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PART I TECHNICAL PROPOSAL

T 274-3553

UPDATED PIPELINE REPAIR MANUAL

PREPARED FOR

PRC INTERNATIONAL
Pipeline Materials Committee

PREPARED BY

CC TECHNOLOGIES LABORATORIES, INC.


CARL E. JASKE, PH.D., P.E.
AUGUST 1, 2002

CC Technologies
6141 AVERY ROAD
DUBLIN, OHIO 43016
614.761.1214 614.761.1633 fax
www.cctechnologies.com

SUMMARY
The objective of the proposed project is to develop and produce an update of PRCI
Pipeline Repair Manual, PR-218-9307 (AGA L51716), which was published 1994. It will
discuss response to anomaly or defect discovery, review repair methods, identify
appropriate repairs for various types of defects, and provide generic guidelines for use
of various repair methods taking into account current codes and regulations.
CC Technologies will review existing and emerging pipeline repair technologies and
evaluate them in comparison with those in the current repair manual. Then, the Manual
will be revised to add and update the information on repair technologies. The review
will be based on published literature, vendor literature, and industry experience.
Methods for evaluating cost versus effectiveness of repair techniques will be included.
The final product will be an updated printed and electronic Pipeline Repair Manual.
The electronic version will be indexed and in Adobe Acrobat format and will include both
written descriptions and illustrations of various repair methods. The Manual will include
a generic repair procedure that can be used to upgrade or develop a companys repair
procedures. The generic procedure will be provided in an electronic, as well as printed,
format so that an operator can easily tailor it for specific company use.

ii

CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................. 1
TECHNICAL DISCUSSION............................................................................................. 1
Objectives .................................................................................................................. 2
Work to Be Performed ............................................................................................... 2
Approach ................................................................................................................... 3
End Product ............................................................................................................... 3
Schedule.................................................................................................................... 4
Manpower Requirements........................................................................................... 4
SUPPORTING DATA ...................................................................................................... 4
Organization Information............................................................................................ 4
Corporate Qualifications ............................................................................................ 5
Related Project Descriptions...................................................................................... 5
Facilities..................................................................................................................... 9
CONTRACT REQUIREMENTS ...................................................................................... 9

iii

APPENDICES
Appendix A Rsums

iv

Part I Technical Proposal (TP 274-3553)

Updated Pipeline Repair Manual

INTRODUCTION
The current PRCI Pipeline Repair Manual, PR-218-9307 (AGA L51716), was
published in 1994. The Manual first discusses how an operator should respond to the
discovery of an anomaly or defect. It then reviews various repair methods that are
available and identifies appropriate repairs for the various types of defects. Finally, it
provides a set of generic guidelines for use of the various repair methods. It is based
on the state-of-the-art, accepted repair techniques, codes, and regulations in existence
at the time of its development and has become an important benchmark for the
development of pipeline damage assessment and repair strategies throughout the
natural gas pipeline industry. Since its publication, there have been significant changes
in codes and regulations as well as major advances in repair technology.
U.S. DOT Regulations have been revised to accept new methods of permanent
pipeline repair and to provide criteria for pipeline repair. GRI has completed extensive
studies of reinforced composite repairs; the repair materials and procedures are now
commercially available to pipeline operators. Others have developed similar composite
repair methods. PRCI has developed new methods for in-service repair of pipelines by
welding, and the in-service welding requirements of API and ASME Codes have been
revised. Several pipeline operators have extensively evaluated the use of steel
compression sleeves for repairing crack-like defects. Operators have also modified
procedures for the application of standard steel sleeves and developed methods for
improving and quantifying load transfer from the sleeve to the carrier pipe.
Complete replacement of damaged pipeline segments with new sections of pipe is
an obvious repair procedure. However, the replacement approach requires the pipeline
segment to be taken out of service during the repair. Repairs that can be implemented
without a service outage are preferred because they are less costly to implement than
those that require pipeline shutdown and they do not significantly impact gas supply.
The repair methods must satisfy the requirements of applicable codes, such as ASME
B31.8, and regulations, such as CFR Title 49, Part 192.
Because of these significant changes and developments in the gas pipeline
industry, it is necessary to update the Pipeline Repair Manual to incorporate new
information and include the best and most cost-effective practices that are available
worldwide.

TECHNICAL DISCUSSION
The project objectives, work to be performed, technical approach, end product,
schedule, and manpower requirements are discussed in this section of the proposal.

CC Technologies Laboratories, Inc.

Part I Technical Proposal (TP 274-3553)

Updated Pipeline Repair Manual

Objectives
The objective of the proposed work is to develop and produce an updated PRCI
Pipeline Repair Manual. The Manual will be in both printed and electronic versions.
Work to Be Performed
CC Technologies proposes to achieve the project objective by thoroughly reviewing
both existing and emerging pipeline repair technologies and then evaluating them in
comparison with those described in the current Pipeline Repair Manual. Based on the
comparative evaluations, areas of outdated or missing information will be identified. The
Manual then will be revised and expanded as required to update and add its contents.
There will be three steps in the review phase of the work. The first step will be a
review and evaluation of the published literature on pipeline repair techniques. The
literature review will concentrate on publications produced since 1994, when the current
Pipeline Repair Manual was issued. The second step will be a review and evaluation of
vendor publications and literature on repair techniques. We will contact vendors to
make sure that we have the latest information on their products. The list of vendors
contacted and incorporated into the manual will include linked Internet addresses for
their web sites to facilitate use of the list. The third step will be a review and evaluation
of industry experience with repair techniques for similar applications. Operators will be
contacted and interviewed to obtain their experience and recommendations. We also
will consider offshore repair techniques that have on-shore applications. Since we are
doing similar reviews on our current PRCI project on Permanent Field Repair of SCC
(GRI Contract Number 8511), we will expand that work to cover all types of anomalies
and defects.
CC Technologies extensive experience in pipeline integrity management uniquely
qualifies us to undertake the proposed work. One particularly important topic is
methods for evaluating the effectiveness versus cost of various repair techniques,
especially for crack-like anomalies or defects where past repairs have often been
replacement of pipe sections. Some repair techniques will either reduce the flaw
severity or reduce the stress in the carrier pipe. Use of these techniques requires
models for predicting the conditions for which no additional damage would be expected
to occur. The models and their use will be included with the discussion of each repair
applicable technique. Examples will be presented to illustrate their use in typical
applications.
As indicated above, CC Technologies will contact pipeline operators to obtain
information on their experience with repairs. Much of this information is available in our
files from past projects, and it will only be necessary to obtain permission to use it in the
proposed research. This work has been for both U.S. and Canadian companies.

CC Technologies Laboratories, Inc.

Part I Technical Proposal (TP 274-3553)

Updated Pipeline Repair Manual

The final product will be an updated printed and electronic Pipeline Repair Manual.
The electronic version will be indexed in Adobe Acrobat format, so it can be easily and
readily used in the field. The Manual will include both written descriptions and
illustrations of various repair methods, organized in a modular fashion to facilitate their
use. It also will include a generic repair procedure that can be used to upgrade or
develop a companys repair procedures. The generic procedure will be provided in an
electronic, as well as printed, format so that an operator can easily tailor it for specific
company use. The electronic version will include an interactive interface to facilitate
input of the information that is typically operator dependent.
Approach
We will prepare a written review of the recently published literature (since 1994) on
pipeline repair methods and incorporate the results into the updated Repair Manual. We
already have much of the relevant literature in our files from recent and current projects,
so we will just make sure that no recent information is excluded. For example, we will
review the proceedings of the ASME International Pipeline Conference (IPC) that is to
be held in Calgary, September 29 through October 3, 2002.
We also will prepare a written synopsis of vendor information on various applicable
repair techniques. Again, we have most of the relevant information in our files, so we
will only need to contact the vendors to obtain any recent updates on their products and
repair methods.
CC Technologies will contact pipeline operators to obtain information on their
experience with repairs. Much of this information is available in our files from past
industrial projects. In these cases, it will only be necessary to obtain permission to use
that information on the proposed research. This includes work for both United States
and Canadian companies that have addressed repairs of various types of defects in
operating pipelines.
Once the information has been collected, we will evaluate and compare it with that
in the current Manual. Areas of the Manual where revisions and additions are required
will be identified. Based on these results, the Manual will be updated.
End Product
This project will produce an updated printed and electronic PRCI Pipeline Repair
Manual. The electronic version will facilitate field use and development of company
specific procedures. The discussion of response to discovery of an anomaly or defect
will take into account current codes and regulations. A summary table and flowchart of
various repair options will be produced. It will indicate the types of anomalies or defects
that can be repaired by each technique and the advantages and disadvantages of each

CC Technologies Laboratories, Inc.

Part I Technical Proposal (TP 274-3553)

Updated Pipeline Repair Manual

technique, including relative costs. The techniques to be included are pipe removal and
replacement, grinding of metal, deposition of weld metal, steel sleeves, composite
reinforcement, mechanical clamps, and hot taps. Methods of evaluating the effect of
metal removal will be included in the discussion of grinding. Acceptable procedures for
in-service welding will be presented. For reinforcement repairs, methods of determining
load transfer will be presented. The generic repair procedure will incorporate the new
and improved techniques.
Schedule
The proposed project will be completed within one year of the receipt of the
contract.
Manpower Requirements
CC Technologies estimates that the following hours of manpower will be required to
complete the proposed work:

Senior Group Leader


Project Engineer
Technologist
Office Staff/Total

90
360
205
70

No subcontractors will be used. Based on the above requirements, the estimated


project cost is $75,000. A detailed cost breakdown is given in Part II Cost Proposal.

SUPPORTING DATA
Supporting data on CC Technologies are included in this section of the proposal.
They include organizational information, a discussion of corporate qualifications,
descriptions of related past projects, and a description of available facilities.
Organization Information
CC Technologies is an engineering and research firm specializing in corrosion
control, corrosion monitoring, and materials evaluation. We have laboratories in
Columbus, Ohio and Calgary, Alberta, with a staff that includes Ph.D. scientists and
engineers in a number of relevant fields including corrosion, metallurgical, mechanical,
and welding engineering.
Dr. Carl E. Jaske, P.E. will be the Principal Investigator on the proposed project. His
resume is given in Appendix A. Dr. Jaske has conducted numerous investigations of
pipeline and equipment mechanical integrity and fitness for service. His work includes
studies of SCC, fatigue, fracture, and creep, as well as development of the CorLAS
computer program for the assessment of crack-like flaws in pipelines. In addition,
CC Technologies Laboratories, Inc.

Part I Technical Proposal (TP 274-3553)

Updated Pipeline Repair Manual

Dr. Jaske has worked with pipeline operators in the development of pipeline repair
manuals and procedures, including innovative procedures for application to crack-like
flaws.
Mr. Patrick H. Vieth of CC Technologies will serve as a technical advisor. Mr. Vieth
is well known for his pipeline integrity work. Resumes are given in Appendix A.
Corporate Qualifications
CC Technologies is a contract research and engineering organization that
specializes in corrosion control, metallurgy, and structural integrity. The combination of
research and engineering experience permits CC Technologies to provide our clients
with research results that are tempered by engineering applicability and engineering
services that are of the highest quality from both practical and fundamental aspects.
CC Technologies is highly qualified to perform the proposed research program.
Since its inception in 1985, CC Technologies has grown to a staff of over ninety people
that includes Ph.D. scientists, M.S. researchers, and B.S. engineers. Degrees earned
by the staff cover a range of relevant disciplines, including, Metallurgical Engineering,
Materials Science, Mechanical Engineering, Theoretical and Applied Mechanics,
Chemical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, and Civil Engineering, and Geology.
The highly qualified staff at CC Technologies has performed research for PRCI,
GRI, and individual pipeline companies on underground corrosion, cathodic protection,
and stress corrosion cracking since inception of the company in 1985.
Related Project Descriptions
Presented below is a list of projects that were performed by members of the
CC Technologies staff and are specifically related to the proposed project. Highlighted
for each project description are the accomplishments of the particular project, the client,
and the principal investigator.
Permanent Field Repair of SCC Review. This research project is exploring the fieldcompatible techniques for permanently repairing SCC cracks and colonies without the
need for service interruption. A review report is being prepared.
C. E. Jaske PRCI (GRI Contract No. 8511), One year, 2002
Evaluation And Use Of A Steel Compression Sleeve To Repair Longitudinal
Seam-Weld Defects. An engineering evaluation of a steel compression sleeve as a
means to repair longitudinal seam-weld defects in pipelines was performed. The
technique was used in a subsequent field program in which more than 200 such repair
sleeves were installed on an operating crude oil pipeline. The steel compression sleeve
evaluated has been commercially available since 1994 and has been installed on NPS
6 to NPS 42 pipelines in Canada and Mexico; primarily as a means to repair stress
CC Technologies Laboratories, Inc.

Part I Technical Proposal (TP 274-3553)

Updated Pipeline Repair Manual

corrosion cracking, corrosion, and dents. The field program undertaken in 2000
represents the first use of this repair sleeve in the United States.
C. E. Jaske Industrial Client, One year, 2000
Compression Sleeve Repair of Gas Pipeline. CC Technologies developed a
simplified model for evaluating the effectiveness of compression steel sleeves. It
included the effect of load transfer between the sleeve and carrier pipe as a function of
internal pressure, filler material, and sleeve temperature. The model was validated by
finite-element stress analysis and strain-gage measurements on test sleeve
installations.
TransCanada Pipelines
Sleeve Repair of Crack-Like Defects in ERW Seams in an Oil Pipeline.
CC Technologies performed an engineering critical assessment (ECA) to develop
guidelines for repair of crack-like defects in ERW seams in an oil pipeline. The
evaluation included the detection capabilities of in-line inspection, the possibility of
fatigue crack propagation, and the potential of fracture.
Industrial Client
Pipeline Repair Manual. CC Technologies developed a pipeline repair manual for the
operator of an oil pipeline. The manual included procedures for various repair options
that can be implemented depending on the type of defect encountered. The manual
was approved by the U.S. DOT.
Industrial Client
Compression Sleeve Repair of Oil Pipeline. CC Technologies helped implement the
first US use of a steel compression sleeve for pipeline repair. The method can be used
to permanently repair longitudinal defects on an operating pipeline, including crack-like
defects in ERW seams. The method is non-intrusive and requires no welding to the
carrier pipe. In comparison with a Type B sleeve, which relies on tapping through the
pipe and the sleeve to reduce hoop stress, the steel sleeve applies compression to the
carrier pipe to reduce the hoop stress and prevent crack growth. Evaluation of the
sleeve included measuring mechanical properties of the three different steels, modeling
of the stresses in the carrier pipe and in the sleeve, and full-scale burst and fatigue
testing.
AEC Pipelines Ltd.'s Platte Pipeline
Environmentally Assisted Cracking
Low-pH SCC: Mechanical Effects on Crack Propagation The objective of this PRCI
program was to determine the effects of mechanical factors such as hydrotesting on
low-pH stress corrosion crack growth. All testing was performed in a low-pH (nearneutral-pH) electrolyte (NS4 solution) under cyclic load conditions on pre-cracked
specimens of one X-65 line pipe steel. The cyclic load conditions in the testing were
related to field conditions using the J-integral parameter. Crack growth was initiated in
specimens under cyclic load conditions. Once steady state crack growth had been

CC Technologies Laboratories, Inc.

