.
.
:
Main Menu > Solution > Analysis > New Analysis
New Analysis , Static,

.
:
ANTYPE,STATIC

|
: |
.
Main Menu > Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Controls
Solution Controls Ba
(. 3.16); Analysis Options Large Displacem
Static; Write Items to Result File All solution items
Frequency: Write every subst

( ).
. Large Displacement Static *
. ,
Time Control: ,
, (
),
Time at end of loadstep ( t im e ), (Nurrt
ber of substeps) (Time increment).
(
), .
, , !
.
I

:
NLGEOM,ON
OUTRES,ALL,ALL

SPARSE .
Sol'n Options, Equation Solve
Sparse direct,
.

189

. 3.16. : Basic

:
EQSLV,SPARSE

.
Main Menu > Solution > Load Step Opts > Output Ctrls >
Solu Printout
Solution Printout Controls (. 3.17): Item for printout
control All items; FREQ Print frequency
Every substep; .

:
O U T P R ,A L L , ALL

.
.
[|*{} = {F},

190

. 3.17.

[| ();
{Aw}z , {},- = {}/ - {};
{F} ;
{F}m ,
.
,
:
Main Menu > Solution > Unabridged Menu
:
Main Menu > Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options
Static or Steady-State Analysis (. 3.18) [NROPT] NewtonRaphson option Full N-R;
.
:
NROPT,FULL

:
Toolbar > SAVE DB

191

. 3.18.

:
SAVE


24. .
S 2.

,

, - ,
.
:
!
! ,
!

192
*DIM,KI_1,,N
*DIM,KI_2 , t N
*DIM, KI_3, ,N'
*DIM,JI_1,,N
*DIM,JI_2,,N
*DIM,UY_1,,N
*DIM,PR 1,,N

STEP,1
STEP,1
STEP,1
STEP,1
STEP,1
STEP,1
STEP,1

.
.
.
J-


(I)
(II)
(III)
G

:
Utility Menu > Parameters > Array Parameters > Define/Edit...
25 .
.
S 2

, ,
.

. (
) ,
.
:
*DO, I_STEP, 1,N__STEP, 1

_cur = p0*(I_STEP/N_STEP)**0.5

()

TIME,I STEP

ASEL,S,LOC,Y,hic/2

SFA,ALL,1,PRES,-p_cur

ALLSEL

SOLVE

ENDDO

. ,

.
*DO I_STEP,
1 N_STEP (, N_STEP = 25).
*DO
.
p c u r
0
;
-

193

,
.
TIME , I_STEP
(. . 23). ( )
Solution Controls, Time Control: Main Menu > Solution >
Analysis Type > Solfn Controls.
(
Y = hicfl) 2:
Utility Menu > Select > Entities ...
Areas > By Location > Y coordinates, Min,Max = h ic /2 , From Full > OK.

()
2 ,
p__cur :
Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply >
Structural > Pressure > On Areas
Pick All; VALUE Load PRES value = -p__cur > OK.

:
Utility Menu > Select > Everything
:
Main Menu > Solution > Solve > Current LS
*ENDDO
. .
ANSYS .
- Solution is done!, Close.
.

M o d e l_ _ l 1 . r s t ,
( ,
) .

()
26. .
S 2.

Main Menu > General Postproc


:
/P0ST1

27. ,

. 24 .

194

S . 27-35 2 *!


.
. 25.
.
. . 27-35 2.
:
*DO,I S T E P , 1,N STEP,1

SET,I STEP

!
!

RSYS,

!
!

!
ni = N O D E (,0.0,zic)

! ni I
! Z zic

nj = N O D E (2,0.0,zic)

J,

, Z zic

nk = NODE(xl,0.0,zic)

,

, Z = zic

PATH,ki,3,,48

! () ki,
i 3

PPATH,1,ni
PPATH,2,nj
PPATH,3,nk

! ni - nk


Z = zic () ni - nk

KCALC,0,1,0

*GET,KI1,KCALC,,, 1
*GET,KI2,KCALC,,,2
*GET,KI3,KCALC, ,, 3

!
!
(I ) KI1
(II) KI2
(III) KI3

! J- Z = zic ()
! nji - n'jl j_f_l.mac
! ( nji - njn)
! J-
nji = N O D E (5,0.0,zic)

! nji
! (1- )

195

njj - NODE(5,2,zic)

! njj
! (2- )

njk = NODE(xl,2, zic)

! njk
! (3- )

nji = NODE(xl,0.0,zic)

! nji
! (4- )

j_f_l,nji,njj,njk, nji

j_f_l.mac
(
nji - nji),
JINT F

KI_1(I_STEP)
KI_2(INSTEP)
KI_3(INSTEP)
JI 1(1 STEP)

KI1
12
KI3
JINT

KI_1
_2
1__3
JI 1

( (1))
( (II) )
( ( ) )
(J-)

G
( , 1.11)
JI ^* 2
JI 2(1 STEP) = ((l-nuic**2)* (KI1**2 + KI2**2) + (1+nuic)*KI3**2)/eic
nuy = N O D E (0.0,hic/2,0.0)

UY_1(I STEP) * UY(nuy)



(
)
! UY 1
! ( )

!
! PR_1
PR_1(I_STEP) p0*(I_STEP/N_STEP)**0.5
ENDDO

. .

*DO I STEP,
1 N_STEP (N_STEP - 25).
:
Main Menu > General Postproc > Read Results > By Load Step >
LSTEP Load step number > .

(
2):
Main Menu > General Postproc > Options for Qutp >
[RSYS] Results coord system Global Cartesian > OK.

196
....... ....... .. .......

...................................................


2 ,
:
* 4

Main Menu > General Postproc > Path Operations > Define Path >
By Nodes >
List of Items n i > Enter; n j > Enter; nk >
Enter > OK >
Name Define Path Name k i;
nDiv Number of divisions 48 > .



( 2):
Main Menu > General Postproc > Nodal Calcs > Stress Int Factr
KPLAN Disp extrapolat based on Plane strain;
MAT Material num for extrap 1;
KCSYM Model type Half - symm b.c. > OK.

KI1, KI2, KI3 ( 2):
Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data

>

Results Data > Other operations > OK >


Name of parameter to be defined
intens fact > KI > Apply >
KI2 > Strs intens fact > Kll > Apply >
k i 3 > Strs intens fact > Kill > OK.

ki

l > Strs

-.
2 *
, j _f _1 . mac, .

-

.
(1.11)
G.

.
(
).

or
.
*ENDDO .

I
4

'

|| 20

21
III 24
fti 25
1

| 26

1 1 1 27

IlS28
i i 29
11130
# 31
' : !

1.0000
2.0000
3.0000
4.0000
5.0000
6.0000
7.0000
$.0000
9.0000
10.000
11.000
12.000
13.000
14.000
15.000
16.000
17.000
18.000
19.000
19.689
20.000
20.543
21.000
21352
21.704
22.000
22.379
22.746
23.000
23,329
23.640
23.820
24.000
24.279
24.558
24.823

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
6
9
10

12
13

15
16
17
18
19
20
20
21
21
22
22
22
23
23
23
24
24
24
24
25
25
2S

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
I
1
1 i
l
l
i
l
l
i
l
i
2
1

i
2
3
' 1

3
l
2
3
4
1
2
3

197

6
9
12
15
18
21
24
27
30

37
40
44
48
52
56
60
65
74
76
85
87
96
98
100
112
116
118
134
140
142
144
161
163
169

. 3.19.

28. .
S 2 ,

,
.
:
Main Menu > General Postproc > Read Results > By Load Step >
LSTEP Load step number > .

Main Menu > General Postproc > Read Results > By Pick >

198

-!

l-i

Results File: M odeM I.rst ( ^


, M o d e l_ ll. r s t )
Read > Close (. 3.19).
:
SET,<HOMep >

,
:
Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Displacement Scaling
Displacement Display Scaling DMULT Dis*
placement scale factor 1.0 (true scale) OK (. 3.20).
:
/DSCALE,1,1 "

:
Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot >
Nodal Solu >

199

Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Displacement vector sum > OK.

:
PLNSOL,U,SUM

:
Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot >
Nodal Solu
Nodal Solution > Stress > von Mises stress > OK.

:
PLNSOL,S,EQV

29. .
S 2.

, , -
,
( Table).
. ( Array)
. ,
,
, .

, ,
. ,
Load Load (1) =100 Load (2) =200,
Load ( 1 . 5 ) , . . 1.5, 150.

, .
.
.
J_P Y P:
Utility Menu > Parameters > Array Parameters > Define/Edit...
Array Parameters Add... (. 3.21).
Add New Array Parameter Par Parameter name
: J_P; Type Parameter type, ,
Table ( ); l,J,K No. of rows,cols,planes,
, ,
N STEP+1; (. 3.22).

J_P (N_STEP+1) X 1 X 1.
J -
, 7- .

200

'1/
j

. 3.21. -

. 3.22*
v

Y_P Table
(N_STEP+1 ) X 1 X 1.
*
, .
:
DIM,J_P,TABLE,N_STEP+1
*DIM,Y P,TABLE,N STEP+1

201

. 3.23. J

Array Parameters.
.
Array Parameters j _ p
Edit... Table Array: J_P = f(Row,
Column,Plane). ,
, .
, (. 3.23).
, ( ),
. File > Apply/Quit.
.

202

. 3.24. J
:
J _ P (1,0)
j_P(i,n
Y_P(1,0)
Y P(l,l>

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

Array Parameters, Close.


J_P Y_P .
:
!

*DO,I,2,N STEP+1,1
J_P(I,0)
J_P(I,1)
Y_P(I,0)
Y P(I,1)
*ENDDO

PR_1(I
JI_1(I
PR_ 1 (I
UY 1 (I

1)
1)
1)
1)

! J

nY P
!


A rray: Y - f ( R o w (C o l u m n , P l a n e )

203

. 3.25. Y_P
, J_P J -
( J I _ 1, )
(
),
, Y_P
( UY_1)
( ).

. . 3.24 3.25.
J -
Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Curve ...
J LABEL for curve [/GCOLUMN] Specify
string label Curve Modifications for Graph Piots;
(. 3.26)

204

. 3.26.
:
/GCOLUMN,1,J

- :
Utility Menu > Plot > Array Parameters ...
Graph Array Parameters Par X X-axis array
parameter J_P ( 1 , 0 ) ( );
Par Y Y-axis array parameter J_P (1 ,1) (
-); (. 3.27).
. 3.28.
:
*VPLOT, JJ>(1,0),J_P(1,1)


:
Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Curve ... >

205
%4\ ' .

. 3.27.
LABEL for curve > U_Y > .

Utility Menu > Plot > Array Parameters ... >


Par X X-axis array parameter > y _ p ( 1 , 1 ) >
Par Y Y-axis array parameter > y _ p ( 1 , 0 ) > OK.

. 3.29.
:
/GCOLUMN,1,UY
*VPLOT,Y_P (1,1) ,Y_P (1,0) ..

:
Toolbar > SAVEJDB
:
SAVE

*,%%%

206

JUL

3 2006
1 8 :2 9 :3 3

<10** 4)
2500

23SO

L50C

VALUE
1CC0

(xlO **6)
1000

M o d e l 11

. 3.28. J- :
, ;
J- J, 1

Y_? 1 , 0 )

J J L

UY

3 20 0 6
1 8 : $E t 26

(xlO* 6)

.2

1. 4

i.9

Y P (l,l)

Kcdel 11
. 3.29.
:
, ;
,

207

30. ANSY S.

S 1 2.
QUIT ANSYS

Toolbar:
Toolbar > Q U IT >

Quit - No Save! > OK.


:
/EXIT,NOSAVE

2. .
. 2.108.
: = 869 .
- . 2.109.
2.

. 3.30. ():
= 326 ; = 434 ; = 543

. 3.31. ():
= 326 : = 434 ; = 543

208

. 3 .3 0 ...3 .3 2 .
PC Intel Pentium 64 / 3,2 GHz /4 Gb
~52 .

= 869 . 3.33.

. 3.34.
J - . 3 .3 5 ...3 .3 7 .

111

. 3.32. :
= 326 ; = 434 ; = 543

AN8Y8 1 0 . 0
DEC
9 2005
1 :0 8 :1 6
NODAL 8 0 L U T I 0 N
8TRP*25
SUB 3
T IM E * 2 5
8BQV
(AVG)
P o w e rG ra p h ic s
EFACBT=1
AVRE8=Kat
DMX - . 0 1 9 7 6 8
SUN = . 3 2 1 E + 0 8
SMX = . 5 0 1 + 1 0
ZV
=1
* D IS T = .045883
*XF
.2 8 5 5 5 4
*YF
* .0 2 7 6 4 9
* ZF
= .0 5 0 0 4 3
CAPPED Z -B U FFE R
A
3Q9E+09

= . 862E+09

* . 1 4 1 + 10
D
.1 9 ? + 1 0
E
= . 252+10
F
* . 3 0 7 E f 10

=*. 3 6 3 E + 1 0
H
418E+10
I
- . 473E+10

. 3.33. ()

209

ANSVS

081

DEC

20

8UB2

9 2005
1 8 i 1 2 :5 8

T IM E -2 0
PATH PLOT
8I<S_i
8 IG _ 2
ei<5~3

FRACTURE

. 3.34. ()
:
sig_l, sig_2, sig_3 ,

ANSYS

J_ p (l,l)

DEC

9 2005
1 8 .0 5 :1 1

|X10*4)
4000

2800
2400

J/N -1

20
1600.

<10*)

2 00
100

400
300

1000
500

8 tres3 f

700

900

Pa

FRACTURE

. 3.35. - :
, ;
- J, ' 1

210

ANSYS
DEC

9 2G05
18:04:52

Stress/ l*a

10**-2)
.6

D isp lacem en t,

i.i

i. e

FRACTURE

. 3.36.
:
, ;

,

ANSYS

J Pd.i)

DEC

9 2005
16:05:25

ixlO 'M )

D isplacem ent

,m

FRACTURE

. 3.37. ./-
:
, ;
- , *

211

3. .
. 2.114.
: , , = 36,1 .
- . 2.115.
3.
. 3 .3 8 ...3 .4 0 .
PC Intel Pentium 64 / 3 , 2 GHz /4 Gb
'56 .

.SWX

.!<

..

. 3.38. ():
= 6,79 ; = 8,05 ; = 11,31

. to.t *09

-;11 **/*

*99

.v/ffM**

i;.

.xst-o;

6
. 3.39. ():
= 6,79 ; = 8,05 ; = 11,31

. 3.40. :
= 6,79 ; 8,05 ; = 11,31

'1

212

*
- 36,1 . 3.41.

. 3.42.
- . 3.43...3.45.
ANSYS

DBC 9 2005
1 8 :1 9 :5 9
NODAL SOLUTION
81IP -2 5
SUB - 1
TIME-25
81QV
(AVG)
R onM rG raphics
8PACST-1
AVRB8-Ht
QMX - .0 4 3 6 3 6
SNH -4 5 2 0 7 9
8MX -.3 3 7 1 + 1 0

ZV - 1
D I 8 T - .026739
*Xt . 462472
*Y? - .0 1 5 5 9 3
*2t
-.1 0 1 3 5 4
CAPPED Z-BUrFSR
A * .1 6 8 8 + 0 9
* . 563K+Q9

9388+09
D -.1 3 1 8 4 1 0
E -.1 6 9 8 + 1 0

-.206K+10

G
H
I

,2448+10
-.2 0 1 8 + 1 0
-.3 1 9 8 + 1 0

FRACTURE
'

'

;
I

. 3*41. :

j
.

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1 8 ? 1 5 i3 5

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202,7 . 3.49.
. 3.50.
J - . 3.51...3,53.

. 3.46. ():
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215

. 3.47. ():
= 76,0 ; = 101,4 ; = 126,7

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. 3.48. :
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DEC 9 2005
18:26:20
NODAL SOLUTION
8TE 25
SUB =2
TIME=2S
SEQV
(AVG)
PowerGraphics
EFACET=1
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= . 838E+09

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. 3.58.
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. 3.54. ():
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. 3.55. ():
= 22,63 ; = 30,17 ; = 37,71

. 3.56. :
22,63 ; - = 30,17 ; = 37,71

219
DEC 9 2005
18:44:40
NODAL SOLUTION

STE P=25
SUB =2
TIME=25
SEQV
(AVG)
PowerGraphics
EFACET=1
AVRES=Mat
DMX =.024624
SMN -.S2BE+07
SMX = .501+
ZV =1
*DI3T=.012126
*XF =.744372
*YP
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*ZF =.125974
CAPPED 2-BUFFER
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A
E
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=.140E+10

.195E+10
D
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E
F
= . 306E+10
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= . 418E+10
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. 3-57. ()

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DBC
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9 2005
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FRACTURE

. 3.58. ()
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sig_ 1, sig_2, sig_3 ,

220

. 3.59. J- :
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. 3.60. :
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221

. 3.61. J-
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PC Intel Pentium 64 / 3,2 GHz /4 Gb ~205 .

. 3.62. ():
= 20,36 ; = 27,15 ; = 33,94

222


= 54,3 . 3.65.

. 3.66.
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. 3.63. ():
/> = 20,36 ; = 27,15 ; = 33,94

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PC Intel Pentium 64 / 3,2 GHz /4 Gb -2 7 .

. 3.73,

. 3.74.
J- . 3.75...3.77.

223
ANSYS 10.0
DEC 9 2005
18:49:15
NODAL SOLUTION
STE P=25
SUB =1
T1MK-25
SEQV
(AVG)
PowerGraphics
EFACET=1
AVRES*Mat
DMX =.026389
SMN =702873
SMX = .320E+1D
2V =1
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267E+10
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224

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225

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DEC

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9 2005
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226

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= 533 ; <= 710,6 ; <= 888,3

ANSYS

DEC 9 2005
19:11:56
NODAL SOLUTION
STEP=25
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SEQV
(AVG)
P ow erG raphica

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8. .
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227

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DEC
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9 2005
1 9 :1 0 :0 8

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FRACTURE

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. 3.75. - :
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228
_

DEC

stress,

9 2005
1 9 :0 8 :1 4

Pa

(x lD * * -2 )

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DEC

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FRACTURE

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= 380,1 ; = 506,8 ; = 633,5

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. 3.80. :
= 380,1 ; = 506,8 ; = 633,5

229

230

ANSYS
J

(x lO * l)
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3000.

VALUE

2500.

200U
1500
1000

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231

. 3.83. ():
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232

ANSYS

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233

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X -
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I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I f I

ETABLE,SENE,SENE
ETABLE,VOLU,VOLU
SEXP,W,SENE,VOLU,1,-1
PATH,JINT_F,9,,48
PPATH,1,ARG1
PPATH,2,ARG2 '
PPATH,3,ARG3
PPATH,4,ARG4
PPATH,5,ARG5
PPATH,6,ARG6
PPATH,7,ARG7
PPATH,8,ARG8
PPATH,9,ARG9


( SENE)

( VOLU)

W SENE/VOLU ( W)
JINT_F,
9

(
ARG1 - ARG9)


PDEF, W,ETAB,W
PVECT,NORM,NX,NY,NZ
PCALC,MULT,WNX,W,NX

PCALC,INTG,J,WNX,S
*GET,JA,PATH,,LAST, J

PDEF,INTR,SX,SX
PDEF,INTR, SY,SY
PDEF,INTR,SXY,SXY
PCALC,MULT,TX,SX,NX
PCALC,MULT,Cl,SXY,NY
PCALC,ADD,TX,TX,Cl
PCALC,MULT,TY,SXY,NX
PCALC,MULT, 1,SY,NY
PCALC,ADD,TY,,Cl
*GET, DX, PATH, ,LAST, S
DX = DX/100

DXG * DX*COS(alpha)
DYG * DX*SIN(alpha)
PCALC,ADD,XG,XG,,,,-DXG/2
PCALC,ADD,YG,YG,,,,-DYG/2
PDEF/rfENTR,UXl,UX
PDEF,INTR,UY1,UY
PCALC, ADD, XG, XG, , ,, DXG
PCALC, ADD, YG, YG/,,, DYG
PDEF,INTR,UX2,UX
PDEF,INTR, UY2/UY
PCALC,ADD,XG,XG,,,,-DXG/2
PCALC,ADD,YG,YG,,,,-DYG/2

245







- ( WNX)
WNX
S

JA
( JINT)

SX

SY

SXY

X
TX = SX*NX + SXY*NY ( )

Y
TY = SXY*NX + SY*NY ( TY)



X
1%

X

Y
X X-DXG/2 (
X)
Y Y-DYG/2 (
Y)
UX
X-DX/2
UY
X-DX/2
X-DXG/2 X+DXG/2 (
X)
Y-DYG/2 Y+DYG/2 (
Y)
UX
X+DX/2
UY
X+DX/2

246
= 1/DX
PCALC,ADD,Cl,UX2,UX1,,-
PCALC,ADD,C2,UY2,UY1,,-
PCALC,MULT,1,TX, 1
PCALC,MULT,C2,TY,C2
PCALC,ADD,C1,C1,C2
PCALC,INTG,J,Cl,S
*GET,JB,PATH,,LAST,J

JINT = 2*(JA-JB)

DUX/DX

DUY/DX

(TX*DUX/DX

UX:
U Y :

+ TY*DUY/DX)


JINT ( S)

JB
( JINT)

JXNT ^
(
)

(4.1):
, ,
,
sum =

-
( SX)
Y-
ETABLE,SY,S,Y
( SY)
Z-
ETABLE,SZ,S,Z
( SZ)
,
*DO,Irl,8,l


n_r = TGX__1 (1,1)

*GET, sxr,ELEM, n__r,ETAB,SX
sxr, syr, szr
*GET,syr,ELEM,n_r,ETAB, SY
_
*GET,szr,ELEM,n_r,ETAB,SZ
-
tgr = TGX_1(1,2)


- s i n (90/8)*cos (90/8)*delr**2
()

sum * sum + alfa*(sxr + syr + szr)*tgr*arr
(4.1)

ENDDO
ETABLE,SX,S,X

JINTT = JINT + 2*sum

J-

PDEF,CLEAR


,
, JINT sum
. j i n _ f t . mac.

247

4.2.
/-

3
- .
, 2.

.
[26] 38 4543-71:!
= 210 ;
v - 0,3;
= 7900 /3;
X = 34 /( .);
= 13,5 106-1/.;
- 496 /(-.).

, . ,
, . 4.1.
, -.
1. .
.
:
- , dr ; /
( ).
2.

In
1

r = r 1+(T2- T 1) - i ,

(4.2)

ln^
'

'

..
'

t . "

'

'

, ;
.
\ > 2, ,
. .

.
.
. 4.1,

\ - 100, 2 = 0.
- (. 4.2):
8411;
2714;
0,2. . 0,6 .

248

4.1


1
2
3

Model
Model
Model
Model

10.inp, jin ft l.mac


12.inp, jin ft.mac
13.inp, jin ft.mac
2 3 . inp, j f l.mac

:
15, 12, 13, 14.

:
d\ = 4 ;
d2 6 ;
/
/ = 0 ,2 ... 0,6 .

. 4.1.

. 4.2. -

-
. 4.3...4.6.

. 4.2.
. 4.6.
15.

. .
.

1.
ANSYS:
.
S .

Start > Program s > ANSYS 9.0 > ANSYS Product L auncher

249

4.2
(.

0,2

0,4
0,5


\, -/


147,3
213,0
267,8

-
1,063
1,081
0,986

138,5
197,0
271,5

AISISY*

NODAL SOLUTION

HAY 1 8 2 0 0 6
2 2:39:23

22=1
BUB = 1
1 =1
U3UM
(AVG)
R 3Y 8=0
DMX = . 0 0 2 8 8
3MN = . 0 0 1 4 1 3
SMX = . 0 0 2 8 8

;
.0 0 1 4 1 3 '

.0 0 1 7 3 9
.0 0 1 5 7 6

-------------------------------------------------------------------

.002 0 6 5
.0 0 1 9 0 2

.002 3 9 1
.002228

.002717
.002554

.0 0 2 8 8

. 4.3. () ( 0,2 )
File Management
Working Directory Job Name: M o d e l_ 1 0 .
Run.
2. .
S .

Utility M enu > File > Change Title ...


M odel 10 [/TITLE] Enter new title Change Title
.
:
/TITLE,Model

10

s u b =1 #

ANSYS

*1 *|j|
3 E0V

DM* .002
8M
N*5073171

S 20 06

22:40;38

= 1 4 * 8 + 1

tfwSSS-

162JB+09 -+09

486+09 11<10+9'

+ 10+ 1468+10
--------

) (

1 0,2 )

NODAL S O L U T I O N
STBP*=i

SUB=1
riMe=i
(AV
RSV3=0
*.00288

N
"---
ffM
x loo

, r c ) ( 1)

AWSY5

251

KI, MPa

length crack,

. 4.6.
() ()

3. .
S .

Utility Menu > P aram eters > A ngular Units


Degrees DEG [*AFUN] Units for angular - parametric
functions Angular Units for Parametric Functions .
:
*AFUN,DEG

4. .
S .

:
j
bic - 1.0
rl
= 2 . 0*bic
r2 = rl + bic
lie = 0.2*bic
!
ric = Q.10*lic
aic = 8*ric


()
()
()
()


()

()

252

xl
2
4
5

! ()

r2

+
+

lie
aic/2
ric
ric
aic/2

A T A N (ric/)
A T A N (aic/2/)
90
180

alpha = 0

nic = 4

! ATAN(x)
!


( ,
J-; )
!

! 1, 15, 24, 33
nl = N I N T ((xl-xO)/ric/2)
n2 = N I N T ( (6-5)/ric/2)
! 6, 18, 27, 36
= N I N T (1*2*3.14*(2)/ric/4/) !
! 19...23 28...32

eic = 2.10511
nuic = 0.3
alfa 13.5-6


()

(1/.)

-
5. , 2.1.
S .
X
,

. 2.1 ( 12); ,

( 11). ,
11, 0...10
ANSYS .
Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Local Coordinate Systems >
Create Local CS > At Specified Loc
(
, )
Create CS at Location (. 4.7).
Create Local CS at Specified Location (. 4.8):
KCN Ref number of new coord sys: 11 (
CK);
KCS Type of coordinate system: Cylindrical 1 (
);

253

XC.YC.ZC Origin of coord


system: , , (
);
THXY Rotation about local Z:
( Z);
THYZ Rotation about local X:
( X);
THZX Rotation about local Y:
180 ( );

Apply,
Create Local CS at Specified Location.


11
.
Cre
ate Local CS at Specified Location:
KCN Ref number of new co
ord sys: 12 (

);
KCS Type of coordinate sys
tem: Cartesian 0 (
);
. 4.7. Create CS
XCtYCtZC Origin of coord
as Location
system: , 0, 0 (
);
THXY Rotation about local Z: 0 ( Z);
THYZ Rotation about local X: 0 ( X);
THZX Rotation about local Y: 18 0 ( Y);
V1

___

.
12
, . 2.1.
:

LOCAL,11,1,,0.0,0.0,0.0,0.0,180.0
LOCAL,12,0,,0.0,0.0,0.0,0.0,180.0

6. .
/ .
Main Menu > Preprocessor
:
/PREP7

254

. 4.8. Create Local CS at Specified Location


7. .
/

.
Main Menu > Preprocessor > Element > Add/Edit/Delete

Element Types Add.


Library of Element Types Struc
tural Solid, 8node 183 ( ); *
, 1 ( Element type reference
number) .
Element Types
1 PLANE 183 Options...
PLANE183 element type options Plane strain
Element behavior ( );
.
Element Types Close.
:
,1,PLANE183,,,2

()
8.

.
S
, .

255

- (
) .

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models
Define Material Model Behavior Struc
tural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic.
Linear Isotropic Material Properties for Material
Number 1 :
i ( ),
n u ic PRXY ( ).
Define Material Model Behavior
Structural > Thermal Expansion > Secant Coefficient > Isotropic (. 4.9).
Thermal Expansion Secant Coefficient for Material
Number 1 (. 4.10) :
a l f ALPX ( ),
Define Material Model Behavior.

:
MP,EX,l,eic
MP,PRXY,1,nuic
MP,ALPX,1,alfa

! MP,NUXY,1,nuic


9. .
S
.
:
Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Change Active CS to > Global Cylindrical
:
CSYS,1

1...7 (,
X , ):

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints >
In Active CS
Create Keypoints in Active Coordinate System
NPT Keypoint number X fY,Z Location in Active CS
, Apply:
NPT
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

xl
2

4
5

256

. 4.9.
Ihnm.tl I St'i-dMt

for

Secant Coefficient for Mats

. 4.10.

4 {, }
i

:
,1,0,0
,2,1,0
, 3,2,
,4,,
, 5, 4,
,,5,0
, 7, ,

1
!

1
2
3
4 ( )
5

Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Change Active CS to > Global Cartesiati
:
CSYS,0

257

8 :

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints >
In Active CS
NPT Keypoint number X,Y,Z Location in Active CS
:
NPT

ric

:
,8,x3,ric

! 8

Utffity Menu > WorkPlane > Change Active CS to > Global Cylindrical
:
CSYS,1

9...23 :

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints >
In Active CS
NPT Keypoint number X,Y,Z Location in Active CS
:
NPT

9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23

xl

xl

xl

2
2
2
2
2

4
4
4
4
4

:
, 9,0,2
,10,1,2,
,11,,2,
/12/5 / 2 f
, 13,,2,
, 14,,,
, 15,1,,
, 16,,,

!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

9
1
11
12
13
14
15
16

258
,17,5,,
,18,6,,
,19,0,4,
,20,1,4,
,21,,4,
,22,5,4,
,23,6,4,

!
!
!
!
!
!
!

17
18
19
20
21
22
23

. 4.11...4.13.


10. .

S
;
.
Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines >
In Active Coord
,
( ):

L1

L2

L3

4
5
6

5
6
7

L4
L5
L6

L4, L5, L6 .


( 4)
( L 7 ) 3 8 :
Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Arcs >
By End KPs & Rad
3, 8 > Apply > 4 () >
Apply > RAD = r i c > .
4 8 L8:
Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines >
In Active Coord

L8

( L9) 8 5:

259

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Arcs >
By End KPs & Rad
8, 5 > Apply > 4 () > Apply >
RAD = r i c > .
.
, ,
, . ,
.
Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines >
In Active Coord

1
2
8
6
7
9
10
11
12
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

9
10
11
12
13
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
20
21
22
23

L10
L11
L12
L13
L14
L15
L16
L17
L18
L19
L20
L21
L22
L23
L24
L25
L26
L27

1 ' '

L28
L29
L30
L31
L32
L33
L34
L35
L36

.
,
,
KeyP No. Lines in Active Coord
, , , ( , ).
( . 11).
1

'

260

. 4.14...4.19

ANSYSI

1
POIJTC3

SIP 10 2006

TTPI

12:28:52

Model 10

. 4.11. , ( )

ANSVSI

"

23 21212

Rod1^10

. 4.12. ,

lt:$l:ZS

FOtrfri

261

ANSYS

I.: '

90 VO*

ai

10 2006

J.

*
2.

34

04*1X 0

. 4.13. ,

. 4.14. , ( )

262

. 4.15. ,

. 4.16. ,

ANSYS
S IP 10 2 0 0 *
3 7 :1 7

Hod*1J L 10

. 4.17. ,

. 4.18. ,

264

. 4.19. , ( 4
; L4, L5, L6 )

11. .
I

S *
.
MeshTool:

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > MeshTool


*
, :

MeshTool > Size Controls: > Lines > Set



Element sizes on picked lines :
NDIV No. of element divisions
SPACE Spacing ratio. ,
.
, L3, L4 L8, , ,
KSCON.


L1
L2
L3
L4

L5
L6
L7

nl
4
-

4
2
n ic

L8

L9
L10
L11
L12
L13
L14
L15
L16
L17
L18
L19
L20
L21
L22
L23
L24
L25
L26
L27
L28
L29
L30
L31
L32
L33
L34
L35
L36

n ic
2
2
4
2
2
nl
2
2
n2
n3

nl
2
2
2

nl
2
2
2

265

1 /2 .5
-

2 .5
-

2 .5

266

. 4.20.. .4.22.
7W5YS1
LINES

SEP 12 2006
00:50:21

TYPE NUM

s ' */'
/
/
/ / / / /
/
/ / /
/ '/
' / '7
/ / >

' t!

////

/ *f i

J i t
t ft i
/ !M
1-11.1 ___

*
Y

__x
Model 10

. 4.20. ,

7WBYS1

dlNES

SEP 12 2006
00:57:07

T^jPE N U M

\
\

'/

\
\

____

. - J __________

Model 10

. 4.21. ,

267
ANSYS

LINES

SEP 12 2006

0 0 :5 7 :4 0

TYPE NUM

\
\

Model 10

. 4.22. ,
(.
):
L,1, 2 ,nl
L,2,3,4,1/2.5
L,3,4
L, 4, 5
L,5,6,4,2.5
L, 6, 7,n2
LARC,3,8,4,ric
LESIZE,7,,,nic
L, 4, 8
LARC,8,5,4,ric
LESIZE,9,,,nic
L, 1/ 9,2
L,2,10,2
L f8,11,4,2,5
L, 6,12, 2
L , I f 13,2
L, 9,10,nl
L, 10,11,2
L, 11,12,2
L, 12,13,n2
L, 9,14,n3
L, 10,15,n3
L, 11,16,n3
L, 12,17,n3
L, 13,18,n3
L, 14,15,nl
L,15,16,2

1
2
3
4
5
6
7 ( )
...
8
9 ( )
...
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

268

L , 16,17,2
L , 17,18,2
L, 1 4 , 19,
L , 15,20,
L, 16,21,
L, 17, 22,
L , 18,23,
L , 19,20,nl
L, 20, 21,2
L , 21,22,2
L , 22,2 3,2

26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36


12. .
S .

.
Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > C reate > Areas >
A rbitrary > By Lines
, (
):

L1

L11

L15

L10

L2

L7

L12

L16

L11

L3

L8

L7

L4

L9

L8

L5

L13

L17

L12

L9

L6

L14

L18

L13

L15

L20

L24

L19

L16

L21

L25

L20

L17

L22

L26

L21

L18

L23

L27

L22

10

L24

L2 9

L33

L28

L25

L30

L34

L2 9

12

L2 6

L31

L35

L30

13

L27

L32

L36

L31

14

, 4
, ; 2
5 ,
(Mapped) .
. 4.23...4.24.

269

ANSYS

1
AREAS

SEP 12 2006
02:36:28

AREA NUM

M o d e 1 10

. 4.23. ,

AFKYS
SEP 12 2006
02:37:09

f# V \ '

*.

.* fcfc V*.*.*<*

'/.

'
:

^>-Vy.:34.*
'x :>; & *<(

&

V JftV

. > -. ' '

'
; *

$? . 2 :jr v * -

..-.. <. ?;c) >; $


V X.;&

;..

. . . .

ty

Model 10

. 4.24. ,

270

AL,1,11,15,10
AL,2,7,12,16,11
AL,3,8,7
AL,4,9,8
AL,5,13,17,12,9
AL,6,14,18,13
AL,15,20,24,19
AL,16,21,25,20
AL,17,22,26,21
AL,18,23,27,22
AL,24,29,33,28
AL,25,30,34,29
AL,26,31,35,30
AL,27,32,36,31

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

.
:

Toolbar > SAVEJDB


:
SAVE


13. .
S .
( )
.
MeshTool > Element Attributes: > Areas > Set
Pick ; Area Attributes , |
1 PLANE183 TYPE Element type number,
.

i '
f

'

:
TYPE,1
MAT, X

14. .

S .
d e l r , }!
:
delr - ric/4

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls >
Concentrat KPs > Create

271

4 (
); Concentration Keypoint ,
NPT Keypoint for concentration (4);
DELR Radius of 1st row of elems d e l r ; RRAT
Radius ratio (2nd row/1 st) ; NTHET No of elems
around circumf n ic ; KCTIP midside node position
Skewed 1/4pt, .
4 :
,
1/4 .
:
KSCON,4,delr,1,nic

15. ( , 4).

S .

( ) .
MeshTool > Mesh: > Areas >
MeshTool > Shape: > Quad > Free
:

. 1

MSHAPE,0,2D
MSHKEY,0

16. 4
( ).

S .
:
MeshTool > Mesh: > Mesh
4, .

, Close.
. 4.25.
:
AMESH,3,4,1

17.
2 5.

S .

.
MeshTool > Shape: > Quad > Mapped

272

. 4.25. -
:
MSHKEY,1


2 5 :
MeshTool > Pick corners > Mesh
2 ( ) > >
8 , 11, 2 , 3 ( 10 ,
L16 L11).
5 ( ) >
> 5, 6 , 11,8 ( 12 ,
L13 L17).
. 4.26.
:
, 2,8,11,2,3
, 5, 5, 6,11,8

18. (1 6 - 1 4).
S
.


1 6-14:
MeshTool > 3 or 4 sided > Mesh
: 1 6- 14 > .
MeshTool, Close.

273

. 4.26. -
1ELEM ENTS

ANSYSI
SEP I S 2 0 0 6
02:08:21

Model 10

. 4.27. - ,
. 4.27...4.28.
:
A M E S H , 1,6,5
A M E S H , 7,10,1
A M E S H , 11,14,1

274

ANSYS

M o d e l 10

. 4.28. - ,
- .

.

:
Toolbar > SA V ED B
:
SAVE

19. .
S
.

:
Utility Menu > W orkPlane > Change Active CS to >
Global C artesian
:
CSYS,0

XZ ( = 0):
Utility Menu > Select > Entities ...
Nodes > By Location > Y coordinates, Min,Max
0 > From Full > Apply.

ELEMENTS

275

ANSYS
SEP 1 7 2 0 0 6
15:22:18

K o d e l 10

. 4.29. ,
(
, ), . .
, X [-, xJ]:
Utility Menu > Select > Entities ...
Nodes > By Location > X coordinates, Min,Max
- , > Reselect > .
:
NSEL,S,LOC,Y,0
N S E L , R , L O C , X,-,

Y (. .
XZ)\
Main M enu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply >
Structural > Displacem ent > On Nodes
Pick All; Apply U,ROT on Nodes Lab2 DOFs to
be constrained UY, VALUE Displacement value 0 ;
.
:
D , AL L , U Y , 0

. 4.29...4.30.
X
.

276

7\NSYS|

. 4.30. ,
XZ = -
( ):
Utility M enu > Select > Entities ...
Nodes > By Location > Y coordinates, Min,Max
0 > From Full > Apply.
Nodes > By Location > X coordinates, Min,Max
- > Reselect > OK.
X:
Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply >
Structural > Displacement > On Nodes
Pick All; Apply U,ROT on Nodes Lab2 DOFs to
be constrained UX (,
), VALUE Displacement value 0 ;
,
:
NSEL, S, LOC, Y, 0
NSEL, R, L O C, X,-
D , AL L , U X , 0

:
Utility Menu > Select > Everything
20. .
S .

277


(4.2) , .
,
, .
( n o d e l )
ANSYS:
Utility M enu > P aram eters > G et Scalar Data ...
Get Scalar Data Model Data,
For selected set, .
Get Data for Selected Entity Set
n o d e 1 Name of parameter to be defined,
Current node set, Highest node num,
.
n o d e l
.
:
* G E T , n o d e _ l ,N O D E , ,NUM,MAX

. :

Utility M enu > List > Nodes


(
(4.2) ):
Utility M enu > W orkPlane > Change Active CS to >
Global Cylindrical
:
CSYS,1

.
:
ta = 100
tb = 0

! , .
! , .

*DO, i, 1, node_l, 1

xr = NX(i)

! -

!
tr = t a + ( t b - t a ) * L O G (/ r l ) / L O G ( r 2 / r l )

()

(4.2)

BF^fTEMP/tr

! tr i

*ENDDO

. .

278

m sY s
ELEMENTS

SEP 2 3 2 0 0 6
04:45:35

U
TEMPERATURES

TMIN*-. 319E-08
AX * 100

-'.v.-

- . ) i -

V**

.
11.

44.441
33.333

.55.456

>7.77

.69

1DO

Kcdel 10

. 4.31.

t a tb
.
* DO i,
1 n o d e l . *DO

.
N X ( i ) Jf- (i-ro )
; , ^-
, .
i
(4.2) t r .

i :
Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply >
Structural > Tem perature > On Nodes
* E N D D O
. .
. 4.31.

.
,
,
.

279

:
Toolbar > SA V ED B
:
SAVE

21. .
S .

M ain Menu > Solution


:
SOLVE

22. .
S 2.

.
:
Main Menu > Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis

New Analysis , Static,


.
:
ANTYPE,STATIC

SPARSE .
SPARSE :
Main Menu > Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Controls

Solution Controls Sol'n Options,


Equation Solvers Sparse direct,
.
:
EQSLV,SPARSE

:
Toolbar > SAVE DB
:
SAVE

23. .
S 2.

:
Main Menu > Solution > Solve > C u rren t LS
/STATUS Command .
Solve Current Load Step.

280

Verify !
, Yes.
ANSYS .
- Solution is done!, Cios|
:
SOLVE

.

M o d e l _ _ 1 0 . r s t , \
( ).

()
24.

.
S .
:
*DIM,TGX 1,,8,2

CSYS,11
n_ = N O D E (0.0,0.0,0,0)

TGX_1
-
,



,

TGX_1(I,1) = ENEXTN(n_cr,I)
1- TGX_1
,

TGX_1(I,2) - (tb-ta)//log (r2/rl) ! 2-
TGX_1

ENDDO
!
*D O , 1 , 1 , 8 , 1

. .
TGX__1 (8 , 2 );
, *
^- .
:

Utility Menu > Parameters > Array Parameters > Define/Edit...


A dd...>
Par Parameter name = tgx _ i
Type Parameter type - T a b le
l,J,K No. of rows;cols,planes =^'8 2 1
OK

11:

281

Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Change Active CS to >


Specified Coord Sys
KCN Coordinate system number = 11
OK

NODE ( 0 , 0 , 0 )
{ 0 ,0 ,0 } ( 11)
.
* DO ,
, I, 1 8
1 . .
ENEXTN ( n _ c r , I ) ( I -)
, _;
TGX_1.
-
TGX_1.
:

(Tb~Ta) 1
8 T x dT : ( % - . )
= (T68x dx
ln 2
x x = x3

(4.3)

7-
-
( ,
87,91...88,25 ./),
, .
*ENDDO
. .
25. .

S .
Main Menu > General Postproc
:
/POSTl

26. .

S 2.
:
Main Menu > General Postproc > Read Results > Last Set
:
SET,LAST

282

:
Utility Menu > WorkPIane > Change Active CS to > Global Cartesian
:
CSYS,0

:
Main Menu > General Postproc > Options for Outp
[RSYS] Results coord system = Global Cartesian > OK

:
RSYS,0

.
12,
. 2.1. (
)
.
:
Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot >
Nodal Solu
Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Displacement vector sum >
OK

:
PLNSOL,U,SUM

:
Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot >
Nodal Solu
Nodal Solution > Stress > von Mises stress > OK

:
PLNSOL,S,EQV

27. .
S 2 #
J-.

( n i, n j nk):
ni * n o d e (,0/0)
nj = node<x4,0,0)

nk = node(x5,0,0)

ni I

J,


,

283

ki, 3
n i, n j nk:
Main Menu > General Postproc > Path Operations > Define Path >
By Nodes
List of Items n i > Enter; n j > Enter; nk > En
ter > OK >

Name Define Path Name k i;


nDiv Number of divisions 48 > .
:
PATH,ki,3,,48
PPATH,l,ni
PPATH,2,nj
PPATH,3,nk



( 2):
Main Menu > General Postproc > Nodal Calcs > Stress Int Factr
KPLAN Disp extrapolat based on Plane strain;
MAT Material num for extrap 1;
KCSYM Model type Half - symm b.c. > OK.
:
KCALC,0,1,0


KCALC Command. } = 0 . 1 4 7 2 9 + 0 9 .
****

KI =

0.14729+09,

KII =

0.0000

KIII =

0.0000

****


KII, KI2, KI3 ( 2):
Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data ... >
Results Data > Other operations > OK >

Name of parameter to be defined K il >


Strs intens fact > KI > Apply >
KI2 > Strs intens fact > KII > Apply >
K I3 > Strs intens fact > Kill > OK.

:
*GET,KII, KCALC,,K,1
*GET,KI2,KCALC,,K, 2
*GET,KI3,KCALC, /K, 3

/- j i n _ f t _ l .mac.
.

284

t! ! I !!!!!!!!!t!!I!!!!j jI!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! I I
J-
, '
( ARG1 - ARG9)
-Y ( ).
J-
JINTT.
() . . , . . (CAD-FEM GmbH)
I I I I I I 1

I I II I I 1 I

ETABLE,SENE,SENE
ETABLE,VOLU,VOLU
SEXP,W,SENE,VOLU,1,-1
PATH,JINT_F,9,, 48
PPATH,1,ARG1
PPATH,2,ARG2
PPATH,3,ARG3
PPATH,4,ARG4
PPATH,5,ARG5
PPATH,6,ARG 6
PPATH,7,ARG7
PPATH,8,ARG8
PPATH,9,ARG9
PDEF,W,ETAB,W
PVECT,NORM,NX,NY,NZ
PCALC,MULT,WNX,W ,NX

PCALC,INTG,J,WNX,S
*GET,JA,PATH,,LAST,J

PDEF,INTR,SX,SX
PDEF,INTR,SY, SY
PDEF,INTR,SXY,SXY
PCALC,MULT,TX,SX,NX
PCALC,MULT, 1,SXY,NY
PCALC,ADD,TX,TX,Cl
PCALC,MULT,TY ,SXY, NX
PCALC,MULT,Cl,SY,NY
PCALC,ADD,TY,TY, Cl
*GET,DX,PATH,,LAST,S
DX = DX/100

II I II I I I I I I II

t t II I I

1 1 II I I


( , SENE)

( VOLU)

W = SENE/VOLU ( W)
JINT__F,
9

(
ARG1 - ARG9)







X- ( WNX)
WNX
S

JA
( JINT)

SX '

SY

SXY

X
TX - SX*NX + SXY*NY ( )

Y
TY * SXY*NX + SY*NY ( TY)



X
1%


DXG = DX*COS(alpha)
DYG * DX*SIN(alpha)
PCALC,ADD,XG,XG,,,,-DXG/2
PCALC,ADD,YG,YG,,,,-DYG/2
PDEF,INTR,UXl,UX
PDEF,INTR,UY1,UY
PCALC,ADD,XG,XG,,,,DXG
PCALC,ADD,YG,YG,,,,DYG
PDEF,INTR,UX2,UX
PDEF,INTR,UY2,UY
PCALC,ADD,XG,XG,,,,-DXG/2
PCALC,ADD,YG,YG,,,,-DYG/2
= 1/DX
PCALC ,ADD,Cl ,UX2 ,UXl ,, -C
PCALC ,ADD,C2 ,UY2 ,UY1 ,, -C
PCALC, MULT, Cl,TX, Cl
PCALC,MULT,C2,TY,C2
PCALC,ADD,Cl,Cl,C2
PCALC,INTG,J,Cl,S
*GET,JB,PATH,,LAST,J

JINT * 2*(JA-JB)

DUX/DX

DUY/DX

(TX*DUX/DX

UX:
UY:

+ TY*DUY/DX)


JINT ( S)

JB
( JINT)

JINT
(
)

sum

ETABLE,SX,S,X

-
( SX)
Y-
( SY)
Z-
( SZ)
,


ETABLE,SZ,S,Z
*D0,I,1,8,1
r

n_r '* TGX_1(I,1)


*GET,sxr,ELEM,n r,ETAB,SX


X

Y
X X-DXG/2 (
X)
Y Y-DYG/2 (
Y)
UX
X-DX/2
UY
X-DX/2
X-DXG/2 X+DXG/2 (
X)
Y-DYG/2 Y+DYG/2 (
Y)
UX
X+DX/2
UY
X+DX/2

(4.1) :
, ,
,

ETABLE,SY,S,Y

285

286

*GET,syr,ELEM,n_r,ETAB,SY ! sxr, syr, szr


*GET,szr,ELEM,n_r,ETAB,SZ ! n_r
tgr = TGX_1(I,2)
! -
! _
arr * s i n (90/8)*cos(90/8)*delr**2
!
! ()
sum = sum + alfa*(sxr + syr + szr)*tgr*arr !
! (4.1)
*ENDDO
!
JINTT = JINT + 2*sum

! J-

PDEF,CLEAR


, ( n j 1 - n j 9):
njl
nj2
n j3
n j4
nj 5
nj 6
nj7
n j8
nj9

s=

ss

s
s
s
=
=

10
29
30
31
14
89
90
91
74

1-
2-
3-
4-
5-
6-
7-
8-
9-

*
, . ,
,
.
, .
.
. 4.32.
J - .
j i n _ f t _ l
, :
j in_ft_l,njl,nj2,nj3,nj4,nj5,nj 6,nj7,nj 8,nj 9

/-,
j i n t t , Output Window: JINTT = 8 2 8 8 3 .1 5 1 3 9 .

= /(] - v2) (2.8) (2.9) { =
J .
:
eicl e i c / (1-(nuic*nuic))
KI1J SQRT(eicl*JINTT)

Output
Window: e i c l = 0 . 2313186813 + 12;K I 1 J = 1384 6 4 5 1 2 . 7.

287

. 4.32. , ,
:
Toolbar > SAVEJ)B
:
SAVE

28. ANSYS.
S .
QUIT ANSYS
Toolbar:
Toolbar > QUIT >
Quit - No Save! > OK.

:
/EXIT,NOSAVE

2.
.
100 ./. 12.
; 4.33.
- (. 4.34):
11567;
2432;
0,005.
-
. 4.35...4.37.
I

288


. 4.3.

4.3
.


ANSYS,
ANSYS, J-, (2.7)
(4.4)

, 11-\/

10,09

12,86

1,275
1,442

14,45

289

AIMSYS

NODAL SOLUTION

= 1
SUB 1

1=1
U3UM
(AVG)
R3Y3=0
DMX > .0 0 4 6 2 3
8MX = . 0 0 4 623

.5 1 4 8 -0 3

.001541

.002569

.0 0 3 5 9 6

.0 0 4623

. 4.35.
1

ANSYS

NODAL SOLUTION

STBP=1
SUB * 1
TIM E=1
8BQV
(AVG)
DMX = .0 0 4 6 2 3
BMN = .2 * 7 0 E -0 4
BKX .2 0 6 B + 0 9

.2708-04
.1 2 9 1 * 0 6

.1831409
.687E*08

.314-9

.1 6 0 8 + 0 9

.2 0 6 8 * 0 9

. 4.36.
ANSYS

[17]
\ = \ = 0 ;

=V

3(1i----- )T~V2Qa2F"
4

(4 -4)

290

ANSYS

NODAL SOLUTION
8=1
SUB =1
TIME-1
TEMP
R 3Y 3=0
3MN =213
3MX 773

<AVG)

:
:
I
:<
1
|
:-$
;i1

illiipil
: . ,

273

3 8 4 .1 1 1 '
4 9 5 .2 2 2
6 0 6 .3 3 3
7 1 7 .4 4 4
3 2 8 .5 5 6
4 3 9 .6 6 7
5 5 0 .7 7 8
6 6 1 .8 8 9
773

. 4.37.
; v ;
; Q ;
( ); Fu .

Fn ]=
b

. 4.38. ,

77 =

0,35,

Fu = 6 .
. 4.3.
:
,
,
,
,
;
,
J -,
27,5 %, ;
ANSYS
,
(4.4) ,
Fu 4.38 ( [17]),
3/'2 ;
J -,
(2.7), .

291

40

30

20

10

0.5

(-|)
.

4.38. [17]

3.
.
100 /. 13.
. 4.39.
- (. . 4.40):
11567;
2432;
0,005.
-
. 4.41.. .4.43.
- . 4.4.

292

4.4
K q.

it'll, -/

ANSYS,

8,81

ANSYS, J -, (2.7)

10,64

1,208

(4.5)

8,83

1,002

1NODAL

293

AIMSYS

SOLUTION

=1
=1

=1
U8UH
R8Y8=0

<AVG)

DMX * .0 0 6 8 1 3
* . 922-03
* . 0 0 68 1 3

.9221-03

.006158
.001577

.002886

.005504

.004195

006813

. 4.41.
ANSYS

L
MODAL SOLUTIO!
-1
*1
TIME=1
8EQV
(AVO;
DHX = .0 0 6 8 1 3
3HN * 1 0 0 4 0 2
3MX * . 175E+09

8U
B

100402

.1961403

1568+09

.117+09
.5951+06

175+09

. 136+09

.974+08

. 4.42.

AN SYS
, [17]
* .= * 1 = 0 ;

F'rr

,,- - ., " ? "


Q tt2F,
3(1- v)n 4

(4.5)

; v ;
; Q ;
; Fu .

294

ANSYS

NODAL SOLUTION
-1

=1
T IM E1

RSYS=D
2 7 3
7 7 3

(AVG)

.MiiimmMHiiiiiiwii
. 4.43.

. 4.44.

F M rj=
b

. 4.44.

(77

= 2, /? = 0,35)

Fu = 0 ,6 .
. 4.4.
:
,
,
,

295

,
;
,
J -,
2 0 ,8 %, ;
AN SYS
,
(4.5), 0,2 %,
;
-,
(2 .8 ), .

4. t b
L. ,
/.
- , .
.

.
( , F

EF

- = 0

= ^ ! Y(l/b),

(4.6)

.
,
.
, .
, ,
, ,
.
. .
,
F0 = t(b-l) .

A(L-S) | AS
- aLAT = 0 .
EF
EF0
, .

(4.7)

1-

296


:
L = 4 ;
= 1 ;
I = 0,35 .

. 4.45.

. 4.46.

= , = ,
(,) = 1,12-0,23 + 10,552 21,723 + 30,394 .
(4.6) (4.7) ,
, (4.6).
.

- - --- (4.8)

> \+-^
\-

A N SY Sa.
. 4.45.
100 .
- (. 4.46):
981;
304;
0,023.
14.
-
. 4.47, 4.48.

297

4.5
}.
( / = 0,35 )

|, -\
/

ANSYS,

528,6

ANSYS, J -

529,5

1,002

(4.6)

553,2

1,046

(4.8)

528,6

1,000

4.6
.


,, -/

0,2

381,6

384,7

1,008

0,35

528,6

529,5

1,002

0,5

614,8

614,5

1,000

4.7
t

\
.


-\/

(4.8)

0,2

381,6

302,3

0,792

0,35

528,6

528,9

1,000

0,5

614,8

936,6

1,523


, 0,35 , . 4.5.
,
AN SYS

ccEAT<Jk M Y (A )

j^ANSYS

-1

1-

= 0,086

298

ANSYS

NODAL 30 L U T I0 N

OCT 1 9 2 0 0 6
2 3 :5 6 :0 7

STEP-1
SUB = 1
11
USUM
R5Y5~ 0

(AVG)

DMX = .0 0 1 2 1 4
3MX - .0 0 4 2 1 4

Model 23

. 4.47. ()
( 0,35 , 10:1)

ANSYS

NODAL SOLUTION

OCT 20 2006
0 0 :0 4 :3 2

STEP=J
3UB * 1
T IM E-1
SEQV
(A V )
DMX = .0 0 4 2 1 4
3MN = . 1 7 42+09
8KX * . 3BGE+10

*!

!#

'

<

.3338+09
.*09
. 1CDE+10
. 133+10
. 167E+09

M odel

23

. 500E+09

.8331+09

.1178*10

. 150E+10

. 4.48. ()
( 0,35 )

ANSY5

Y _ C 0 0 R D 1 < 1 ,1 )
COL
COL

299

23 206
1 7 :5 5 :2 8

1
2

le n g th crack/

. 4.49.
(-1/2) ():
COL 1 ;
COL 2 (4.8) - 0,086

. 4.6.
,
ANSYS (
), (4.8) . 4.7.
,
0,4 .
.

, , . 4.49.
,
.
,
.

5
APDL

APDL (ANSYS Parametric Design Language) !


ANSYS. APDL
ANSYS
ANSYS. , !

(). , ANSYS |
APDL. APDL *|
!
,
.
1
^
(
,
), ^
, , , |
,
, . .
]
APDL , , :
'

'

, 1

, , .
,
.
'
.
ANSYS, , *:
. .
, ;
, .
, IF THEN-ELSE, DO- . .

APDL

301

APDL
ANSYS.
APDL FORTRAN.
APDL,
: ,
; , ;
Toolbar ; .
5.7 5.8 APDL,
GET-.

5.1. APDL
APDL (
) . . lo g ,
ANSYS,
.
- ,
, -
(, Notepad) ANSYS:
Utility Menu > List > Flies > Log File

Utility Menu > File > List > Log File


,
( , ,
, . .).
,
LGWRITE:
Utility Menu > File > Write DB Log File
,
ANSYS Verification Manual. (
vm* . d a t) \ data\ verif
AN SYS, :
t

C :\ P ro g ram F ile s \ A n s y s

Inc\ v9 0 \ A N S Y S \ data\ verif\

\v90
, \vl00 10.0.

5.2. Toolbar:
5.2.1. Toolbar
Toolbar (. [1], . 88,
GUI) ,

302

. 5.1. - Toolbar

, ANSYS Toolbar, . ,
. 5.1 ANSYS Toolbar, -, **
. - *
.
ANSYS Toolbar
GUI, ANSYS .
.
-
. ,
SAVE DB.

, ANSYS *ABBR

Utility Menu > Macro > Edit Abbreviations

Utility Menu > MenuCtrls > Edit Toolbar


*ABBR
*ABBR, A b b r,

S t r in g

A hbr

( ), ]
ANSYS Toolbar.
.
S t r in g

, ,
.
$
: * * * , /, /GOPR, /NOPR, /Q U IT ,
*END.
ANSYS Toolbar (|
:
*ABBR,
*ABBR,
*ABBR,
*ABBR,

SAVEJDB, SAVE
RESUM_DB, RESUME
QUIT, Fnc_/EXIT
POWRGRPH, Fnc /GRAPHICS



ANSYS


PowerGraphics Full Graphics

APDL

303

5.2.2. Toolbar
ANSYS Toolbar
, ,
ANSYS Toolbar, .

Utility Menu > MenuCtrls > Save Toolbar
*ABBSAV.
ANSYS Toolbar
Utility Menu > MenuCtrls > Restore Toolbar
*ABBRES.
.

5.3.
(), APDL,
, FORTRANe.
ANSYS
.

(double-precision). ,
,
. APDL (scalar)
(array).

.

, , , . .
APDL : ,
, ( ,
),

,
, ANSYS .

5.3.1.
:
;
, ;
32 .
.

304

:
ABC

PI
X_OR_Y

:
MY_PARAMETER_NAME_LONGER_THAN_3 2_CHARACTERS (
32 )
2CF3 ( )
& ( &)

^
ANSYS , :
, (TEMP*
UX, PRES . .);
, !
(ALL, PICK, STAT . .);
(,
*ETABLE);
, ($|
CHAR, ARRAY, TABLE . .);
ARG1 ARG9 AR10 AR99,
;
r e g u la r .
:
,
*ABBR;
,
(_).
GUI ANSYS.