Part I Technical Proposal (TP 274-3553)

Updated Pipeline Repair Manual

achieved, a typical hydrostatic test sequence was applied to the specimen. The initial
cyclic load conditions were then reapplied to the specimen and crack growth was
monitored to evaluate the effect of the hydrostatic testing on the rate of crack growth. It
was found that some crack extension occurred during the simulated hydrostatic test
sequence but the hydrostatic testing also promoted a decrease in the cracking velocity.
The magnitude of the crack extension was slightly greater than that observed upon
reloading, following unloading of the specimens. It was concluded that hydrostatic
testing is no more harmful than simple depressurization of a pipeline.
J. A. Beavers CC Technologies, PRC International, 1994 1996
Investigations of Propagation of Low-pH SCC The objectives of this research for
TransCanada Pipelines included: (1) to develop a laboratory technique to simulate the
propagation of low-pH SCC, (2) to estimate rates of crack propagation, and (3) to
evaluate the effects of environmental and metallurgical factors such as welding and pipe
steel grade on crack growth rates. In this research, CC Technologies was one of the
first laboratories to reproduce this form of cracking in the laboratory. An experimental
technique that utilizes pre-crack compact type specimens was developed in the
laboratory studies. The crack propagation rate information generated in the research
has been utilized to assist TCPL in establishing safe hydrostatic testing intervals. The
studies of metallurgical factors have demonstrated that some weld structures exhibit
much higher crack propagation rates than the wrought steel.
J. A. Beavers TransCanada Pipelines Ltd., 1992 1997
Assessment Of Line Pipe Susceptibility To Stress Corrosion Cracking Under
Tape, Enamel And Fusion Bonded Epoxy Coatings. The objectives of this PRC
program were to evaluate the susceptibility of line pipe to stress corrosion cracking
(SCC) when coated with polyethylene (PE) tape, coal tar enamel (CTE), and fusion
bonded epoxy (FBE) and to establish whether SCC can occur on FBE coated pipelines.
The program was divided into two tasks: Task 1 - Coating Characterization, and Task 2
- SCC Testing. The purposes of Task 1 were: (1) to establish a standard specimen
geometry, incorporating a disbonded coating, for electrochemical and SCC tests, (2) to
evaluate the effect of coating type on the potential gradients beneath a disbonded
coating, and (3) to correlate the testing described above with standard industrial tests
for coating evaluation. In Task 1, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and
other electrochemical techniques were used for coating characterization. The purpose
of Task 2 was to evaluate the individual and combined roles of surface preparation and
cathodic protection shielding on SCC susceptibility. Two types of SCC tests were
performed. Tapered Tensile SCC tests are being performed on uncoated specimens of
line pipe steel to evaluate the role of surface preparation alone on SCC surface
susceptibility. Cyclic load SCC tests were performed on coated straight-sided tensile
specimens to evaluate the roles of cathodic protection shielding and surface preparation
on SCC susceptibility.
J. A. Beavers CCT, American Gas Association (1989-1991).
Investigation Of Line Pipe Steel That Is Highly Resistant To SCC. Principal
Investigator on a Pipeline Research Committee of the American Gas Association

CC Technologies Laboratories, Inc.

Part I Technical Proposal (TP 274-3553)

Updated Pipeline Repair Manual

(A.G.A.) program in which the relationship between metallurgical characteristics of line


pipe steel and stress corrosion cracking susceptibility was investigated. The goal of this
work was to understand the influence of processing parameters on those characteristics
that control SCC susceptibility so that steels can be made consistently resistant to SCC.
Experimental techniques used included potentiodynamic polarization, slow strain rate
and constant load and fracture mechanics tests.
J. A. Beavers - CCT, Client: American Gas Association (1983-1984).
Test Method For Defining Susceptibility Of Line Pipe Steels To SCC. Principal
Investigator on an A.G.A. program in which a standardized test method for defining the
SCC susceptibility of line pipe steels was developed. Previous studies had identified
the optimum environmental conditions and specimen geometry for performing such an
evaluation and the aim of the work was to identify the optimum loading conditions and
test time.
J. A. Beavers - CCT, Client: American Gas Association (1984-1986).
Modeling Of Stress-Corrosion Crack Initiation And Propagation. Program Manager
of a program in which the initiation and propagation of stress-corrosion cracking in
natural gas pipelines were being modeled. The goals of the research included the
development of a methodology to estimate hydrostatic retest frequencies in operating
pipelines and the development of SCC resistant steels.
J. A. Beavers - CCT, Industrial Client (1986).
Surface Related Factors Affecting Stress-Corrosion Cracking.
Principal
Investigator of an A.G.A. program to investigate the surface related factors affecting
SCC initiation. The objective of the research was to identify those surface factors that
affect and control SCC initiation to reduce the variation in the results of SCC tests and
to optimize surface properties of operating pipelines.
J. A. Beavers - CCT, Client: The American Gas Association (1985).
Limitations Of The Slow Strain Rate Test For Stress Corrosion Cracking Testing.
Materials Technology Institute of the Chemical Process Industries (MTI) Report
Number 61. The overall objective of the program, which was performed for MTI, was to
determine if SSR testing methods yield useful data in predicting SCC susceptibility of
metals used in the Chemical Process Industry (CPI). The specific objectives of the
Year 1 research were to identify the alloy-environment systems in which the SSR
technique produces anomalous SCC results, identify which test variables must be
controlled to make the SSR test results applicable to the CPI, identify the limitations of
the SSR test technique, and identify what further program support is needed to resolve
unanswered questions. The open literature was surveyed and contacts were made
within the industry by means of a questionnaire and follow-up telephone calls.
J. A. Beavers and G. H. Koch, Client: MTI. (1990)
Stress Corrosion Cracking Of Low Strength Carbon Steels In Candidate High
Level Waste Repository Environments. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Report
NUREG/CR-3861, February 1987. Co-authors on a report of a literature survey

CC Technologies Laboratories, Inc.

Part I Technical Proposal (TP 274-3553)

Updated Pipeline Repair Manual

performed to identify the potential stress corrosion cracking agents for low strength
carbon and low alloy steels in repository environments. It was found that a number of
potent cracking agents are present, but stress corrosion cracking is relatively unlikely in
the bulk repository environments because of the low concentration of these species.
J. A. Beavers, N. G. Thompson - CCT, Client: Nuclear Regulatory Comm. (1985-1986).
Stress Corrosion Cracking Environments. A series of programs to establish the
likely stress corrosion cracking environment containing CO2 for buried gas pipelines.
The work includes examining changes to the environment at the pipe surface and
beneath a coating during cathodic protection in the presence of CO2.
J. A. Beavers - CCT, Industrial Client (1988).
Estimating Intervals For Hydrostatic Retesting. Developed a Monte Carlo type
model for estimating the safe time between hydrotests for a pipeline in which stress
corrosion cracks are propagating.
J. A. Beavers - CCT, Industrial Client (1987).
Facilities
CC Technologies is a fully equipped corrosion testing and research laboratory
specializing in the evaluation of materials properties, materials selection, corrosion,
corrosion control, and design and development of instrumentation and engineering
software. CC Technologies has continued to grow since its inception in 1985 and has
more than 25,000 square feet of space in its current office and laboratory facility.

CONTRACT REQUIREMENTS
CC Technologies accepts the terms and conditions of its current standard contract
agreements with PRC International. This same type of contract is proposed for this
work.

CC Technologies Laboratories, Inc.

APPENDIX A
Rsums

6141 Avery Road, Dublin, OH 43016-8761 USA


TEL 614-761-1214
FAX 614-761-1633

CARL E. JASKE, Ph.D., P.E.


Dr. Jaske is Senior Group Leader of Materials Engineering and Research for CC Technologies.
He is leading work in the areas of mechanical integrity, fitness-for-service, and remaining-life
assessment of structures and equipment. He has developed the www.Fitness4Service.com
web site and a short course on the API 579 Fitness-For-Service recommended practice. His
work includes projects on fatigue, corrosion-fatigue, creep, creep-crack growth, hightemperature properties, in-service aging, and failure analysis of structural materials. These
projects typically incorporate both analytical assessments and experimental evaluations of
failure lives and material damage. Much of his work has been concerned with relating the
physical metallurgy of carbon steels, low-alloy steels, stainless steels, and heat-resistant alloys
to their mechanical properties and in-service aging. This research includes wrought products,
castings, and weldments.
Dr. Jaske has evaluated the effects of elevated temperatures and corrosive environments on
mechanical properties of materials. He has developed and applied fracture-mechanics
approaches for assessing creep, fatigue, and stress-corrosion cracking degradation and failure
of engineering components, such as in-service pressure vessels and piping. He has served on
industry and government advisory groups for life extension and remaining life assessment of
key engineering equipment and facilities. Also, he has developed computer programs for life
assessment of welded steam pipes, reformer furnace tubes, and pressure vessels.
A major portion of Dr. Jaskes work, since joining CC Technologies in 1990, has addressed the
mechanical integrity of oil and gas pipelines. He developed a model for predicting the failure
and remaining life of pipelines with local defects, including crack-like flaws, and commercialized
the CorLAS computer program to make the model easily usable by engineers. His work on
pipelines includes evaluations of stress-corrosion cracks, corrosion flaws, weld defects, dents,
gouges, and dents with corrosion. He utilizes inspection and operational data to predict failures
and remaining service life and advises companies on implementing and maintaining appropriate
integrity programs.
Education
B.S.,
B.S.,
M.S.,
Ph.D.,

Liberal Arts and Sciences (Mathematics) with High Honors, University of Illinois
General Engineering with Highest Honors, University of Illinois
Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, University of Illinois
Metallurgical Engineering, The Ohio State University

Experience
Senior Group Leader
Senior Research Scientist

CC Technologies
Battelle Memorial Institute

1991 Present
1967 1990

Resume: Carl E. Jaske, Ph.D., P.E.


Page 2
Professional Organizations
Fellow, American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
Member, American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
Member, NACE International
Professional Activities
Program Chair, ASME Pipeline Systems Subdivision
Associate Editor, Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology
Past Chair, ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping (PVP) Division
Past Chair of Central Ohio Section of ASME
Technical Program Chairman (1992) and General Chairman (1993) of ASME PVP Conferences
API Working Group on Pipeline Integrity Management Standard
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Committee, Subgroup on Fatigue Strength
ASTM Committee E8 on Fatigue and Fracture
Short Courses/Forums/Tutorials
ASME Short Course on API-579 Fitness-For-Service Evaluation of Vessels, Tanks, and Piping
ASME Short Course on Assessment of Material Aging and Prediction of Remaining Life
Developer of NDE Demonstration Forum, 1996-2001 ASME PVP Conferences
Tutorial on Remaining Life Prediction, 1987 PVP Conference
Tutorial on Assessment of Material Degradation in Service, 1989 PVP Conference
Tutorial on Life Extension and Remaining Life Assessment, 1995 PVP Conference
Engineering Registration
Dr. Jaske is a Registered Professional Engineer in the States of Ohio and Alaska.
Relevant Experience
Integrity of Oil and Gas Pipelines. Performed numerous projects on evaluating the integrity of
oil and gas pipelines, including failure analyses. The CorLAS computer program was
developed to predict the failure of pipelines with local defects, including crack-like flaws. An
independent evaluation of available models for assessing SCC flaws showed that CorLAS
gave the most accurate predictions of fourteen actual Canadian pipeline failures. Other projects
include evaluation of stresses during hot tapping, assessment of dents and gouges, and
predictions of remaining fatigue life.
Fatigue Strength Reduction Factors for Welds. Completed an interpretative review of fatigue
strength reduction and stress concentration factors for welds in pressure vessels and piping for
the Welding Research Council (Bulletin 432, June 1998). Available procedures for evaluating
the fatigue strength of welded structures were reviewed and evaluated. Guidelines for
developing weld-joint fatigue strength reduction factors were developed.
Aging of Nuclear Power Plant Components. Participated in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory
Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program to help develop methodology for
residual-life assessment of key safety-related nuclear-plant components, including evaluation of
the thermal embrittlement of cast stainless steels.

Resume: Carl E. Jaske, Ph.D., P.E.


Page 3
Relevant Experience (Continued)
Remaining Life Assessment. Conducted numerous projects to assess the remaining life of
operating equipment in industrial plants. This work included testing and examination of material
samples and analytical calculations. Examples of equipment that have been evaluated include
steam-turbine rotors, steam pipes, reformer furnace tubes, headers, superheater and reheater
tubes, and pressure vessels.
Creep-Fatigue Crack Growth. Developed a fracture-mechanics model and life-assessment
approach for creep-fatigue crack growth interaction effects and performed creep, low-cycle
fatigue, and creep-fatigue crack propagation experiments on Type 316 Stainless Steel.
Creep Fracture and Creep-Fatigue Life of Welded Steam Lines. Developed personal
computer codes to help assess the remaining creep and creep-fatigue life and the potential for
unstable fracture of 2-1/4Cr-1Mo and 1-1/4Cr-1/2Mo welded steam pipes, including seamwelded hot reheat steam lines.
Failure Analyses. Performed failure analyses of various components used in industrial
equipment, including the failure of a large motor shaft, the failure of a generator rotor, the failure
of a mold used for casting bronze alloys, steam pipe failures, and failures of fired furnace tubes.
Long-Life Corrosion Fatigue Evaluation for the Development of Alloys Used in PaperMaking Equipment. Performed long-life (107 to 109 cycles to failure) corrosion-fatigue studies
of cast alloys--bronze, martensitic stainless steel, austenitic stainless steel, and duplex stainless
steel--in white water (low pH, chloride, sulfate, thiosulfate) environments; to realistically simulate
expected service conditions, tests have been performed at low stresses for periods of several
months to more than one year.
Selected Publications
1.

C. E. Jaske and H. Mindlin, Elevated-Temperature Low-Cycle Fatigue Behavior of 21/4Cr-1Mo and 1Cr-1Mo-1/4V Steels, 2-1/4 Chrome 1 Molybdenum Steel in Pressure
Vessels and Piping, ASME, New York (1971), pp. 137-210.

2.

C. E. Jaske, et al., Combined Low-Cycle Fatigue and Stress-Relaxation Behavior of


Alloy 800 and Type 304 Stainless Steel at Elevated Temperature, Fatigue at Elevated
Temperatures, STP 520, ASTM, Philadelphia (1973), pp. 365-376.

3.

C. E. Jaske, et al., Development of Elevated-Temperature Fatigue Design Information


for Type 316 Stainless Steel, Paper C163/73, International conference on Creep and
Fatigue in Elevated-Temperature Applications, Conference Publication 13, I. Mech. E.,
London (1973), pp. 163.1-163.7.

4.

C. E. Jaske, Thermal-Mechanical, Low-Cycle Fatigue of AISI 1010 Steel, Thermal


Fatigue of Materials and Components, STP 612, ASTM, Philadelphia (1976), pp. 170198.

5.

C. E. Jaske, Low-Cycle Fatigue of AISI 1010 Steel at Temperatures Up to 1200F


(649C), Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, Vol. 99, No. 3 (1977), pp. 423-443.

6.

C. E. Jaske and W. J. O'Donnell, Fatigue Design Criteria for Pressure Vessel Alloys,
Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, Vol. 99, No. 4 (1977), pp. 584-592.

Resume: Carl E. Jaske, Ph.D., P.E.


Page 4
Selected Publications (Continued)
7.

C. E. Jaske, Corrosion Fatigue of Structural Steels in Seawater and for Offshore


Applications, Corrosion-Fatigue Technology, STP 642, ASTM, Philadelphia (1978),
pp. 19-47.

8.

C. E. Jaske and J. A. Begley, An Approach to Assessing Creep/Fatigue Crack Growth,


Ductility and Toughness Considerations in Elevated Temperature Service, MPC-8,
ASME, New York (1978), pp. 391-409.

9.

C. E. Jaske and N. D. Frey, Long-Life of Type 316 Stainless Steel at Temperatures up


to 593C, Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology, Vol. 104, No. 2 (1982),
pp. 137-144.

10.

C. E. Jaske, et al., Predict Reformer Furnace Tube Life, Hydrocarbon Processing, Vol.
62, No. 1 (1983), pp. 63-68.

11.

C. E. Jaske, Creep-Fatigue-Crack Growth in Type 316 Stainless Steel, Advances in


Life Prediction Methods, ASME, New York (1983), pp. 93-103.

12.

With F. A. Simonen, A Computational Model for Predicting the Life of Tubes Used in
Petrochemical Heater Service, Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, Vol. 107, No. 3
(1985), pp. 239-246.

13.

C. E. Jaske, Long-Term Creep-Crack Growth Behavior of Type 316 Stainless Steel,


Fracture Mechanics: Eighteenth Symposium, STP 945, ASTM, Philadelphia (1988), pp.
867-877.

14.

C. E. Jaske and A. P. Castillo, Corrosion Fatigue of Cast Suction-Roll Alloys in


Simulated Paper-Making Environments, Materials Performance, Vol. 26, No. 4 (1987),
pp. 37-43.

15.

C. E. Jaske, Techniques for Examination and Metallurgical Damage Assessment of


Pressure Vessels, Performance and Evaluation of Light Water Reactor Pressure
Vessels, ASME, New York (1987), pp. 103-114.

16.