* STATUS.

5.3.2.
*S S f
:
*SET,ABC,-24
*SET,QR,2.0711

! ABC -24
! QR
! 2.0711

APDL
*SET,XORY,ABC
*SET,CPARM,1CASE1'

305

! XORY
! ABC
! CPARM
! 'CASE1'

, ,
,
.

=.
Name * V alue, Name (); Value
.
:
ABC 24
QR*a2 .0711
XORY*ABC
CPARM*'CASEl'

GUI

Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters

. ANSYS 5000 .

5000,
.

*GET (Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data). ,
,
ANSYS.
, , , . .,
.
, *GET,A,ELEM ,5,CEN T,X
() , ^-
.
*GET :
*GET, P ar, E n tity , ENTNUM, Ite m l, IT1NUM, Item 2, IT2NUM

P ar
, .

E n tity
, ,
.
NODE, ELEM, , L IN E , AREA, VOLU . .
,
*GET, ANSYS Commands Reference.

306

ENTNUM

(,
).
It e m l

,
, *|
' . , E n t i t ^
ELEM, X te m l NUH&
(
^
COUNT ( ).
,
*GET, ANSYS Commands Reference.
XT1NUM

Itm m l. *
It e m l IT1NUM.
Ite m 2 ,
IT2NUM

/ (
).
*GET.
GET,BCD,ELEM,97,ATTR,MAT
*GET,V37,ELEM,37,VOLU
'GET, EL52, ELEM, 52, HGEN.
*GET,OPER,ELEM,102,HCOE,2
GET,TMP,ELEM,16,TBULK,3
*GET,NMAX,NODE,,NUM,MAX
GET,HNOD,NODE,12,HGEN
*GET,COORD,ACTIVE,,CSYS

BCD - 97
V37 .** 37
EL52 =
52
OPER =
102, 2
- ,
16, 3
NMAX =

HNOD *
12
COORD =

;
*GET GET-.
GET- 5.8.
, ^
* STATUS. * STATUS
, .
* STATUS.
'STATUS
PARAMETER STATUS

5 PARAMETERS DEFINED)

APDL
NAME
ABC
HEIGHT
QR
X_OR_Y
CP ARM

VALUE
-24.0000000
57.0000000
2.070000000E+11
-24.0000000
CASE1

307

TYPE
DIMENSIONS
SCALAR
SCALAR
SCALAR
SCALAR
CHARACTER


Utility Menu > List > Other > Parameters Utility Menu >
List > Status > Parameters > All Parameters.
, ,
(_)> * STATUS .

, *STATUS .
* STATUS .
*STATUS,ABC
PARAMETER STATUS- abc
NAME
ABC

VALUE
-24.0000000

(
TYPE
SCALAR

5 PARAMETERS DEFINED)
DIMENSIONS


Utility Menu > List > Other > Named
Parameter Utility Menu > List > Status > Parameters > Named Parameters.
:
=
. , QR
:
QR=

*SET (Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters),


. ,
QR :
*SET,QR

,
.
( 1 1) .

5.3.3.
,
, , , .
:

308
=+
= (R2+R1)/2
D=-B+ (**2) - (4**)
XYZ=(A<B)+Y**2

! D *= - + 2 - 4
! XYZ = + Y2,
! ;
! XYZ = + Y2

I N O A 1 + (31.4/9)
= ((2-1)**2-(Y2-Y1)**2)/2

APDL:

+
.

/
**
<
>

ANSYS one*
:
1. .
2. ( ).
3. ( ).
4. (, + -)
5. ( ).
6. ( ).
, Y 2=A + B **C /D *E
: * * , /D , *, +.


. ,
.
, , ,
. (*) ,
ANSYS, ( !) .

5.3.4.

, . , S I N ( x ) , SQRT(b)
LOG (1 3 . 2 ).
ANSYS.

APDL

309

.....................

ABS(x)

x.

SIGN( , )

x .
*0, .

EXP()

(. . ).

LOG()

(. . In ( ) ).

LOG1 0 ()

(. . 1 ( ) ).

SQRT(x)

NINT(x)

MOD(x,)

/ . =0, 0.

RAND(x,)

,
( ,
).

G D I S ( x ,)

,
( ) ( ,
).

S IN (x ),
TAN (x)

C O S (x ), , (
,
*AFUN).

S IN H (x ),
COSH(x),
TANH(x)
A S IN (x ),
ACOS(x),
ATAN(x)

,
.
.

( AS IN ACOS
-1 .0 +1.0).
(

*AFUN). - /2 +/2
AS IN ATAN 0 ACOS.

ATAN2( , x)

/ , .
(

*AFUN). - +.

VALCHR {CPARM)

CPARM (
CPARM , 0.0).

CHRVAL (PARM)

PARM.

UPCASE ( CPARM)

CPARMy

LWCASE ( CPARM)

CPARMy

310

!
PI = -1,
PI ,

PI=ACOS(-1)

Z3=COS <2*)-Zl**2
R2=SQRT(ABS(Rl-3))
X=RAND(-2 4,R2 )

X - -2-4 R2

AFUN,DEG

60
THETA=ATAN(SQRT (3))
PHI -120
PHI=ATAN2 (-SQRT(3) ,-1)

AFUN,RAD

X- 249
X249=NX(249)
SLOPE=(KY(2)- K Y (1))/ <KX (2)- (1))
,
1 2
CHNUM = X
CHNUM=CHRVAL(X)
UPPER =
UPPER=UPCASE(LABEL)
LABEL

,
,
, ( ).
* PARSAV
(Utility Menu > Parameters > Save Parameters).

ASCII-,
*SET.
.
/NOPR
*SET,
SET,
SET,
SET,_RETURN
SET,_STATUS
SET,_ZX
/GO

10.00000000000
254.3948750000
1string
1
O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OO

1.000000000000

*PARRES (Utility
Menu > Parameters > Restore Parameters).

, FORTRANa.
(output file)
. *VWRITE (Utility
Menu > Parameters > Array Parameters > Write to File).

5.3.5.

. ANSYS
:

APDL

311

1-D ( ):
2-D ( );
3-D (, );
4-D (, , );
5-D (, , , ).
ANSYS :

ARRAY

FORTRAN 77
. FORTRANe,
, , ,
. , , ,
.
.
CHAR

.
- ,
, .
,
,
.
TABLE

,

.
,
( ) , . .
, , , .

.
TABLE.
.
STRING

,
.
.
.
ARRAY CHAR.
. 5.2.
; . . * .
() /, 1
/, (),
1 .
.

312

Column index number*

1 2 3 4 5 .
# > ttt a iifH f * * W M M M >**

~ Array element (3,5)

2
Row
index

number

m
, 5.2.
(ij), / ; j *
.
, , APDL,
.

5.3.6.

,
APDL .
;
, (. . ),
, ,
(. . ).



, , , , ,
. .

DO-loops, . ,
*VOPER, *VFUN, *VSCFUN, *VITRS,
*V FILL, *VREAD *VGET .
*VREAD *VWRITE *
, **
,
(DIM) ARRAY TABLE.
.
' 1

APDL

313

*VOPER

Utility Menu > Parameters > Array Operations > Vector Operations

.
VFUN

Utility Menu > Parameters > Array Operations > Vector Functions

.
VSCFON

Utility Menu > Parameters > Array Operations > Vector-Scalar Func

.
*VITRP

Utility Menu > Parameters > Array Operations > Vectorlnterpolate


( ARRAY)
( TABLE).
.

. ANSYS
Commands Reference.

( ARRAY) X Y THE , ,
.
-2 6 6 0
1 0 2 12
4 -3 -1 7
-8 1 10 -5

'3 2 5 -
-5 -7 1 0
Y
8 0 0 11
1 4. 9 18

15
30
45
60
76
90


Z1, , , . .
. *VOPER
X Y.
.

314

Z1,
*VOPER. , (
) ,
*VOPER.
.
*DIM,Z1, ARRAY, 4
VOPER,Z1(1),X(1,2),A D D , Y (1,1)

9
-5
Z15


Z2, , , . .
. *VOPER !
X ( ) *
Y ( ). Z2
( ).
DIM, Z2, ARRAY, 3
*VOPER,Z2(1),X (2,1),MULT,Y(1,4)

-6
Z2~ 0
66
Z 4.
*VOPER ,
X Y.
: 1, 2 3 X, 2, 3 4 Y.
Z 4.
DIM,Z4,ARRAY,4,3
VOPER,Z4(1,1),X(1,1),CROSS,Y(l,2)

4
*2 *14
Z4
-33 -44
-74 168
-76

22
1

0
76

,
, . *VFUN
X 2
.

APDL

315

*DIM,,ARRAY,4
*VFUN,A3(1),PWR,X(1,2),2

36
A3 =

0
9
1

4.
*VFON ,
THE.
4 .

4, 2.0. , 4
, ,
, , 2.0 XOY.
*DIM,A4, ARRAY, 7,3
*AFUN,DEG
*VFUN,A4(1,I),COS,THETA(l)
*VFUN,A4(1,2),SIN,THETA(1)
A 4 (1, 3)=2 r2,2,2,2,2,2

1.0
0.966
0.666
A4 * 0.707
0,5
0.259
0.0

0.0
0.259
0.5
0.707
0.666
0.966
1.0

2.0"
2.0
2,0
2.0
2,0
2.0
2,0

5.
4,
. *VFUN
,
5.
*DIM,A5, ARRAY, 7,3
*VFUN,A5(1,1),TANG,A4(1,1)

-i

-0.131 0.991 0*
-0.259 0.965 0
0.666 0
A5 * -0.707 0.707 0
>0.866 0.5 0
-0966 0.259 0
-0.991 0.131 0

316

*VOPER (GATtf) (
. !
*VOPER GATH
,
2.
DIM,1,,4
*d i m ,b 2,,3
*DIM,B3,,4
1 (1)=10,20,30,40
2 (1)=2,4,1
VOPER, (1),1<1),GATH, 2 (1)
*2 0 '

63=

40

10


,
, , , (
) .
.
MOPER

Utility Menu > Parameters > Array Operations > Matrix Operations

]
. ^
, :
;
;
;
;
.

*MFUN

Utility Menu > Parameters > Array Operations > Matrix Functions
.
*MFOURI

Utility Menu > Parameters > Array Operations > Matrix Fourier
.
?
.
ANSYS Commands Reference.

APDL

317

*MOPER
. SORT DATA,
, :
3 10 1
5 *4 12
SORTOATA * 8 -9 13
2 7 14
6 1 15

SORT DATA
OLDORDER
.
*MOPER SORT DATA
.
.
OLDORDER. , *MOPER
.
*DIM,oldorder,,5
*MOPER,oldorder(1),sortdata(1,1),SORT,sortdata(1,1)

,
*MOPER:
2 7 14
3 10 11
5 -4 12
1 15
8 -9 13

4*
1
OLDORDER = 2
5
3

,
SORTDATA, :
*MOPER, oldorder (1), sortdata (1,1), SORT, oldorder (1,1)

*MOPER
.

:
2
3
2
4
*

4 3 2
6 5 2
5 2
5 14 14

2
2
8=
3
11

318

*MOPER

aniXi +3^2X 2+>... +


, *MOPER
:

2X1 +4X2+ 3X3+ 2X4 = 2


3X1+6X2+ 5X3+ 2X4 = 2
2 XI + 5 2 + 2 - 3 4 = 3
4X1 +5X2+ 14X3+ 14X4=

*MOPER
() (),
(), .
DIM,, ,4
MOPER, (1), (1,1) ,SOLV, (1)

*MOPER
,
60

26

*MFUN
.
DATA, , :
34 251
DATA

22 68
*7

12

*MFUN
DATATRAN, .

DIM, DATATRAN, ,2,3


MFUN,DATATRAN(1,1),TRAN,DATA(1,1)

DATATRAN,
:
DATATRAN =

34 22 25 68 1

APDL

vswrec

319

* 53. ARRAYVAL

ANSYSI

>

cm, 2
ROW

. 5.4. TABLEVAL

320

AN SYS

t a b ! 2C 1)

. 5.5. TABLE 2 TABLEVAL

A N SY S

toblv al(

1 / )

. 5.6. TABLEVAL

APDL
----

------- --------

- .............................................................- -

321
-

............................ *

.................................

........

5.3.7.
,
*VPLOT.
*VPLOT. ,
(TABLEVEL TABLE2), TABLE ARRAYVAL,
ARRAY.
0
4
7
1S

3 9
6 1*
8 6
10 3

0 40
19 W
TABLE2 88 80
99 96

12
8

ARRAYVAL

10 3
ARRAYVAL

*VPLOT,,arrayval(1,1),2

. 5.3.
,
,
ARRAYVAL.

TABLEVAL
(. 5.4)
*VPLOT, , tableval(1,1) f 2

,
,
TABLEVAL. ,
.
TABLE2
TABLEVAL (. 5.5)
*VPLOT,table2(1),tableval<1,1),2


TABLE 2, TABLEVAL,
.
TABLEVAL
, , (. 5.6)
VPLOT,tableval(1,0),tableval(1,1>,2

*VFLOT,
, .

322

*4

COL 1, COL 2 . . <;


/ GCOLUMN. -!
, *
(
).
/ GCOLUMN ( *
/g c o l), s t r i n g O l ,
s t r i n g 0 2 .
____

/gcol,1,stringOl
/gcol,2,string02
*dim,xxx,array, 10
*dim,yyy,array,10,2
1,1)
2,1)
3,1)
4,1)
5,1)
6,1)
7,1)
8,1)
9,1)
10,1)

=16
= 16
= 1
16
1= 1
= 16
16
= 1
16
1

1,1)
2,1)
3,1)
4,1)
5,1)
6,1)
7,1)
8,1)
9,1)
10,1)

=5 1
4
= 9
= 16
= 25
36
,49
64
81
100

1,2)
2,2)
3,2)
4,2)
5,2)
6,2)
7,2)
8,2)
9,2)
10,2)

1
2
SC 3
= 4
= 5 = 6
= 7
8
9
= 10

XXX
XXX
XXX
XXX
XXX
XXX
XXX
XXX
XXX
XXX

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

15
25
5
45
55
65
75
85
95

*vplo,xxx(1,1), y y y (1,1) /2

. 5.7.
, (COL 1 COL 2), ,
/GCOLUMN .
/gcol,l
/1,2

APDL
___________________

323

ANSYS!
stringOl

V ALU E

a trin g 0 2

(xlOM 3)

$00

1100

1900
isoo
xxx(1,1)

1700

1300

2100

. 5.7.

5.3.8.

*VWRITE.
.
*VWRITE.
, FORTRAN 77.
VWRITE *CFOPEN ,
.
*VWRITE
(, ARRAY ( 1 , 2 , 1 )
, ). *VWRITE
,
. SEQU,
*VWRITE, ,
.
*VWRITE
.
MYDATA, :
2.15215183
2.30485343
2.01051819
MYDATA *
2.36833012
2.84819512
2.22795343

3.89075020
4,44486730
3.39152436
3.32711472
4.76350638
3.48214546

5.28636971
5.40919563
5.93663807
5.63220341
5.97802354
5.54685145

7.15706483
7.68192625
7.38584253
7.22482004
7.29258882
7.90325139

13.7859423
15.5483820
18.4635868
18.7977889
14.8096356
14.0708891

87.4970443
86,5677915
45.7263566
39.7902425
62.0843906
37.6009897

324


X ( 25), ?
( *CFOPEN). *VWRITB,
, .
*VWRITE SEQU,
; ?
. ;
.
~25
*cfopen,vector
*vwrite,SEQU,mydatad, 1,1), mydata(1,2,1) ,mydata(1,3,1) ,10.2, x,mydata(1,1,1) +3
(F3 .0, 1 1,F8 .4, ' ',F8 .i, ' 'F8.6,'
,,F4.1,'
'F4.0,'
fF8.1)
*cfclos
:
2.1522
10.2
1.
3.9 5.286370
2.
10.2
2.3049
4.0 5.409196
3.
3.4
5.936638
10.2
2.0105
4.
10.2 '
2.3683
3.3 5.632203
5.
10.2
2.8491
4.8 5.978024
6.
2.2280
10.2
3.5 5.546851

25.
25.
25.
25.
25.
25.

5.2
5.2
5.2
5.2
5.2
5.2

5.4. APDL
I


ANSYS ( ).
ANSYS,
. ,
.
,
. GUI.

.
ANSYS
, .
20 .
, .
.
, ,
4 * 3 * 2 , 1,
( ).
/7
/view,,-1,-2,-3
block,,4,,3,,2
sphere,1
vsbv,l,2
finish

APDL

325


mymacro.mac, ,
:
*use,mymacro

rnymacro

5.4.1.
,

ANSYS
(, Notepad,
emacs vi). ,
ANSYS. ,
.

,
ANSYS lo g -.

.

. ,
ANSYS.
GUI lo g -,
ANSYS.
.
( )
.
, . ,
, ,
.

ANSYS,
, .
:
*

32 ;
;
< ANSYS . );
;
,
;
.
ANSYS :

326

*CREATE ANSYS.
, ,
APDL , ;
*.

*CFOPEN, *CFWRITE *CFCLOS.

,
;
/ ANSYS.
,
APDL , ;
Utility Menu > Macro > Create Macro.
,
. ,
APDL ,
.
,
.
ANSYS * CREATE .
, ,
. :
MACRONAME1

/EOF
MACRONAME2

/EOF
MACRONAME3

,/EOF


, :
mybloc
/7
/view,,-1, -2, -3
block,,4,,3,,2
finish
/EOF
mysphere
/7
/view,,-1,-2,-3
sphere,1
finish
/EOF

APDL

327

,
/E O F .

5.4.2.
*USE. ,
MYMACRO ( ),
,
*use,mymacro


. MYMACRO. MACRO,
/ c o u n t / m a c r o s ,
*use,/myaccount/macros/mymacro.macro

, *USE, ,
, , ,
.
.m ac
, ,
( .mac). ,
m y m a c r o . mac
mymacro

, .mac,
, Utility Menu > Macro > Execute Macro.
,
. ,
mymacro, 4, 3,2,1. 5

*use,mymacro.mac,4,3,2,1.5


ARG1,
, ARG9 AR10, ... , AR19 (,
, AR99;
AR20 ... AR99
).
,
.
ARG1, ARG2 . .
ARG1=4, ARG2=3, ARG3=2, ARG4=1. 5.

328

Utility Menu > Macro > Execute Macro $


.
, ,
*ULIB. , !
m ym acros.m lib,
/ acc o u n t /m acros, ^
*ulib,mymacros,mlib,/rayaccount/macros/

*
*USE. |
*USE.
'
, *ULIB ^
, ^
*USE *

5.4.3.
() *!
, . . if
. !
. 1
.

.
APDL ,
. ,
APDL ,
FORTRAN 77.
.
19 .
,
. , MY START
MYSPHERE, .
mystart
/?
/view,,-1,-2,-3
mysphere,1.2
finish
/eof
mysphere
sphere,argl
/eof

( *GO).

, , -

APDL

329

*GO.
. ,
*GO.
*GO,:BRANCH1
-!

( )

:BRANCH1

, *GO,
( :) , .
,

, *GO.

( * IF ).
APDL ,

. ,
, ,
.
APDL * IF .
* IF :
* IF ,

VAX.1, , VAL2, B ase

VAL1

,
.

, .
VAL2

,
.
B ase

, ,
.
APDL ,
* IF .
:
SQ

(VAL1 = VAL2),
I

(VA&1 VAL2).

'

330

LT

( VAL1 < VAL2).


GT

( VAL1 > VAL2).

LE

(VAL1 < VAL2),


1

GE

(VAL1 > VAL2).


ABLT

.
ABGT



* IF

THEN.
* IF IF-THEN-ELSE,
FORTRANe.
:

*ELSEIF ( );
*ELSE ( );
* ENDIF , *1 (
).
*XF
, *
. (
t r u e ) , Base.
* IF . ,
= 1 1,
,
ENDIF.
*IF,A,EQ,1,THEN
! 1

*ENDIF

!
t

(. 5.8
,
. , 6
, *ELSE.

APDL

331

* IF ,A ,E Q , 1,-THEN
I B lo c k l

*E L S E IF ,A ,E Q , 0
t B lo c k 2

*E L S E IF ,A ,E Q ,- 1
B lo c k 3

ELSE

Block4
* ENDI F
I C o n tin u e
. 5.8. * IF

{ *REPEAT).
* REPEAT,
,
.
,1,2
*REPEAT, 5,0,1

1 2.
*REPEAT ( ),
.
, 1-2, 1-3, 1-4, 1-5 1-6.
, , (/) (*),
* REPEAT.
.

{ *DO).
DO-loop
.
*DO *ENDDO.
, *DO *ENDDO

.

332
DO, 1,1,5
LSREAD,I
OUTPR,ALL,NONE
ERESX,NO
LSWRITE,I

I 1 5:
(load step )
I



I

ENDDO


*DO-*ENDDO * IF , *1
CYCLE.
*DO-*ENDDO
:
*DO- *ENDDO ,
, * IF *GO;
j

DO-loop. *
IF-THEN-ELSE-ENDIF.
DO-loop
. *
/GOPR /GO, !
DO-loop.

.

, ,
.
, .
() :
{ : : z)
z 1. , :
, (1:6), (2:12:2)

:
n, 1, 2

,2, 4
, 3, 6

,6,12

APDL

333


().
,
, (1:7), (2:12:2)

, .

( *DOWHILE).
,
.
*DOWHIUC.
*DOWHILE :
DOWHILE, Parm
,
tru e . f a l s e (
0.0), .
*CYCLE *1 *DOWHZLE.

5.5. GUI
GUI
ANSYS:
ANSYS Toolbar (
5.2);
*ASK ;

;
*MSG ;
;
;
& .

5.5.1.

*$, .
*ASK :
*8, P a r , Qumry, DVAL
P ar
,
. ,
.

334

. 5.9.

Q uery
"

,
. ^
54 - . $
I .
DVAL
;

, .
, J
.
, .
oi
*
, .
'

vi

*ASK 3||
( Query)
, (
Par).
, i
(. 5.9),

( ).
I

*ask,parml,'username (enclose the username in single quotes)'

5.5.2.
MULTIPRO

. ;
*CSET, ;
))
MULTIPRO DO-loop.
**

I,

APDL

335

MULTI PRO :
*CSET ( );
*CSET,
( ).

MDLTIPRO :
MtJLTIPRO, 's t a r t r, Proapt_Nvm
*CSET, Strt Loc, End Loc, Param_Name, 'Prompt String', Dei Value
MULTI PRO, "end'

's t a r t 9
, ,
MULTIPRO.
.

Prompt^JNum
, *CSET.
, *CSET
D ef_V alue D ef^V alue 0.

S trt^ L o c , End__Loc
,
Param_Jfame. Strt__Loc
, End_Loc .
S trt^L o c *CSET 1,
End^Loc Strt__Loc+2 ( *CSET
End_Lo 3). S trt^L o c
*CSET End__Loc+1.

ParamJHama
,
. ,
, . . ,
D ef_V alue.

'P ro m p t^S trin g '


,
. 32 .
.

D ef_V alue
.

APDL.
.

336

. 5.10.

'e n d '
, MULTIPRO.
* >

MULTIPRO.
multipro,start', 3
*cset,1,3,beamW,'Enter the overall beam width',12.5
*cset,4,6,beamH,'Enter the beam height1,23.345
*cset,7,9,beamL,'Enter the beam length1,50.0
multipro,e n d
i*

* SET *
MULTIPRO *
. 64 .
*CSET :
'

*C SE T ,
*C SE T ,

61,
63,

62,
64,

'

'

* H e lp _ _ S trin g ,
H e lp J S t r in g 1,

rH e lp J S t r in g f
'H e lp J S t r in g 1

'H e lp J S t r in g '
, 32 ,;

, , *
H e lp J S t r in g .

APDL

337

, ,
MOLTXPRO, ,
.
multipro,'start1,3
*cset,l,3,dx,'Enter DX Value',0.0
*cset,4,6,dy,Enter DY Value',0.0
*cset,7,9,dz,'Enter DZ Value',0.0
*cset,61,62,'The MYOFSET macro offsets the',' selected nodes along each'
*cset,63,64,'of the three axes. Fill in the
fields accordingly.'
multipro,'end'
,


, . 5.10.

5.6.
ANSYS , . .
. ,
.
.

5.6.1.

.
. ,
.
/ENCRYPT.
/ENCRYPT :
/ , Encryptlonkay, F ilejiam a, F ilejB x t, D irectoryJP ath/

Encrypt 1 onjkay
, .

Filejnamm
.
j

.
.mac.

DrBctory_Path/
, .
60 .
, .
/ENCRYPT
.

338

/encrypt,mypasswd,myenfile,mac,macros/
/nopr
/prep7
/view,,-1,-2,-3
block,,argl,,arg2,,arg3
sphere,arg4
vsbv,1,2*
/gopr
finish
/encrypt

/ENCRYPT, ,
. |
m y e n f ile .m a c /
/ENCRYPT, , *
^
.
, /NOPR ^
lo g -. /<
/NOPR.

5.6.2.
I

/ENCRYPT, *
, ,
.
. 6yz*tfj
. ,
, .
.I-)

/DECRYPT,mypasswd
013AZ,A%
02xA0 S e |L v (.6>?
03J3]Q_LuXd3-6m+*f$k]?eB
04: AVY7S#S>c>
05daV;u(yY
06T]3WjZ
/DECRYPT

, .
/DECRYPT. $
/DECRYPT .

5.6.3.
, *
.
*
, . *
/DECRYPT,
. , :
/DECRYPT,PASSWORD

APDL

339

ANSYS
:
/DECRYPT,PASSWORD,Encryption_Key

c ry p t i on_K ey
, .


/DECRYPT,PASSWORD,OFF

5.7. APDL
*ABBR
ABBRES
ABBSAV
*AFUN
*ASK
*CFCLOS
*CFOPEN
*CFWRITE
* CREATE
CYCLE

.
.
.
.
.
( ).
( ).
ANSYS ( ) .
() .
DO-loop.

d e l
/DFLAB

.
DOF .
*DIM
.
/DIRECTORY ,
, .
*DO
DO-loop.
*DOWHILE
DO-loop .
e l s e

IF-THEN-ELSE.

* e l s e if

IF-THEN-ELSE.

END
*ENDDO

*ENDIF

IF-THEN-ELSE.

EXIT

DO-loop.

get
GO
IF

.
,
.
.

/INQUIRE
/MAIL

.
.

DO-loop.

340


MFOURI
MFUN
MOPER

.
().1
( one*
1
).
1'
Vfifl

t14

MSG
MWRITE
PARRES
PARSAV
/PMACRO
/PSEARCH
REPEAT
RETURN
SET
SREAD
STATUS
TAXIS
/TEE
TOPER
TREAD
/UCMD

ANSYS .
.

1
*

j|

1 *II 1

.
lo g -.

,
.

.
.
.

<
ll,

.
.

1
I
1*4

1
11

' *
1

.
().

J--J9
'.'J
>
-4J

.
i
t
i

ULIB
USE
VABS

VCOL
VCUM

VEDIT
VFACT
VFILL
VFUN
VGET
VITRP

.
,
*;]
i

,
.

, ,
, .
.

.
,

i
i

VLEN

,
.

VMASK

,
.

VOPER

APDL

341

*VPLOT
*VPUT
VREAD
VSCFUN
*VSTAT
*VWRITE
/WAIT

.
ANSYS.
( ).
.

.
.
.

5.8. GET-


NSEL(N)
N:
-1 = , 0 = , 1 = .
ESEL ()
:
-1 , 0 = , i = .
KSEL ()
:
-1 = , 0 = , 1 = .
LSEL (L)
L :
-1 = , 0 = , 1 - .
ASEL ()
:
1 = , 0 = , 1 = .
VSEL ( V)
V:
-1 = , 0 = , 1 = .

NDNEXT (N)
,
, N, .
ELNEXT ()
,
, , .
KPNEXT ()
,
, , .
LSNEXT(i)
,
, L, .
ARNEXT ()
,
, , .
VLNEXT ( V)
,
, , .

CENTRX ()
^-
.
.

342


CENTRY()

-
.
.

CENTRZ()

Z-
.
.

NX (N)

- N
.

NY (N)

- N
.

NZ (N)

Z- N
.
j

KX(JC)

Jf-
.

KY (K)

7-
.

()

Z- .

kz

L X (L , LFRAC)

- L,
LFRAC ( or 0.0 1.0).;

LY (L,LFRAC)

- L,
LFRAC ( 0.0 1.0).

L Z (L,LFRAC)

Z- L,
LFRAC ( 0.0 1.0).,
'
L X , LFRAC ( ]
0.0 1.0).

LSX (L , LFRAC)

LSY [L,LFRAC)

L Y ,
LFRAC (
0.0 1.0).
^

L S Z {L,LFRAC)

L Z , *
LFRAC (
0.0 1.0).
i

"
....

....
...........
NODE (X , , Z)
,
X , Y, Z
( ; ,
).
{X ,Y,Z)

,
X , Y, Z
( ; ,
).

]
1"1
]
j
j

;
|
]

APDL

343


D1STND { ,N2)
N1 N2.
DISTKP [1,2)

1 2.

DISTEN {E,N)


N (
).


ANGLEN { ,N 2,N 3)

ANGLEK {1,2,)


, , N1
.
.

, , 1
.
.


NNEAR (N)
, N.
KNEAR ( )

, .