C. E. Jaske and R. W. Swindeman, Long-Term Creep and Creep-Crack-Growth


Behavior of 9Cr-1Mo-V-Nb Steel, Advances in Materials Technology for Fossil Power
Plants, ASM International, Metals Park, Ohio (1987), pp. 251-258.

17.

C. E. Jaske, Life Assessment of Hot Reheat Steam Pipe, Paper 2.9.2, Proc,
International Conference on Life Extension and Assessment, Volume II, The Hague,
Netherlands (June 13-15, 1988), pp. 185-193 [also in the Journal of Pressure Vessel
Technology, Vol. 112, No. 1 (1990), pp. 20-27.]

18.

C. E. Jaske, Fatigue Curve Needs for Higher Strength 2-1/4Cr-1Mo Steel for Petroleum
Process Vessels, Fatigue Initiation, Propagation, and Analysis for Code Construction,
MPC Vol. 29, ASME, New York (1988), pp. 181-195 [also in the Journal of Pressure
Vessel Technology, Vol. 112, No. 4 (1990), pp. 323-332.]

Resume: Carl E. Jaske, Ph.D., P.E.


Page 5
Selected Publications (Continued)
19.

C. E. Jaske and V. N. Shah, Life Assessment Procedure for LWR Cast Stainless Steel
Components, Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Environmental
Degradation of Materials in Nuclear Power Systems-Water Reactors, National
Association of Corrosion Engineers, Houston, Texas (1990), pp. 3-66 to 3-83.

20.

C. E. Jaske and V. N. Shah, Life Assessment Procedures for Major LWR Components:
Cast Stainless Steel Components, NUREG/CR-5314, EGG-2562, Vol. 3 (October,
1990).

21.

With B. S. Majumdar and M. P. Manahan, Creep Crack Growth Characterization of


Type 316 Stainless Steel Using Miniature Specimens, International Journal of Fracture,
Vol. 47 (1991), pp. 127-144.

22.

C. E. Jaske and R. Viswanathan, Predict Remaining Life of Equipment for High


Temperature-Pressure Service, Paper Number 213, Corrosion 90, Las Vegas, Nevada
(April 23-27, 1990).

23.

C. E. Jaske and R. Viswanathan, Remaining-Life Prediction for Equipment in HighTemperature/Pressure Service, Materials Performance, Vol. 30, No. 4 (1991), pp. 6167.

24.

With A. P. Castillo and G. M. Michel, Sandusky Alloy 86, A New Suction Roll Shell
Material with Improved Corrosion-Fatigue Strength in Corrosive White Waters,
presented at the 24th EUCEPA Technical Conference, SPCI 90 International Exhibition,
Stockholm, Sweden (May 7-10, 1990).

25.

With B. S. Majumdar, Creep-Fatigue Crack Growth in 9Cr-1Mo-V-Nb Steel, presented


at the 1991 ASME Pressure Vessel and Piping Conference, San Diego, California (June
23 27, 1991).

26.

C. E. Jaske and F. A. Simonen, Creep-Rupture Properties For Use In The Life


Assessment Of Fired Heater Tubes, Proceedings of the First International Conference
On Heat-Resistant Materials, ASM International (1991), pp. 485-493.

27.

With G. H. Koch, Prediction of Remaining Life of Equipment Operating in Corrosive


Environments, NACE Conference on Life Prediction of Corrodible Structures,
Cambridge, UK (September 23-26, 1991) and Kauai, Hawaii (November 5-8, 1991).

28.

C. E. Jaske and G. H. Koch, Failure and Damage Mechanisms Embrittlement,


Corrosion, Fatigue, and Creep, Technology for the 90s, ASME, New York (July, 1993),
pp., 7-39.

29.

C. E. Jaske, Review of Materials Property Relationships for Use in Computerized Life


Assessment, Fourth International Symposium of the Computerization and Use of
Materials Property Data, ASTM, Gaithersburg, Maryland (October 6-8, 1993).

30.

C. E. Jaske, Life Prediction in High-Temperature Structural Materials, Fatigue and


Fracture of Aerospace Structural Materials, AD-Vol. 36, ASME, New York (1993),
pp. 59-71.

Resume: Carl E. Jaske, Ph.D., P.E.


Page 6
Selected Publications (Continued)
31.

C. E. Jaske, The Effects of High-Temperature Exposure on the Properties of HeatResistant Alloys, Paper No. 397, Corrosion 94, Baltimore (February 28-March 4, 1994).

32.

C. E. Jaske, Remaining Life Evaluation of Pressure Vessels and Piping General


Approach and Case Histories, 3rd International Conference & Exhibition on Improving
Reliability in Petroleum Refineries and Chemical Plants, Houston (November 15-18,
1994).

33.

C. E. Jaske, Review of Materials Property Relationships for Use in Computerized Life


Assessment, Computerization and Networking of Materials Databases, STP 1257,
ASTM, Philadelphia (1995), pp. 194-208.

34.

With B. A. Harle and J. A. Beavers, Mechanical and Metallurgical Effects on Low-pH


Stress Corrosion Cracking of Natural Gas Pipelines, Paper No. 646, Corrosion 95,
NACE International, Houston (1995).

35.

C. E. Jaske and R. Viswanathan, Properties of Cr-Mo Steels after Long-Term HighTemperature Service, Service Experience, Structural Integrity, Severe Accidents, and
Erosion in Nuclear and Fossil Plants, PVP-Vol. 303, ASME, New York (1995), pp.
235-245.

36.

C. E. Jaske, Remaining Life Assessment of High-Temperature Components, HeatResistant Materials II, Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on HeatResistant Materials, ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio (1995), pp. 405-412.

37.

C. E. Jaske, J. A. Beavers, and N. G. Thompson, Improving Plant Reliability Through


Corrosion Monitoring, Fourth International Conference on Process Plant Reliability, Gulf
Publishing Company, Houston (November 14-17, 1995).

38.

C. E. Jaske and J. A. Beavers Effect of Corrosion and Stress-Corrosion Cracking on


Pipe Integrity and Remaining Life, Proceedings of the Second International Symposium
on the Mechanical Integrity of Process Piping, MTI Publication No. 48, Materials
Technology Institute of the Chemical Process Industries, Inc., St. Louis (1996),
pp. 287-297.

39.

C. E. Jaske, J. A. Beavers, and B. A. Harle, Effect of Stress Corrosion Cracking on


Integrity and Remaining Life of Natural Gas Pipelines, Corrosion 96, Denver, Colorado,
March 1996, NACE Paper No. 255.

40.

C. E. Jaske and J. A. Beavers, Fitness-for-Service Evaluation of Pipelines in GroundWater Environments, PRCI / EPRG 11th Biennial Joint Technical Meeting on Line Pipe
Research; Arlington, Virginia; April 8 10, 1997; Paper No. 12.

41.

J. A. Beavers and C. E. Jaske, Near-Neutral pH SCC In Pipelines: Effects Of Pressure


Fluctuations On Crack Propagation, Corrosion NACExpo 98, NACE International, Paper
No. 98257, San Diego, California (March 1998).

42.

C. E. Jaske and J. A. Beavers, Review and Proposed Improvement of a Failure Model


for SCC of Pipelines, International Pipeline Conference Volume 1, ASME
International, New York, 1998, pp. 439-445.

Resume: Carl E. Jaske, Ph.D., P.E.


Page 7
Selected Publications (Continued)
43.

C. E. Jaske, Interpretive Review of Weld Fatigue-Strength-Reduction and StressConcentration Factors," Fatigue Strength Reduction and Stress Concentration Factors
for Welds in Pressure Vessels and Piping, WRC Bulletin 432, Welding Research
Council, Inc., New York, June, 1998.

44.

C. E. Jaske, Integrity and Remaining Life of High-Temperature Equipment, CIM


Symposium on Materials for Resource Recovery and Transport, Calgary, Alberta,
Canada, August 16 19, 1998.

45.

C. E. Jaske and J. A. Beavers, Predicting the Failure and Remaining Life of Gas
Pipelines Subject to Stress Corrosion Cracking, International Gas Research
Conference, San Diego, California; November 8 11, 1998; Paper TS0-13.

46.

J. A. Beavers and C. E. Jaske, SCC of Underground Pipelines: A History of The


Development of Test Techniques, Corrosion NACExpo 99, NACE International, Paper
No. 99142, San Antonio, Texas (April 1999).

47.

C. E. Jaske and J. A. Beavers, "Fitness-For-Service Evaluation of Pipelines with StressCorrosion Cracks or Local Corrosion," International Conference on Advances in Welding
Technology (ICAWT 99), Galveston, Texas USA, October 26-28, 1999.

48.

With M. P. H. Brongers, J. A. Beavers and B. S. Delanty, Influence of Line-Pipe Steel


Metallurgy on Ductile Tearing of Stress-Corrosion Cracks During Simulated Hydrostatic
Testing," 2000 International Pipeline Conference Volume 2, ASME International, New
York, 2000, pp. 743-756.

49.

With M. P. H. Brongers, J. A. Beavers and B. S. Delanty, Effect of Hydrostatic Testing


on Ductile Tearing of X-65 Linepipe Steel with Stress Corrosion Cracks," Corrosion, Vol.
56, No. 10, 2000, pp. 1050-1058.

50.

C. E. Jaske and J. A. Beavers, "Fitness-For-Service Assessment for Pipelines Subject to


SCC," Pipeline Pigging, Integrity Assessment, and Repair Conference, Houston, Texas,
February 1-2, 2000.

51.

M. P. Brongers and C. E. Jaske, "Creep-Rupture of Service-Exposed Base Metal and


Weldments of Alloy 800H," Aging Management, Component and Piping Analysis,
Nondestructive Engineering Monitoring and Diagnostics 2000, PVP-Vol. 409, ASME
International, New York, 2000, pp. 143-153.

52.

C. E. Jaske, "Fatigue Strength Reduction Factors for Welds in Pressure Vessels and
Piping," Pressure Vessels and Piping Codes and Standards 2000, PVP-Vol. 407,
ASME International, New York, 2000, pp. 279-297.

53.

C. E. Jaske, "Fatigue Strength Reduction Factors for Welds in Pressure Vessels and
Piping," Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, Vol. 122, No. 3, 2000, pp. 297-304.

54.

C. E. Jaske and R. Viswanathan, "Use of Miniature Specimens for Creep-Crack-Growth


Testing," Understanding and Predicting Material Degradation, PVP-Vol. 413, ASME
International, New York, 2000, pp. 69-79.

Resume: Carl E. Jaske, Ph.D., P.E.


Page 8
Selected Publications (Continued)
55.

C. E. Jaske and R. Viswanathan, "Use of Miniature Specimens for Creep-Crack-Growth


Testing," Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology, Vol. 122, No. 3, 2000, pp.
327-332.

56.

C. E. Jaske and John A. Beavers, Evaluating the Remaining Strength and Life of
Pipelines Subject to Local Corrosion or Cracking. NACE Northern Area Premiere
Conference (Corrosion Prevention 2000), Toronto, Ontario, Canada, November 2000.

57.

P. H. Vieth, D. A. Soenjoto, and C. E. Jaske, Transverse Field Inspection (TFI) Program


Results, 52nd Annual Pipeline Conference, San Antonio, Texas USA, April 17-18, 2001.

58.

C. E. Jaske, Development of Miniature-Specimen Test Techniques For Measuring


Creep-Crack-Growth Behavior, The 7th International Conference on Creep and Fatigue
at Elevated Temperatures, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Japan,
June 3-8, 2001.

59.

M. P. Brongers, C. J. Maier, C. E. Jaske, P. H. Vieth, M. D. Wright, and R. J. Smyth,


Tests, Field Use Support Compression Sleeve for Seam-Weld Repair, Oil & Gas
Journal, Volume 99.24, pp. 60 66, June 11, 2001.

60.

M. P. Brongers, C. J. Maier, C. E. Jaske, P. H. Vieth, M. D. Wright, and R. J. Smyth,


Evaluation and Use of a Steel Compression Sleeve to Repair Longitudinal Seam-Weld
Defects, 52nd Annual Pipeline Conference, San Antonio, TX, April 17 18, 2001.

61.

B. E. Shannon and C. E. Jaske, A Practical Life Assessment Approach For Hydrogen


Reformer Tubes, Proceedings of NACE International Northern Area Conference,
Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, February 18-21, 2002.

62.

C. E. Jaske, P. H. Vieth, and J. A. Beavers, Assessment of Crack-Like Flaws in


Pipelines, Corrosion NACExpo 2002, NACE International, Paper No. 02089, Denver,
Colorado (April 2002).

Books and Software


C. E. Jaske, J. H. Payer and V. S. Balint, Corrosion Fatigue of Metals in Marine Environments,
Battelle Press, Columbus Ohio (1981).
C. E. Jaske, Coordinating Editor, Residual-Life Assessment, Nondestructive Examination, and
Nuclear Heat Exchanger Materials, PVP-Vol. 98-1, ASME, New York (1985).
C. E. Jaske, et al., Editors, Life Extension and Assessment: Nuclear and Fossil Power-Plant
Components, PVP-Vol. 138/NDE-Vol. 4, ASME, New York (1988).
With W. H. Bamford and R. C. Cipolla, Editors, Service Experience in Operating Plants 1991,
PVP-Vol. 221, ASME, New York (1991).
ReHeat12, pcTUBE, and CreepLife computer programs for life assessment of hightemperature steam pipes, furnace tubes, and pressure vessels.

Resume: Carl E. Jaske, Ph.D., P.E.


Page 9
Books and Software (Continued)
CorLAS computer program for evaluating the effects of corrosion and stress-corrosion cracking
on the structural integrity of pipes and vessels.

6141 Avery Road, Dublin, OH 43016-8761 USA


TEL 614-761-1214
FAX 614-761-1633

PATRICK H. VIETH
Mr. Vieth is Vice President of CC Technologies Services, Inc., (CC Technologies). Mr. Vieth is a
Mechanical Engineer and has fifteen years of experience in the field of pressure vessel fracture
behavior and defect assessment methods for transmission pipeline systems. Prior to joining
CC Technologies, Mr. Vieth held positions with Battelle and Kiefner & Associates, Inc.
Mr. Vieths expertise is primarily directed toward assisting the operators of transmission pipeline
systems with the development and implementation of short-term and long-term pipeline integrity
management programs. Specifically, he works with operators to develop programs to reduce the
likelihood of failures through in-line inspection, hydrostatic testing, defect assessment, risk
assessment, and fitness-for-purpose assessment.
Mr. Vieth has been active in research and the development of innovative solutions within the
pipeline industry. He was a key-contributor in the validation and implementation of the RSTRENG
corrosion assessment method. RSTRENG is recognized within the Federal Code of Federal
regulations for transmission pipeline systems as a method for assessing the remaining pressurecarrying capacity of pipe which has sustained wall loss due to corrosion.
Mr. Vieth was also a team member that developed a Transverse Field Inspection (TFI) program to
address a pipeline operators specific integrity concern. The TFI program utilized a new
technology to identify longitudinal seam weld defects that could pose an integrity concern to the
pipeline operations. Success in the development, validation, and implementation of this TFI
program resulted in the Department of Transportation (DOT) Office of Pipeline Safetys (OPS)
acceptance of this program in lieu of mandated hydrostatic testing to verify the integrity of the
pipeline system.
Mr. Vieth has conducted several full-scale testing programs to evaluate the fracture behavior of
defects in pressure vessels. These testing programs were conducted under the sponsorship of
the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to evaluate the fracture behavior of power plant piping
subjected to dynamic loading.
Additional full-scale testing programs have been conducted to evaluate the pressure-carrying
capacity of defects identified in transmission pipeline systems (natural gas and hazardous liquids)
and removed from services. These tests have been used to evaluate the pressure-carrying
capacity of pipe sections containing defects such as corrosion-caused metal loss and longitudinal
seam weld defects.
Education
B.S., Mechanical Engineering, The Ohio State University

Resume: Patrick H. Vieth


Page 2
Experience
Vice President

CC Technologies Services, Inc.

2001 present

Senior Group Leader

CC Technologies Services, Inc.

1999 2001

Manager, Integrity Solutions

Pipeline Integrity International

Senior Mechanical Engineer


Associate

Kiefner & Associates, Inc.