ENEARN (N)

, N.

.


AREAND(N1,N2,N3)

,
, N2 N3.

AREAKP {1,2,)

,
KI, 2 .

ARNODE [N)


(
), N.


V m X (N l,N 2,N 3)


X , N1,
N2 N3.

NORMNY (N1, N2 , N3)


, N1,
N2 N3.

NORMNZ (N1, N2 , N3)


Z , N1,
N2 N3.

NORMKX (K I, 2 , )


X , 1,
2 .

344

__

..j

..

'
:'ji

1i
*
lI
\
Y , K ljJ
2 .

NORMKY {K I, K2, )

NORMKZ ( K 1,K2,K3)


ENEXTN(N,LOC)

!
Z , 1
2 .
j

,
LOC , t i1'
N.

NELEM( , NPOS)

, , 41
NPOS ()
( 1 20).
!

NODEDOF (AT)

DOF N.
0 UX, 1 U Y ...5 ROTZ,
6, 7, 8 , AY, AZ,
9, 10,11 VX, VY, VZ,
18 PRES,
19 TEMP,
20 v o lt ;
21 M AQ
24 EMF,
25 CURR,
7 UX, UY, UZ ( 0,1,2)
63 UX, UY, UZ, ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ
(, 1,2,3,4,5).


ELADJ( ,FACE)

NDFACE(E,FACE,LOC)

|
j

I
'
. '-i

|
"
i

!
^

"
14

2-D 3-D
, FACE .
,
.
LOC FACE
. ,

.

NMFACE(E)

, .
ARFACE{E)
2-D 3-D
,
.
;
()
X(N)

UX N.

UY (N)

UY N.

UZ (N)

UZ N.

ROTX(N)

ROTX N.

APDL

345

ROTY(N)

ROTY N.

ROTZ (N)

ROTZ N.

TEMP (N)

N SHELL131
SHELL 132 KEYOPT(3) = 0 1,
{N) , 2 (N) ,
(N) ,..., (N) TEMP (N) .

PRES (N)

N.

VX(tf)

VX N.

VY(N)

VY N.

VZ (N)

VZ N.
(FLOTRAN)
N.
(FLOTRAN)
N.

ENKE(N)
ENDS(N)
VOLT(N)

N.

MAG (N)

N.

N.

AX (N)
AY (N)

AY
N.

AZ (N)

AZ
N.

,
VIRTINQR(l)
, .
VIRTINQR(4)
.
VIRTINQR(7)
,
.
VIRTINQR(8)
/ .
VIRTINQR(9)
.
VIRTINQR(11)
.
, ANSYS
KWGET(KEYWORD)
,
KEYWORD. . ANSYS UIDL Pro
grammer's Guide.

,
VALCHR()
8 ,
.
VALOCT()
8 ,
.
VALHE(8)
8 ,
.

346

!
''

'

.......

Mi^l

,
CHRVAL {dp)
dp , .
CHROCT(dp)
dp .
C H R H E X ( dp)
dp .

, : StrOut ,
Strl Str2 ( 128 ; . *DIM)

|
|

*
|
|

StrOut =
STRSUB (Strl,nLoc,nChar)

nChar ,
nLoc Strl.

StrOut = STRCAT(Strl,Str2)

Str2 Strl.

StrOut =
S T R F I L L ( S t r l , S t r 2 , nLoc)

Str2 Strl
nLoc.

StrOut = STRCOMP(Strl)

S t 1.

StrOut = S T R L E F T ( S t r l )

Strl
.

nLoc = STRPOS(Strl,Str2)

Str2 Strl.

nLoc S T R L E N G ( S t r l )


( ).

StrOut = U P C A S E ( S t r l )

Strl ,

StrOut = L W C A S E ( S t r l )

Strl ..


Path String =
J O I N ( di r e c t o r y * , ' f i l e n a m e ',
1e x t e n s i o n ')

Path String =
J O I N ( ' d i r e c t o r y , ' f i l e n a m e ')




.

.

.

.

S P L I T ( P a t h S t r i n g 1, D I R 1)
S P L I T ( P a t h S t r i n g ', ' F I L E 1)
S P L I T ( P a t h S t r i n g 1, ' N A M E 1)
S P L I T ('P a t h S t r i n g ' , ' E X T ' )

;;

^
;;

,



.
.

, ,

ANSYS.
, APDL,
,
.
.
, ,
,
. :

, ;

;
,
,
;
, ;

.

-
ANSYS
CAD-FEM GmbH.

1. . ., . ., . A. ANSYS . ]
. .: URSS. 1- . 2003.272 . 2- . 2004.272 .
.-
2. . , . ., . . ANSYS : *
. .: -1,2004. 512 .
3. . A. ANSYS / . . . . .:
, 2002. 224 .
4. . . .: , 1980. 368 .
5. JI. . . .: , 1974. 312.
6. . 1, . . . .:
1985. 504 . 3- . .: /URSS, 2008. 2 : . 1. 352 . . 2.1
1. . ., . /. :
.: , 2002. 320 .
8. . ., . . ]
. .; -, 2007,464 .
9. . / . . . . . ]
. .: , 1988. 364 .
10. . . .: , 1974.640 .
11. . . . <
. . 1967. 6. . 88-128. . : . . <
. .: , 2002. . 2.448 .
|
12. . #., . , . .
. : , 2001.632 .
13. . . . , . .
. .: , 2004.408 .
|
14. . . . .: , 200$
328 .
15. , .
. .: , 1974.148 .
16. /
. . ; 4 . : , 1988-1990. .1. !
. 488 . . 2. '
. 620 . . 3.
. 436 . . 4. ^
. 680 .
1
17. : 2 . / . ,
. . . .: , 1990.448 .
* t

i *

349

18. . . . .: , 1990.
392 .
19. ., ., X\ /
. . . . . . .: , 1986. 334 .
20. . . : 2 , .: ,
1974. . 1.472 . . 2. 368 .
21. . . . ,, . \
. . .: , 1975.
488 .
22. Folias . S. Joum. of Appl. Mechanics. 1975. V. 42. P. 663-674.
23. . A., . . -
-
// . . , 1995. 1. . 96-103.
24. . ., .
. 2- . .: /URSS, 2008. 256 .
25. 25.506-85. .
( )
. .: - , 1985. 61 . . : 1-95.
( ) /
.
. . .: . .
, 1995. . 7-82.
26. / . . . . .: ,
1980.640 .
27. KohnkeP. ANSYS. Theory Reference. Southpointe: ANSYS Inc. 1998.
28. . P. ANSYS
/
CAD-FEM GmbH (, 2122 2005 .) / . . . . .: -, 2005. . 26-33.
29. . .
. .: , 1972. 248 .
30. . .> Maxymoe . ., . . .
. : , 2002. 334 .
31. . ., . . .
.: , 1976.295 .
32. APDL Programmer's Guide. ANSYS Release 9.0 Documentation. Canonsburg: ANSYS
Inc.

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

( () J-)

( , ).
(. . 2.4);
bm
;
lm = (0 .15...0 .25) ;
-bb * (1.25...1.60)bm ;
hm = (0 .10...0 .20) bm ;
tm * (0 .15...0.25) bm ;
rb * .
;
kb = .
;
lb * .
.
, .
,

, 1/4 .
KII - KI3.
J- j_f_l.mac,
( nji - njl).
J- JINT,
(1), J-,
KI1J.
() . . , . . (CAD-FEM GmbH)
; ; ! I !!! { ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! I ; j ! ; ! ! ! ! ! ! ! j ( !

/CONFIG,NPROC,2
Jobname
/FILNAME,Model 1,1
/TITLE,Model 1
*AFUN,DEG

Jobname = Model_l
( Model_l)



I
bic
hie
tic
lie
zic

1.0

3 . 0*bic
0 . l*bic
0 . 2*bic
0. 0 * t i c

4
ric

0.10*lic

aic = 8*ric






Z- (),

J-





nic * 4
xl lie - aic/2
x2 lie - ric
x3 lie
x4 = lie + ric
x5
lie + aic/2
- bic/2
yl = ric
y2 = aic/2
y3 * hic/2
alpha = 0
! 1,15,24
nl * NINT(xl/ric/2)
! 6,18,26
2 N I N T ((x6-x5)/ric/2)
! 19...23
n3 * N I N T ((y3-y2)/ric/4)

!
!
eic = 2.105ell
!
nuic - 0.3
1

1.08
I

LOCAL,11,1,,0.0,0.0,0.0

,


LOCAL,12,0,3,0.0,0.0,0.0
,

CSYS,0
/PREP7
! 2D SOLID ()
,1,MESH200,7
! 3D SOLID ()
,2,SOLID95
R, 1
! ()
MP,EX,l,eic
!
MP,NUXY,1,nuic
!
1

1
, 1, 0.0, 0.0,
xl, 0.0,
2
, 2,
3
2, 0.0,
, 3,
, 0.0,
4 ( )
, 4,
4, 0.0,
5
, 5,
6
, 6,
5, 0.0,
, 0.0,
7
, 7,
,
8
, 8,
1/
9
0.0,
, 9,
2/

351

352

1m 10
, 10,
xl,
2,
I 11
, 11,
,
2,
1 12
, 12,
5,
2,
t 13
, 13,
,
2,
1 14
,14,
0.0,
,
1 15
,15,
xl,
,
1 16
, 16,
,
,

1 17
,17,
5,
*
,
1
,18,
,
18
,
!
1 1
L, 1, 2,nl,
1
L,2,3,4,1/2 .5
a 2
1 3
L, 3, 4
9
1 4
L, 4, 5
9
1 5
L, 5, , 4, 2 .5
1 6
L, 6, 7,2
1
LARC ,3,8,4, ric
7
LESIZE,7,,, nic
I 8
L, 4,8,
1
LARC,8,5,4, ric
9
LESIZE,9,,, nic
1
L, 1,9,2
10
1 11
L,2,10,2 .
1 12
L,8,11,4,2. 5
1 13
L, 6,12,2
1 14
L,7,13,2
1 15
L,9,10,nl
1 16
L,10,11,2
1 17
L,11,12,2
I 18
L,12,13,n2
t 19
L, 9,14,n3
t 20
L, 10,15,n3
t 21
L, 11,16,n3
t 22
L,12,17,n3
1 23
L,13,18,n3

t 24
L,14,15,nl
I 25
L,15,16,2
t 26
L,16,17,2
r 27
L,17,18,n2

!
AL,1,11,15,10
! 1
AL,2,7,12,16,11
! 2
AL, 3,8,7
! 3
! 4
AL,4,9,8
AL, 5,13,17,12,9
I 5
AL,,14,18,13
! 6
AL,15,20,24,19
! 7
AL,16,21,25,20
! 8
AL,17,22,26,21
! 9
AL,18,23,27,22
! 10
SAVE
!
! ,
!
TYPE,1
! MESH200
,1
! 1
! ()

353

!
!
!
MSHKEY,
! ;
( 4)

, 1/4
: KSCON,NPT,DELR,KCTIP,NTHET,RRAT
KSCON:
NPT ( , . . );
DELR ( );
KCTIP ( ;

1/4 );
NTHET ( );
RRAT ( )

delr = ric/4

KSCON,4,delr,1,nic
( 4)

AMESH, 3,4,1
3-4 ( )

MSHKEY,1

AMAP,2,8,11, 2, 3

AMAP,5,5, 6,11,8
AMESH, 1,6,5
AMESH,7,10,1

SAVE
!
SOLID95
TYPE,2
!nz = NINT(tic/ric)

nz - 8
I
EXTOPT,ACLEAR,1

EXTOPT,ESIZE,nz
I
VEXT,1,10,1,, ,tic, 1,1,1 ! (1-10)
! tic Z
!
SAVE
!
CSYS,0
1 XZ,
NSEL,S,LOC,Y,0.0

NSEL,R,LOC,X,x3,x6

D,ALL,UY,0.0
Y
ALLSEL
,
NSEL, S, LOC,'x, 0.0
YZ
X
D,ALL,UX,0.0
ALLSEL
,
NSEL,S,LOC,Z,0.0
XY
D,ALL,UZ,0.0
Z
ALLSEL

ASEL,S,LOC,Y,hie/2

SFA,ALL,1 ,PRES,-p0

ALLSEL
I
!
MSHAPE,,2D

354
D, ALL, UZ
SAVE
FINISH
!!!!!!!!!!
/SOLU
ANTYPE,STATIC
EQSLV,SPARSE
SAVE
SOLVE
FINISH

,0 . 0

!
!

!
_
!
! SPARSE
!
!
!
()
/POST1
1
SET,LAST
!
CSYS,0
!
RSYS,0
!
!
! Z = zic () ni - nk
ni * N O D E (,0.0,zic)
ni I
Z = zic
nj * N O D E (2,0.0,zic)
J,

, Z * zic
( )
nk = NODE(xl,0.0,zic)
,

, Z = zic
( )
PATH,ki,3,,48
() ki,
3
PPATH,l,ni
ni - nk
PPATH,2,nj
PPATH,3,nk
()
: KCALC,KPLAN,MAT,KCSYM,KLOCPR
KCALC:
PLAN ( :
0 /
1 - );
( );
KCSYM ( :
0., 1
2
3 );
KLOCPR ( )
KCALC,0,1,0


*GET,KI1,KCALC,,, 1
(1) KI1
*GET,KI2,KCALC,,K, 2
(II) KI2
*GET,KI3,KCALC,,K,3
(III) KI3
J- Z = zic ()
nji - nji j_f_l.mac
( nji - nji)
nji = NODE(x5,0.0,zic)
nj i
(1- )
njj = NODE(x5,y2,zic)
njj
(2- )
*

355

njk * NODE(xl,2,zic)

! njk
! (3- )
njl = NODE(xl,0.,zic)
! njl
! (4- )
eicl * eic/(1-(nuic*nuic)) !
!
j_f_1, nji, nj j ,njk, njl
! j_f_l.mac
! ( nji - njl),
! JINT_F
KI1J - SQRT(eicl*JINT)
! <I) J-
! KI1J
! (2.10)
1 2*lic/bic
yr * SQRT (1) * (1.77+0.227*1-0.51*(1)**2+2.7*(1)**3)
pb p0*bic*tic
KI4 = pb*yr/tic/bic
! (2.11)
I

a l f a - (/)
pi 3.1415926
KI5=p0*SQRT(pi*x3)*(1-0.025*alfa**2+0.06*alfa**4)*SQRT(1/COS(alfa*90))
/DSCALE,1,100
PLNSOL,U,SUM,
FINISH
!

1 II

I I I I I I I I I II

t I I I 1 I I I I

I I I I I

I I II

I I f I I I

I I 1 I I I

I I I


( () J-)

( , ).
(. . 2.108):
;

;
lm
(0 .15...0 .25) bm
;

(1.25...1.60) bm
hm
(0 .10...0 .20) bm
; tm
(0.15...0 .25) bm
;
0.30bm
/
rb
0.03bm
;
kb
3.OObm
.
lb
, .
,

, 1/4 .
KI1 - KI3.
J- j_f_l.mac,
( nji - nji).
J- JINT,
(1), J-,
KI1J.
() . . (CAD-FEM GmbH)
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I

;!!!!! I !!!!!!!!!!!! j i n i ttj j tj t

/CONFIG,NPROC,2
!
Jobname
/FILN ,Mode 1_2,1
Jobname ~ Model_2>>
*
( Model_2)
/TITLE,Model_2

I

*AFUN,DEG
!
!

1.0

bic
3.0*bic

hie
tic

0.l*bic

lie
0.2*bic
0.5*tic
Z- (),
zic
J-


ric = 0.10*lic
aic = 8*ric

nic = 4
xl = lie - aic/2
x2 = lie - ric
x3 = lie
x4 - lie + ric
x5 - lie + aic/2
= bic/2
yl = ric
y2 aic/2
y3 * hic/2
alpha = 0
! 1,15,24
nl ~ NINT (xl/ric/2)
! 6,18,26
n2 - N I N T ((x6-x5)/ric/2)
! 19...23
n3 = N I N T ((y3-*y2)/ric/4)
t

!
eic = 2.105ell
!
nuic = 0.3

!
~ 1.08
t


LOCAL,11,1,-,0.0,0.0, 0.0

LOCAL, 12, 0, -, 0 .0, 0 .0, 0 .0
CSYS,12
/PREP7
2D SOLID ()
,1,MESH200, 7
3D SOLID ()
,2,SOLID95
R, 1
! ()

MP,EX,1,eic

MP,NUXY,1,nuic
!
! 1
.1, : . , 0.0,
xl, 0.0,
! 2
2,
2 , 0.0,
! 3
3,
4,
! 4 (
, 0.0,
4, 0.0,
! 5
5,
,
!
5, 0.0,
7,
! 7
, 0.0,
,
! 8
8,
1/
9, 0.0, 2,
! 9
xl, 2,
,
! 10
11,
,
! 11
2,
12,
5,
! 12
2,
13,
,
! 13
2,
14, 0.0, ,
! 14
15,
! 15
xl,
,
,
! 16
16,
,
5,
! 17
17,
,
18,
! 18
,
,
1

L 1,2, nl,
! 1
L 2,3, 4,1/2 .5
! 2
! 3
L 3,4
! 4
L 4,5
! 5
L 5,6, 4,2.5

*.

357

358

! 6
L, 6, 7,n2
! 7
LARC,3,8,4,ric
LESIZE,7,,,nic
! 8
L, 4, 8,
! 9
LARC,8,5,4,ric
LESIZE,9,,,nic
10
L, 1,9,2
L, 2,10, 2
11
12
L,8,11,4,2 .5
L, 6,12,2
13
L, 7,13,2
14
15
L, 9,10., nl
16
L,10,11,2
L,11,12,2
17
18
L,12,13,n2
L,9,14,n3
19
L,10,15,n3
2 0
21
L,11,16,n3
L,12,17,n3
22.
L,13,18,n3
23
L,14,15,nl
2 4
L,15,16,2
25
L,16,17,2
2 6
L,17,18,n2
27
!
AL,1,11,15,10
1
AL,2,7,12,16,11
2
AL,3,8,7
3
4
AL, 4,9,8
5
AL,5,13,17,12,9
AL,6,14,18,13
6
7
AL,15,20,24,19
AL,16,21,25,20
8
AL,17,22,26,21
9
AL,18,23,27,22
10
SAVE

! ,
!
TYPE,1
MESH200
, 1
1
()
MSHAPE,0,2D


MSHKEY,0

( 4)

, 1/4
: KSCON,NPT,DELR,KCTIP,NTHET,RRAT
KSCON:
NPT ( , . . );
DELR ( );
KCTIP ( ;

1/4 );
NTHET ( );
RRAT ( )
delr = ric/4

KSCON,4,delr,1,nic

( 4)


AMESH,3,4,1

359

!
1 3-4 ( )
!
!
!

MSHKEY,1
,2,8,11,2,3
,5,5,6,11,8
AMESH,1,6,5
AMESH,7,10,1
SAVE
!
!
TYPE,2
! SOLID95
!nz - NINT(tic/ric)
nz = 8
!
EXTOPT,ACLEAR,1
!

EXTOPT,ESIZE,nz
!
! (1-10)
VEXT,1,10,1,,, tic, 1,1,1
\ tic Z
SAVE
!
!
! CSYS,
NSEL,S,LOC,Y, 0.0
! XZ,
NSEL,R,LOC,X,,
'
D, ALL, UY, 0. 0
! Y
ALLSEL
NSEL,S,LOC,X,x6
! ,
YZ
X
D,ALL,UX,0.0
ALLSEL
,
NSEL,S,LOC,Z,0.0
XY
Z
D,ALL,UZ,0 .0
ALLSEL
ASEL, S,LOC,Y,hic/2
!
!
SFA,ALL,1,PRES,-pO
ALLSEL
!
!
!
D, ALL, UZ
,0.0
!
SAVE
!
FINISH

!!!!!!!!!!

/SOLU
ANTYPE,STATIC

EQSLV,SPARSE
SPARSE
SAVE

SOLVE

FINISH

()
/POST1
!
SET,LAST
!
! CSYS,0
!
!
! Z = zic () ni - nk
ni NODE(x3,0.0,zic)
ni
,
Z = zic ( n_tip)
nj NODE(x2,0.0,zic)
nj
( )
nk
nk - NODE(xl,O.Q,zic)
*

360
PATH,ki,3,,48

2
! ( )
! () ki,
! 3
! ni - nk

PPATH,l,ni
PPATH,2,nj
PPATH,3,nk
()
: KCALC,KPLAN,MAT,KCSYM,KLOCPR
KCALC:
PLAN ( :
0 /
1 );
( );
KCSYM ( :
0, 1
2
3 );
KLOCPR ( )
KCALC,0,1,0
!

*GET,KII,KCALC,,,1
(I) KI1
*GET,KI2,KCALC,,K,2
(II) KI2
*GET,KI3,KCALC,,K,3
(III) KI3
J- Z = zic ()
nji - njl j_f_l.mac
( nji - njl)
nji = N O D E (5,0.0,zic)
nji
(1- )
njj - NODE(x5,y2,zic)
njj
(2- )
njk - NODE(xl,y2,zic)
njk
(3- )
njl = NODE(XI,0.0,zic)
njl
(4- )
eicl * e i c / (1-(nuic*nuic)) !
!
_1, j i> n j j rn j Ic,nj 1
! j_f_l .mac
( nji - njl),
JINT_F
KI1J = SQRT(eicl*JINT)
(I) J-
KI1J
! (2.13)
1 * /(2*6)
yr = SQRT(lr)*(1.98+0.72*lr-8.48*(lr)**2+27.36*(ir)**3)
pb * * (2*x6*tic)
KI4 = pb*yr/tic/ SQRT(2*x6)
! (2.14)
alfa = (/)
pi - 3.1415926
KI6 = * SQRT (pi*x3)
yr 1.122-0.154*alfa+0.807*alfa**2
yr = yr-1.894*alfa**3+2.949*alfa**4
KI6 = KI6*yr
/DSCALE,1,100
PLNSOL,U,SUM,
FINISH
!

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! I ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! !!!!!!!!! I! !!

( () J-)

( , ).
(. . 2.114):
bm
;
lm (0.45...0.45) ;
hm = (0.25...0.45)bm ;
tm = (0.15.,.0.25)bm - ;
kb = .
;
lb 4.00*bm
;
1 = 4.5*bm
.
, .
,

, 1/4 .
Kli - KI3.
J- j_f_l.mac,
( nji - nji).
J- JINT,
(1), J-,
KI1J.
() . . (CAD-FEM GmbH)
I 1 I It

I I 1 I 1. 1

I I I II

I II

/CONFIG,NPROC, 2
Jobname
!
/FILNAME,Mode1_3,1
/TITLE,Model_3

*AFUN,DEG

bic = 1.0
hie 4 .5*bic
hicl = 4.0*bic
tic 0.2*bic
lie * 0.5*bic
zic 0 .5*tic

t1 I f I I t I I I I I I I I I I

I I ! I 1 I I 1 1 I I t I I I I II

I II

I II

Jobname - Model_3
! ( Model_3)
!


!

!

!

!

J

!


!Z- (),
! J-

362

ric = 0.05*lic
aic = 8*ric

ficl * 0,l*bic
fic2 = l*ric
nic := 4
.
*
xl = lie - aic/2 ,
x2 = lie - ric
x3 = lie
x4 = lie + ric
x5 = lie + aic/2
= bic
yl = ric
y2 = aic/2
y3 = hicl/2-ficl/2
y4 = hicl/2+ficl/2
y5 = hic/2
alpha = 0
nl = NINT(xl/ric/2)
1, 15,24
n2 - N I N T ((x6-x5)/ric/2)
, 18,26
= N I N T ((y3-y2)/ric/4)
19...23
n4 = N I N T ((y4-y3)/ric/4)
28 ...32
n5 = N I N T (<y5-y4)/ric/4)
37 ...41
t

eic >= 2.105ell

1
nuic = 0.3
i

i
= 1. 0e8

LOCAL,11,1,,0.0,0.0,0.0

,


LOCAL,12,0,,0.0,0.0,0.0
,

csys,0
/PREP7
,1,MESH200,7
! 2D SOLID ( )
,2,SOLID95
! 3D SOLID ()
,3,MASS21,,,
R, 1
R,2, IE-3, IE-3, IE-3, IE-3, IE-3, 1-3
! ()
MP,EX,1,eic

MP,NUXY,1,nuic

!
0.0, 0.0,
, 1,
1
, 2,
xl, 0 . 0 ,
2
2, 0 . 0 ,
, 3,
3
, 0 . 0 ,
, 4,
4 (
4 , 0 . 0 ,
, 5,
5.
5, 0 . 0 ,
, 6,

, 0 . 0 ,
, 7,
7
,
, 8,
8
yl,
0.0,
, 9,
9
2,
xl,
, ,
10
2,
,
, 11,
11
2,
5,
, 12,
12
2,
i

363
I

,13,
,
2,
,14,
0.0,
3/
,15,
xl,
,
,16,
,
,
,17,
5,
,
,18,
,
,
,19,
0.0,
4,
,20,
xl,
4,
,21,
,
4,
, 22,
5,
4,
,23,
,
4,
,24,
0.0,
5,
,25,
xl,
5/
,26,
,
5,
,27,
5,
5,
,28,
,
5,
!
L#1,2,nl,
L,2,3,4,1/2 .5
L, 3, 4
L, 4, 5
L, 5,,4,2 .5
,
L, 6,7,2
IiARC, 3,8,4, ric
LESIZE,7,,, nic
L,4,8,
LARC,8,5,4, ric
LESIZE,9,,, nic
L, 1,9,2
L, 2,10,2
L,8,11,4,2. 5
L,6,12,2
L,7,13,2
L, 9,10,nl
L,10,11,2
L,11,12,2,
L,12,13,n2
L, 9,14,n3
L, 10,15,n3
L,11,16,n3
L, 12,17,n3
L, 13,18,n3
L,14,15,nl
L,15,16,2
L,16,17,2,
L, 17,18,n2
L,14,19,n4
L , 15,20,n4
L,16,21,n4
L, 17,22, n4
L, 18,23,n4
L, 19, 20,nl
L,20,21,2
L,21,22,2
L,22,23,n2
L,19,24, n5
L,20,25,n5
L,21,26,n5
L, 22,27,n5
L,23,28,n5

13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

8
9

10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41

364

42
L,24,25,nl
4 3
L,25,26,2
44
L,26,27,2
L,27,28,n2
45
!
1
AL,1,11,15,10
AL,2,7,12,16,11
2
AL, 3,8,7
3
AL,4,9,8
4
5
AL, 5,13,17,12,9
6
AL,6,14,18,13
7
AL,15,20,24,19
8
AL,16,21,25,20
AL,17,22,26,21
9
10
AL,18,23,27,22
AL,24,29,33,28
11
AL,25,30,34,29
12
AL,26,31,35,30
13
14
AL,27,32,36,31
AL,33,38,42,37
15
16
AL,34,39,43,38
17
AL,35,40,44,39
18
AL,36,41,45,40
SAVE

! ,
!
MESH200
TYPE,1
1
, 1
()

MS,,2D


MSHKEY,
I ( 4)

, 1/4
: KSCON,NPT,DELR,KCTIP,NTHET,RRAT
KSCON:
NPT ( , . . );
DELR ( );
KCTIP ( ;

1/4 );
NTHET ( );
RRAT ( )

delr - ric/4
KSCON,4,delr,1,nic

( 4)

AMESH,3,4,1
3-4 ( )
MSHKEY,1


AMAP,2,8,11,2,3
2 5; 1 6; 7...18
AMAP,5,5,6,11,8
AMESH,1, 6,5
AMESH,7, 18,1
I
SAVE
!
TYPE,2
! SOLID95
!nz * N I N T (tic/ric)
I
nz = 8
I

365
EXTOPT,ACLEAR, 1
EXTOPT,ESIZE,nz
VEXT,1,18,1,,,tic,1,1,1




(1-1.8)
tic Z

SAVE
!
CSYS,
GET,N0D_1,NODE,,NUM,MAX
nrigl = N0D_1+1
N,nrigl,0 .0,hicl/2,tic/2
TYPE,3
REAL,2
E,nrigl
NSEL,S,NODE,,nrigl
DOF, ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ
ALLSEL
NSEL,S,LOC,X,0
NSEL,R,LOC,Y,y3,y4
NSEL,A,NODE,,nrigl
CM,rigid,NODE
1CERIG, MASTE, SLAVE, Ldof, Ldof2, Ldof3, Ldof4, Ldof5
!CERIG,
nrigl,
all,
ux,
uy,
uz
CERIG,
nrigl,
ALL,
UX,
UY,
ALLSEL
!
CSYS,
XZ,
NSEL,S,LOC,Y, 0 .

NSEL,R,LOC,X,,
Y
D, ALL,UY, 0 .0
ALLSEL
,
NSEL,S,LOC,Z, 0.0
XY
Z
D,ALL,UZ,0.0
ALLSEL
D,nrigl,UX,0.0,,,,UZ,

ASEL,S,,,41
SFA,ALL,1,PRES,pO


ALLSEL
!
!
D, ALL,UZ,0.0
SAVE
!
FINISH
!

!!!!!!!!!!