Worthington, OH

1991 1999

Principal Research Scientist

Battelle, Columbus, OH

1985 1991

1999

Professional Activities
National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE), Committee Chairman, T-10E-6 (Defect
Assessment)
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), #1271881, Past Chairman Central Ohio
Section of ASME, (1990).
Selected Publications
Risk Assessment
Kiefner, J. F., Vieth, P. H., Orban, J. E., and Feder, P. I., Methods for Prioritizing Pipeline
Maintenance and Rehabilitation, American Gas Association, Pipeline Research Committee,
Catalog No. L51631, September 28, 1990.
Corrosion Assessment
Kiefner, J. F., and Vieth, P. H., A Modified Criterion for Evaluating the Remaining Strength of
Corroded Pipe, American Gas Association, Pipeline Research Committee, Catalog No. L51609,
December 22, 1989.
Vieth, P. H., and Kiefner, J. F., Database of Corroded Pipe Tests, American Gas Association,
Pipeline Research Committee, Pipeline Research Committee, Catalog No. L51689, April 4, 1989.
Kiefner, J. F., and Vieth, P. H., Evaluating Pipe: New Method Corrects Criterion for Evaluating
Corroded Pipe, Oil and Gas Journal, August 6, 1990.
Kiefner, J. F., and Vieth, P. H., Evaluating Pipe: PC Program Speeds New Criterion for
Evaluating Corroded Pipe, Oil and Gas Journal, August 20, 1990.
Vieth, P. H., and Kiefner, J. F., RSTRENG Users Manual, American Gas Association, Pipeline
Research Committee, Catalog No. L51688, March 31, 1993.
Kiefner, J. F., and Vieth, P. H., The Remaining Strength of Corroded Pipe, American Gas
Association, Eighth Symposium on Line Pipe Research, Houston, Texas, September 1993.
Kiefner, J. F., Vieth, P. H., and Roytman, I., Continued Validation of RSTRENG, American Gas
Association, Catalog Number L51749, December 1996.

Resume: Patrick H. Vieth


Page 3
Selected Publications (continued)
Pipeline Failures
Vieth, P. H., Roytman, I., Mesloh, R. E., and Kiefner, J. F., Analysis of DOT Reportable Incidents
for Gas Transmission and Gathering Pipelines 1985 through 1994, American Gas Association,
Pipeline Research Committee.
Vieth, P. H., et al., DOT Incident Data Analysis, American Gas Association, PRC International,
th
9 Symposium on Line Pipe Research, Houston, Texas, September 1996.
Vieth, P. H., Maxey, W. A., Mesloh, R. E., Kiefner, J. F., and Williams, G. W., Investigation of the
Failure in GRIs Pipeline Simulation Facility Flow Loop, Gas Research Institute, March 15, 1996.
In-Line Inspection
Vieth, P. H., Ashworth, In-Line Inspection, International Pipeline Conference.
Vieth, P. H., Rust, S. W., Johnson, E. R., and Cox, M. J., In-Line Characterization and
th
Assessment, American Gas Association, PRC International, 9 Symposium on Line Pipe
Research, Houston, Texas, September 1996.
Rust, S. W., Vieth, P. H., Johnson, E. R., and Cox, M. J., Corrosion Pig Performance and Risk
Assessment, Pipes and Pipelines International, Pipeline Pigging Conference, Houston, Texas,
February 1996.
Vieth, P. H., Rust, S. W., Johnson, E. R., and Cox, M. J., Corrosion Pig Performance Evaluation,
th
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, American Petroleum Institute, 7 Annual Energy
Week Conference, Houston, Texas, January 1996.
Vieth, P. H., Rust, S. W., Johnson, E. R., and Cox, M. J., Corrosion Pig Performance Evaluation,
National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE), NACE/96, Denver, Colorado, March 1996.
Rust, S. W., Vieth, P. H., Johnson, E. R., and Cox, M. J., Quantitative Corrosion Risk
Assessment Based on Pig Data, National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE), NACE/96,
Denver, Colorado, March 1996.
Flaw Growth
Maxey, W. A., Vieth, P. H., and Kiefner, J. F., An Enhanced Model for Predicting Pipeline Retest
Intervals to Control Cyclic-Pressure-Induced Crack Growth, American Society of Mechanical
Engineers (ASME), Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering (OMAE) 1993, Proceedings of the
th
12 International Conference, Volume V (Pipeline Technology), 1993.
Full-Scale Testing
Scott, P., Kramer, G, Vieth, P., Francini, R., and Wilkowski, G., The Effects of Cyclic Loading
During Ductile Tearing on Circumferentially Cracked Pipe Experimental Results, ASME PVP
Volume 280, June 1994, pp 207-220.
Wilkowski, G., Vieth, P., Kramer, G., Marschall, C., and Landow, M., Results of Separate-Effects
Pipe Fracture Experiments, Post-SMiRT-11 Conference, August 1991, Paper 4.2.

PART II COST PROPOSAL


TP274-3553

UPDATED PIPELINE REPAIR MANUAL


PREPARED FOR

PRC INTERNATIONAL
Pipeline Materials Committee

PREPARED BY

CC TECHNOLOGIES LABORATORIES, INC.


CARL E. JASKE, PH.D., P.E.
AUGUST 05, 2002

CC Technologies
6141 AVERY ROAD
DUBLIN, OHIO 43016
614.761.1214 614.761.1633 fax
www.cctechnologies.com

Part II Cost Proposal

Updated Pipeline Repair Manual

PRCI / GAS TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE CONTRACT COST ESTIMATE (FOOTNOTE A)


Nam e ofO fferor

RFP No./Prp. No.

Page Num ber

Num ber ofPages

CC Technologies Laboratories Inc.


Hom e O ffice Address

Nam e ofProposed Project

6141 A very R oad,D ublin O hio 43016

U pdated Pipeline R epair M anual(M aterials Program 1)


ProposalN um ber: TP274-3553

Division(s) and Location(s) (w here w ork is to be perform ed)

TotalAm ount ofProposal

$75,000
Estim ated Cost
(dollars)

TotalEstim ated Cost Supporting Schedule


(dollars)
(Footnote B)

1. Direct M aterial
a. Purchased Parts

$0

b. InterdivisionalEffort

$0
$0

c. Equipm ent Rental

$200

d. O ther (Supplies and M aterials)

$200 Table 1b

TotalDirect M aterial
2. M aterialO verhead

Rate

10%

$200

x Base $

$20

3. Subcontracted Effort

Subcontractor Cofunding (Footnote D)

$0 Table 1b

Net Subcontracted Effort


4. Direct Labor - Specify

Est.Hours

Rate/Hour

Est.Cost

90

$45

$4,021

Project Engineer

360

$29

$10,494

Technologist

205

$25

$5,176

70

$15

$1,039

Senior G roup Leader

O ffice Staff

TotalDirect Labor

20,730

5. Labor O verhead - Specify

O .H.Rate

Labor O verhead (Fringes)


G eneralO verhead

X Base $

$20,730 Table 1b

Est.Cost

40%

$20,730

$8,292

132%

$29,022

$38,309

N on-Labor O verhead

$46,601

TotalLabor & GeneralO verhead


6. SpecialTesting

Table 1b

7. Purchased SpecialEquipm ent

Table 1b

8. Travel

$1,040 Table 1b

G&A on travel

9. Consultants (Identify - Purpose - Rate)

Est.Cost

$0 Table 1b

TotalConsultants

$390 Table 1b

10.O ther Direct Costs

$68,981

11.TotalDirect Cost and O verhead


12.Generaland Adm inistrative Expense
Rate

10%

x Base $

1,430 (Cost elem ent no(s).

3, 6, 7, 8,9,& 10)

(Cost elem ent no(s).

$143

13.Independent Research and Developm ent


Rate

x Base $

$0
$69,124

14.TotalEstim ated Cost (Footnote C)

$5,876

15.Fixed Fee

$75,000

16.TotalEstim ated Cost and Fee


17.Contractor/Third Party Cofunding (Footnote D)

$75,000

18.NetEstim ated Cost and Fee to GRI


This proposalreflects our best estim ate as of this date,in accordance w ith the instructions to offerors and the footnotes w hich follow .
Typed Nam e and Title
N eilG .Thom pson,CEO
FO O TNO TES:

Signature

Date
7/31/02

A. The subm ission ofthis form does not constitute an acceptable proposal. Required supporting inform ation m ust also be subm itted.
B. For each item ofcost, reference the schedule w hich contains the required supporting data.
C. This should be the totalcost ofthe research project. Any contractor cost sharing should be show n on the Line 17 as a reduction from totalcosts.
D. This line should contain (I) totalproposed fee,(ii) contractor cofunding,(3) third party cash cofunding,or (iv)be blank,depending on the contract type.
Fixed fee should be cofunded before any contractor in-kind cofunding is proposed.

____________________________________________________________________________________
CC Technologies Laboratories, Inc.
1

Part II Cost Proposal

Updated Pipeline Repair Manual

Table 1b. Cost Detail for Table 1a.


(1) LABOR COSTS

Staff
Sen Group Leader/Total
Project Engineer/Total
Technologist/Total
Office Staff/Total
TOTAL LABOR

Hours
Billed
90
360
205
70
725

Average
Rate x Infl
5.0%
$44.68
$29.15
$25.25
$14.84

Total
Labor
Charged
$4,021.20
$10,494.00
$5,176.25
$1,038.80
$20,730.25

(3) MATERIALS

Item
Misc
Total Materials

Unit
Cost
$200.00

Quantity
1

Total
Cost
$200.00
$200.00

(5) TRAVEL

Trip
Project Review
Total Travel

No. of
Persons

No. of
Trips
1

No. of
Days
1

Airfare
$600.00

Subsistence
/day
$170.00

Rental
Car/day
$50.00

Trip
Cost
$1,040.00
$1,040.00

(7) OTHER COSTS

Item
Misc/Postage
Total Other Costs

Unit
Cost
$390.00

Quantity
1

Total
Cost
$390.00
$390.00

____________________________________________________________________________________
CC Technologies Laboratories, Inc.
2

August 12, 2002


VIA FEDERAL EXPRESS
PROPOSAL NO. CP052647
Mr. Steve Foh
PRCI
1700 South Mount Prospect
Des Plaines, IL 60018
Re: Request for Noncompetitive Proposals
Dear Steve:
Enclosed is our proposal for the project Stress-Corrosion Crack Extension and Growth
Modeling, which is in response to PRCI RPTG-0320.
This effort is offered under the master set of terms and conditions negotiated between PRCI and
Battelle on June 30, 2000. Our receipt of authorization under these terms and conditions will
allow us to proceed.
This offer shall remain valid for a period of sixty (60) days from the date of this letter.
If you have any technical questions, please call me at (614) 424-4421, or contact me via email at
leis@battelle.org. Questions of a contractual nature should be directed to Ms. LaDonna James,
Contracts Department, at (614) 424-5543 or via email address: jamesl@battelle.org.
Sincerely,

Brian N. Leis
Research Leader
Pipeline Technology Center
BNL/cw
Enclosure

Christina L. Rotunda
Contracting Officer

Stress-Corrosion Crack Extension and Growth Modeling: RPTG-0320


Background
As in-line inspection (ILI) becomes available to detect and size SCC, accurate crack growth
models will be essential in managing pipeline integrity and setting safe re-inspection intervals.
The recent development of validated models to assess severity of single as well as multiple
cracks makes it possible to assess pipeline integrity for the configuration of defects as detected
the immediate concern in integrity assessment. However, currently adequate modeling does not
exist to project the behavior of SCC as time progresses under generalized loading conditions.
Growth of the cracks can occur by SCC, or by stable tearing, depending on the defect size, the
pipe hoop stress, and the factors driving SCC. The growth of this cracking is particularly
complex for situations where new cracks may initiate within a colony and/or where crack
coalescence can occur.
In addition to validated models to assess defect criticality for as-detected cracking, a firstgeneration model specific to high pH SCC has been developed to grow such cracks as a function
of the service conditions. This model was formulated such that the current cracking response
depends on the prior operating and cracking history. This model has since been shown to
faithfully recreate field-observed cracking patterns for high pH SCC, and has been used to
successfully predict the field response under contract to some member companies.
SCCLPM was developed for the PRCI such that the current cracking response depends on the
prior operating and cracking history, the algorithms in this model can be reformulated to
incorporate cracking as it is found in the field in bell-hole digs or via ILI. Because all modules
comprising SCCLPM are generic except for reference to cracking environment in the crack
growth module, this model could be simply adapted to address near-neutral cracking by specific
changes in this module. Finally, because coalescence and growth by either SCC or stable tearing
as currently incorporated do not reflect load history dependence, changes also could be required
in this module.

Objective
The objective is to generalize modules in SCCLPM that limit its utility in field applications, and
extend it to address the apparent physics and electro-chemistry associated with low pH SCC.

Research Approach
The success in formulating SCCLPM to deal with high pH SCC suggests use of a similar
approach to modular modeling and related strategies with a focus on near-neutral cracking
environments, and the extension of the existing modules to assess criticality of field-cracking as
identified in bell-holes or ILI.
This present model for high pH SCC will be generalized to incorporate the nucleation, growth,
and coalescence of stress corrosion cracks, in a format applicable to assessing the stress- and
time-dependent response of significant cracking found during in-service inspection. The new
formulation will use the past approach, which has proven to be successful in developing the
field-validated models for high pH SCC. Current algorithms that model situations where new
cracks may initiate within a colony, and crack coalescence will be enhanced to embed stress-

history dependence, while capabilities to handle stress localization, as occurs along weld seams
will be refined. The approach to address stress dependence and coalescence will continue use of
numerical and phenomenological modeling, as this practice has been effective in dealing with
these aspects in developing the model validated for simple laboratory stress histories. To the
extent possible, the current growth module for high pH cracking will be redesigned to deal with
low pH SCC. This redesign to address low pH SCC will utilize discriminating experiments to
isolate and evaluate contributory factors, as this approach worked well in formulating the high
pH model.

Proposed Research
Key tasks needed to meet the committees objectives for a general model of SCC growth
including near-neutral cracking involves six tasks to be completed over a two-year period, as
follows:
Task One Update Algorithms to Incorporate Pressure (Stress) History
This task will begin with a literature evaluation of the changing stress and inelastic strain fields
that develop around a crack tip as a function of the normalized far-field stress. Thereafter,
selected numerical analyses will be done to address crack configurations typical of those
observed in field cracking. Finally, the crack nucleation, growth, and coalescence algorithms
will be reformulated to permit input that characterizes the colony of significant cracking found in
the field, and develop this cracking subject to the service history typical of the prior use of the
pipeline.
Task Two Modify Algorithms to Incorporate Local Stress Raisers
At present the evaluation of the localized stress-inelastic strain fields due to stress raisers, such as
occurs along a weld toe, is limited to a patch applied to address this aspect. This task will
begin with a literature evaluation of the change in severity in the stress and inelastic strain fields
that occur around a crack tip as a function of local stress raisers, such as a long-seam weld. It is
anticipated that selected numerical work will be needed to characterize changes in the local fields
as a function of normalized far-field stress for typical weld profiles in line pipe. Thereafter, the
current algorithms for stress-localization and environmental focusing will be generalized to
facilitate evaluation of situations such as long seam tenting and weld reinforcement effects.
Task Three Modify Algorithms to Assess Severity of Existing Crack Colonies
Current crack growth algorithms will be broadened to permit inputs that describe the significant
cracking observed in the field, in addition to the present scope wherein such cracking is
nucleated as a function of prior service history. This task also will generalize the decisionmaking associated with whether cracking occurs by SCC versus stable tearing, depending on the
pressure history and current crack morphology.
Task Four Physics and Elector-Chemistry of SCC in Near-Neutral Environments
This task begins enhancement of SCCLPM to address near-neutral cracking. The literature
developed for the PRCI will be evaluated as will the general literature dealing with the physics
and elector-chemistry of SCC of steel in environments comparable to near-neutral conditions.