/SOLU

ANTYPE,STATIC
SPARSE
EQSLV,SPARSE
SAVE


SOLVE
FINISH

i
()

/POST1

SET,LAST

CSYS,0
!
! Z = zic () ni - nk
ni = N O D E (,0.0,zic)
ni
,
Z zic ( n_tip)

366
nj = N0DE<x2,0.0,zic)
nk = NODE(xl,0.0,zic)
PATH,ki,3,,48

3
nj
( )
nk
( )
() ki,
3
ni - nk

PPATH,l,ni
PPATH,2,nj
PPATH,3,nk
()
: KCALC,KPLAN,MAT,KCSYM,KLOCPR
KCALC:
KPLAN ( :
0 - /
1 - );
( );
KCSYM ( :
0, 1 -
2 -
3 - );
KLOCPR ( )
KCALC,0,1,0


*GET,KII,KCALC, ,K, 1
(I) KI1
*GET,KI2,KCALC,,K, 2
(II) KI2
(III) .KI3
*GET,KI3,KCALC,,K,3
J- Z = zic ().
nji - njl j_f_l.mac
( nji - njl)
nji = N O D E (5,0.0,zic) ! nji
(1- )
njj
njj = NODE(x5,yl,zic)
(2- )
njk = NODE(xl,yl,zic)
njk
(3- )
njl = NODE(xl,0.0,zic)
njl
(4- )
eicl - e i c / (1-(nuic*nuic)) !
!
j f 1, nji, njj ,njk, njl
j_f_l.mac
( nji - njl),
JINT_F
(1) J-
KI1J = SQRT(eicl*JINT)
KI1J
! (2.15)
alfa = (/)
pi = 3.1415926
yr - SQRT(alfa/(1-alfa)**3)*3.4 94*(1.0-3.396*alfa+5.839*alfa**2)
pb = 2 * (p0*tic*aic)
KI6 = (pb*x6)*yr/tic/SQRT()
! (2.16)
lr = /
yr = 6*SQRT(lr)
yr = y r * (1,93-3.07*lr+14.5*(lr**2)-25.1*(lr**3)+25.8* (lr**4))
KI4 = pb*yr/(2*tic)/SQRT(x6)
/DSCALE,1,100
PLNSOL,U,SUM,
FINISH

______________________________

____

I II

!
!
!
J
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
I

1 I I 1 I

I t II

I I I I II

I II

II

I 1 II

II

1 I 1 1 I \I \\I I

1 1 1 11 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I


( () J-)

( , ).
(. . 2.120):

;
1 = (0. 20...0.60) ;
tm = (0 .25...0.50) bm ;
lb = 3.00*bm
;
1 = 4.0*bm
.
dm = 0.65bm
;
hm * (0 0...0.20)bm .
, .
,

, 1/4 .
KI1 - KI3.
J- j_f_l.mac,
( nji - nji).
J- JINT,
(1), J-,
KI1J.

! () . . (CAD-FEM GmbH)

!!! 1I !! I !!!!!!!! I !!!! I ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 1!!! I ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 1! I ! !


!/CONFIG,NPROC,2
! Jobname
/FILNAME,Model_4,1
/TITLE,Mode1_4

*AFUN,DEG

= 1.0
hie 4.0*bic
hicl = 3.0*bic
tic * 0.2*bic
lie = 0.4*bic

! Jobname = Model_4
! ( Model_4)
!

!
!

!
!
!
!
!

368
die
zic

0.65*bic
0.5*tic

I
ric = 0.05*lic
aic = 8*ric

!
! Z- ,
I J-

!



nic 4
xl - lie - aic/2
x2 * lie - ric
x3 = lie
x4 = lie + ric
x5 = lie + aic/2
** bic
x7 = bic/2
yl = ric
y2 = aic/2
y3 * hicl/2
y4 = hic/2
alfa = asin(aic/dic)
alpha = 0
n2 = 2*NINT((-5)/ric/) ! 6,18,26
!nl NINT(xl/ric/2)
nl = n2
! 1,15,24
N I N T ((y3-y2)/ric/4)
n3
! 19,23
n4
n3+nl
! 20...23
n5
nl/2
! 26...30
i

eic = 2 .105ell
!
nuic * 0.3
!
t

pO = 1.0e8
!
fyl - tic*dic*p0

LOCAL,11,1,7,,0.0,0.0


LOCAL,12,0,7,,0.0,0.0


CSYS,0
/PREP7
,1,MESH200,7
! 2D SOLID ()
,2,SOLID95
! 3D SOLID ()
,3,MASS21, , ,

R,1
R,2, IE-3, IE-3, IE-3, 1-3, IE-3, 1-3
()
MP,EX,1,eic ,

MP,NUXY,1,nuic

!
0.0, 0.0,
, 1,
1
, 2,
2
xl, 0.0,
2, 0.0,
, 3,
3
, 0.0,
, 4,
4 ( )
4, 0.0,
, 5,
5
5, 0.0,
, ,

, 7,
, 0.0,
7
,
, 8,
8


! 9
, 9, 0.0,
2,
! 10
,10,
xl,
2,
.! 11
,11,
,
2,
! 12
,12,
5,
2,
! 13
,13,
,
2,
,14,x7-dic*sin(alfa)/2, -dic*cos(alfa)/2
,15,x7,y3~dic/2,
! 15
,16,x7+dic*sin(alfa)/2, -dic*cos(alfa)/2
! 17
,17,
0.0,
,
! 18
,18,x7-dic/2,,
! 19
,19,x7+dic/2,,
! 20
,20,
,
,
! 21
,21,
0.0,
4,
,22,
7,
4,
! 22
! 23
,23,
,
4,
! 24
,24,
x7,y3+dic/2,
! 25
, 25,
7,
,
'
!
! 1
L, 1, 2, nl,
! 2
L,2,3,4,1/2.5
! 3
L, 3, 4
! 4
L, 4, 5
! 5
L, 5, 6, 4, 2 .5
!
L, 6, 7,2
! 7
LARC,3,8,4,ric
LESIZE,7 t ,,nic
! 8
L f4, 8,
! 9
LARC,8,5,4,ric
LESIZE,9,,,nic
! 10
L, 1,9,2
! 11
L, 2,10,2
! 12
L,8,11,4,2.5
! 13
L,6,12,2
L/7,13,2
! 14
! 15
L,9,10,nl
! 16
L,10,11,2
L,11,12,2,
! 17
! 18
L, 12,13, n2
! 19
L,9,17,n3
! 20
L,10,14,n4
! 21
L,11,15,n4
! 22
L,12,16,n4
! 23
L, 13,20,n3
L, 17,18,nl
! 24
! 25
L, 19,20,nl
L,17,21,n5
! 26
! 27
L,24,22,nl
L, 20,23,n5
! 28
L,21,22,n5
\ 29
! 30:
L,22,23,n5
LARC,18,14,25,dic/2
! 31
LESIZE,31,,,nl
! 32
LARC,14,15,25,dic/2
LESIZE,32,,,2
! 33
LARC,15,16,25,dic/2
LESIZE,33,,,2
! 34
LARC,16,19,25,dic/2
LESIZE,34,,,nl

! 14
! 16

369

370

LARC, 1 9 , 2 4 , 2 5 , d i c / 2
35
LESIZE, 3 5 , , , nl
36
LARC, 2 4 , 1 8 , 2 5 , d i c / 2
LESIZE, 3 6 , ,,nl
!
1
AL, 1 , 1 1 , 1 5 , 1 0
AL, 2 , 7 , 1 2 , 1 6 , 1 1
2
AL, 3 , 8 , 7
3
AL, 4,9,8
4
5
AL, 5 , 1 3 , 1 7 , 1 2 , 9
AL, 6 , 1 4 , 1 8 , 1 3
6
7
AL, 1 5 , 2 0 , 3 1 , 2 4 , 1 9
AL, 1 6 , 2 1 , 3 2 , 2 0
8
AL, 1 7 , 2 2 , 3 3 , 2 1
9
10
AL, 1 8 , 2 3 , 2 5 , 3 4 , 2 2
11
AL, 2 4 , 3 6 , 2 7 , 2 9 , 2 6
12
AL, 2 5 , 2 8 , 3 0 , 2 7 , 3 5
SAVE

! ,
!
TYPE,1
MESH200
, 1
1
()
MSHAPE,0,2D


MSHKEY,0

( 4)

, 1/4
: KSCON,NPT,DELR,KCTIP,NTHET,RRAT
KSCON:
NPT ( , . . );
DELR ( );
KCTIP ( ;

1/4 );
NTHET ( );
RRAT ( )
delr = ric/4

KSCON,4,delr,1,nic

( 4)
AMESH,3,4,1

3-4
( )
MSHKEY,1

AMAP,2,8,11,2,3

AMAP,5,5,6,11,8
2 5; 1 6; 8-9
AMESH,1,6,5
AMESH,8,9,1
AMAP, 11,24, 22, 17, 18

AMAP, 12, 19, 20, 22, 24
11 12
VEXT,1,12,1,,,tic,,,
(1-12)
LCCAT,19,24
LCCAT,23,25
AMESH,7

AMESH, 10
7 10
SAVE

371

I sweep
SOLID95
TYPE,2
!nz = NINT(tic/ric)

nz = 8

EXTOPT,ACLEAR,1


EXTOPT,ESIZE,nz
ESIZE,,nz
VSWEEP,all,, ,
!
SAVE
l
CSYS,11
*GET,NOD_l,NODE,,NUM,MAX
nrigl NOD_l+l
N,nrigl,0.0,0.0,0.0
TYPE,3
REAL,2
E,nrigl
NSEL,S,NODE,,nrigl
DOF,ROTX,ROTY,ROTZ
ALLSEL
NSEL,S,LOC,X,dic/2
NSEL,A,NODE,,nrigl
CM,rigid,NODE
CERIG,nrigl,ALL,UX,UY,
ALLSEL
CSYS,0
!
CSYS,0
NSEL,S,LOC,Y,0.0
XZ,

NSEL,R,LOC,X,x3,x6
D,ALL,UY, 0.0
Y
ALLSEL
NSEL,S,LOC,Z,0.0
,
XY
Z
D,ALL,UZ,0.0
ALLSEL
F,nrigl,FY,fyl
D,nrigl,UX,0.0,,,,UZ,,
!
!
d,all,uz,0.0
SAVE
!
FINISH
!
!!!!!!!!!!

/SOLU

ANTYPE,STATIC

EQSLV,SPARSE
SPARSE
SAVE

SOLVE

FINISH

()
/POST1

SET,LAST


CSYS,0
!
! Z * zic () ni - nk

372
ni = N O D E (,0.0,zic)

nj = N O D E (2,0.,zic)
nk = NODE(xl,0.0,zic)
PATH,ki,3, ,48

, 4
ni
,
Z = zic ( ri_tip)
nj
( )
nk
( )
() ki,
3
ni - nk

PPATH,l,ni
PPATH,2,nj
PPATH, 3,nk
()
: KCALC,KPLAN,MAT,KCSYM,KLOCPR
KCALC:
KPLAN ( :
0 - /
1 - );
( );
KCSYM ( :
0, 1 -
2 -
3 - );
KLOCPR ( )
KCALC,0,1,0


*GET,KII,KCALC,,,1
(1) KI1
*GET,KI2,KCALC,,K,2
(II) KI2
*GET,KI3,KCALC,,K, 3
(III) KI3
J- Z * zic ()
nji - njl j_f_l.mac
( nji - njl)
nji = N O D E (5,0.0,zic)
! nji
(1- )
njj - NODE(x5,yl,zic)
njj
(2- )
njk
njk * NODE(xl,yl,zic)
(3- )
njl = NODE(xl,0.0,zic)
njl
(4- )
eicl = e i c / (1-(nuic*nuic))

j, njk, njl
j_f_l.mac

( nji - njl),
JINT_F
KI1J = SQRT(eicl*JINT)
(I) J -
KI1J
! (2.17)
1 = /
yr - SQRT(lr)
yr * yr* (1. 99-0.41*lr+1.87* (lr**2) -38.5* (lr**3) 4-53. 8* (lr**4) )
pb * 2*fyl
KI4 - pb*yr/(2*tic)/SQRT(x6)
/DSCALE,1,100
PLNSOL,U,SUM,
FINISH

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 1! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! I ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !


( () J-)

( , ).
(. . 2.126):
bm
lm - (0.45...0 .55) ;
tm - 0.5bm
;
cb - 1.25bm
;
hb - 1.20bm
;
fb = 0.55bm
;
jb * (0.25...0.45)bm ;
kb - 0.0 6bm
;
dm = 0.25bm
.
, .
,

, 1/4 .
KI1 - KI3.
J- j_f_l.mac,
( nji - nji).
J- JINT,
(1), J-,
KI1J.
() . . (CAD-FEM GmbH)

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! I ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! I ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 1! 1! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
/CONFIG,NPROC,2
Jobname
/FILNAME,Mode1_5,1
/TITLE,Model_5
!
*AFUN,DEG
!
bic 1.0
cic 1.25*bic
hie = 1.2*bic
hicl = 0.55*bic

Jobname * Model_5
( Model_5)


!
!




374
tic
lie
die
zic

0.25*bic
0. 5*bic
0.25*bic
0.5*tic




Z- ,
J-





ric = 0.025*lic

me = 4
xl = eic
x2
x3
x4
x5

=
=
=
*

x7 *
yl =

xl

xl

- bic
+ lie + lie + lie
+ lie +
+ lie +
+ bic

aic/2
ric

xl
xl
ric
xl
aic/2
xl
ric
y2 = aic/2
= hicl/2
4 = hic/2
alpha =
n2 = 2*NINT((y4-y3)/ric/)
6,18,26
nl = n2
1,15,24
= NINT ((7-6)/ric/4)
19,23
n4 = N I N T ( (x2-xl)/ric/4)
20...23
n5 n4+nl
20...23
= nl/2
2 6...30
i

eic = 2.105ell
!
nuic = 0 . 3
!
t

pO *= 1.0e8

fyl - tic*dic*p0

LOCAL,11,1,xl,, 0.0, 0.0


LOCAL,12,0,xl,,0.0,0.0


CSYS,
/PREP7
,1,MESH200,7
2D SOLID ()
,2,SOLID95
3D SOLID ()
,3,MASS21,,,
R, 1
R,2, IE-3, IE-3, IE-3, IE-3, IE-3, 1-3
! ()
MP,EX,1,eic

MP,NUXY,1,nuic

1
1
, 1, 0.0, 0.0,
xl, 0.0,
2
, 2,
2, 0.0,
.3
, 3,
, 0.0,
4
, 4,
4, 0.0,
, 5,
5 ( )
5, 0.0,
6
, ,


, 7,
, 0.0,
, 8,
7, 0.0,
, 9,
4,
1,
, 10,
0.0,
2,
,11,
1, 2,
,12,
2,
2,
, 13,
4,
2,
, 14,
,
2,
, 15,
7,
2,
,16,
xl,y3-dic/2,
,17,
0.0,
,
,18,xl-dic/2,,
,19,
xl, ,
, 20,xl+dic/2,,
, 21,
2,
,
,22,
4,
,
, 23,
,
,
, 24,
7,
,
,25,
xl,y3+dic/2,
,26, 0.0,
4,
,27,
xl ,
4,
,28,
2,
4,
,29, 4,
4,
, 30,
,
4,
, 31, 7 ,
4,
!
L, 1,2,
L, 2,3,4
L,3,4,4,1/2.5
L, 4, 5
L, 5,6
L, 6, 7, 4, 2.5
L, 7,8,
LARC,4,9,5, ric
LESIZE,8,,,nic
L, 5, 9,
LARC,9,6,5,ric
LESIZE,10,,,nic
L,1,10,2
L,2,11,2
L,3,12,2
L,9,13,4,2.5
L,7,14,2
L,8,15,2
L, 10,11,n6
L, 11,12,n4
L,12,13,2
L,13,14, 2
L,14,15,n3
L,10,17,n6
L, 11,16,nl
L,12,21,nl
L,13,22,nl
L,14,23,nl
L,15,24,nl
LARC,18,16,19,dic/2
LESIZE,28,,,nl

7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31

1
2
3
4
5
6
,7
8
9
! 10

11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28

375

376

LARC,16,20, 19,dic/2
! 29
LESIZE,29,, nl
L,17,18,nl
30
31
L,20,21,n5
L,21,22,2
32
L, 22,23,2
33
L, 23,24,n3
34
35
LARC,18,25, 19,dic/2
LESIZE,35,, /nl
LARC,25,20, 19,dic/2
! 36
LESIZE,36,, ,nl
L,17,26,n6
37
L, 25,27,nl
38
L, 21,28,n2
39
L, 22,29,n2
40
L,23,30,n2
41
L,24,31,n2
42
L,26,27,n6
43
L,27,28,n4
44
L,28,29,2
45
L,29,30,2
46
L,30,31,n3
47
!
AL,1,12,17,11
1
AL,2,13,18,12
2
AL,3,8,14,19,13
3
AL, 4,9,8
4
AL,5,10,9
5
AL,6,15,20,14,10
6
AL,7,16,21,15
7
AL,17,23,28,30,22
8
AL,18,24,31,29,23
9
AL,19,25,32,24
10
AL,20,26,33,25
11
AL,21,27,34,26
12
AL,30,35,38,43,37
13
AL,31,39,44,38,36
14
AL,32,40,45,39
15
AL,33,41,46,40
16
AL,34,42,47,41
17
SAVE

! ,
!
TYPE,1
MESH200
, 1
1
()
MSHAPE,0,2D


MSHKEY,0


( 5)

, 1/4
: KSCON,NPT,DELR,KCTIP,NTHET,RRAT
KSCON:
NPT ( , . . );
DELR ( );

377

KCTIP ( /

1/4 );
NTHET ( );
RRAT ( )

delr = ric/4

KSCON,5,delr,1,nic
( 5)

AMESH,4,5,1
4-5
( )

MSHKEY, 1

AMAP,3,9,13, 3,4

AMAP,6,6, 7,13, 9
AMESH,1,2,1
AMESH, 7
AMESH,10,12,1
AMESH,15,17,1

AMAP,8,16,11,17,18
8 13
AMAP,13,18,17, 27, 25
(1-17)
VEXT,1,17,1,,,tic,,,
LCCAT,18,23
LCCAT,44, 38

AMESH, 9
9 14
AMESH,14

SAVE
! sweep
! SOLID95
TYPE,2
!nz = NINT(tic/ric)

nz = 8

EXTOPT,ACLEAR,1

EXTOPT,ESIZE,nz

ESIZE,,nz
VSWEEP,all,,,

SAVE
!
CSYS,11
*GET,NOD_l,NODE,,NUM,MAX
nrigl = NOD__l+l
N,nrigl,0.0,0.0,0 .0
TYPE,3
REAL, 2
E,nrigl
NSEL,S,NODE,,nrigl
DOF, ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ
ALLSEL
NSEL,S,LOC,X,dic/2
NSEL,A,NODE,,nrigl
CM,rigid,NODE
CERIG,nrigl,ALL,UX,UY,
ALLSEL
CSYS,0
!
NSEL,S,LOC,Y,0.0
XZ,
NSEL,R,LOC,X,x4,x7

D,ALL,UY,0.0

378
ALLSEL
NSEL,S,LOC,Z,0.0

,
XY
Z

D,ALL,UZ,0.0
ALLSEL
F, nrigl,FY,fyl
D, nrigl,UX,0.0,,,,UZ,,
!
!
D ,ALL,U Z,0.0
SAVE
!
!
FINISH

!!!!!!!!!!
!
/SOLU
!
ANTYPE,STATIC
! SPARSE
EQSLV,SPARSE
!
SAVE
!
SOLVE
!
FINISH
I
()
!
/POST1
!
SET,LAST
!
CSYS,0
!
! Z = zic () ni - nk
ni ~ N O D E (4,0.0,zic)
ni
,
Z = zic ( n_tip)
nj - N O D E (,0.0, zic)
nj
( )
nk = N O D E (2,0.0,zic)
nk
( )
() ki,
PATH,ki,3,,48
3
PPATH,1,ni
ni - nk
PPATH,2,nj
PPATH,3,nk
()
: KCALC,KPLAN,MAT,KCSYM,KLOCPR
KCALC:
PLAN ( :
0 /
1 );
( );
KCSYM ( :
0, 1
2
3 );
KLOCPR ( )
KCALC,0,1,0
!

*G,KI1,KCALC,,K,1
(I> KI1
*GET,KI2,KCALC,,,2
(II) KI2
*GET,KI3,KCALC,,K,3
(III) KI3
J- Z - z i c ()
nji - nji j_f_l.mac
( nji - nji)
9

379

nji
(1- )
njj = N O D E (,yl,zic)
njj
(2- )
njk
njk = NODE(x2,yl,zic)
(3- )
njl - NODE(x2,0.0,zic)
njl
(4- )
eicl * eic /(1-(nuic*nuic)) !
!
j_f_l.mac
j_f_l/nji,nj j ,nj k,nj1
( nji - njl),
JINT__F
(1) J-
KI1J SQRT(eicl*JINT)
KI1J
! (2.19)
alfa - (x4-xl)/ (7~1)
pi 3.1415926
yr = SQRT(alfa/(1-alfa)**3)*(9.172-13.829*alfa+11.822*alfa**2-3.056*alfa**3)
pb = 2*fyl
KI6 = pb*yr/(2*tic)/SQRT(x7-xl)
nji = N O D E (,0.0, zic)

/DSCALE,1,20
PLNSOL,U,SUM,
FINISH

6
-

! ! ; ; I I ; ; j j ! ! I ! I j I I I ! ; I ! ! ! I j ! ; I I I I t I I I I j j I I ; I ; ; I ; I ; j ; j ; j j I I j


( () J-)
-
( , ).
(. . 2.132):
;
wb

xb = 0.50wb
;
xml = 0.75wb
;
tm 0. 5wb
;
rml = l.OOwb
rm2 = 2.OOwb
;
;
rm3 = 0.125wb
rm4 1.7 5wb
;
lm = 0.50wb
;
jb * (0.25...0.45) bm
,
,

, 1/4 .
. KI1 - KI3.
J- j_f_l.mac,
( nji - nji).
J- JINT,
(1), J-,
KI1J.
() . . (CAD-FEM GmbH)

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!/CONFIG,NPROC,2
! Jobname
/FILNAME,Model_6,1
/TITLE,Mode1_6
!
*AFUN,DEG
!
bic = 1 . 0
b i d * 1.75*bic
hie * 4.0*bic
riel = 1.0*bic

! Jobname - Model_6
! ( Model_6)
!

!
!

!
I
!
!


ric2 2.0*bic
ric3 * 0.125*bic
ric4 - 1.75*bic
tic = 0.25*bic
lie 0.4*bic
zic
0.5*tic

aic == 8*ric

381

!
!
!
!
!
! Z- ,
! J-

!
!
!
!
!

Xl ~ 0.25*bic
x2 - 0.5*bic
x3 riel
x4 * riel + lie - aic/2
x5 = riel + lie - ric
- riel + lie
x7 = riel + lie + ric
x8 riel + lie + aic/2
x9 - ric2
xlO = 1.4*ricl - aic/2
xll =*= 1.4*ricl
xl2 - 1.4*ricl + aic/2
yl - ric
y2 = aic/2
y3 = ricl*SIN(ACOS(xl/ricl))
y4 ric4*SIN(ACOS(x2/ric2))
y5 hic/2
alfal = 52
alfa2 67
alpha = 0
xklO - ricl*COS(ASIN((y2)/ (riel)))
yklO = y2
xkl4 *= ric2*C0S(ASIN((y2) / (ric2) ) )
ykl4 * y2
xkl5 = ricl*COS(alfal)
ykl5 = ricl*SIN(alfal)
xkl9 ric2*C0S(alfa2)
ykl9 = ric2*SIN(alfa2)
1_r - SQRT((xkl9~xkl5)**2+(ykl9-ykl5)**2)
alfa_r * A T A N ((ykl9-ykl5)/ (xkl9-xkl5))
xkl6 xkl5+l_r*C0S(alfa_r)*((xlO-)/(x9-x3))
ykl6 = ykl5+l_r*SIN (alfa__r) * ((xl0-x3) / (x9-x3))
xkl7 - xkl5+l_r*C0S(alfa_r)* ( (xll-x3)/ (x9-x3))
ykl7 * ykl5+l_r*SIN (alfa_r) * ((xll-x3) / (x9-x3))
xkl8 = xkl5+l_r*COS(alfa_r)* ( (xl2-x3)/ (x9-x3))
ykl8 - ykl5+l_r*SIN(alfa_r)* ( (xl2-x3)/ (x9-x3))
xk20 = xl
yk20 = y3
xk24 = xl
yk24 * y5
1_r - SQRT((xk24-xk20)**2+(yk24-yk20)**2)
alfa_r * 90
xk21 = xk20+l_r*COS(alfa_r)* ( (xl0-x3)/ (x9-x3))
yk21 = yk20+l_r*SIN(alfa_r)*((xl0-x3)/(x9-x3))
xk22 = xk20+l_r*COS(alfa_r)* ( (xll-x3)/ (x9-x3))
yk22 = yk20+l r*SIN(alfa r)* ( (xll-x3)/ (x9-x3))

382

23
23
nl 2 =
-

= xk20+l_r*COS(alfa_r)* ( (12-)/ (9-))


= yk20+l_r*SIN(alfa_r)* ( (12-)/ (9-))
N I N T ((4-)/ric)
! 6,18,26
! 1,15,24
3*1
NINT(nl/2)
I

!
eic = 2 .10511
nuic = 0.3
! .
I


= 1.0e8
fyl = 2*tic*ric3*p0


LOCAL,11,1,2,4, 0.0, 0 ,0


LOCAL,12,0,2,4,0.0, 0.0

CSYS,0

/PREP7
,1,MESH200, 7
! 2D SOLID ()
,2,SOLID95
! 3D SOLID ()
ET,3,MASS21,,,
R,1
R,2, IE-3, IE-3, IE-3, IE-3, IE-3, IE-3
1 ()
MP,EX,1,eic

MP,NUXY,1,nuic

!
0.0 0.0,
1
, 1/
, 2,
0.0,
2
4 0.0,
3
, 3,
5 0.0,
4
, 4,
0.0,
5 (
, 5,
, 6,
7 0.0,
6
, 7,
8 0.0,
7
, 8,
9 0.0,
8
, 9, ,
9
yi,
, 10, ,
10
4
11
, 11/
2
, 12,

12
2/
8
13
, 13,
2,
, 14, 14 14,
14
15
, 15, 15 15,

16
, 16, 16 16,
17
, 17, 17 17,
, 18, 18 18,
18
, 19, 19 19,
19
, 20, 20 20,
20
21
, 21, 21 21,
, 22, 22 22,
22
, 23, 23 23,
23
, 24, 24 24,
24
CSYS, 12
26 = ric3/SQRT((23) **2+(23) **2)
~ 27 - ric3/SQRT((18) * *2+(18) **2)
28 = ric3/SQRT((19) **2+ (19) **2)
29 = ric3/SQRT((24) **2+(24) **2)
0.0,
25
, 25, 0.0,
26
, 26, 26* (23)
27*(23)
27
, 27, 27* (18) /_ 2 7*(18)

-
,28,_28*(19),_28*(19)
,29,k_29*kx(24),k_29*ky(24)
CSYS,
!
L, 2, 3, nl,
L,3,4,4,1/2.5
L, 4, 5
L, 5, 6
L, 6, 7, 4, 2 ,5
L, 7,8,nl
LARC,4,9,5,ric
LESIZE,7,,,nic
L,5,9,
LARC,9,6,5,ric
LESIZE,9,,,nic
LARC,2,10,1, riel
LESIZE,10,,, 2
L,3,11,2
L,9,12,4,2.5
L,7,13,2
LARC,8,14,1,ric2
LESIZE,14,,,2
L,10,11,nl
L, 11,12,2
L,12,13,2
L,13,14,nl
LARC,10,15,l,x3
LESIZE,19,,,n2
LARC,11,16,1,x4
LESIZE,20,,,n2
LARC,12,17,1,
LESIZE,21,,,n2
LARC,13,18,l,x8
LESIZE,22,,,n2
LARC,14,19,1,x9
LESIZE,23,,,n2
L,15,16,nl
L,16,17,2
L,17,18,2
L,18,19,nl
LARC,15,20,l,x3
LESIZE,28,,,nl
LARC,16,21,1,x4
LESIZE,29,,,nl
LARC,17,22,1,
LESIZE,30,,,nl
LARC,18,23,1, x8
LESIZE,31,,,nl
LARC,19,24,1,x9
LESIZE,32,,,nl
L,20,21,nl,
L,21,22,2
L,22,23,2,
L,23,24,nl
L,23,26,n3
L,18,27,n3
L,19,28,n3
L,24,29,n3
LARC,26,27,25,ric3

! 28
! 29

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

! 8
! 9
1 10

11
12
13
14

15
16
17
18
19

20
21
22
! 23

24
25
26
27
28

! 29
! 30
31
! 32

33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41

383

384

LESIZE,41,,,nl
! 42
LARC,27,28,25,ric3
LESIZE,42,,,nl
! 43
LARC,28,29,25,ric3
LESIZE,43,,, nl
! 44
LARC,29,26,25,ric3
LESIZE,44,,/nl
!
! 1
AL,1,11,15,10
AL,2,7,12,16,11
! 2
AL,3,8,7
! 3
AL,4,9,8
! 4
! 5
AL, 5,13,17,12,9
AL,6,14,18,13
! 6
! 7
AL,15,20,24,19
! 8
AL,16,21,25,20
AL,17,22,26,21
! 9
! 10
AL,18,23,27,22
! 11
AL,24,29,33,28
AL,25,30,34,29
! 12
! 13
AL,26,31,35,30
AL,31,38,41,37
! 14
! 15
AL,27,39,42,38
! 16
AL,32,40,43,39
! 17
AL,36,37,44,40
SAVE
I
! ,
!
TYPE,1
! MESH200
, 1
! 1
! ()
MSHAPE,0,2D
!
!
MSHKEY,0
!
!
! ( 5)

, 1/4
: KSCON,NPT,DELR,KCTIP,NTHET,RRAT
KSCON:
NPT ( , . . );
DELR ( );
KCTIP ( ;

1/4 );
NTHET ( );
RRAT ( )
delr = ric/4

KSCON,5,delr,1,nic

( 5)
AMESH,3,4,1

3-4 ( )
MSHKEY,1

AMAP,2,9,12, 3,4

AMAP, 5, 6, 7,12, 9

AMESH,1,6,5
AMESH,7,17,1
!
TYPE,2
! S0LID95

-
!nz = NINT(tic/ric)
nz = 8
EXTOPT,ACLEAR,1





EXTOPT,ESIZE,nz
VEXT,1,17,1,,,tic,1,1,1 ! (1-17)
! tic Z
SAVE
!
!
CSYS,11
GET,N0D_1,NODE,,NUM,MAX
nrigl = N0D_1+1
N,nrigl,0.0,0.0, 0.0
TYPE,3
REAL,2
E,nrigl
NSEL,S,NODE,,nrigl
DOF, ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ
ALLSEL
ASEL,S,,,67,75,4
ASEL,A,,,78
NSLA,S,1
NSEL,A,NODE,,nrigl
CM,rigid,NODE
CERIG, nrigl,ALL, UX, UY1,
ALLSEL
CSYS,0
!
XZ,
NSEL,S,LOC,Y,0.0

NSEL,R,LOC,X,,9
Y
D, ALL,UY,0 .0
ALLSEL
,
NSEL,S,LOC,Z,0.0
XY
Z
D, ALL, UZ,0.0
ALLSEL
F,nrigl,FY,fyl
D,nrigl,UX,0.0,,,,UZ,,
!
!
D, ALL,UZ, 0.0
SAVE
!
FINISH
!
!!!!!!!! I!