Central to this is the evaluation of the HELP mechanism and other competing processes that
might be postulated to control or contribute to near-neutral pH SCC.
Task Five Discriminating Experiments to Isolate Factors Controlling Near-Neutral SCC
This task parallels a comparable effort made in developing SCCLPM for applications to high pH
SCC, wherein simple experiments were done to provide gono go insight into the key factors
controlling SCC in that environment. The task will use the results of Task Four as the basis to
design discriminating experiments involving mechanisms postulated to explain near-neutral pH
SCC. The results of this task will be used to direct the outcome of this project.
Task Six Reporting
A report will be prepared that presents the results of each of the tasks following completion of
the technical tasks in Year Two. This report is expected to present a generalized model for SCC,
including an understanding of the physics and electro-chemistry of near-neutral SCC, which lay
the foundation for schemes to reduce unnecessary conservatism in setting re-inspection or rehydrotest intervals, or allow minor SCC to be left in place without immediate remedial action.

Cost, Schedule, and Reporting


Completion of the above six tasks for the scope of parameters anticipated is estimated to require
a two-year period of performance and a total budget of $250,000.00 split equally over the period
of performance.
Month after
contract

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

24

Task One
Task Two
Task Three
Task Four
Task Five
Task Six - Report
Oral Reports

During the course of this research, Battelle will provide quarterly status reports and progress
updates at meetings, as indicated in the table.

Expected Deliverables
This project is expected to deliver a generalized model for SCC, including an
understanding of the physics and electro-chemistry of near-neutral SCC. The model proposed
will lay the foundation for schemes to reduce unnecessary conservatism in setting re-inspection
or re-hydrotest intervals, or allow minor SCC to be left in place without immediate remedial

action. The final report will summarize the results and underlying methodology and approach
taken to obtain results.

Project Organization and Management


This project would be completed within Battelles Pipeline Technology Center. Battelle has
current and recent projects with INGAA/GTI, PRCI, and the industry that involve SCC. This
work is useful experience in regard to programs such as this. However, as it is more applications
oriented, it does not directly impact the technology development agenda of the present project.
The project manager and principal investigator for this effort will be Dr. Brian Leis, who will be
assisted by Drs. Robert E. Kurth and Jeffery A. Colwell, and others on the Battelle technical staff
including Mr. Thomas P. Forte. All members of this team have contributed to the formulation of
SCCLPM and Battelles research into SCC. This team has more than 30 years of cumulative
experience in this area. While Battelle has extensive experience in high pH SCC, it is possible
that Battelle will retain sub-contractors. For example, to ensure that the field aspects for this
second year reflect reality, Battelle plans to team with Marr and Associates, where the work will
be managed by Mr. James (Jim) Marr.
Dr. Leis has worked for hazardous liquids and natural gas transmission pipeline companies and
the pipeline industry in the US and internationally in the field of SCC. Drs. Kurth and Colwell
and Mr. Forte have ongoing interests into the causes and mitigation of SCC.

August 12, 2002


Via FEDERAL EXPRESS
Proposal No. CP052649
Mr. Steve Foh
PRCI
1700 South Mount Prospect
Des Plaines, IL 60018
Re: Non-competitive Proposals
Dear Steve:
Enclosed is our proposal for Year Two of the project SCC Acceptance Criteria, which will
complete PRCI Project PR-003-0046.
This effort is offered under the master set of terms and conditions negotiated between PRCI and
Battelle on June 30, 2000. Our receipt of authorization under these terms and conditions will
allow us to proceed.
This offer shall remain valid for a period of sixty (60) days from the date of this letter.
If you have any technical questions, please call me at (614) 424-4421, or contact me via email at
leis@battelle.org. Questions of a contractual nature should be directed to Ms. LaDonna James,
Contracts Department, at (614) 424-5543 or via email address: jamesl@battelle.org.
Sincerely,

Brian N. Leis
Research Leader
Pipeline Technology Center
BNL/cw
Enclosure

Christina L. Rotunda
Contracting Officer

SCC Acceptance Criteria Year Two


Background
When SCC is found, member companies must decide how to continue their pipeline operations
without jeopardizing safety. As cost-effective, accurate methods for finding and sizing SCC
develop, the number of colonies that must be addressed with regard to safe serviceability
increases. This means that pipeline companies will be faced with rehabilitation choices ranging
from grind and recoat, through use of a pressure-containing sleeve, and under some
circumstances, a cut out. It follows that pipeline companies suffering even limited SCC need to
identify rehabilitation options as a function of pipeline service and the nature of the cracking in
that joint of pipe.
To be practical, rehabilitation options need to be identified in a field setting, which means
selecting options is best done in terms of a simple, easy to use, technically defensible, decision
tree that could be used by field crews. To be economically viable, such options must recognize
that the mere presence of SCC does not in many cases compromise the integrity of the line in the
near term. Technically justified criteria that are simple enough to interpret in the field are
needed to avoid incurring significant repair costs in situations where there will be no reduction in
risk of failure.
Much has already been done that contributes to the development of rehabilitation options as a
function of pipeline service and the nature of the cracking in that joint of pipe. Criteria are
required to determine cracking severity and near-term criticality.
Objective
Develop rehabilitation options for SCC in the form of a simple, easy to use, technically
defensible, decision tree: The work plan to develop rehabilitation options as a function of
pipeline service and the nature of the cracking in that joint of pipe involves five tasks. These
tasks, which are specific to high pH SCC, include:

Determine circumferential and axial crack spacings ranging from benign to critical, as a
function of service pressure and actual (or specified) mechanical and toughness
properties of the steel.

Establish field criteria in terms of nomographs and images of crack position to decide
which colonies required what type of rehabilitation.

Identify field-proven grind and recoat practices, and other such actions.

Detail the field-proven repair practices, with independent validation where practical.

Report the results.


Proposed Research

Year One of this project evaluated crack spacing and assessed apparent severity. This included
determination of critical circumferential spacing and the formulation of a simple macro-based

assessment for crack coalescence, which addresses critical axial crack spacing. Year Two
continues the development of this work plan.
TASK ONE CRITICAL CRACK SPACING (FOCUS OF YEAR ONE)
The objective of this task is to determine circumferential and axial crack spacings for in-service
conditions that range from benign to critical. This will be done for service pressures
corresponding to 0.5, 0.6, 0.72, and 0.8 times the specified minimum yield stress (SMYS).
These cases will be evaluated as a function of the specified or actual mechanical and toughness
properties of the steel. This will be accomplished using analytical and experimental results to
identify combinations of circumferential crack spacings that range from benign through
potentially critical. For potentially critical circumferential crack spacings, the corresponding
axial spacings needed to preclude the formation of critical crack lengths will be determined using
PRCI-developed analyses methods as a function of the circumferential spacing and the specified
or actual estimated mechanical and toughness properties of the steel.
TASK 2 DEVELOP FORMAT FOR FIELD CREWS
The objective of this task is to establish simple measurement protocol to determine which
colonies are benign versus those that are potentially critical and when they are expected to reach
a critical state. This will be done using photographs or printed images of crack arrays that range
from benign through critical that can be interpreted by field personnel with minimal engineering
support. Factors such as differences in toughness or operating stress will be accounted for in
terms of nomographs and selected photographs or images of crack arrays. Decisions as to which
colonies require what type of rehabilitation will be based on consideration of the appearance of
the colony and spacing of the cracks, the depth of the cracking based on in-the-ditch
measurements, the operating pressure, and the permanence of the repair in a framework that
could be used by field personnel with minimal engineering support
TASK 3 -- FIELD-PROVEN PRACTICES
The objective of this task is to identify field-proven practices for rehabilitation of SCC.
Companies that routinely rehabilitate SCC will be contacted to compile current practices. These
practices and the colonies they have been applied to will be compared with the results of Tasks 1
and 2 to assess the extent of inherent conservatism.
TASK 4 -- DETAIL AND VALIDATE REPAIR PRACTICES
The objective of this task is to document and validate field-proven repair practices, such as grind
and recoat. During the company contacts that underlie Task 3, details on the implementation of
field-proven practices for the rehabilitation of SCC will be gathered from companies that
routinely rehabilitate SCC. Field-proven practices will be culled from the methods used by
companies that experience significant SCC. Criteria used in this selection will include practical
aspects and the requirement of long-term success. Such methods will be detailed and evidence
of their viability presented in terms of company experience, or analysis when revealed.

TASK 5 REPORT
A report will be prepared that presents rehabilitation options as a function of pipeline service and
the nature of the cracking in a joint of pipe, based on a simple easy to use, technically defensible
criteria, most likely in the form of a decision tree.
Cost, Schedule, and Reporting
Completion of the above four tasks comprising Year Two for the scope of parameters anticipated
is estimated to require a budget of $75,000.00. The work to meet the Year Two objectives can
be completed within a one-year period after contract initiation.
Month after
contract

10

11

12

Task Two
Task Three
Task Four
Task Five
Oral Reports

During the course of this research, Battelle will provide quarterly status reports and
progress updates at meetings, as indicated in the table. Based on the scope of this second year of
work, a third year will be required to translate the results into simple design guidelines. In
addition, selected full-scale testing should be considered.
Deliverables
The deliverable of this project when completed is an improved understanding of the applicability
and reliability of field-proven rehabilitation and repair methods to facilitate cost-effective SCC
management strategies based on a sound understanding of SCC significance, for individual
cracks and colonies. This deliverable will be presented in a written report that presents the
approach as well as the results of the project.
Project Organization and Management
This project would be completed within Battelles Pipeline Technology Center, working in
conjunction Marr and Associates. The project manager and principal investigator for this effort
will be Dr. Brian Leis, who will be assisted by Dr. Robert Kurth and Mr. Ron Galliher, and
others in the Pipeline Technology Center at Battelle, which is organized to meet the needs of the
energy pipeline industry. All facilities needed to complete this work are available at Battelle,
which has a long history of involvement with research associated with fracture propagation.
While Battelle has extensive experience in high pH SCC, to ensure that the field aspects for this

second year reflect reality, Battelle will team with Marr and Associates, where the work will be
managed by Mr. James (Jim) Marr.
Battelle has current and recent projects with INGAA/GTI, PRCI, and private gas and liquids
pipeline companies that involve SCC, although none of this work is directed at the specific
objective of this project. Marr and Associates have a long-term international reputation for field
services and related support capabilities in regard to SCC detection and rehabilitation. Marr and
Associates will work as a sub-contractor to Battelle.

August 2002

SCC INITIATION SUSCEPTABILITY


RANKING/SCREENING
(RPTG-0328)

Confidential

Prepared for:
Steve Foh
Pipeline Research Council
International, Inc.
c/o Gas Technology Institute
1700 South Mount Prospect Road
Des Plaines
Illinois 60018-1804

Prepared by:
Mark McQueen (& Steve Matthews)
Advantica Technologies Inc.
5177 Richmond Avenue
Suite 900
Houston
TX 77056
USA
Tel:
Fax:
Email:
Website:

2002 Advantica Technologies Inc.


CONFIDENTIAL SCC INITIATION SUSCEPTABILITY RANKING/SCREENING
(RPTG-0328)
August 2002
Rev 0

Page 1

713 586 7000


713 586 0604
mark.mcqueen@advanticatechinc.com
www.advanticatechinc.com

PROPOSAL SUMMARY
Proposal:

RPTG 0328

Title: FACTORS INFLUENCING THE RELATIVE SCC SUSCEPTIBLITY OF LINE


PIPE.
Contractors: Advantica Technologies Inc with EPRG consortium (Advantica, CSM
and Corus) working under sub-contract.
Type: New.
Period: Start date January 2003, duration 24 months.
Total estimated cost: US$100,000.
Objective:
To extend the understanding of the factors controlling low pH SCC initiation, by
subjecting a representative range of North American line pipe steels to standardised
tests.
Incentive:
Recent studies by EPRG have enabled the development of standardized procedures
for assessing the resistance of line pipe steels to low pH SCC initiation. By applying
these procedures to a range of steels from North America, thereby broadening the
overall database of information, the key factors determining resistance to SCC will
be better understood.
Work Plan:
TASK 1 Experimental testing.
TASK 2 Post-test examination
TASK 3 Comparison with other data, reporting
Deliverables:
Reports documenting
Qualitative assessment and ranking resistance of a typical North American
line pipe to low pH SCC initiation.
Comparison with similar results from European line pipe steels.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
PART I
TECHNICAL PROPOSAL
1
2

INTRODUCTION & SUMMARY ......................................................................... 5


TECHNICAL DISCUSSION ................................................................................ 5
2.1
objectives ................................................................................................... 5
2.2
scope of work............................................................................................. 6
2.2.1
Test environment .................................................................................. 6
2.2.2
Crack initiation tests.............................................................................. 6
2.2.3
crack propagation tests......................................................................... 6
2.2.4
Reference tests..................................................................................... 7
2.2.5
Test Monitoring ..................................................................................... 7
2.2.6
specimen evaluation ............................................................................. 7
2.2.6.1 Crack Initiation Specimens ............................................................... 7
2.2.6.2 Crack Propagation Specimens ......................................................... 8
2.3
deliverables ................................................................................................ 8
2.4
Schedule ..................................................................................................... 9
3 ADVANTICA INFORMATION........................................................................... 10
PART II
COST PROPOSAL

1
2

COSTS ............................................................................................................. 12
COMMERCIAL TERMS.................................................................................... 15

Confidentiality Statement
THE INFORMATION CONTAINED IN THIS PROPOSAL IS PROVIDED ON A COMMERCIAL BASIS IN
CONFIDENCE AND IS THE PROPERTY OF ADVANTICA TECHNOLOGIES INC.
IT MUST NOT BE DISCLOSED TO ANY THIRD PARTY, IS COPYRIGHT, AND MAY NOT BE
REPRODUCED IN WHOLE OR IN PART BY ANY MEANS WITHOUT THE APPROVAL IN WRITING
OF ADVANTICA TECHNOLOGIES INC.

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PART I
TECHNICAL PROPOSAL

1 INTRODUCTION & SUMMARY


The issue of low pH SCC is a concern for many pipeline operators in North America and
elsewhere. The integrity management of pipelines that are known or suspected to be at risk
from SCC requires a quantitative understanding of the time-dependence of crack initiation and
growth. This information is essential for reliable assessment of any defects found by inspection
during service, and for setting appropriate intervals between re-inspection or re-hydrotesting.
While many of the factors determining the extent of low pH SCC found in in-service pipelines
are related to operational conditions and the external environment (including cathodic
protection and coating quality), the influence of pipe materials and surface conditions has been
harder to determine.
Recent work conducted by EPRG has indicated that the initiation and early growth of low pH
SCC is influenced by the pipe metallurgy; some steels are significantly more resistant than
others. In terms of crack initiation, some metallurgical factors (steel microstructure and
chemical composition) have been found to play an important role, but there is a need to extend
the comparison of crack initiation susceptibility to other line pipe materials and microstructures.
In terms of crack propagation, however, the EPRG research has indicated that the rates of
crack growth are broadly independent of factors influencing crack initiation. Crack propagation
rates and crack morphologies are dominated by the mechanical loading parameters (i.e.
average pressure and pressure fluctuations).
As a result of this work, standardised procedures have been established for the investigation of
low pH SCC crack initiation and propagation; crack initiation using unflattened tensile test
pieces subjected to slow cyclic tensile loading, and crack propagation using compact tension
(CT) test pieces subjected to similar loading cycles. In particular, the cyclic loading of tensile
test specimens has been shown to be suitable for qualitative assessment and ranking of
different steels to determine their relative susceptibility to low pH SCC.
This program aims to increase the understanding of the metallurgical factors controlling low pH
SCC initiation, and their influence on crack propagation by applying these standardised test
methodologies to a representative range of North American line pipe steel.

2 TECHNICAL DISCUSSION
2.1

OBJECTIVES

Several aspects of low-pH SCC initiation and growth have been the subject of previous PRCIfunded projects. Despite this work, however, the relative SCC susceptibility of different pipeline
steels has not been well documented. Recent EPRG-funded work has identified ways in which
this issue can now be addressed.
Although the EPRG program has been extended to evaluate a wider range of materials, the
testing is inherently slow and limited in extent. The objective of this program is to extend and
enlarge this pool of data by conducting a parallel series of tests, using exactly the same
laboratory conditions as those used by EPRG, on materials sourced from North America.

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2.2

SCOPE OF WORK

The research program has been formulated based on the assumption that four suitable line
pipe materials will be made available for testing, together with materials test certificates
detailing mechanical properties (i.e. transverse and longitudinal yield and ultimate tensile
strength) and chemical composition. The program costs assume that the line pipe sections
required for this project will be supplied free-of-charge. Selection of the test materials will be
finalised in conjunction with PRCI Committee Members.
The program is designed to evaluate low pH SCC initiation and early crack growth using
standardised testing methodologies, under consistent, simulated field conditions and a fixed
test duration.
2.2.1 TEST ENVIRONMENT
All tests will be carried out at ambient temperature with the specimen mounted in an air tight,
sealed chamber containing NS4 solution (classically adopted as representative of the solution
found in low pH SCC field studies. The solution will be pre-saturated at atmospheric pressure
with a gas mixture of 90% N2 and 10% CO2.
Testing will be carried out at the free corrosion potential of the steel in NS4 solution for a
duration of 90 days. All cyclic loading will be on the basis of a sawtooth cycle, with a 120
minute loading period and a 12 minute unloading period.
2.2.2 CRACK INITIATION TESTS
Test specimens will be removed from the pipe longitudinal axis and machined according to a
modified (reduced thickness) ASTM E 8M specification for pin-loaded test specimens of 50 mm
gauge length. The original uncoated (or coating-free surface) of the pipe material will be
preserved. All other machined surfaces will be coated to ensure that only the original pipe
surface is in contact with the NS4 solution. Cyclic loading will be between 70% and 90% of the
actual (measured) longitudinal yield strength of the pipe material.

2 tests per pipe material

2.2.3 CRACK PROPAGATION TESTS


Test specimens will be reduced thickness Compact Tension (CT) samples, based on ASTM
E647 and prepared in the T-L orientation as defined in ASTM E399. All specimens will be
fatigue pre-cracked to provide an overall crack depth of 14 mm. Cyclic loading with use a
constant R value (Kmin/Kmax) of 0.78 with KImax selected above the likely threshold for low pH
SCC (and inferred from previous EPRG test results).

1 test per pipe material

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2.2.4 REFERENCE TESTS


Reference tests will be carried out on identical test specimens to those used in the crack
initiation and crack propagation studies. Two types of reference test will be carried out for each
material included in the investigation:
1. Crack Initiation Reference to be tested under identical environmental conditions with
no applied stress.
1 test per pipe material.
2. Crack Propagation Reference to be tested under cyclic conditions in laboratory air
environment. These will be undertaken at a frequency of 0.1 Hz for 50000 cycles.
Details of the laboratory environment (i.e. ambient temperature and humidity) will be
recorded throughout the test.
1 test per pipe material
2.2.5 TEST MONITORING
The following parameters will be monitored throughout the tests (excluding the control crack
propagation tests):

Specimen electrochemical potential weekly


Solution pH fortnightly
Solution conductivity fortnightly

N.B. Previous experience from EPRG test programs suggests that the amount of crack growth
is likely to be beyond the resolution of convential crack growth measurement technology (e.g.
clip gauges). It should therefore be recognised that the requirements of ASTM E647 cannot be
met. In the case of the crack propagation tests, reliance is placed on the post-test examination
of specimens to accurately determine the extent of crack growth.
2.2.6 SPECIMEN EVALUATION
2.2.6.1

Crack Initiation Specimens

The main assessment tool for evidence of crack initiation will be metallographic examination.
Following exposure of cyclic loaded and reference specimens, the complete gauge length of
will be longitudinally sectioned through the mid-point of the specimen. The sections will then be
polished and etched according to standard metallographic procedures.
The exposed pipe surface will be examined to determine the morphology and depth of surface
features along the gauge length. To determine the probability of low pH SCC crack initiation,
the features found on the surface of cyclic loaded specimens will be compared to sections
through the reference test specimens and as-received pipe material.

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2.2.6.2

Crack Propagation Specimens

To precisely distinguish the pre-crack, developed during the air pre-cracking phase from the
crack growth generated during immersion in NS4 (and the fracture surface following
mechanical rupture of the test specimen*), CT specimens will be submitted to the following
heat-tinting procedure:

Immersion of specimens in an acetone bath with ultrasonic treatment for 30 minutes

Heat treatment in electric muffle furnace, in air, at 350oC for 1 hour followed by air
cooling

* - The mechanical rupture of CT specimens will be carried out using a tensile machine, after
immersion into liquid nitrogen

2.3

DELIVERABLES

The results of this program will be collated into a final report, which it is proposed will include
(subject to agreement between EPRG and PRCI), a comparison of the data from previous
EPRG test programs. This would considerably enhance the value of both EPRG and PRCI
research programs, and increase our understanding of the metallurgical factors controlling low
pH SCC crack initiation.
This research program will provide an increased understanding of the metallurgical parameters
influencing the initiation and early growth of low pH SCC, and hence enable improved
management of SCC risks in existing pipelines, and better selection of materials for new
pipeline construction.
The key deliverables from this programme will be as follows:

Standardised and repeatable methodologies for the investigation of low pH crack


initiation and propagation.
Qualitative assessment and ranking of typical North American line pipe materials to low
pH SCC crack initiation
Comparative data on the resistance to low pH SCC of typical North American and
European line pipe materials.

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2.4

SCHEDULE

The work will be undertaken by Advantica over a 21 month period. A summary of the main
tasks of the project and their duration, assuming work commences in Q1 of 2003, is detailed
below. Effort requirements are also provide for each task.

PHASE
1

2003
Q1

Q2

2004
Q3

Q4

Q1

Specimen
Preparation
0.4 man.mths

Testing

5 man.mths

2a

See below

2b

See below

2c

See below

2d

See below

Final
Report
0.75
man.mths

Phase 1 Specimen Preparation


Duration Year 1: months 1 to 3
Delivery of pipe lengths
Handling and storage of pipe lengths
Flame cutting of pipe sections for test specimen stock
Machining of test specimens
Delivery of test specimens
Phase 2a Testing
Duration Year 1: months 4 to 7
Crack initiation and reference tests: steel No.1
Phase 2b Testing
Duration Year 1: months 7 to 10
Crack initiation and reference tests: steel No.2
Phase 2c Testing
Duration Year 1: months 10 to Year 2: month 2
Crack initiation and reference tests: steel No.3
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Q2

Q3

Q4

Crack propagation & reference tests: steel Nos.1 and 2

Phase 2d Testing
Duration Year 2: months 3 to 7
Crack initiation and reference tests: steel No.4
Crack propagation & reference tests: steel Nos.3 and 4
Phase 3 Final Report
Duration Year 2: months 8 to 9
Preparation of Final Report

3 ADVANTICA INFORMATION
Advantica is part of the Lattice Group, the UK-based infrastructure technology group that
includes the gas pipeline operator Transco, and is a leading supplier of innovative technologies
and technical services to the global energy marketplace. Advantica's aim is to be a leading
improver of business and operating performance for customers in gas, pipelines and
associated industries internationally. Advantica has its origins in the British Gas (BG) group of
companies and is now a $100 million business with over 800 skilled staff and centers in
Houston, Charlotte and the UK.
Advantica has fully equipped in-house facilities to undertake a wide variety of experimental
testing programs. These are complemented by a comprehensive suite of state-of-the-art
numerical computing and finite element analysis facilities. Advantica is a long established
technology supplier to the PRCI member companies and has a substantial track record in the
management and execution of major Joint Industry Projects for groups of international gas and
oil operators.
Advantica has a long history of involvement in line pipe stress corrosion cracking (SCC)
research having carried out extensive investigations of the controlling factors and remedies for
carbonate-bicarbonate (high-pH) SCC and more recent involvement will all phases of the
EPRG low pH SCC program since 1996. Dr Steve Matthews represents Advantica/Transcos
interests on the EPRG Corrosion Technical Committee, through which the EPRG program is
managed.

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PART II
COST PROPOSAL

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1 COSTS
The work described in this proposal will be undertaken on a fixed cost basis. The fixed cost is
$100,000 (one hundred thousand US dollars). The total cost is inclusive of labor, computing,
consumables, overheads, project management. An allowance for two technical presentations
to the Committee has also been included. A cost breakdown of the overall project is
summarized in Table 1, with the subcontracted effort requirements detailed in Table 2.

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CONTRACT COST ESTIMATE


Name of Offeror
Advantica Technologies Inc.
Home Office Address
5177 Richmond Avenue, Suite 900
Houston TX 77056

RFP No/Prp No
Page Number
Number of Pages
RPTG-0328
1
2
Name of Proposed Project
Factors Influencing the relative SCC Susceptibility of Line
Pipe

Division(s) and Location(s) (where work is being performed)


Advantica Technology, Spadeadam Test Facility, UK

Total Amount of Proposal


$100,000
Estimated Cost
(dollars)

Cost Elements
1.

Direct Material
a. Purchased Parts
b. Interdivisional Effort

Total Estimated
Cost (dollars)

Supporting
Schedule
(Footnote B)

1,700

c. Equipment Rental/Lease
d. Other

600

Total Direct Material


2.
3.

Material Overhead (Rate

2300
% x Base $

Subcontracted Effort (Attach Detailed Schedule)

26,046

See Table 2

Subcontractor Cofunding (Footnote D)


Net Subcontracted Effort
4.

Est. Hours

Rate/Hour

Manager/Consultant

Direct Labor - Specify

45

195

Est. Cost
8,775

Senior Engineer

218

143

31,174

Engineer

59

109

6,431

Technician

250

69

17,250

O.H. Rate

X Base $

Est. Cost

Total Direct Labor


5.

Labor Overhead - Specify

62083

Total Labor Overhead


6.

Special Testing

7.

Purchased Special Equipment

8.

Travel

9.

Consultants (Attach Detailed Schedule)

10. Other Direct Costs

2,424

Based on
attendance at two
project review
meetings

5,600

Specimen
Machining

11. Total Direct Cost and Overhead


12. General and Administrative Expenses (w/o IR&D)
Rate

% of cost element numbers

13. Independent Research and Development


Rate

% of cost element numbers

14. Total Estimated Cost (Footnote C)

100,076

15. Fixed Fee


16. Total Estimated Cost and Fee

100,029

17. Contractor/Third Party Cofunding (Footnote D)


18. Net PRCI Estimated Cost and Fee

100,076

This proposal reflects our best estimates as of this date, in accordance with the instructions to offerors and the footnotes which
follow.
Typed Name and Title
Signature
Date
Dr Steve Matthews

Table 1 Contract Cost Estimate


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CONTRACT COST ESTIMATE


(SUBCONTRACTED EFFORT REQUIREMENTS)
Name of Offeror
Advantica Technologies Inc.
Home Office Address
5177 Richmond Avenue, Suite 900
Houston TX 77056

RFP No/Prp No
Page Number
Number of Pages
RPTG-0328
2
2
Name of Proposed Project
Factors Influencing the relative SCC Susceptibility of Line
Pipe Subcontracted Effort

Division(s) and Location(s) (where work is being performed)


EPRG Contractor Laboratories, UK & Italy

Total Amount of Proposal


$26,046
Estimated Cost
(dollars)

Cost Elements
1.

Total Estimated
Cost (dollars)

Supporting
Schedule
(Footnote B)

26,046

CT Crack
Propagation Tests

Direct Material
a. Purchased Parts
b. Interdivisional Effort
c. Equipment Rental/Lease
d. Other
Total Direct Material

2.

Material Overhead (Rate

3.

Subcontracted Effort (Attach Detailed Schedule)

% x Base $

Subcontractor Cofunding (Footnote D)


Net Subcontracted Effort
4.

Direct Labor - Specify

Est. Hours

Rate/Hour

Est. Cost

Manager/Consultant

10

195

1,950

Senior Engineer

72

143

10,296

Engineer

109

Technician

200

69

13,800

Total Direct Labor


5.

Labor Overhead - Specify

26,046
O.H. Rate

X Base $

Est. Cost

Total Labor Overhead


6.

Special Testing

7.

Purchased Special Equipment

8.

Travel

9.

Consultants (Attach Detailed Schedule)

10. Other Direct Costs


11. Total Direct Cost and Overhead
12. General and Administrative Expenses (w/o IR&D)
Rate

% of cost element numbers

13. Independent Research and Development


Rate

% of cost element numbers

14. Total Estimated Cost (Footnote C)

26,046

15. Fixed Fee


16. Total Estimated Cost and Fee

26,046

17. Contractor/Third Party Cofunding (Footnote D)


18. Net PRCI Estimated Cost and Fee

26,046

This proposal reflects our best estimates as of this date, in accordance with the instructions to offerors and the footnotes which
follow.
Typed Name and Title
Signature
Date
Dr Steve Matthews
2 August 2002

Table 2 Contract Cost Estimate Subcontracted Effort Requirements


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2 COMMERCIAL TERMS
Terms and conditions for undertaking the proposed work will be consistent with those
previously agreed between Advantica Technology Inc. and GTI.

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August 12, 2002


Via FEDERAL EXPRESS
Proposal No. CP052723
Mr. Steve Foh
PRCI
1700 South Mount Prospect
Des Plaines, IL 60018
Re: Proposal for Effect of Operating Practice on SCC Crack Growth
Dear Steve:
Enclosed is our proposal for the project Effect of Operating Practice on SCC Crack Growth,
which is PRCI RPTG-0327.
This effort is offered under the master set of terms and conditions negotiated between PRCI and
Battelle on June 30, 2000. Our receipt of authorization under these terms and conditions will
allow us to proceed.
This offer shall remain valid for a period of sixty (60) days from the date of this letter.
If you have any technical questions, please call me at (614) 424-4421, or contact me via email at
leis@battelle.org. Questions of a contractual nature should be directed to Ms. LaDonna James,
Contracts Department, at (614) 424-5543 or via email address: jamesl@battelle.org.
Sincerely,

Brian N. Leis
Research Leader
Pipeline Technology Center
BNL/cw
Enclosure

Christina L. Rotunda
Contracting Officer

Effect of Operating Practice on SCC Crack Growth: RPTG-0327


Background
The susceptibility of pipelines prone to SCC is determined by complex interactions between the
mechanical, chemical and electrochemical factors that influence the SCC process. While prior
experience could help operators plan when control of SCC is implemented, most operators now
are subject to other drivers, such as those affected by FERC Order 636 in the US. The frequent
and significant pressure and thermal cycles more common in todays gas pipeline operation can
complicate use of past incident and hydrotest experience in SCC management. In turn, this
complicates planning maintenance for such lines and establishing a viable plan to return to
service in the unlikely event of an incident.
The factors influencing SCC nucleation and growth rates have been the subject of many
laboratory-based studies, for high pH and low pH crack growth mechanisms. These studies
highlight the important role of stress fluctuations in maintaining active crack growth, and the
tie between large load changes and step changes in growth rate (acceleration or dormancy).
Unfortunately, there is no simple way to quantify the tie between laboratory testing conditions
and pipeline operation, particularly in regard to factors that influence environmental
aggressiveness and line-pipe susceptibility.

Objective
The objective is to determine the influences of pipeline operating parameters (pressure, load
fluctuations and transients, temperature extremes, etc.) on SCC growth rate and dormancy in a
format that will permit generalization to a wide range of pipelines.

Approach
There are two keys to meeting the objective. The first is a model that replicates field trends in
cracking characteristics (length, depth, aspect ratio, cracking frequency), recreates the effects of
loading (dormancy, acceleration), and reflects typical average cracking speeds over the life of a
pipeline. The second is SCC field experience via hydrotest or in-service cracking data
representing typical prior service over the interval such data were developed. These data are
critical as they serve to calibrate the model, to make it specific to the pipeline steel
susceptibility and right-of-way (RoW) aggressiveness.

Proposed Work
The work scope based on this approach involves two major technical tasks, in addition to a
reporting task, as follows:

Task One Recast SCCLPM for User Calibration


The objective of this task is to reformulate SCCLPM to permit users to calibrate the model to
reflect the pipeline of interest. This involves changes to the input module as well as changes to
algorithms that comprise the crack nucleation and crack growth modules. Finally, a module
must be developed to process user inputs and permit the user to calibrate SCCLPM consistent
with the changes to these modules, which is done as part of Task Two.