/SOLU
ANTYPE,STATIC

SPARSE
EQSLV,SPARSE
SAVE


SOLVE
FINISH

i
()
!
/POST1
SET,LAST
!
!
CSYS,0
!
! Z * zic () ni - nk
ni = n o d e (,0.0,zic)
! ni
,
Z = zic ( n_tip)

385

386
nj - node(x5,0.0,zic)
nk = node(x4,0.0,zic)
PATH,ki,3,,48

6
nj
( )
nk
( )
() ki,
3
ni - nk

PPATH,l,ni
PPATH,2,nj
PPATH,3,nk
()
: KCALC,KPLAN,MAT,KCSYM,KLOCPR
KCALC:
KPLAN ( :
0 /
1 );
( );
KCSYM ( :
0, 1
2
3 );
KLOCPR ( )
KCALC,0,1,0


*GET,KI1,KCALC,,,1
(I) KI1
*GET,KI2,KCALC,,K,2
(II) KI2
*GET,KI3,KCALC,,K,3
(III) KI3
J- Z = zic ()
nji - nji j_f_l.mac
( nji - nji)
nji = NODE (8,0.0,zic) ! nji
(1 )
njj = NODE(x8,yl,zic)
njj
(2- )
njk = NODE(x4,yl,zic)
njk
(- )
nji = NODE(x4,0.0,zic)
nji
(4- )
eicl = e i c / (1-(nuic*nuic)) !
!
j_f_l.mac
j_f_l,nji,njj,njk, nji
( nji - nji),
JINT_F
KI1J - SQRT(eicl*JINT)
(1) J-
KI1J
! (2,20)
alfa = (-)/ (9-)
fun = SQRT(alfa)*(3.74-6.30*alfa+6.32*alfa**2-2.43*alfa**3)
fun = fun/ (1-alfa)**1.5
r = (3*(0.5*(x9-x3))/ (x9-x3)+1.9+1.l*alfa)*(1+0.25*((1-alfa)**2)*(l-ricl/ric2))*fun
pb = 2*fyl
KI4 = pb*yr/(2*tic)/SQRT(x9-x3)
/DSCALE,1,50
PLNSOL,U,SUM,
FINISH

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! I ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! I ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !!!!!!

( () J-)

( ).
(. . 2.138):
db
;
dbl - (0 .60...0.70) db ;
lb = 5.0db
.
,

, 1/4 .
KII - KI3.
J- j_f_l.mac,
( nji - njl ).
J- JINT,
(),' J-,
KI1J.
() . . (CAD-FEM GmbH)
I!

j I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

I I I I I I I I I I I I ! I ! I

/CONFIG,NPROC,2
Jobname
/FILNAME,Model_7,1
/TITLE,Model_7

*AFUN,DEG

bic = 1.0
hie - 4.0*bic
lie = 0.65*bic

ric - 0.05*lic
t

aic = 8*ric
nic ** 4
xl * lie - aic/2

1 II

I I

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

! Jobname * Model_7
! ( Model_7)
!

!
!

!
!
!

!
!
!
!
!

388

2 lie - ric
= lie
4 * lie + ric
x5 = lie + aic/2
= bic
yl - ric
y2 = aic/2
y3 - hic/2
alpha = 0
nl NINT(xl/ric/2)
1,15, 2.4
n2 = NINT ((x6-x5)/ric/2)
6,18,26
n3 = N I N T ((y3-y2)/ric/4)
19...23

eic = 2.105ell
!
!
nuic * 0.3
i

!
pO = 1.0e8
\


LOCAL,11,1,,0.0,0.0,0.0
,

LOCAL,12,0,,0.0, 0.0, 0.0

,

CSYS,0
/PREP7
,1,PLANE82,,,1
! 2D SOLID (,
! )

R/1
! ()
,EX,1,eic

MP,NUXY,l,nuic

!
1,
0.0, 0.0,
1
2,
xl, 0.0,
2
3,
2, 0.0,
3
4,
, 0.0,
4 ( )
5,
4, 0.0,
5
6,
6
5, 0.0,
7,
7
, 0.0,
8,
8
,

9
9,
0.0,
2,
,
xl,
10
2/
11,
,
11
2/
12,
5,
12
y2 1
13,
,
13
y2 1
14,
0.0,
14
,
15,
15
xl,
,
16,
,
16
,
17,
17
5,
,
18,
,
18
,
1
L 1,2, nl,
1
L 2,3, 4,1/2 .5
2
L 3,4
3
L 4,5
4
L 5,6, 4,2.5
5
L 6,7, 2
6

LARC, 3,8,4, ric


1ESIZE,7,,,nic
8
t,4,8,
9
LARC,8,5,4,ric
XESIZE,9,, ,nic
10
L,1,9,2
L , 2,10,2
11
12
i , 8,11,4,2.5
1,6,12,2
13
14
*,7,13,2
15
X, 9,10, nl
16
t , 10,11,2 .
17
t, 11,12,2
18
L, 12,13,n2
t, 9,14,n3
19
20
L,10,15,n3
21
t , 11,16,n3
22
Xi, 12,17,n3
23
fc, 13,18,n3
24
L,14,15,nl
25
't,15,16,2
26
1,16,17,2
27
L,17,18,n2
!

1
AL,1,11,15,10
2
AL,2,7,12,16,11
3
AL, 3,8,7
4
AL,4,9,8
5
AL, 5,13,17,12,9
AL, 6,14,18,13
6
7
AL, 15, 20,24,19
8
AL,16,21,25,20
AL,17,22,26,21
9
;AL,18,23,27,22
10

SAVE
!
!
PLANE82
TYPE,1
, 1
1
()
MSHAPE,0,2D

^
MSHKEY,

! ( 4)
!
! , 1/4
! : KSCON,NPT,DELR,KCTIP,NTHET,RRAT
! KSCON:
NPT ( , . . );
DELR ( );
KCTIP ( ;

1/4 );
NTHET ( );
RRAT ( )
delr - r i c / 4
!
KSCON,4,delr,1,nic
!

389

390
AMESH, 3,4,1

7
( 4)

3-4 ( )


MSHKEY,1
AMAP,2,8,11,2,3
AMAP,5,5,6,11,8
AMESH,1,6,5
AMESH,7,10,1
!
SAVE
!
CSYS,0
XZ,
NSEL,S,LOC,Y,0.0

NSEL,R,LOC,X,0,x3
Y
D,ALL,UY,0.0
ALLSEL
NSEL,S,LOC,X ,0.0
,
YZ
X
D,ALL,UX,0.0
ALLSEL

LSEL,S,LOC,Y,hic/2

SFL,
ALL,PRES,-p0
ALLSEL


SAVE
FINISH


!!!!!!!!!!

/SOLU
ANTYPE,STATIC

EQSLV,SPARSE
SPARSE
SAVE


SOLVE
FINISH

i
()
/POST1


SET,LAST
csys,0

!
! Z = zic () ni - nk
ni = N O D E (,0.0,0.0)
ni
,
Z = zic ( n_tip)
nj = N O D E (4,0.0,0.0)
nj ,
( )
nk
nk = N O D E (5,0.0,0.0)
( )
() ki,
PATH,ki,3,,48
3
PPATH,1,ni
ni - nk
PPATH,2,nj
PPATH,3,nk
()
: ALC,KPLAN,,SYM,KLOCPR
KCALC:
KPLAN ( :
0 - /
1 - );
( );
KCSYM ( :
*

391

, 1
2
3 );
KLOCPR < )

KCALC,0,1,0

(1) KI1
*GET,Kll,KCALC,,K,1
*GET,KI2,KCALC,,K,2
(II) KI2
(III) KI3
GET,KI3,KCALC,,K, 3
! J- Z = zic ()
! nji - nji j_f_l.mac
! ( nji - nji)
nji
nji - NODE(xl,0.0,0.0)
(1- )
njj
njj - NODE(xl,yl, 0.0)
(2- )
njk
njk NODE(x5,yl,0.0)
(3- )
nji
nji = NODE(x5,0.0, 0.0)
(4- )
eicl = eic/(1-(nuic*nuic)) !
! '
j_f_l.mac
j_f_lf nj i ,nj j,njk, nj1
( nji nji),
JINT__F
(1) J-
KI1J - SQRT(eicl*JINT)
KI1J
(2.21)
s =E 0
lr /
yr = 0.7978*SCPX(lr*(1-(l-2*s/(2*))*lr))*(1+SCFT(1+3*(2*s/(2*6)))* ((/)-1))**2
* = yr/SQRT(1+(2*s/(2*)-0,8012) *1)
pb * 0*3,1415*6**2
KI4 - pb*yr/(2*6)/SQRT(2*)
yr * S Q R T ((1-1)/1**3)*(0.7961+0.453*1r+0.978*lr**2+0.284*lr**3)
KI5 * */((2*6)**1.5)
/DSCALE,1,100
PLNSOL,U,SUM,
FINISH

t!!!;!!!!!!!!!!!!! tIj ! [!!!!!!!!!!!!!!



( () J -)

( , ).
: 0 < alpha < 70 .
, .
,

, 1/4 .
KII - KI3.
J- jin_f.mac,
( nji - njn).
J- JINT,
(1), J-,
KI1J.
() . . , . . (CAD-FEM GmbH)
I I I I I I I

I I

I I I I I I t I I I f I I I I I I I I I 1 11 I I 1 1

/CONFIG,NPROC,2
Jobname
/FILNAME,Model 8,1

t I I 1 t I I I I I I I II

I I

Jobname = Model__8
( Model_8)
/TITLE,Model_8

!!!!!!!!!!

*AFUN,DEG


bic 15e-3
()
hie * 6*bic
()
hic2 = hic/2
()
tic = l*bic
()
alpha = 45
(.)

licb 0.3*bic

( ) ()
lie licb/COS(alpha)
()
ric = 0.075*licb

()
aic = 4*ric

()

393

()
() ()
()
() ()
()

Z- (),
J-
I I I I I I I I

/PREP7
!
!
! 2D SOLID ()
,1,PLANE82
! 3D SOLID ()
,2,SOLID95
! ()
,EX,1,eic

,NUXV,1,nuic

xl

1
aic2 aic/2
eic = 2 .105ell
nuic = 0.3
st * 9e8
pO * 0.1*st
nic = 4
zic = 0.5*tic

yi

-licb
-lie*SIN(alpha)
-licb
-lic*SIN(alpha)
-licb
4 hic/2
bic-licb
x5
5 hic/2
bic-licb
-hic/2
y6
x7
-licb
7 -hic/2
!
,l,xl,yl,0
, 2, 2, 2, 0
, 3,,,0
, 4, 4,4,0
,5,5,5,0
, , ,,0
,7,7,7,0
LOCAL,11,1,xl,yl,0,alpha
x2
2

y3
x4

! 2
3
( 2)
4
5
! 6
! 7

1 ( )
2
3
4
5

7

,


LOCAL,12,0,xl,yl,0,alpha
,


11
CSYS,11
,8,ric,180,
8
9 ( 8)
,9,ric,180,0
,10,ric,90,0
10
,11,ric,0,0
11
, 12, ric,-90,0
12
1 ()
L,8,12
2 ()
L,12,11
3 ()
L,11,10
4 ()
L,10,9
!
CSYS,12
! 12

394

13,-aic2,0,0
14,~aic2,0,0
15,-aic2,aic2,0
16,0, aic2, 0
17,aic2,aic2,0
18,aic2,0,0

8
!
!
!
!
!
!

13
14 ( 13)
15
16
17
18

19,aic2,-aic2,0
1 19
20,0,-aic2,0
! 20
21,-aic2,-aic2,0
! 21
CSYS, 0
!
L 13,21
! 5

L 21,20
! 6
L 20,19
! 7
L 19,18
! 8
L 18,17
! 9
L 17,16
! 10
L 16,15
! 11
L 15,14
! 12
L 1 /8
! 13
L 1,9
! 14 ( 13)
L 1,10
! 15
L 1, 11
! 16
L 1, 12
! 17
L 8,13
! 18
L 9,14
! 19 ( 18)
L 10,16
! 20
L 11,18
! 21
L 12,20
! 22
1

L 13,2
! 23
L 14,3
! 24
1

22,xl,hic2,0
! 22
23,xl,-hic2,0
! 23
24, 4, K Y (21)-((21) -4)*TAN(alpha),0 ! 24
25,4,K Y (15)-( (15) -4)*TAN(alpha),0 ! 25
*IF,alpha,GT,5, THEN
alpha > 5 .
rl = (x5-KX(18))/SIN(alpha)

r2 (x5-KX(19))/SIN(alpha)

r3 = (x5-KX(17))/SIN(alpha)

K,26,x5,KY(18)+rl*(1-COS(alpha)),0
26
K,27,x5,KY(19)+r2*(l-COS(alpha)),0
27
K,28,x 5 , K Y (17)+r3*(1-COS(alpha)),0
28
L, 21,24
25
L,15,25
2 6
LARC,18,26,6, rl
27 ( 18 26)
LARC,19,27, 6, r2
28 ( 19 27)
LARC,17,28,6,r3
2 9 ( 17 28)
*ELSE
alpha
K,26,x5,KY(18),0
26
K,27,x5,KY(19),0
27
K,28,x5,KY(17),0
28
L,21,24
25
L, 15,25
26
L, 18,26
27 ( )
L,19,27
28 ( )

395

L,17,28
[ 29 ( )'
*ENDIF
! IF-THEN-ELSE
!
3
L,3,25
31
L,25,4
3 2
L,4,22
33
L,22,5
34
L,28,5
35
L,28,26
36
L,26,27
37
L,27,6
3 8
L,6,23
3 9
L, 23, 7
L,24,7
4
41
L, 24,2
! ()
29
, 29, (16) - ( (16) -*4) *alpha/360,hic2/6,0
30
,30,xl-(xl-x4)*alpha/360,hic2/2, 0
31
,31, (20)+(5-(20))*alpha/360,-hic2/6,0
32
,32,xl+(x5-xl)*alpha/360, -hic2/2, 0
!
! ( 42 43, )
BSPLIN, 16,29,30,22, ,,SIN (alpha) ,-COS (alpha) ,0,0,1, 0
BSPLIN, 20,31,32,23, ,,-SIN (alpha) ,C O S (alpha),0,0,-1,0
!
AL,1,17,13
1
AL,2,16,17
2
AL,3,15,16
3
4
AL,4,14,15
5
AL,1,18,5,6,22
6
AL,2,22,7,8,21
7
AL,3,21,9,10,20
8
AL,4,20,11,12,19
AL,5,23,41,25
9
10
AL,12,26,30,24
11
AL, 6,25,40, 39, 43
AL, 11,42,32,31,26
12
AL,8,28,36,27
13
14
AL, 9,27,35,29
15
AL,7,43,38,37,28
16
AL,10,29,34,33,42

SAVE
! ,
!
PLANE82
TYPE,1
1
, 1
()
MSHAPE,0,2D



MSHKEY,0

. ( 1)

, 1/4
: KSCON,NPT,DELR,KCTIP,NTHET,RRAT
KSCON:
NPT ( , . . );

396

DELR ( );
KCTIP ( ;

1/4 );
NTHET ( );
RRAT ( )
delr = ric/4

KSCON,1,delr,1,nic

( 1)
LESIZE,1,, ,nic,1
1
LESIZE,2,,,nic,1
2
LESIZE,3,,,nic,1
3
LESIZE,4,,,nic,1
4
LESIZE,13,,,nic/2,1
13
LESIZE,14,,,nic/2,1
14
LESIZE,15,,,nic/2,1
15
LESIZE,16,,,nic/2,1
16
LESIZE,17,,,nic/2,1
17
AMESH, 1,4,1

1-4 ( )
MSHKEY,1

5
LESIZE,5,,,nic/2,1
LESIZE,6,,,nic/2,1
6
LESIZE,7,,,nic/2,1
7
LESIZE,8,,,nic/2,1
8
LESIZE,9,,,nic/2,1
9
LESIZE,10,,,nic/2,1
10
LESIZE,11,,,nic/2,1
11
LESIZE,12,,,nic/2,1
12
LESIZE,18,,,3*nic/4, 1.5
18
LESIZE,19,,,3*nic/4, 1.5
19
LESIZE,20,,,3*nic/4, 1.5
20
LESIZE,21,,,3*nic/4, 1.5
21
LESIZE,22,,,3*nic/4, 1.5
22
AMAP,5,12,20,13,8

AMAP,6,11,18,20,12
5-8
AMAP,7,10,16,18,11
AMAP,8,9,14,16,10'
!
!
! NINT(x),
nl - N I N T (0.l*nic*licb/ric)
! 23-26
LESIZE,23,, ,nl, 4
! 23
LESIZE,24,, ,nl, 4
! 24
LESIZE,25,, ,nl, 4
! 25
LESIZE,26,,,nl,4
! 26
LESIZE,30,, ,nic/2,1
! 30
LESIZE,41,, ,nic/2,1
! 41
!
AMESH,9,10, 1
1
9-10
n2 = N I N T (0.l*nic*(bic-licb)/ric) ! 27-29
LESIZE,27,,,2,4
1 27
LESIZE,28,,,2,4
I 28
LESIZE,29,,,2,4
! 29
LESIZE,35,,,nic/2,1
! 35
LESIZE,36,,,nic/2,1
1 36
AMESH,13,14,1
!


! 13-14
NINT (0.02*nic*hic2/ric)
!

!
! (31, 34, 37, 40, 42, 43)
31
LESIZE,31, ,n3,20
34
LESIZE,34, ,n3,20
37
LESIZE,37, ,n3,20
40
LESIZE,40, ,n3,20
42
LESIZE,42, ,n3,30
43
LESIZE,43, ,n3,30
32, 39
n4
nl + nic/2
32
LESIZE,32, ,n4,1
39
LESIZE,39, ,n4,1
33, 38
n5 = n2 + nic/2
33
LESIZE,33, /n5,1
38
LESIZE,38, ,n5,1

AMAP,11,7,24,20,23

AMAP,12,25 4,22,16
AMAP,15, 23 20,27,6
AMAP, 16,-16 22,5,28
!
SAVE
!
,2
! SOLID95
nz * NINT(0.02*nic*tic/ric) !

EXTOPT,ACLEAR,1


EXTOPT,ESIZE,nz
! (1-16)
VEXT,1,16,1,,,tic,1,1,1
1 tic

SAVE
!
,
NSEL,S,LOC,Y,-hic/2

Y
D,ALL, UY,0
X
D, ALL, UX,0
Z
D,ALL, UZ,0

ASEL,S,LOC, Y,hic/2
,
NSLA,S,1

X
D,ALL,UX,0

SFA,ALL,1,PRES,-p0


ALLSEL,ALL,ALL
SAVE


FINISH

!!!!!!!!!!

/SOLU

ANTYPE,STATIC
SPARSE
EQSLV,SPARSE
SAVE .


SOLVE

FINISH
()
!!!!!!!!!!
!
/POST1
!
SET,LAST
!
! Z - zic () ni -

397

398
n__tip - NODE (xl, yl,zic)
zic = NZ(n_tip)
CSYS,12
RSYS,12
LSEL,S,LINE,,14
ASLL, S, 0
ASEL,R,LOC,Y,0
LSLA,S
t

NSLA,S,1
ni = n tip

nj = NODE(-delr/4, 0, zic)

nk = NODE(-delr,0,zic)
LSEL,S,LINE, ,13
ASLL,S,0
ASEL,R,LOC,Y,0
LSLA,S
NSLA,S,1
nl = NODE(-delr/4,0, zic)

nm - N O D E (-delr,0,zic)
ALLSEL,ALL,ALL
PATH,ki,5,,48

,
Z = zic
Z = zic
12,


12
14
, 14
( ) Y * 0
,

,
ni
,
Z = zic ( n_tip)
( ),
1/4
n_tip
()
( ), nj
13
, 13
( ) Y = 0
,

,
( ),
1/4
n_tip
()
( ), nl

() ki,
5
ni - nm

PPATH,l,ni
PPATH,2,nj
PPATH,3,nk
PPATH,4,nl
PPATH,5,nm
()
: KCALC,KPLAN,,KCSYM,KLOCPR
KCALC:
PLAN ( :
0 /
1 );
( );
KCSYM ( :
0, 1
2
3 );
KLOCPR ( )
KCALC,0,1,3


*GET,KI1,KCALC,,,1
(1) KI1
*GET,KI2,KCALC,,,2
(II) KI2
*GET,KI3,KCALC,,K,3
(III) KI3

399

J- Z - zic ()
nji - njn jin_f.mac
( nji - njn)
18
LSEL,S,LINE,,18
, 18
ASLL,S,0
( ) Y = 0
ASEL,R,LOC,Y,0
,
LSLA,S

,
NSLA,S,1
nji
nji = NODE(-aic2,0,zic)
(1- )

ALLSEL,ALL,ALL
njj
njj ** NODE (-aic2, -aic2, zic)
(2- )
njk
njk * NODE(aic2,-aic2, zic)
(3- )
nji
nji = NODE(aic2,aic2,zic)
(4- )
njm
njm * NODE(-aic2,aic2, zic)
(5- )
19
LSEL,S,LINE,,19
, 19
ASLL,S,0
( ) Y - 0
ASEL,R,LOG,Y,0
,
LSLA,S

,
NSLA,S,1
njn
njn = NODE(-aic2,0, zic)
(6- )

ALLSEL,ALL,ALL

eicl = e i c / (1-(nuic*nuic))

jin f,nji,njj,njk,nji,njm,njn
jin__f.mac
(
nji - njn),
JINT__F
(1) J-
KI1J = SQRT(eicl*JINT)
KI1J

CSYS,0
RSYS,0
/DSCALE,1,100
PLNSOL,U,SUM,
FINISH

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

( () J-)

( , ).
: 0 < alpha < 70 .
, .
,

, 1/4 .
KII - KI3.
J- jin_f.mac,
( nji - njn).
J- JINT,
(1), J-,
KI1J.
() . . , . . (CAD-FEM GmbH)
I I I I I I I I t I I I I I I I I I I I II

I t II

I II

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I II

It t I I I I I I I I I !

/CONFIG,NPROC,2
!
Jobname
/FILNAME,Model_9,1
! Jobname = Model_9
! ( Model 9)
/TITLE,Model_9
!
I I I II II

*AFUN,DEG


alpha =
(.)

beta = 30
(.)
bic - 15e-3
()
tic - l*bic
()
hie - 6*bic + 2*tan(beta)*tic
! ()
hic2 hic/2
()
licb = 0.3*bic

( ) ()
lie = licb/COS(alpha)
()
ric * 0.075*licb

()
aic = 4*ric

()
aic2 - aic/2
()


eic = 2.10511
nuic = 0.3
st * 98
0.1*st
nic * 4
!zic = 0.5*tic
zic = 0.0*tic

() ()
()
() ()
()

! 2- (),
! J-

!!! !!!!!! !
/PREP7

!
2D SOLID ()
,1,PLANE82
3D SOLID ()
,2,SOLID95
! ()

,EX,1,eic

,NUXY,1,nuic
xl = 0
! 1
0
yi
! 2
2
-licb
2 = -lic*SIN(alpha)
! 3
= -licb
! (
= -lic*SIN(alpha)
4 -licb
! 4
4
hic/2
5 = bic-licb
! 5
5 = hic/2
! 6
bic-licb
"-hic/2

7 S5: -licb
! 7
-hic/2
7
*****

, 1, xl, yl,0
, 2, 2, 2, 0
, 3,,,0
, 4, 4 ,4,0
, 5, 5,5,
, 6, ,,0
, 7,7, 7,0
LOCAL, 11,1, xl, yl, 0, alpha

1 ( )
2
3
4
5
6
7

,


LOCAL,12,0,xl,yl,0,alpha
,


11
CSYS,11
, 8,ric,180,0
8
,9,ric,180,0
9 ( 8)
, 10, ric,90,0
10
, 11,ric,0,0
11
, 12,ric,90,0
12
L,8,12
1 ()
L,12,11
2 ()
L,11,10
3 ()
4 ()
L,10,9
!
12
CSYS,12
, 13,-aic2,0,0
13

401

402

, 14,-aic2,0,
14 ( 13)
, 15,-aic2,aic2,
15
, 16,0,aic2,
16
, 17,aic2,aic2,
17
, 18,aic2, ,
18
, 19,aic2,-aic2,
19
, 20,0,-aic2,
20
, 21,-aic2,-aic2,
21
CSYS,

L ,13, 21
5
6
L,21,20
L,20,19
7
L,19,18
8
L , 18,17
9
L , 17,16
10
11
L, 16,15
L, 15,14
12
L,l,8
13
L,l,9
14 ( 13)
L,1,10
15
L,1,11
16
L,1,12
17
L,8,13
18
L,9,14
19 ( 18)
L, 10,16
20
L, 11, 18
21
L , 12,20
22
!
L,13,2
! 23
L,14,3
! 24
!
,22,xl,hic2,0
! 22
,23,xl,-hic2,0
! 23
, 24,4 ,K Y (21)-((21)-4)*TAN(alpha),0 ! 24
,25,4,K Y (15)-((15)-4)*TAN(alpha),0 ! 25
*IF,alpha,GT,5,THEN
alpha > 5 .
rl = (x5-KX(18))/SIN(alpha)


r2 = (x5-KX(19))/SIN(alpha)
r3 = (x5-KX(17))/SIN(alpha)
.
26
K,26,x5,KY(18)+rl*(1-COS(alpha)),0
27
K,27,x5,KY(19)+r2*(1-COS(alpha)),0
28
K,28,x5,KY(17)+r3*(1-COS (alpha)),0
L,21,24
25
L, 15, 25
2 6
LARC,18,26,6,rl
2 7 ( 18 26)
LARC,19,27,6,2
2 8 ( 19 27)
LARC,17,28,6,r3
29 ( 17 28)
*ELSE
alpha
K,26,x5,KY (18) ,0
26
,27,x5,KY(19) ,0
27
K,28,x5,KY(17) ,0
28
L,21,24
2 5
L, 15,25
2 6
L,18,26
27 ( )
L,19,27
28 ( )
L,17,28
29 ( )
*ENDIF
IF-THEN-ELSE


3 0
L,3,25
31
L,25,4
32
L,4,22
3 3
L,22,5
3 4
L,28,5
3 5
L,28,26
L,26,27
3 6
3 7
L,27,6
38
L,6,23
3 9
L,23,7
L,24,7
4 0
41
L,24,2
!
K,29,KX(16)-(KX(16)-x4)*alpha/360,hic2/6,0
!
,30,xl-(xl-x4)*alpha/360,hic2/2,0
!
K,31,KX(20)+(X5-KX(20))*alpha/360,-hic2/6,0
!
,32,xl+(x5-xl)*alpha/360,-hic2/2, 0
!
!
! ( 42 43, )
BSPLIN,16,29,30,22,,,SIN(alpha),-COS(alpha),0,0,1,0
BSPLIN,20,31,32,23,,,-SIN(alpha),COS(alpha),0,0,-1,0
!
1
AL,1,17,13
2
AL,2,16,17
3
AL,3,15,16
4
AL,4,14,15
5
AL,1,18,5,6,22
6
AL,2,22,7,8,21
7
AL,3,21,9,10,20
8
AL,4,20,11,12,19
9
AL,5,23,41,25
10
AL,12,26,30,24
11
AL,6,25,40,39,43
12
AL,11,42,32,31,26
13
AL,8,28,36,27
14
AL,9,27,35,29
15
AL, 7, 43, 38-, 37,28
16
AL,10,29,34,33,42

SAVE
VEXT,1,16,1,,TAN(beta)*tic, tic, 1,1,1
LOCAL,21,0,0.0,3*bic,0.0,,90
WPCSYS, 1,21
VSEL,S,,,12
VSEL,A,,,16
!VSBW, NV, SEPO, KEEP:
VSBW,ALL,SEPO,DELETE
ALLSEL
VDELE,17,18,1,1
CSYS,0
LOCAL,
22,
0,0.0,-3*bic, 0.0,
,
90
WPCSYS, 1,22
VSEL,S,,, 11
VSEL,A, ,,15
VSBW,ALL,SEPO,DELETE
ALLSEL
VDELE,12,16,4,1
CSYS,0
WPCSYS, 1,0

()
29
30
31
32

403

404

SAVE
!
! ,
!
TYPE,1
PLANE82
, 1
1
()
MSHAPE,0,2D


MSHKEY,

( 1)

, 1/4
: KSCON,NPT,DELR,KCTIP,NTHET,RRAT
KSCON:
NPT ( , . . );
DELR ( );
KCTIP ( ;

1/4 );
NTHET ( );
RRAT ( )
delr = ric/4

KSCON,1,delr,1,nic

( 1)
1
LESIZE,1,,,nic,1
2
LESIZE,2,,,nic,1
LESIZE,3,,,nic,1
3
4
LESIZE,4,,,nic,1
LESIZE,13,,,nic/2,1
13
LESIZE,14,,,nic/2,1
14
LESIZE,15,,,nic/2,1
15
16
LESIZE,16,,,nic/2,1
17
LESIZE,17,,,nic/2,1
AMESH,1,4,1

1-4
( )
MSHKEY,1

LESIZE,5, ,nic/2,1
5
LESIZE,6, ,nic/2,1
6
LESIZE,7, ,nic/2,1
7
8
LESIZE,8, ,nic/2,1
LESIZE,9, ,nic/2,1
9
LESIZE,10 ,,nic/2,1
10
LESIZE,11 ,,nic/2,1
11
LESIZE,12 ,,nic/2,1
12
LESIZE,18 ,,3*nic/4,1.5
18
19
LESIZE,19 ,,3*nic/4,1.5
LESIZE,20 ,,3*nic/4,1.5
20
LESIZE,21 ,,3*nic/4,1.5
21
LESIZE,22 ,,3*nic/4,1.5
22
AMAP,5,12 20,13,8

AMAP,6,11 18,20,12
5-8
AMAP,7,10 16,18,11
,8,9,14,16,10


NINT(x),
nl N I N T (0.l*nic*licb/ric) ! 23-26
-

405

23
24
25
2 6
30
41

9-10
n2 * N I N T (0.l*nic*(bic-licb) /ric) ! 27 -29
LESIZE,27,,,n2,4
27
LESIZE,28,,, n2, 4
28
29
LESIZE,29,,,n2, 4
LESIZE,35,,,nic/2,1
35
LESIZE,36,,,nic/2,1
36
AMESH,13,14,1

1314
n3 = N I N T (0.02*nic*hic2/ric)


(136, 128, 131, 121, 99, 117)
136
LESIZE,136,,,n3,20
LESIZE,128,,,n3,20
128
131
LESIZE,131,,,n3,20
112
LESIZE,112,,,n3,20
99
LESIZE,99,,,n3,30
117
LESIZE,117,, ,n3,30
139, 114
n4 - nl + nic/2
139
LESIZE,139,,,n4,1
114
LESIZE,114,,,n4,1
134, 115
n5 = n2 + nic/2
134
LESIZE,134,,,n5,1
115
LESIZE,115,,,n5,1

AMAP,77,24, 55, 54,20
77,92,80 88
AMAP, 92,25,71, 67, 16
AMAP, 80/27 / 60,54/20
AMAP,88,16, 67, 69,28
!
SAVE
! sweep
! SOLID95
TYPE,2
!nz * N I N T (0.02*nic*tic/ric)

nz=8
EXTOPT,ACLEAR,1



ESIZE,,nz
VSWEEP,all,, ,
!
SAVE
!
,
NSEL,S,LOC,Y,-3*bic

Y
D,ALL,UY,0
X
D,ALL,UX,0
Z
D,ALL,UZ,0

ASEL,S,LOC,Y,3*bic
,
NSLA,S,1

X
D,ALL,UX,0

SFA/ALL,1,PRES,-p0


ALLSEL,ALL,ALL
LESIZE,23,,,nl,4
LESIZE,24, , ,nl,4
LESIZE,25,,,nl,4
LESIZE,. 26, , ,nl,4
LESIZE,30,,,nic/2,1
LESIZE,41,,,nic/2,1
AMESH,9,10,1

406
SAVE
FINISH

!
!
!!!!!!!!!!