Task Two Develop a User Calibration Module for SCCLPM


The objective of this task is to develop a module for SCCLPM that will help the user identify
what data are needed to calibrate SCCPLM based on prior historical use of the pipeline. This is
a significant task as it requires creation of a graphical user interface and supporting help screens,
along with the algorithm to determine the inherent susceptibility of a given pipeline steel subject
to the aggressiveness of its RoW. This algorithm will develop the sensitivity of cracking
response to loading and related thermal factors. Inputs will require knowledge of typical prior
operating histories, as well as prior service experience in terms of incidents, rehabilitation, and
so on. This algorithm will express pipeline-specific susceptibility data in a normalized format
that is recognized by SCCLPM and serves as a calibration factor. Once calibrated, the
reformatted version of SCCLPM will facilitate analysis of future operation relative to prior
experience. With this approach, there is no need to explicitly incorporate pipeline-specific
interactions between the mechanical, chemical and electrochemical factors influencing the SCC
process, as these are implicit in this calibration.

Task Three Reporting


This task develops a written report presenting the approach relating operating parameters to SCC
response for high pH cracking. The report will also present an updated version of SCCLPM that
includes an algorithm to make it specific to SCC susceptibility through a calibration based on
prior SCC experience, the related operational history in the form of typical discharge pressure
and temperature, and the distance from the station where prior SCC was experienced. Because
of budget limitations, this model will retain the current look and feel of the input and output,
although it will be restructured to run under a Windows environment and include a graphical
interface to deal with the calibration aspects. The existing users manual will be updated as part
of this report to address only the changes made under this project.

Deliverable
This project will lead to a written report and updated version of SCCLPM that will facilitate
developing pipeline-specific operational strategies to minimize the risk of SCC.

Cost, Schedule, and Reporting


Completion of the above three tasks for the work scope outlined is estimated to require a budget
of $75,000.00. The work can be completed within a one-year period after contract initiation.

During the course of this research, Battelle will provide quarterly status reports and progress
updates at meetings, as indicated in the table.
Month after
contract

10

11

12

Task One
Task Two
Task Three
Oral Reports

Project Organization and Management


This project will be managed within the Pipeline Technology Center at Battelle, which is
organized to meet the needs of the energy pipeline industry. All facilities needed to complete
this work are available at Battelle, which has a long history of involvement with research
associated with fracture propagation. Battelle has current and recent projects with INGAA/GTI
and PRCI that involve SCC and has used the suggested approach in work for companies in the
US and abroad. Dr. Leis has worked for hazardous liquids and natural gas transmission pipeline
companies and the pipeline industry in the US and Internationally. The project manager and
principal investigator for this effort will be Dr. Brian Leis, who will be assisted by Dr. Robert
Kurth and Mr. Thomas Forte. Dr. Kurth and Mr. Forte have supported work on SCC at Battelle
over the last 10 years.

Proposal
on
Effects of Operating Practice on SCC Crack Growth
(Materials Program)

Prepared for the


Pipeline Materials Committee
of
Pipeline Research Council International

August 2002
Submitted by
CANMET-Materials Technology Laboratory
Natural Resources Canada
568 Booth St. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

Technical Contacts
Dr. William R. Tyson, Group Leader
Joining and Structural Integrity
Phone: (613) 992-9573
Fax:
(613) 992-8735
e-mail: btyson@nrcan.gc.ca

Wenyue Zheng Ph.D., Project Leader-SCC


Joining and Structural Integrity
Phone: (613) 992-7904
Fax:
(613) 992-8735
e-mail: wenyue@nrcan.gc.ca

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PART 1 - TECHNICAL PROPOSAL

INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY

TECHNICAL DISCUSSION

OBJECTIVE

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

BACKGROUND

EXPECTED BENEFITS

TECHNICAL WORK PLAN

Task 1. Review of Existing SCC Data Correlation of Crack Growth Rates with

the Deformation Rate


Task 2. Laboratory Validation

Deliverables

REFERENCES

ORGANIZATION INFORMATION

MANAGEMENT AND PROJECT TEAM

PROJECT SCHEDULE GANTT CHART

PART II COST PROPOSAL

TASK AND COST BREAKDOWN

PRCI CONTRACT COST ESTIMATE FORM

SCHEDULES TO COST ESTIMATE

PART1 TECHNICAL PROPOSAL


INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY
Oil and gas pipelines are known to be susceptible to stress corrosion cracking in both high and low
pH (Near-Neutral pH) environments. Recent evidence suggests that cracks can become dormant or
inactive after some amount of active growth. On some of the well-examined fracture surfaces, these
growth-dormancy-growth transitions are indicated by periodic crack arrest markings [1].
Laboratory studies in this area, using both full-scale pipes and small SCC samples, have shown
strong effects of stress fluctuation on crack growth rates as well as on crack initiation [2,3]. It is likely
that under normal operating conditions in which the nominal stress at the pipe surface is below the yield
point of the steel, the dynamic loading associated with fluctuating stress provides the necessary crack tip
strain rate for crack development. The deformation rate of line pipe steel is greatly enhanced by the
presence of a cyclic loading component superimposed onto a static load.
Under special circumstances, such as in the cases where ground movement (landslide) has caused
a substantial amount of loading on the pipe, the net total stress at the pipe surface can exceed the yield
point of the material. In this case, instantaneous deformation of the line pipe steel can occur at sufficiently
high rate for crack growth. It is well possible that subsequent exhaustion of this creep process leads to a
gradual slowing down and eventual arresting of the cracking.
In the literature of stress corrosion cracking in many metal/environment systems, the term
threshold strain rate is often used to describe the critical loading condition that is essential for crack
growth/initiation. For line pipe steels in both high pH and low-pH environments, the occurrence of
cracking indicates that the operating load conditions in combination with any secondary load are within
this critical range. Avoidance of this range can no doubt lead to prolonged service life and improvement
of pipeline reliability.
Research in fracture mechanics over the past few decades has shown that the crack tip
deformation process is governed by the overall crack driving force, often expressed as the J-integral, and
the inherent resistance of the material to plastic deformation. Therefore, for a given operating system this
critical operating condition would be different for line pipe steels of inherently different properties. As
higher grades of steels are used in new pipeline construction, knowledge of whether these new steels
perform differently in an SCC environment is of significant value.
TECHNICAL DISCUSSION
OBJECTIVE:
To establish a correlation model that relates the crack growth rate in low-pH or in high-pH
environments to the deformation rate, especially the crack tip deformation rate, of the line pipe steel. The
ultimate goal of this work is to define the critical loading conditions necessary for SCC to develop so that
operating practices can be assessed for the purpose of eventual avoidance of SCC.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Recent lab studies, using both full-scale pipes and small test samples, have shown the effects of
various loading parameters such as R, stress level and K on active crack growth. However, loading

conditions that cause a dormant crack to re-initiate have not been established. The primary problem in
applying data from tests using conventional small specimens such as the CT-type specimen or smooth tensile
samples is that the test conditions cannot be readily compared with field operating conditions. In addition, the
stress state in a CT specimen and tensile bar is different from that of a crack in a long pipe. The
electrochemical effect is also likely different in the sense that the ratio of active crack area to the flat surface
in a real pipe is very small; thus, the severity of mechanical loading required to generate cracking may be
different from a precracked compact-tension or smooth tensile specimen.
BACKGROUND
It is known that the cracks on pipelines can become inactive after some amount of active growth. In
a study of the SCC fracture surface produced by a landslide-induced environmentally assisted failure [1],
distinct crack arrest markings were found that indicate the growth-dormancy-growth transitions during the
propagation process of the main flaw. In a subsequent review of other SCC failures resulting from axial
cracking, such markings on the fracture surface were found to be generally present. As the cracking in both
high-pH and low-pH environments is affected by the strain rate of the line pipe steel at the crack tip, it is very
likely that the transition between active and inactive states is related to the changes in the strain
(deformation) rate at the crack tip.
For a crack in a pipe subject to fluctuating load, the deformation process at the crack tip can be
modeled using finite element analysis. The overall crack tip strain rate is governed by the operating conditions
(stress level, amplitude of stress fluctuation, etc.) and the material properties such as yield strength and strainhardening coefficient. When the net stress is close to or above the yield point of the steel, deformation by creep
can also generate a strain rate in excess of 10-6s-1, sufficient for crack re-initiation. This parameter, the
deformation rate at the crack tip, is proposed to be the critical loading parameter for the various types of test
specimens and cracked pipelines; it can thus be used as a way of bridging the gap between lab data and field
conditions.
Over the last several decades, a large amount of research work has been conducted on SCC in
high-pH conditions. More recently, SCC data for the cracking in low-pH environments have been
published in journals and by research organizations such as PRCI and GTI. In this proposal, we plan
perform a thorough state-of-the-art literature review on all the relevant data on pipeline SCC. Effort will
be made to correlate the reported crack growth rates with loading conditions for the various types of
specimen used. The focus of the this first phase will be on establishing a quantitative model that describes
the crack growth rates in terms of the crack tip deformation rate of the respective line pipe materials. In a
second stage, laboratory testing will be performed to validate and refine this quantitative model.
EXPECTED BENEFITS:
1. An advanced understanding of the conditions leading to cracking and dormancy would facilitate
prioritization of the SCC-related maintenance programs for SCC-affected pipelines, thus avoiding
unexpected occurrence of SCC failures.
2. Knowing the operating conditions, the level of secondary loading and materials properties,
pipeline operator can assess the SCC susceptibility of their system using a quantitative model that
relates the general crack growth rates with the crack tip deformation rates. The industry can

reduce the maintenance-related down time and reduce the costs of in-line inspection and/or
hydrotesting, which are very costly to perform. This model can also be used for service life-time
prediction and help pipeline companies in their long-term planning.
3. A quantitative descriptive model that defines the threshold loading conditions for crack reinitiation and propagation would enhance the confidence of pipeline operators in their integrity
management practices.
4. Cost savings from the above benefits.
TECHNICAL WORK PLAN:
Task 1. Review of existing SCC data - correlation of crack growth rates with the deformation rate
In this task, existing SCC data from field inspection programs and laboratory research projects
will be collected and reviewed. The line pipe steels used, the configuration of the test specimens used and
the details of mechanical loading applied will be recorded and evaluated. In the cases where the crack
developed from an initially smooth surface, the loading rate used, or the likely strain rate calculated from
relevant test data such as the cross-head displacement rates, will be taken as the Base Parameter.
In the case where the test specimens contained pre-notch or precracks, the Base Parameter will be
the crack-tip opening rate. In many cases, this parameter is not directly available from the reported data as
the test loading conditions are usually described by the stress intensity factor, K or K. However, crack
tip opening displacement (CTOD) values can be obtained from K or J and the material properties. All
CANMET test specimens from past projects are still available and can be used to produce tensile samples
for generating the required material properties. A good portion of test data has been generated for the
TCPL system (both the former TCPL and the NOVA Gas Transmission segments) and CANMET has
access to most of the representative grades of line pipes. Some of the key research labs generating useful
data in this area include Waterloo University, Univ. of Alberta, NOVA Chemical Research, CC
Technology, Batelle and University of Newcastle upon Tyne. CANMET MTL has collaborated with
these organizations for various projects and they will be contacted for data-sharing in the course of this
program.
The severity of the chemical conditions used will also be recorded and reviewed.
The expected outcome of this task is a quantitative model that defines the relation between the
crack growth rate and the deformation rate of the line pipe steel.
Task 2. Laboratory validation
This task is optional. CANMET recommends that this work be done in order to validate the model
developed in Task 1.
In this task, short pipe sections in the form of pipe sleeves containing multiple pre-cracks, in isolation
and within interaction range, will be prepared and installed on long carrier pipes. Test cells containing the
high-pH solution (the carbonate-bicarbonate solution) or the low-pH solution (the near-neutral-pH solution)
will be fixed on top of the test sleeve. By adjusting the preload level in the sleeve and by controlling the load
spectrum of the carrier pipe, load level in the test sleeve can be accurately controlled to produce various predefined pressure-time waveforms.

A range of loading conditions can be used in the tests to validate the model developed in Task 1. By
growing cracks at very slow rates, the threshold loading condition for crack re-initiation can be deduced from
the test data. Because pipe sleeves are used instead of full-scale pipe, the overall test time can be much
shortened.
This task will take place in the second year of this program.
Deliverables:
The results of Task 1 will be collected into a final report for Task 1. This report will contain a
quantitative model that relates general crack growth rates with deformation rates at the crack tip.
If Task 2 is requested by PRCI, a second report will be prepared following the completion of Task
2. This report will contain a validation of the model developed in Task 1.
REFERENCES:
1.

W. Zheng, R. Sutherby, R. W. Revie, W. R. Tyson and G. Shen, Stress Corrosion Cracking of Linepipe
Steels in Near-Neutral pH Environment: a Review of the Effects of Stress, in Environmentally Assisted
Cracking: Predictive Methods for Risk Assessment and Evaluation of Materials, Equipment, and
Structures, ASTM STP 1401
2. Wang, Y.-Z., Revie, R. W., Shehata, M. T., Parkins, R. N., and Krist, K., Initiation of Environment Induced
Cracking in Pipeline Steel: Microstructural Correlation, International Pipeline Conference, Calgary, Vol. 1,
ASME, New York, 1998, pp. 529-542.

3. Zheng, W., MacLeod, F. A., Revie, R.W., Tyson, W. R., Shen, G., Shehata, M., Roy, G., Kiff, D., and
McKinnon, J., Growth of Stress Corrosion Cracks in Pipelines in Near-Neutral pH Environment: The
CANMET Full-Scale Tests - Final Report to the CANMET/Industry Consortium, CANMET/MTL, Ottawa,
MTL 97-48(CF), 1997.

ORGANIZATION INFORMATION
The proposed PRCI project will be carried out in collaboration with PRCI member companies.
The CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory (MTL), Canadas premier metallurgical laboratory,
is part of the research and technology development arm of Natural Resources Canada. MTL is the
largest research facility in Canada dedicated to metals and other materials. MTL uniquely offers startto-finish capacities encompassing material selection, product design, fabrication and characterization.
In over 30 years of research on infrastructure reliability, MTL has addressed metallurgical,
mechanical, joining, corrosion and inspection technologies in integrity assessment for pipelines,
marine and offshore structures, pressure vessels and power generation plants. MTL is closely involved
in management of stress corrosion cracking in pipelines. It administers several research consortia
sponsored by the pipeline industry.

MANAGEMENT AND PROJECT TEAM


Dr. Wenyue Zheng will be the Project Leader, and will perform most of the data collection and
review, as well as preparation of the final report. The CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory has a
matrix management structure. Dr. Winston Revie, Program Manager, Infrastructure Reliability, will
provide overall guidance and direction to the project leader. Dr. William Tyson, Group Leader, Joining
and Structural Integrity, will make available to the project leader the resources needed to perform the
project. Dr. Gwowu Shen will perform the calculations of mechanical driving force.

Dr. Wenyue Zheng


Project Leader
Phone: (613) 992-7904
Fax:
(613) 992-8735
e-mail: wenyue@Nrcan.gc.ca

Dr. William R. Tyson


Group Leader, Joining & Structural Integrity
Phone: (613) 992-9573
Fax:
(613) 992-8735
e-mail: btyson@nrcan.gc.ca

Dr. R. Winston Revie


Program Manager, Infrastructure Reliability
Phone: (613) 992-1703
Fax:
(613) 992-8735
e-mail: wrevie@nrcan.gc.ca

Dr. G. Shen
Research Scientist
Phone: (613) 996-4367
Fax:
(613) 992-8735
e-mail: gshen@nrcan.gc.ca

Business Contact:
Mr. Alan Bowles
Manager Business Communication
Phone: (613) 995-8814
Fax:
(613) 992-8735
e-mail: abowles@nrcan.gc.ca

PROJECT SCHEDULE GANTT CHART

START: January 2003

END: December 2003

PROJECT/PHASE DESCRIPTION:
Effects of Operating Practice on SCC Task 1
(Materials Program)

2003
J

TIME FRAME: Months


F

Task1 - ACTIVITY/TASK
Project Leader- Project Management
Task 1. Review of existing SCC data

Collection of SCC data from available sources


Review of test conditions and test materials
Calculation of mechanical driving force
Mechanical testing
Data analysis and reporting

Task 2 would require an additional year to validate the model developed in Task 1.
Task 2 is not shown on the Gantt Chart because it is an optional task.