/SOLU
!
ANTYPE,STATIC
!
EQSLV,SPARSE
! SPARSE
SAVE
!
SOLVE
!
FINISH
!
!! !!!!!!!!
()
/POST1
!
SET,LAST
!
!
! Z = zic () ni -
CSYS,12
! 12,
!
RSYS,12
!
! 12
ni * N O D E (0.0,zic*tan(beta),zic) !
! ,
I
Z = zic
LSEL,S,LINE,,19
19
ASLL,S,0
, 19
ASEL,R,LOC,z,tic/2
( )
z = tic/2
LSLA,S
,

NSLA,S,1
,

nj = NODE(-ric,zic*tan(beta) zic)
( ),
ric ni
nk = NODE(-aic2,zic*tan(beta),zic)

( ),
aic2 ni
LSEL,S,LINE,,18
18
ASLL,S,0
, 18
ASEL,R,LOC,z,tic/2
( )
z = tic/2
LSLA,S
,

NSLA,S,1
,

nl = NODE(-ric,zic*tan(beta),zic)
( ),
ric ni
nm = NODE(~aic2,zic*tan(beta),zic)

( ),
aic2 ni
ALLSEL,ALL,ALL
!
PATH,ki,5,,48
! () ki,
i 5
PPATH,l,ni
! ni - nm
PPATH,2,nj
PPATH,3,nk
PPATH,4,nl
PPATH,5,nm
! ()
! : KCALC,KPLAN,MAT,KCSYM,KLOCPR

407

KCALC:
KPLAN ( :
0 /
1 );
( );
KCSYM ( :
0, 1
2
3 );
KLOCPR ( )

KCALC , 0,1,3

*GET,KI1,KCALC,,,1
! (1) KI1
*GET,KI2,KCALC,,,2
! (II) KI2
*GET, KI3,KCALC,,, 3
! ( ) KI3
J- Z = zic ()
nji - njn jin_f.mac
( nji - njn)
18
LSEL,S,LINE,,18
, 18
ASLL,S,0
( ) Y = 0
ASEL,R,LOC,z,tic/2
,
LSLA,S

,
NSLA,S,1
! nji (1- )
nji = NODE(-aic2,0+zic*tan(beta),zic)
ALLSEL,ALL,ALL
!
) njj (2- )
njj = NODE(-aic2,-aic2+zic*tan(beta),zic)
! njk (3- )
njk = NODE(aic2,-aic2+zic*tan(beta),zic)
! nji (4- )
nji
NODE (aic2, aic2+zic*tan (beta),zic)
! njm (5- )
njm = NODE(-aic2,aic2+zic*tan(beta),zic)
19
LSEL,S,LINE,,19
, 19
ASLL,S,0
( ) Y = 0
ASEL,R,LOC,z,tic/2
LSLA,S
,

,
NSLA,S,1
! njn (- )
njn = NODE(-aic2,+zic*tan(beta),zic)

ALLSEL,ALL,ALL

eicl - e i c / (1-(nuic*nuic))

jin_f,nji,njj,njk,nji,njm,njn
jin_f.mac
(
nji - njn),
JINT__F
(I) J-
KI1J = SQRT(eicl*JINT)
KI1J

CSYS,0
RSYS,0
/DSCALE,1,100
PLNSOL,U,SUM,
FINISH

10
/-

I 1 ! ! ! ! 1 ! ! I ! ! ! 1 ! 1 ! 1 ! ! ! ! 1 11 i i i i i j i
J- ,
(
ARG1 - ARG4) -Y ( ).
J- JINT.
() . . , . . (CAD-FEM GmbH)

I I I t

ETABLE,SENE,SENE
ETABLE,VOLU,VOLU
SEXP,W,SENE,VOLU,1,-1
PATH,JINT_F,4,50,48
PPATH,1,ARG1
PPATH,2,ARG2
PPATH,3,ARG3
PPATH,4,ARG4
PDEF,W,ETAB,W
PVECT,NORM,NX,NY,NZ
PCALC,MULT,WNX,W,NX

PCALC,INTG,J,WNX,S
*GET,JA,PATH,,LAST,J

PDEF,INTR,SX, SX
PDEF,INTR, SY, SY
PDEF,INTR,SXY, SXY

!!!!!!!!!!!!!t !!!!!!!!!!! !

( SENE)

( VOLU)

W = SENE/VOLU ( W)
JINT_F,
4

(
ARG1 - ARG4)






- ( WNX)
WNX
S

JA
( JINT)

SX

SY

SXY

J-
PCALC,MULT,TX,SX, NX
PCALC,MULT,Cl,SXY,NY
PCALC,ADD,TX,TX,Cl
PCALC,MULT,TY,SXY,NX
PCALC,MULT,Cl,SY,NY
PCALC,ADD,TY,TY,Cl
GET,DX,PATH,,LAST,S
DX = DX/100
PCALC,ADD,XG,XG,,,,-DX/2
PDEF,INTR,UX1,UX
PDEF,INTR,UY1,UY
PCALC,ADD,XG,XG,,, ,DX
PDEF,INTR,UX2, UX
PDEF,INTR,UY2,UY
PCALC,ADD,XG,XG,,,,-DX/2
= 1/DX
PCALC, ADD, Cl', UX2,UX1,, -C
PCALC, ADD, C2, UY2, UY1,, -C
PCALC,MULT,Cl,TX,Cl
PCALC,MULT,C2,TY,C2
PCALC,ADD,Cl,Cl,C2
PCALC,INTG,J,Cl,S
GET,JB,PATH,,LAST,J

JINT = 2*(JA-JB)
PDEF,CLEAR

409


X
TX * SX^NX + SXY*NY ( )

Y
TY - SXY*NX + SY^NY ( TY)



X 1%
X X-DX/2.
UX
X-DX/2
UY
X-DX/2
X-DX/2 X+DX/2
UX
X+DX/2
UY
X+DX/2


UX:
DUX/DX
U Y :
DUY/DX

(TX*DUX/DX + TY*DUY/DX)

JINT ( S)

JB
( JINT)


11
/-

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
J-
,
{ ARG1 - ARG6)
-Y ( ).
J-
JINT.
() . . , . .
I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I 11 t I I (

ETABLE,SENE,SENE
ETABLE,VOLU,VOLU
SEXP,W,SENE,VOLU, 1, -1
PATH,JINT_F,6, ,48
PPATH,1,ARG1
PPATH,2,ARG2
PPATH,3,ARG3
PPATH,4,ARG4
PPATH,5,ARG5
PPATH,6,ARG6
PDEF,W,ETAB,W
PVECT,NORM,NX,NY,NZ
PCALC,MULT,W N X ,W,NX

PCALC,INTG,J,WNX, S
GET,JA,PATH,,LAST,J

PDEF,INTR,SX, SX
PDEF,INTR, SY, SY

(CAD-FEM GmbH)

I 11 I I 11 1 I I I 1 I 11 i

I I I I i t I 11


( SENE)

( VOLU)

W = SENE/VOLU ( W)
JINT_F,


(
ARG1 - ARG6)







- ( WNX)
WNX
S

JA
( JINT)

SX

SY

J-
PDEF,INTR,SXY,SXY
PCALC,MULT,TX,SX,NX
PCALC,MULT, 1,SXY,NY
PCALC,ADD,TX,TX,Cl
PCALC,MULT,TY,SXY,NX
PCALC,MULT,Cl,SY, NY
PCALC,ADD,TY,TY,Cl
*GET,DX,PATH,,LAST,S

411


SXY

X
TX = SX*NX + SXY*NY ( TX)

Y
TY = SXY*NX + SY*NY ( TY)




DX = DX/100
X 1%


DXG = DX*COS(alpha)
X

DYG = DX*SIN(alpha)
Y
PCALC,ADD,XG,XG,,,,-DXG/2 ! X X-DXG/2 (
! X)
PCALC,ADD,YG,YG,,,,-DYG/2 ! Y Y-DYG/2 (
! Y)
UX
PDEF,INTR,UX1,UX
X-DX/2
UY
PDEF,INTR,UY1, UY
X-DX/2
X-DXG/2 X+DXG/2 (
PCALC,ADD,XG,XG,,,,DXG
X)
Y-DYG/2 Y+DYG/2 (
PCALC,ADD,YG,YG,, , ,DYG
Y)
UX
PDEF,INTR,UX2,UX
X+DX/2
UY
PDEF,INTR,UY2,UY
X+DX/2
PCALC,ADD,XG,XG,,,,-DXG/2 !
!
PCALC,ADD,YG,YG,,,,-DYG/2
- 1/DX
UX:
PCALC,ADD,Cl,UX2,UXl, ,-C
DUX/DX
U Y :
PCALC,ADD,C2,UY2,UY1,C, -C
DUY/DX

PCALC,MULT, 1,TX,
(TX*DUX/DX + TY*DUY/DX)
PCALC,MULT,2,TY,2
PCALC,ADD,Cl,Cl,C2

PCALC,INTG,J,C1,S
JINT ( S)
*GET, JB, PATH, ,LAST, J

JB
( JINT)
JINT - JA-JB



PDEF,CLEAR

12

I I I I I I I I I II

I I I I I I I I ! I I I I I I I I I I I II

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

() . . (CAD-FEM GmbH)

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 1! 1!!!!!!! 1!!!! !
*AFUN,DEG
/TITLE,Model_21
/PREP7
bic
hie
lie

1.0
4.0*bic
0.65*bic

ric = 0.05*lic
aic = 8*ric

!!!!!!! i I !!!!!!!! !



!
!
!





nic
4
xl
aic/2
lie
x2
lie
ric
x3
lie
x4
lie + ric
x5 = lie + aic/2
= bic
yl = ric
y2 = aic/2
= hic/2
alpha = 0
nl = NINT(xl/ric/2)
1,15,24
n2 N I N T ( (x6-x5)/ric/2)
6,18,26
n3 = N I N T ((y3-y2)/ric/4)
19...23

eic = 2.105e+ll

nuic = 0.3

alfa = 12.0e-6

i

LOCAL,11,1,,0.0,0.0,0.0

,


LOCAL, 12,0, , 0.0, 0.0, 0.0

CSYS,0
, 1,PLANE82,,, 1


,

! 2D SOLID (,
!
)

R,1
! ()

,,l,eic

M P ,NUXY,1,nuic

MP,ALPX,1, alfa
TREF,473
!
1
, 1, 0.0, 0.0,
, 2,
xl, 0.0,
2
3
, 3,
2, 0.0,
4 (
, 4,
, 0.0,
5
, 5,
4, 0.0,
6
, 6,
5, 0.0,
7
, 7,
, 0.0,
8
, 8,
, yl t
9
, 9, 0.0,
2,
10
, 10,
xl,
2,
11
, 11,
,
2,
12
,12,
5,
2,
13
, 13,
,
2,
14
,14,
0.0,
,
15
, 15,
xl,
,
16
, 16,
,
,
17
, 17,
5,
,
18
,18,
,
,
!
1
L, 1,2,nl,
2
L,2,3,4,1/2.5
3
1,3,4
4
L, 4,5
5
L, 5, 6, 4, 2 .5
6
L,6,7,n2
7
LARC,3,8,4,ric
LESIZE,7,,,nic
L, 4, 8,
! 8
9
LARC,8,5,4,ric
.
LESIZE,9,,,nic
10
L, 1, 9, 2
11
L,2,10,2
12
L,8,11,4,2.5
13
L,6,12,2
14
L,7,13,2
15
L, 9,10,nl
16
L,10,11,2
17
L,11,12,2
18
L, 12,13,n2
19
L, 9,14,n3
L,10,15,n3
20
21
L,11,16,n3
22
L, 12,17,n3
23
L,13,18,n3
24
L, 14,15,nl

413

414

12

! 2 5
L,15,16,2
L,16,17,2
! 26
! 27
L, 17,18,2!
1
AL,1,11,15,10
2
AL,2,7,12,16,11
AL, 3, 8,7
3
4
AL,4,9,8
5
AL,5,13,17,12,9
6
AL,6,14,18,13
7
AL,15,20,24,19
8
AL,16,21,25,20
AL,17,22,26,21
9
10
AL,18,23,27,22
!, MAT, REAL, TYPE,
, 1,1,1
SAVE

,

TYPE,1
PLANE82
, 1
1
()
MSHAPE,,2D


MSHKEY,


( 4)

, 1/4
: KSCON,NPT,DELR,KCTIP,NTHET,RRAT
KSCON:
NPT ( , . . );
DELR ( );
KCTIP ( ;

1/4 );
NTHET ( );
RRAT ( )
delr = ric/4

KSCON,4,delr,0,nic

( 4)
AMESH,3,4,1

3-4 ( )
MSHKEY, 1

AMAP,2,8,11, 2,3

AMAP,5,5,6,11,8

AMESH, 1, 6, 5
AMESH,7,10,1
!ARSYM, Ncomp,NA1,NA2,NINC,KINC, NOELEM, IMOVE
ARSYM,
Y, ALL,
0,
,1,1, 1
CSYS,0
NSEL,S,LOC,Y,0.0
XZ,
NSEL,R,LOC,X,0,

NUMMRG,NODE,
ALLSEL


SAVE .
!
!
CSYS,
NSEL,S,LOC,X,0.
! ,
! YZ
D rALL,UX,0.0
! X
ALLSEL
NSEL,S,LOC,Y,y3
INSEL,R,LOC,X,0.0
D,ALL,UY,0.0
ALLSEL
NSEL,S,LOC,Y,-y3
!NSEL,R,LOC,X,0.0
D,ALL,UY,0.0
ALLSEL
SAVE
!
/SOLU
ANTYPE,STATIC
OUTRES,,1
NROPT,FULL,,ON
EQSLV,SPARSE
! SPARSE
PHYSICS,WRITE,STRUCT
PHYSICS,CLEAR
FINISH
/PREP7
LSCLEAR,ALL
,1,PLANE77,,,1
MP,DENS,1,7800
MP,KXX,1,2.7e+l
MP,C,1,4.61e+2
NSEL,S,LOC,Y,y3
! ,
! Y=y3
! =673
D,ALL,TEMP,673
ALLSEL
! ,
NSEL,S,LOC,Y,-y3
! Y - - y 3
D,ALL,TEMP,273
! =273
ALLSEL
FINISH
/SOLU
ANTYPE,STATIC
!TOFFST,273
TOFFST,0
TUNIF,423
CNVTOL,HEAT,1
KBC,1
PHYSICS,WRITE,THERMAL
PHYSICS,CLEAR
FINISH
PHYSICS,READ,THERMAL
/SOLU
TIME,1
SOLVE
FINISH
/POST1
Tr-1
ETABLE,TGX,TG,X

415

12

416

*DIM,TGX_1,,16,2
CSYS,11
n_cr = N O D E (0.0,0.0,0.0)
*DO,I,1,16,1
TGX__1 (1,1) = ENEXTN (n_cr, I)
*GET,Tr,ELEM,I,ETAB,TGX
TGX 1 (1,2) = Tr
*ENDDO
*MWRITE,TGX_1,TGX,txt
(2E10.4)
FINISH
PHYSICS,READ,STRUCT
/SOLU
LDREAD,TEMP,,,,,,RTH
SOLVE
!UPCOORD,1
FINISH
\
()

/POST1

SET,LAST

CSYS,0
!
! () ni - nm
ni ni = N O D E (,0.0,0.0)

( )
ASEL,S,,,4
NSLA,S,1
,
nj
nj = NODE(x3+delr/2,0.0, 0.0)
( )

nk = N O D E (+delr,0.0,0,0)
( )
! ( )
ASEL,S,,,14
! ,
NSLA,S,1
nl = NODE(x3+delr/2, 0.0, 0.0)
nl
( )
nm = N O D E (+delr,0.0,0.0)

( )
ALLSEL
() ki,
PATH,ki,5,,48
5
PPATH,l,ni
ni - nm
PPATH,2,nj
PPATH,3,nk
PPATH,4,nl
PPATH,5,nm
()
: KCALC,KPLAN,MAT,KCSYM,KLOCPR
KCALC:
KPLAN ( :
0 /
1 );
( );
KCSYM ( :
0, 1 -
2
3 );
mpm

417

KLOCPR ( )

KCALC,0,1,3

(1) KI1
*GET,KII,KCALC,,,1
(II) KI2
*GET,KI2,KCALC,,,2
(III) KI3
*GET,KI3,KCALC,,K,3
J- ()
njl - nj9 jin_ft.mac
( njl nj9)
1-
njl
nm
2-
nj 2 = NODE(x3+delr*cos(315),delr*sin(315),0.0)
3-
nj3 NODE(x3+delr*cos(270),delr*sin(270),0.0)
4-
nj 4 = NODE(x3+delr*cos(225),delr*sin(225),0.0)
5-
nj 5 = NODE(x3+delr*cos(180),delr*sin(180), 0.0)
6-
nj 6 = NODE(x3+delr*cos(135),delr*sin(135),0.0)
7-
nj 7 NODE(x3+delr*cos(90),delr*sin(90),0.0)
8-
nj 8 = NODE(x3+delr*cos(45),delr*sin(45),0.0)
9-
nj 9 = nj
ALLSEL,ALL,ALL


eicl = e i c / (1-(nuic*nuic))

1 jin_ft.mac
j in_ft,nj 1, nj 2, nj 3, nj 4, rij5, nj 6, nj 7, nj 8, nj 9
KI2J SQRT(eicl*JINTT)
! (I) J-
I

J2 = ((l-nuic**2)* (KI1**2 + KI2**2) + (1+nuic)*KI3**2)/eic
! (2.24)-(2.25)
= (-)/
alfa * 12.0-6
Q1 = 400/hic
pi = 3.14159,26
yr = 5.0
KI5 * eic*alfa*Ql*yr*((-)**1.5)/(3*(1-nuic)*SQRT(pi))
J3 = ((l-nuic**2)* (KI1**2 + KI5**2) + (1+nuic)*KI3**2)/eic
/DSCALE,1,100
PLNSOL,U,SUM,
FINISH

13


I II

I I I II

I I I I t I t f I I I I I I I M

I I I I II

II

11

I 1 I I 1 II

I II

I I

1 I

() . . (CAD-FEM GmbH)
I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I t II

AFUN,DEG
/TITLE,Model_22
/PREP7
bic
hie
lie

1.0
4.0*bic
0.65*bic

ric = 0.05*lic
aic = 8*ric

I I t M

II

I I I

i i i i ii i i i i i i i i i i i i i i


4
nic
xl
lie - aic/2
x2
lie - ric
x3
lie
x4
lie + ric
x5 = lie + aic/2
= bic
yi = ric
y2 = aic/2
y3 = hic/2
alpha = 0
nl = NINT(xl/ric/2)
! 1,15,24
n2 = N I N T ((x6-x5)/ric /2)
! 6,18,26
n3 = N I N T ((y3-y2)/ric /4)
! 19...23
i

eic = 2.105ell

nuic = 0.3

alfa = 12.0e-6



LOCAL,11,1,2*bic,0.0,0.0,180.0
,


!LOCAL,KCN,S,
,
, ZC, THXY
LOCAL,
12,
0,2*bic,0.0,0.0,180.0

LOCAL,21,1,2*bic-lic,0.0,0.0,0
LOCAL,22,0,2*bic-lic,0.0,0.0,0
CSYS,12
,1,PLANE82,,,1

THYZ, THZX,
!
! ,
!

0
! 2D SOLID (,
! )

R, 1
! ()
MP,EX,1,eic
!
!
M P ,NUXY,l,nuic
MP,ALPX,1,alfa
!
TREF,473
!
1,
! 1
0.0, 0.0
2,
xl, 0.0
! 2
! 3
3,
2 , 0.0
! 4 ( )
4,
, 0.0
5,
4, 0.0
! 5
6,
! 6
5, 0.0
7,
! 7
, 0.0
8,
! 8
,
yi
9,
! 9
0.0,
2
10,
! 10
xl,
2
U,
! 11
,
2
12,
! 12
5,
2
13,
! 13
,
2
14,
0.0,
! 14

15,
! 15
xl,

16,
,
! 16

17,
5,
! 17

18,
,
! 18

1
L 1,2, nl,
[
1
L 2,3, 4,1/2 .5
!
2
L 3,4
]
3
L 4,5
!
4
L 5,6, 4,2.5
!
5
L 6,7, 2
!
6
LARC,3,8,4,ric
!
7
LESIZE,7,,,nic
L, 4, 8,
J
8
LARC,8,5,4,ric
!
9
LESIZE,9,,,nic
L, 1,9,2
10
L,2,10,2
11
L,8,11,4,2.5
12
L,6,12,2
13
L,7,13,2
14
L, 9,10,nl
15
L,10,11,2
16
L,11,12,2
17
L, 12,13,n2
18
L, 9,14,n3
19
L, 10,15,n3
20

'

419

420

13

L,11,16,
21
L, 12,17,
22
23
L, 13,18,
24
L,14,15,nl
25
L,15,16,2
L, 16, 17,2
26
27
L,17,18,n2
!
1
AL,1,11,15,10
2
AL,2,7,12,16,11
AL,3,8,7
3
4
AL, 4,9,8
5
AL,5,13,17,12,9
6
AL,6,14,18,13
7
AL,15,20,24,19
8
AL,16,21,25,20
9
AL,17,22,26,21
AL,18,23,27,22
10
!AATT, MAT, REAL, TYPE,
,1,1,1
SAVE
!
! ,
J
!TYPE,1
PLANE82
!,1
1
()
MSHAPE,0, 2D


MSHKEY,0


! ( 4)
!
! , 1/4
! : KSCON,NPT,DELR,KCTIP,NTHET,RRAT
! KSCON:
NPT ( , . . );
DELR ( );
KCTIP ( ;

1/4 );
I
NTHET ( );
RRAT ( )
delr = ric/4

!KSCON,4,delr,1,nic

( 1)
KSCON,4,delr,0,nic
AMESH, 3,4,1

3-4 ( )
MSHKEY,1

AMAP,2,8,11,2,3

AMAP,5,5,6,11,8
2 5, 1 6, 7...10
AMESH, 1,6, 5
AMESH,7,10,1
!ARSYM, Ncomp,NA1,NA2,NINC,KINC, NOELEM, IMOVE
ARSYM,
Y,all,
,
,
,
0,
,1,1,1
CSYS,12


NSEL,S,LOC,Y, 0.0
! XZ,
!
NSEL,R,LOC,X,0,x3
NUMMRG, NODE,
ALLSEL
SAVE
!
!
CSYS,12
NSEL,S,LOC,Y,-
NSEL,R,LOC,X, 0.0
D, ALL, UY, 0 .0
ALLSEL
!NSEL,S,LOC,Y,y3
!NSEL,R,LOC,X,0.0
!D,ALL,UY,0.0
!ALLSEL

!
SAVE
/SOLU
ANTYPE,STATIC
OUTRES,,l
NROPT,FULL,,ON
! SPARSE
EQSLV,SPARSE
PHYSICS,WRITE,STRUCT
PHYSICS,CLEAR
FINISH
/PREP7
LSCLEAR,ALL
,1,PLANE77, , ,1
MP,DENS,1,7800
,KXX,1,2.7e+l
,C,1,4.61e+2
CSYS,12
,
'
NSEL,S,LOC,Y,y3
Y=y3
=273
D,ALL,TEMP,273
ALLSEL
,
NSEL,S,LOC,Y,-y3
Y--y3
.*673
D, ALL, TEMP, 673
ALLSEL
CSYS,0
FINISH
/SOLU
ANTYPE,STATIC
TOFFST,273
TUN-IF, 523
CNVTOL,HEAT, 1
KBC,1
PHYSICS,WRITE,THERMAL
PHYSICS,CLEAR
FINISH
PHYSICS,READ,THERMAL
/SOLU
TIME,1
SOLVE
FINISH
/POST1
Tr=l

421

422

13

ETABLE,TGX,TG,X
*DIM,TGX_1,,16,2
CSYS,22
n_cr = N O D E (0.0,0.0,0.0)
*00,1,1,16,1
TG X_1(1,1) = ENEXTN(n_cr,I)
*GET,Tr,ELEM,I,ETAB,TGX
TGX_1(I,2) = Tr
*ENDDO
*MWRITE,TGX_1,TGX,txt
(2E10.4)
FINISH
PHYSICS,READ,STRUCT
/SOLU
LDREAD,TEMP,,,,,,RTH
SOLVE
!UPCOORD,1
FINISH
I
()
/POST1

SET,LAST

CSYS,22
22
!
! () ni - nm
ni = N O D E (0.,0.,0.0)
ni

ASEL,S,,,4
( )
NSLA,S,1
,
nj = NODE(-delr/2,0.0,0.0)
nj
( )
nk = NODE(-delr,0.0,0.0)

( )
ASEL,S,,,14
( )
,NSLA, S, 1
,

nl = NODE(-delr/2,0.0,0.0)
nl
( )
nm = NODE(-delr,0.0,0.0)

( )
ALLSEL
PATH,ki,5,,48
() ki,
5
PPATH,l,ni
ni - nm
PPATH,2,nj
PPATH,3,nk
PPATH,4,nl
PPATH,5,nm
()
: KCALC,KPLAN,MAT,KCSYM,KLOCPR
KCALC:
KPLAN ( :
0 - /
1 );
( );
KCSYM ( :
0, 1 -
2

423

3 );
KLOCPR ( )

KCALCf0,1,3

(1) KI1
*GET,KI1,KCALC,,K,1
(II) KI2
*GET,KI2,KCALC,,,2
(III) KI3
GET,KI3,KCALC,,K,3
J- ()
nji - nj9 jin_ft.mac
( nji - nj9)
.
1-
nji = nm
2-
nj2 NODE(delr*cos(-135),delr*sin(-135),0.0)
3-
nj3 NODE(delr*cos(-90),delr*sin(-90),0.0)
4-
nj 4 = NODE(delr*cos(-45),delr*sin(-45),0.0)
5-
nj5 * NODE(delr*cos(0),delr*sin(0),0.0)
6-
nj 6 * NODE(delr*cos(45),delr*sin(45),0.0)
7-
nj7 * NODE(delr*cos(90),delr*sin(90),0^0)
8-
nj 8 - NODE(delr*cos(135),delr*sin(135),0.0)
9-
nj9 = nj

ALLSEL,ALL,ALL

eicl e i c / (1-(nuic*nuic))

! jin_ft.mac
jin__t, nji, nj2, nj3, nj 4, nj5, nj 6, nj7, nj 8, nj 9
KI2J SQRT(eicl*JINTT)
! (I)
J-
KI1J
J2 = ((l-nuic**2)* (KI1**2 + KI2**2) + (1+nuic)*KI3**2)/eic
!
alfa
12.0-
Ql = 400/hic
pi - 3.1415926
yr * 0.6
KI5 = ieic*alfa*Ql*yr*((-)**1.5)/ (3*(1-nuic)*sqrt(pi))
J3 = ((l-nuic**2)* (KI1**2 + KI5**2) + (1+nuic)*KI3**2)/eic
/DSCALE,1,100
PLNSOL,U,SUM,
FINISH

14

,

I I I I I It

I I I I I I I I I 11 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I 1

I I 1 I

I I

() . . (CAD-FEM GmbH)
I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I 1

/CONFIG,NPROC, 2
*AFUN,DEG

!
!

/TITLE,Model_23
/PREP7

bic = 1 . 0
hie = 4.0*bic
lie * 0.65*bic

ric == 0.05* lie


aic =' 8*ric
nic 4
xl = lie x2 = lie * lie
x4 = lie +
x5 *= lie +
= bic
yl = ric
2 - aic/2
= hic/2
alpha = 0

aic/2
ric
ric
aic/2

nl = NINT(xl/ric/2)
2 N I N T ( (6-5)/ric/2)
= NINT((-2)/ric/4)
!
eic 2.105+11
nuic = 0 . 3
alfa * 13.5-6

1,15,24
6,18,26
19...23

!
!
!


LOCAL,11,1,,0.0,0.0,0.0

!
! ,
!

LOCAL,12,0,,0 .0,0.0,0.0

!
! ,
!

CSYS,0
!,1,PLANE82,,,1
,1,PLANE183,, ,2

! 2D SOLID ()
! 2D SOLID ()

R,1
!
,EX,1,eic
,NUXY,1,nuic
MP,alpx,l,alfa

()

!
!
!

!TREF,473
!
, 1 ,
, 2,
, 3,
, 4,
, 5,
, 6,
, 7,
, 8,
, 9,
, 10,
, 11,
, 1 2 ,
,13,
,14,
, 15,
, 16,
,17,
, 18,

0.0,
xl,
x2,
x3,
x4,
x5,
,
x3,
0.0,
xl,
x3,
x5,
,
0.0,
xl,
x3,
x5,
,

0.0,
0.0,
0.0,
0.0,
0.0,
0.0,
0.0,
yl,
y2,
2,
y2,
y2,
2,
,
,.
,
,
,

!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

1
2
3
4 ( )
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

!
!
!
!
!
!
!

1
2
3
4
5

!
L, 1,2, nl,
L/ 2/3, 4,1/2 .5
L,3,4
L/ 4 /5
L, 5/ 6/ 4,2.5
L, 6,7, n2
LARC,3 ,8,4, ric
LESIZE ,7,,, nic
L, 4, 8,
LARC,8 ,5,4, ric
LESIZE ,9,,, nic

! 8
! 9

425

14

426
L, 1, 9,2
L,2,10,2
L,8,11,4,2.5
L,6,12,2
L, 7,13,2
L, 9,10,nl
L,10,11,2
L,11,12,2
L, 12,13,2
L, 9,14,
L, 10,15,
L,11,16,
L,12,17,
L,13,18,
L,14,15,nl
L, 15,16,2
L,16,17,2
L, 17,18,2

10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27

!
AL,1,11,15,10
AL,2,7,12,16,11
AL,3,8,7
AL, 4, 9,8
AL, 5,13,17,12,9
AL,6,14,18,13
AL,15,20,24,19
AL,16,21,25,20
AL,17,22,26,21
AL,18,23,27,22

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

!, MAT, REAL, ,
,1,1,1
SAVE

I ;
!
*

JTYPE,1
!,1

! PLANE82
! 1
! ()

MSHAPE,0,2D

!
1

MSHKEY,0

!
!

! ( 4)
!
! , 1/4
! : KSCON,NPT,DELR,KCTIP,NTHET,RRAT
! KSCON:
!
NPT ( , . . );
!
DELR ( );
!
KCTIP ( ;
!

!
1/4 );


NTHET ( );
RRAT ( )
delr = ric/4
KSCON,4,delr, 1, nic

!
I
! ( 4)
I

AMESH, 3 r4,1

!
! 3-4 ( )

MSHKEY,1

AMAP,2,8,11,2,3
AMAP,5,5,6,11,8

!
!

AMESH,1,6,5
AMESH,7,10,1
!ARSYM, Ncomp,NA1,NA2,NINC,KINC, NOELEM, IMOVE
!ARSYM,
Y, ALL,
,
,
,
0,
1AATT,1,1,1
!CSYS,0
!NSEL,S,LOC,Y,0.0
!NSEL,R,LOC,X,0,x3
!NUMMRG,node,
!ALLSEL
SAVE

! XZ,
!

!
CSYS,0
NSEL,S,LOC,Y, 0.0
NSEL,R,LOC,X,0.0,
D,ALL,UY,0.0
ALLSEL

,
XZ
Y

NSEL,S,LOC,Y,0.0
NSEL,R,LOC,X,0.0
D,ALL,UX,0.0
ALLSEL
NSEL,S,LOC,Y,y3
NSEL,R,LOC,X,0.0
D,ALL,UY, 0.0
ALLSEL
delta_t -100.0
!BF,NODE, Lab,VAL1,VAL2,VAL3,VAL4
BF,
ALL ,TEMP,delta t
SAVE
I I M M M I

/SOLU

!

!

427

428

14
!
! SPARSE

ANTYPE, STATIC
EQSLV,SPARSE
!TOFFST, 273
TOFFST, 0
TUNIF,423
!CNVTOL,HEAT, 1
KBC,1
SAVE

SOLVE

FINISH

!
()

/POST1
SET,LAST

!
!

CSYS,

!
! () ni - nk
ni = N O D E (,0.,0.0)

! ni
!

!ASEL,S,,,4
!NSLA,S,1

! ( ) z tic/2
! ,

!nj * NODE(x3+delr/2,0.0,0.0)
nj = N O D E (4,0.0,0.0)
! nj
! ( )
ink N O D E (+delr,0.0,0.0)
nk * NODE(x5,0.0,0.0)
!
! ( )
ALLSEL
PATH,ki,3,,48

! () ki,
! 3

PPATH,l,ni
PPATH,2,nj
PPATH,3,nk

! ni - nk

! ()
! : KCALC,KPLAN,MAT,KCSYM,KLOCPR
! KCALC:
!
PLAN ( :
!
0 /
!
1 );
!
( );
!
KCSYM ( :
!
0, 1
!
2


!
!

3 );
KLOCPR ( )
<

KCALC,0,1,0

!
!

*GET,KI1,KCALC,,,1
*GET,KI2,KCALC,,,2
*GET,KI3,KCALC, ,, 3

! (1) KI1
! (11) KI2
! ( ) KI3

J- ()
nji - nj4 j_f_l.mac
( nji - nj4)
nji
nj2
nj3
nj4

=
=

NODE(xl,0.0,0.0)
NODE(xl, yl,0.0)
NODE(x5, yl,0.0)
N O D E (5,0.0,0.0)

ALLSEL,ALL,ALL

!
!
!
!

1-
2-
3-
4-

eicl = e i c / (1-(nuic*nuic))

!
!

j_f_l,njl,nj2,nj3,nj4

! j_f__l.mac

KI1J = SQRT(eicl*JINT)

! (I) J-
! KI1J

!J2 ((1-nuic**2)*(KI1**2 + KI2**2) + (1+nuic)*KI3**2)/eic


! [2]
1__ -
lamda * (-)/
pi = 3.1415926
yr = 1.12 - 0.23*lamda + 10.55*lamda**2
yr * yr - 21.72*lamda**3 + 30.39*lamda**4
KI4 = alfa*eic*delta_t*sqrt(pi*l_cr)*yr
fepsi * 0 . 5
KIR - KI1
epsi = (KI4/KIR - 1 ) * (1-lamda)/lamda
KI5 * KI4/(1 + epsi*(l/(l - lamda)-l))
/DSCALE,1,10
PLNSOL,U,SUM,
FINISH

429

15



!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

( () J-)

( , ),
(. . 4.1):
bm
;
lm = (0 .15...0 .25) - ;
rl - (1.25...1.60) bm - ;
2 = rl + bm
.
,

, 1/4 .
KII - KI3.
J- jin_ft_l.mac,
( njl - nj9).
J- JINTT,
(1), J-,
KI1J.

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I 1

1 I 1 1 I I II

I I I I I I II

I I I I II

I I II

I II

() . . , . . (CAD-FEM GmbH)
I I I I I I I I II

I I I II

I I I I I I I I I I I I I II

!/CONFIG,NPROC,2

I I I

II

II

11 I I

1 II

I I 1 II

I I 11

II

1 I

! Jobname
/FILNAME,Model_10,1

Jobname = Model_l
!( Model_l)

/TITLE,Model_10

!
*AFUN,DEG


!
!

bic *= 1.0
rl = 2.0*bic
r2 = rl + bic
lie = 0.2*bic

ric

0 .10*lic

nic = 4

431

* rl
=* r2 - lie
xl * - aic/2
2 * - ric
4 ** + ric
5 *= + aic/2
** 2
yQ **
yl - a t a n (ric/)
2 * atan (aic/2/)
- 90
4 = 180
alpha = 0
nl = NINT ((xl-xO)/ric/2)
! 1,15,24,33
n2 = N I N T ((-5)/ric/2)
! .6,18,26,36
= N I N T (1*2*3.14*(-2)/ric/4/360)
!
19...23

eic = 2.10511
nuic = 0.3
alfa - 13.5-

=* 1.08

!

'LOCAL,KCN,KCS,XC, YC, ZC,THXY,THYZ,THZX,PARI,PAR2
LOCAL, 11,
l,x3,0.0,0.0, 0.0,
,180.0
!LOCAL,11,1,x3,0.0,0.0,0.0

LOCAL,12,0,,0.0,0.0, 0.0, ,180.0

/PREP7
/TITLE,FRACTURE
,1,PLANE183,,,2

R,1

! 2D SOLID ()

15

432


MP,EX,1,eic
MP,NUXY,1,nuic
MP,ALPX,1,alfa

()


CSYS,1
,
,
,
,
,
,
,

1,
2,
3,
4,
5,
6,
7,

xO,
xl,
x2,
x3,
x4,
x5,
,

yo,
yO,
yo,
yO,
yo,
yO,
yO,

1
2
3
4 (
5
6
7

CSYS,0
, 8,
CSYS,1

x3, ric,

, 9,
,10,
,11,
,12,
,13,

xO,
xl,
x3,
x5,
,

y2,
y2,
2,
2,
2,

9
10
11
12
13

, 14,
,15,
, 16,
,17,
,18,

xO,
xl,
x3,
x5,
,

,
,

,
,

14
15
16
17
18

,19,
,20,
,21,
,22,
, 23,

xO,
xl,
x3,
x5,
,

4,
4,
4,
4,
4,

19
20
21
22
23

1
2
3
4
5
6

! 8

!
CSYS,1
L, 1, 2,nl,
L, 2,3,4 ,1/2 .5
L, 3, 4
L, 4,5
L, 5,6,4 ,2.5
L, 6,7, 2
LARC,3, 8,4, ric
LESIZE, 7,,, nic
L,4,8,
LARC,8, 5,4, ric
LESIZE, 9,,, nic

! 7
8
! 9

433
L
L
L
L
L

1,9,2
2,10,2
8,11,4,2.5
6,12,2
7,13,2

10
11
12
13
14

L
L
L
L

9,10,nl
10,11,2
11,12,2
12,13,2

15
16
17
18

L
L
L
L
L

9,14,
10,15,
11,16,
12,17,
13,18,

19
20
21
22
23

L
L
L
L

14,15,nl
15,16,2
16,17,2
17,18,2

24
25
26
27

L
L
L
L
L

14,19,
15,20,
16,21,
17,22,
18,23,

19
20
21
22
23

L
L
L
L

19,20,nl
20,21,2
21,22,2
22,23,2

24
25
26
27

!
AL,1, 11,15,10
AL, 2, 7,12,16,11
AL, 3, 8.7
AL,4, 9.8
AL, 5, 13,17,12,9
AL, 6, 14,18,13
AL, 15 ,20,24,19
AL, 16 ,21,25,20
AL, 17 ,22,26,21
AL, 18 ,23,27,22

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

AL,24,29,33,28
AL,25,30,34,29
AL,26,31,35,30
AL,27,32,36,31

11
12
13
14

SAVE

! ,
!
TYPE,1
, 1

I PLANE183
! 1
! ()

15

434
MSHAPE,,2D

M S H K EY,

!
!

( 4)

, 1/4
: KSCON,NPT,DELR,IP,NTHET,RRAT
KSCON:
NPT ( , . . );
DELR ( );
KCTIP ( ;

1/4 );
NTHET ( );
RRAT ( )
delr - ric/4
KSCON,4,delr,1,nic



( 4)

AMESH,3,4,1

!
! 3-4 ( )

MSHKEY, 1

,2,8,11,2,3
,5,5,6,11, 8

!
!

AMESH, 1,6, 5
AMESH,7,10,1
AMESH,11,14,1
SAVE

!
CSYS,0
NSEL, S,LOC,Y,0.0
NSEL,R,LOC,X,-x6,
D,ALL,UY,0 .0
ALLSEL
NSEL,S,LOC,Y,0.0
NSEL,R,LOC,X,-x0
D,ALL,UX,0.0
ALLSEL
*GET,node_l,NODE,,NUM,MAX
CSYS,1
ta - 100.0
tb = 0.0

XZ,

Y

XZ,

X


*D0,i,1,node_l,1
- NX (i)
tr * ta + (tb - ta)*LOG(xr/rl)/LOG(r2/rl)
!BF,NODE, Lab,VAL1,VAL2,VAL3,VAL4
BF,
i, TEMP,
tr
*ENDDO
SAVE

FINISH

!!!!!!!!!!

/SOLU

ANTYPE,STATIC
EQSLV,SPARSE

!
! SPARSE

SAVE

SOLVE

FINISH

/P0ST1
Tr 1
!ETABLE,TGX,TG,X
*DIM, TGX__1 ,,8,2
CSYS,11
n_cr * N O D E (0.0,0.0,0.0)
*DO,i,1,8,1
TGX__1 (i ,1) = ENEXTN(n_cr,i)
n_r = TGX_1(i,1)
TGX_l(i,2) = (tb-ta)//LOG(r2/rl)
*ENDDO
*MWRITE,TGX_1,TGX,txt
(2E10.4)
FINISH

()

/POST1
SET,LAST

!
!

csys,0

!
! () ni - nk

43 5

15

436
ni - NODE (, 0.0, 0.0.)

! ni
!

nj = NODE(x4,0.0,0.0)

! nj
! ( )

nk = NODE(x5,0.0,0.0)

!
! ( )

PATH,ki,3,, 48

! () ki,
! 3

PPATH,l,ni
PPATH,2,nj
PPATH,3,nk

! ni - nk

CSYS,12
()
: KCALC,KPLAN,MAT,KCSYM,KLOCPR
KCALC:
PLAN ( :
0 /
1 );
( );
KCSYM ( :
0, 1
2
3 );
KLOCPR ( )
!
!

KCALC,0,1,0

*GET,KI1,KCALC,,, 1
*GET,KI2,KCALC,,,2
*GET,KI3,KCALC,,,3

(I) KI1
(II) KI2
(III) KI3

CSYS,12
J- ()
nji - nj9 jin__ft_l .mac
( nji - nj9)
n j1
nj2
nj 3
n j4
n j5
nj6
n j7
nj8
nj 9
nji =
n j2 =
nj3 =

NODE
NODE
NODE
NODE
NODE
NODE
NODE
NODE
NODE
10
29
30

(delr*COS
(delr*COS
(delr*COS
(delr*COS
(delr*COS
(delr*COS
(delr*COS
(delr*COS
(delr*COS

(-180),delr*SIN(-180),0.0)
(-135),delr*SIN(-135),0.0)
(-90),delr*SIN(-90),0.0)
(-45),delr*SIN(-45),0.0)
(0),delr*Siti(0),0.0)
(45),delr*SIN(45),0.0)
(90),delr*SIN(90),0.0)
(135),deir*SIN(135),0.0)
(180),delr*SIN(180),0.0)
1-
2-
3-

1-
2-
3-
4-
5-
6-
7-
8-
9-

437
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

nj4
nj5
nj6
nj7
nj8
nj 9

31
14
89
90
91
74

!
!
!
!
!
!

4-
5-
6-
7-
8-
9-

_____ _____

eicl e i c / (1-(nuic*nuic)) !
!
!CSYS,12
CSYS,
! jin_ft_l.mac
jin_ft__l, njl,nj2, nj3, nj4, nj5, nj 6, nj7, nj8, nj 9
KI1J * SQRT(eicl*JINTT)

/DSCALE,1,100
PLNSQL,U,SUM,
FINISH

! K(I) J-
! KI1J

16
/-

1 I t I I I I I

I I I I I I I I I ! I

I I II

I I I II

I I I I I I I I I I I I I

J-
,
( ARG1 - ARG9)
-Y ( ).
J-
JINTT.
() . . , . . (CAD-FEM GmbH)
I I I t II

I I it

i t I t

I I I I I I I I I

ETABLE,SENE,SENE
ETABLE,VOLU,VOLU
SEXP,W,SENE,VOLU,1, -1
PATH,JINT F,9,,48
PPATH,1 ,ARG1
PPATH,2 ,ARG2
PPATH,3 ,ARG3
PPATH,4 ,ARG4
PPATH,5 ,ARG5
PPATH,6 ,ARG6
PPATH,7 ,ARG7
PPATH,8 ,ARG8
PPATH,9 ,ARG9
PDEF,W, ETAB,W
PVECT,NORM,NX,NY,NZ
PCALC,MULT,WNX,W ,NX

PCALC,INTG,J,WNX,S
*GET,JA,PATH,,LAST,J

PDEF,INTR,SX,SX

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

( SENE)

( VOLU)

W = SENE/VOLU ( W)
JINT_F,
9

(
ARG1 - ARG9)







- ( WNX)
WNX
S

JA
( JINT)

SX

J-
PDEF,INTR,SY,SY
PDEF,INTR,SXY,SXY
PCALC,MULT,TX,SX,NX
PCALC,MULT,Cl,SXY,NY
PCALC,ADD,TX,TX, 1
PCALC,MULT,TY,SXY,NX
PCALC,MULT,Cl,SY,NY
PCALC,ADD,TY,TY,Cl
*GET,DX,PATH,,LAST,S
DX = DX/100

DXG = DX*COS(alpha)
DYG = DX*SIN(alpha)
PCALC,ADD,XG,XG,,,,-DXG/2
PCALC,ADD,YG,YG,,,,-DYG/2
PDEF,INTR,UX1,UX
PDEF,INTR,UY1,UY
PCALC,ADD,XG,XG,,,,DXG
PCALC,ADD,YG,YG,,,, DYG
PDEF,INTR,UX2,UX
PDEF,INTR,UY2,UY
PCALC,ADD,XG,XG,,,,-DXG/2
PCALC,ADD,YG,YG,,,,-DYG/2
- 1/DX
PCALC,ADD,Cl,UX2,UX1, , -C
PCALC,ADD,C2,UY2,UY1, ,-C
PCALC,MULT,Cl,TX,Cl
PCALC,MULT,2,TY, C2
PCALC,ADD,Cl,Cl,C2
PCALC,INTG,J,Cl,S
*GET,JB,PATH,,LAST,J

JINT = 2*(JA-JB)

439


SY

SXY

X
TX = SX*NX + SXY*NY ( )

Y
TY = SXY*NX + SY*NY ( TY)



X
1%

X

Y
X X-DXG/2 (
X)
Y Y-DYG/2 (
Y)
UX
X-DX/2
UY
X-DX/2
X-DXG/2 X+DXG/2 (
X)
Y-DYG/2 Y+DYG/2 (
Y)
UX
X+DX/2
UY
X+DX/2

UX:
DUX/DX
U Y :
DUY/DX

(TX*DUX/DX + TY*DUY/DX)

JINT ( S)

JB
( JINT)

JINT
(
)

440

16

! (4.1):
! , ,
! ,
sum = 0

ETABLE,SX,S,X

-
( SX)
ETABLE,SY,S,Y
Y-
( SY)
ETABLE,SZ,S,Z
Z-
( SZ)
*DO,I,1,8,1
,

n_r = TGX_1(1,1)

*GET,sxr,ELEM,n_r,ETAB,SX

*GET,syr,ELEM,n_r,ETAB,SY
sxr, syr, szr
*GET,szr,ELEM,n_r,ETAB,SZ
_
tgr - TGX 1(1,2)
-
_
arr = sin (90/8)*cos(90/8)*delr**2

()
sum = sum + alfa*(sxr + syr + szr)*tgr*arr

(4.1)
ENDDO
!
JINTT = JINT + 2*sum

!
! J-

PDEF,CLEAR

17
ANSYS 11.0

11- ANSYS

. ,
:
(Cohesive Zone Approach),
.
,
.
(Gursons Model),
, , .

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CTMESH .
CINT J -
( 2-D ) ( 3-D ),
,
.
: CISOL, PLCINT, PRCINT,
OUTRES GET.
^
, ANSYS
.


-.

, ANSYS 11.0.
-
ANSYS
CAD-FEM GmbH.
S -
.

442

17
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4. (. -17.3).
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CTMESH, 9 9 9

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RESUME, c tm e a h .d b O
5. CTMESH (. -17.4, -17.5),

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CTMESH.
/PREP7
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KWPLAN,-1,109,107,110
KWPAVE,56,109, 110
WPRO,30

!
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(**)
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,DEPTH, 0.2756

CTMESH

!
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TYPE,4
ESIZE
SMRT, 7
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17

444

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. -17.3

. -17.4

S J -.
, J - . .
. . ( 2-D ) ( 3-D
), .
- CINT.
. .

ANSYS 11.0

445

. -17.5
CINT : PLANE 182,
PLANE183, SOLID185, SOLID186, SOLID187; /-
-, .

,
. .
/-.
1. .
:
CINT, NEW,
().
2. .
,
.
:

. 2-D , 3-D
.
2-D ; 3-D
, .
, /.
:
CINT, CTNC, CMNAME

17

446

CMNAME .
CINT, NORMAL, p a r i , p a r 2

p a r i , 2 (
).

. 3-D ,
, ,
. 7- ,
;
,
.
:
CINT, CENCOMP, CMNAME, n o d e il, , p a r

CMNAME , n o d e l
, , p a r ,
;

CINT, CENCOMP, CMNAME, n o d a l, , , , , compz

, , co m p z X, Y Z-
.
3. .
3-D
.
:
CINT, NCONTOUR,

.
4. .

.
:
CINT, SYMM, ON

5. .
:
OUTRES, C IN T

OUTRES, ALL

447

ANSYS 11.0

vm2 5 . d a t ,
ANSYS 11.0
.
I

|1

I I I I I 1 I I II

I I I I I II

11 I 1 I I

1 I II

I I I I I I I I I 1 I II

I 1

1 I I I II

I 1 I I I I I I

2-D
ANSYS 11.0

I I I I f

I I I I I I I II

1 I I I II

I I I I I I I II

I I I 1 I t 11 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

/PREP7
! PLANE183 ( )
,1,PLANE18 3,, ,2
,,1,306
MP,NUXY,1,0.3
!
,1
,2,4
,3,4,5
,4,-1,5
, 5,-1
L, 1, 2
L, 2, 3
LESX ZE,2,, ,4
3 ,4
LESIZE,3,,,4
L,4,5,
LESIZE,4,,,6, . 2
L,5,l
ESIZE,,5
! ;
!
KSCON,1,.15,0,8
AL,1,2,3,4,5

DL,1,1,SYMM
DL,4,1,SYMM
SFL,3,PRES,-.5641895
AMESH,1
OUTPR,ALL
FINISH
/SOLU
ANTYPE,STATIC
OUTRES,ALL,ALL
NSEL,S,LOC,X,0,10
NSEL, R,LOC,Y,0
D,ALL,UY,0
ALLSEL,ALL
NSEL,S,LOC,X,0
NSEL,R,LOC,Y,0
D,ALL,UX,0
ALLSEL,ALL
NSEL,S,LOC,X,0
NSEL,R,LOC,Y,0
CM,CRACKTIP,NODE
CRACKTIP .Mi
ALLSEL,ALL
CINT,NEW,1
()
1
CINT,CTNC,CRACKTIP
CRACKTIP
CINT,SYMM,ON

CINT,NCON,6
-
CINT,NORM,0,2

448

17

CINT,LIST
! ( , Y)
ALLSEL,ALL
SOLVE
FINISH
/POST1
! J - 1
PRCINT,1
! J J-
! ( 1), 6
*GET,J,CINT,1,,1,,6
1 = 306/(1-(0.3*0.3))
K=(C0N1*ABS(J))**0.5
FINISH

.
1. .

.
.
:
, O p t i o n , V a i l , V a l2
O p tio n

.
V a i l , V a l2

O p t i o n
.
DEFAULT

.
STATUS

.
CONFIG

;
V a il

:
THROUGH: ( );
SURFACE: ;

V al2

:
FULL: ( );
HALF: ;
QUARTER: .

ANSYS 11.0

449

VOLUME
V a i l .

LENGTH
V a i l .

DEPTH
V a i l ;
(SURFACE) ;
(LENGT / 2).

CNAME
V a i l ; ,

(: 'NODECOMP1').

BLNG
V a i l (THROUGH)
;
;
(LENGTH).

BWID
V a i l (THROUGH)
;
(LENGTH).

CEXT
V a i l ,
,
(THROUGH) ;
(5 * LENGTH).

NETH
V a i l
(
KSCON).

ESCZ
V a i l ( )
;
(BW ID/10) (THROUGH)
,
, (SURFACE).

NROW
V a i l
; 3.

17

450

ETHK
V a i l ,
(THROUGH) ; 3.

ESZB
V a i l (SURFACE)

;
(LENGTH / 4).

QUAD

V a i l 1, ,
(SURFACE)

;
.
HELP

.
2. CTMESH.
CTMESH

.
. (
CTMESH, 9 9 9 ,
); ,
.
3. INT.
CINT -

.
. :
CINT, A c t i o n , p a r i , 2 , , p a r 4 , p a r 5 , p a r 6 , par7
Action

.
p a r i , ... p a r 7

.
A c t i o n .
NEW

-;
p a r i ().
CTNCOMP
( CTNC)
;
p a r i .

ANSYS 11.0

451

CENCOMP
( CENC)

,
;
p a r i ;
p a r 2 (

);
, p a r 4 ( ) ,
( p a r 4);
, p a r 5 , ... p a r 7 ;
p a r 5 , ...pa 7 X , Y Z-


; p a r 4.
NCONTOUR
( NCONT)

-;
p a r i .
SYMMETRIC
( SYMM)

()
, ;
p a r i :
ON, 1 YE S : ()
;
OFF, 0 N0: ( );

NORMAL
( NORM)

;
p a r i ( p a r i - 0

);
p a r 2 ( p a r 2 = 2
Y ).

4. Cl SOL.
CISOL J -
.
. :
CISOL, / ID , n o d e , C o n t

17

452

;
1, , NUMVAR.

ID
.

node

( 3-D
2-D ).
C ont

.
5. PLCINT.
PLCINT
-.
. :
PLCINT, ACTION, ID , n o d e , C o n t
ACTION

-; :
PATH (

);
FRONT -

.
ID

.
node

( / = ALL );
A C T I O N - PATH; - .
Cont

( Cont =' ALL );


A C T I O N - FRONT; -
.
6. PRCINT.
PRCINT
-.
. :
PRCINT, ID , n o d e
ID
.

ANSYS ILO

453

node

(node = ALL );
3-D .
7. OUTRES.
OUTRES .
:
OUTRES, I t e m , F r e q ,
:
I t e m = CINT

-.
, (OUTRES, ALL)
-.
8. *GET.
*GET
ANSYS . :
*GET, P a r , E n t i t y , ENTNUM, I t e n d , IT1NUM, I te m 2 , IT2NUM
:
*GET, P a r , CINT, C r a c k ld , C T IP , CTNUM, I te m 2 , IT2NUM
Par

, .
E n t i t y = CINT

-.
ENTNUM = Crackld

.
I t e m l = CTIP

- (
).
IT1NUM = CTNUM


-.
Ite m 2

- ( ).
IT2NUM

.
* * *
,
, , .
.

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