PART II COST PROPOSAL

TASK AND COST BREAKDOWN


TASKS

DESCRIPTION

Task 1

Review of existing SCC data and defining the relation between crack
growth rate and the deformation rate.
- Collection of SCC data
- Review of test conditions and test material properties
- Calculation of mechanical driving force
- Mechanical testing
- Data analysis and reporting
Subtotal
- Project Management
- Travel and accommodation
- Special materials and supplies
*Total for Task 1 (includes in-kind contributions)

$8,841.60
$30,700.80
$27,098.88
$9,408.00
$34,736.00
$110,785.28
$8,771.28
$6,400.00
$2,560.00
$128,516.48

Laboratory Validation (optional)


Total for Task 2 (includes in-kind contributions)

$169,795.20
$169,795.20

Total for Tasks 1 and 2(includes in-kind contributions)

$298,311.68

1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5

Task 2

___________________
* Funding requested from PRCI is US $56,725.76 for Task 1.

ESTIMATE
US $
(including
in-kind
contributions)

PRCI CONTRACT COST ESTIMATE

CONTRACT COST ESTIMATE


(FOOTNOTE A)
Name of Offeror
CANMET-Materials Technology Laboratory
Home Office Address
568 Booth St., Ottawa, Ontraio, Canada
K1A0G1

RFP No/Prp No

Division(s) and Location(s) (where work is being performed)


As above

Total Amount of Proposal

Number of Pages

Name of Proposed Project

Effects of Operating Practice on SCC Crack GrowthTask 1


US$128,516.4860 funding from PRCI + in-kind
contributions of US$71,790.48
Estimated Cost
(dollars)

Cost Elements
1.

Page Number

Direct Material
a. Purchased Parts

Total Estimated
Cost (dollars)

Supporting Schedule
(Footnote B)

$2,560.00

b. Interdivisional Effort
c. Equipment Rental/Lease
d. Other
Total Direct Material
2.

Material Overhead (Rate

3.

$2,560.00
% x Base $

Subcontracted Effort (Attach Detailed Schedule)


Subcontractor Cofunding (Footnote D)
Net Subcontracted Effort

4.

Direct Labor - Specify

Est. Hours

Rate/Hour

Est. Cost

91
650
75

$177.28
$144.64
$125.44

$16,132.00
$94,015.00
$9,408.00

O.H. Rate

X Base $

Est. Cost

Professional Level 3
Professional Level 2
Technologist Level 2
Total Direct Labor
5.

Labor Overhead - Specify

Schedule A
$122,116.48

Total Labor Overhead


6.

Special Testing

7.

Purchased Special Equipment

8.

Travel

9.

Consultants (Attach Detailed Schedule)

10.

Other Direct Costs (shipping of materials to be covered by member companies)

11.

Total Direct Cost and Overhead

12.

General and Administrative Expenses (w/o IR&D)


Rate

13.

$6,400.00

% of cost element numbers

Independent Research and Development


Rate

% of cost element numbers

14.

Total Estimated Cost (Footnote C)

15.

Fixed Fee

16.

Total Estimated Cost and Fee

17.

Contractor/Third Party Cofunding (Footnote D)

18.

Net PRCI Estimated Cost and Fee

$128,516.48
$71,790.48
$56,725.76

Schedule B
Schedule C

This proposal reflects our best estimates as of this date, in accordance with the instructions to offerors and the footnotes, which follow.

Typed Name and Title


Alan Bowles Manager, Business Development

Signature

Date

SCHEDULES TO THE CONTRACT COST ESTIMATE


SCHEDULE A LABOR RATES
In January 2002, the CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory received approval of a
revised schedule of charge rates for external clients. These rates had not been revised since they
were first implemented ten years ago. Rates listed are those that have been determined to
recover the full costs of providing research services without making a profit. These rates
include as overhead, costs that are often charged separately by other organizations, such as the
use of special equipment, materials, administrative expenses, etc. Since these rates have been
determined externally to the CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory (by the Finance
Department of Natural Resources Canada) we have not broken them down according to the
categories provided in the cost estimate form. Information on this breakdown can be provided
upon request.
SCHEDULE B IN-KIND CONTRIBUTIONS
In-kind contributions are made from two sources. Firstly, the CANMET Materials Technology
Laboratory is making an in-kind contribution based upon its labor rates. The value for Task 1 is
$33,390.72. This contribution effectively reduces the full cost of labor to nominal costs as
follows:
Employment
Category
Professional 3
Professional 2
Technologist 2
Technologist 1

Full Cost
Nominal Cost
Labor rate in US $/h
177.28
127.36
144.64
104.32
125.44
90.24
93.44
67.20

The second in-kind contribution comes from the Program on Energy Research and development,
a sponsor of research at the CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory. The value of this
contribution is estimated to be $38,400. Thus the total in-kind contribution is $71,790.72. The
Program of Energy Research and Development (PERD) is a federal, interdepartmental program
operated by Natural Resources Canada (NRCan). PERD funds research and development
designed to ensure a sustainable energy future for Canada in the best interests of both our
economy and our environment. It directly supports 40 percent of all non-nuclear energy R&D
conducted in Canada by the federal and provincial governments, and is concerned with all
aspects of energy supply and use, with the exception of nuclear energy.
All costs in this proposal are in US currency. Conversions from calculations in Canadian
currency have been made at the rate of Canadian $1.00 = US $0.64. We propose that in the case
of currency fluctuations, the cash price in US currency remain fixed and that the amount of the
fluctuations be absorbed in the amount of the required in-kind contribution.
SCHEDULE C TASK 2 COSTS
Costs for Task 2 have not been included in the Cost estimate, which addresses Task 1 only. The
total cost for Task 2 would be $169,795.20. For Task 2 the in-kind contribution from labor rates
would be $42,713.60 while that from the Program on Energy Research and Development would
be $48,000.00. Thus the total in-kind contribution for Task 2 would be $90,713.60. Hence, the
net cost to PRCI for Task 2 would be $79,081.60.

Proposal

Remaining Strength
of Corroded Pipes
Subjected to Biaxial
Loads
(RPTG-0323)

Submitted to
Materials Technical Committee of
the Pipeline Research Council
International

Prepared by
Qishi Chen, Ph.D., P.Eng.
tel:
780 450 8989 ext 215
email: q.chen@cfertech.com

Copyright 2002
C-FER Technologies

August 2002
Project L076

C-FER Technologies

NOTICE
Restriction on Disclosure

Information contained in this proposal may not be disclosed, duplicated or used in whole or in
part for any purpose other than in evaluation of the Pipeline Research Council International, Inc.
(PRCI). In the event that the proposal is not accepted, this proposal document should be returned
to C-FER Technologies. This restriction does not limit the use of information contained in the
document if it is obtained from another source without restriction.

C-FER Technologies

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Notice
Table of Contents
List of Figures and Tables
Executive Summary

i
ii
iii
iv

1.

TERMS OF REFERENCE ................................................................................................... 1

2.

TECHNICAL BACKGROUND............................................................................................. 2

2.1 General
2.2 Previous Work
2.3 Technical Issues
3.

2
2
5

PROPOSED PROGRAM..................................................................................................... 7

3.1 Objective
3.2 Incentive
3.3 Work Plan
3.3.1 Task 1:
3.3.2 Task 2:
3.3.3 Task 3:
3.3.4 Task 4:
3.3.5 Task 5:
3.4 Schedule
3.5 Cost

Review of Previous Research


Full-Scale Burst Tests
Finite Element Analysis
Assessment of Axial Stress Effects
Reporting

7
7
7
7
7
8
9
9
9
10

4.

PROJECT TEAM ORGANIZATION AND QUALIFICATIONS ......................................... 11

5.

CORPORATE QUALIFICATIONS .................................................................................... 13

5.1
5.2
6.

Corporate Profile
Qualifications Related to the Proposed Project

13
13

REFERENCES .................................................................................................................. 15

APPENDICES

Appendix A

Resumes of Project Team

Appendix B

C-FERs Structural Testing Facilities

ii

C-FER Technologies

LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES

Figures

Figure 1 Ruptured Pipe Specimen with Simulated Defect


Figure 2 Finite Element Model for the Local Buckling of a Corroded Pipe

Tables

Table 1 Proposed schedule.


Table 2 Cost Breakdown by Task (US$)

iii

C-FER Technologies

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
TITLE

Remaining Strength of Corroded Pipes


Subjected to Biaxial Loads

CONTRACTOR

C-FER Technologies

NEW PROJECT
FUNDING REQUESTED

$120,000

ESTIMATED COMPLETION DATE

December 31, 2003

TOTAL ESTIMATED COST

$120,000

Objective

The objective of the proposed project is to assess the effect of axial stress on the remaining burst
capacity of corroded pipes by conducting full-scale tests and finite element analysis. If axial
stress effects are found to be significant, the limiting axial stress beyond which standard
assessment methods are no longer applicable will be determined, and the currently available
predictive methods will be evaluated to identify the most suitable approaches for incorporating
axial stress into the prediction of burst pressure.
Incentive

Standard methods currently used in the pipeline industry for assessing the burst capacity of
corroded pipes (e.g. RSTRENG, B31G), do not take axial stresses into account. This is an
important source of uncertainty in integrity assessment for pipelines with metal loss corrosion.
The practice of pipeline integrity management can be improved if the effect of axial stress on
remaining burst capacity is better understood, and the most appropriate methods for
acknowledging the effects of bending and axial loading are identified.
Work Plan

It is proposed that the project be carried out with the following tasks:
1. Review of Previous Research. Review existing prediction methods for burst under biaxial
stresses and collect test and numerical data produced from previous work.
2. Full-Scale Burst Tests. Develop a test matrix, design and fabricate test set-up and specimens,
and conduct full-scale tests of pipes with different types of defects and subject them to different
levels of axial stress.
3. Finite Element Analysis. Develop finite element models based on full-scale test results, select
parametric cases based on key input variables and perform parametric finite element analysis to
numerically expand the experimental database.

iv

C-FER Technologies
Executive Summary

4. Assessment of Axial Stress Effect. Assess the effect of axial stress on the remaining burst
capacity, determine limitations of currently available methods and identify methods suitable for
biaxial stress applications.
5. Reporting. Prepare project status reports, present project results at two committee meetings
and prepare a comprehensive final report.

C-FER Technologies

1. TERMS OF REFERENCE

This document contains a proposal submitted by C-FER Technologies in response to a Request


For Proposal (RFP) issued by the Pipeline Materials Technical Committee of the Pipeline
Research Council International, Inc. (PRCI) on the subject of Remaining Strength of Corroded
Pipes Subjected to Biaxial Loads. The objective of the proposed project is to assess the effect
of axial stress on the burst of corroded pipes and to evaluate current assessment methods for their
applicability to different axial stress levels.
This proposal describes the approach that will be used for this work. It includes a technical
background section (Section 2) that describes previous work in this area and the major technical
issues related to the proposed project. Section 3 deals with the objective, incentive, proposed
tasks, schedule and cost. Section 4 outlines the project management structure and team
qualifications, whereas Section 5 summarizes the relevant experience of the proposed team.

C-FER Technologies

2. TECHNICAL BACKGROUND
2.1 General

Buried onshore pipelines are subjected to hoop (circumferential) stresses primarily related to
internal pressure, as well as axial (longitudinal) stresses due to internal pressure, temperature
changes and ground movement. For pipes with metal loss corrosion defects, burst under internal
pressure is the most common failure mode.
The remaining strength of corroded pipes subjected to pressure loading has been extensively
researched and standard assessment methods such as RSTRENG (Kiefner and Veith 1989) and
ASME B31G (ASME 1991) are readily available. In recent years, these assessment methods
have been extended to include complex defect shapes, defect clusters, seam welds, and older
pipes with low toughness (e.g. DNV 1999). However, all standard methods that are currently
available only consider hoop stresses due to pressure loading. The effect of axial stresses related
to bending or axial loads has not been thoroughly investigated.
Current standard assessment methods are typically calibrated against burst tests on pipes with
closed ends, which results in an axial tensile stress at approximately 50% of the hoop stress. As
such, the assessment methods inherently incorporate this assumed axial stress level, despite the
fact that axial stress due to internal pressure of buried pipelines is more typically 30% of hoop
stress and the total axial stress varies with other factors such as temperature transients and
ground movement.
2.2 Previous Work

Current standard assessment methods are based on plastic collapse models similar to the
prediction methods developed in the 1970s for pipes with axial surface flaws (e.g. Kiefner et al.
1973). Tests performed at that time (on pipes with axial surface flaws) suggest that, in
comparison to other parameters such as flaw geometries and material properties, burst pressure is
not particularly sensitive to the variation of axial stresses.
Recent work on this topic was reported by Roberts and Pick (1998), who performed 10 tests of
X42 pipe specimens with a 12 inch diameter and a 0.375 inch wall thickness. The circular
shaped corrosion defects with diameter of 1.25 inches and a depth of 60-80% of wall thickness
were electromechanically simulated. When subjected to different axial stresses, the variation in
burst pressure was within 20%. The lowest burst pressure occurred when the ratio between axial
stress and critical hoop stress was at 25% (axial compression) and 125% (axial tension). A
correlation between burst pressure and axial stress was found by using the von Mises yield
criterion, which predicts that the effective yield stress reaches its maximum when axial stress is
50% of hoop stress and decreases as axial stress deviates from this point. Supplementary finite
element analyses (FEA) for similar pipes with similar circular defects were also performed to
2

C-FER Technologies

Technical Background
support the test results. Based on test and analytical results for this particular type of defect, a
correction factor was derived using the von Mises yield criterion.
Appendix D of DNVs Recommended Practice F101 (DNV 1999) describes an approach for
considering axial stress in the prediction of the remaining strength of corroded pipe. When axial
stress is compressive, the approach involves the use of a reduction factor on the burst pressure
based on a longitudinal break. For axial tensile stress, the plastic collapse solution of PD6493 for
surface circumferential crack-like defects was adopted. Since the approach was not extensively
validated, users of Appendix D are cautioned that this methodology serves as an approximation.
The above discussions suggest that further tests and analyses are required to determine the true
effect of axial stresses. A desired solution for biaxial burst of corroded pipes should be based on:

effect of axial stress on remaining burst capacity;

limiting axial stress for standard assessment methods;

failure mechanisms of biaxial burst; and

predictive models.

The proposed project will focus on the first two items. If it is proven that axial stress within the
practical range has a significant impact on remaining burst capacity, then experimental and
analytical results will provide information to further identify failure mechanisms and develop
appropriate predictive methods.
In addition to burst failure, pipes with high compressive stresses may fail in local buckling or
wrinkling. This failure mode has been addressed in another PRCI project entitled Local
Buckling and Collapse of Corroded Pipes (PR-244-9827). The project has been carried out by
C-FER in collaboration with DNV and the University of Alberta. The project involves full-scale
tests, finite element analysis, development of predictive equations, and calibration of safety
factors. Figure 1 shows a ruptured specimen with a simulated rectangular patch defect. A plot of
the finite element model in Figure 2 shows the amplified bulging on the compressive side when a
corroded pipe is subjected to internal pressure and bending loads. The work completed so far
provided experience in developing test programs and numerical models for line pipes with metal
loss corrosion defects.

C-FER Technologies

Technical Background

Figure 1 Ruptured Pipe Specimen with Simulated Defect

Figure 2 Finite Element Model for the Local Buckling of a Corroded Pipe

C-FER Technologies

Technical Background
2.3 Technical Issues

This subsection outlines several key factors that need to be considered in designing the
experimental program and developing numerical models for the burst of corroded pipes under
biaxial stress.
The design of the test matrix consists of identifying key parameters, and selecting sampling
points and combinations. As suggested in previous work by DNV and the University of
Waterloo, axial stress (magnitude, tension vs. compression), and the type (pitting vs. patch,
longitudinal vs. circumferential grooves) and geometry of the defect (depth, longitudinal and
circumferential dimensions) are potentially key variables for the burst pressure. Other
parameters may include pipe diameter, wall thickness and material properties.
One possibility for the test matrix involves combining three levels of axial stress and two or three
defect geometries, producing a 2x3 or 3x3 matrix that will lead to six or nine tests. The three
levels of axial stress may involve an axial tension of 50% hoop stress as the baseline case, an
axial compression case, and an axial tension case with tension greater than 50% hoop stress. The
second possibility is to design the matrix based on the results of finite element analysis, and then
select points for testing.
It is suggested that the test program focus on two variables (with the final decision on test
parameters being made after a thorough review and preliminary analyses). The effects of other
variables such as steel grade, pipe diameter and wall thickness can be further investigated by
numerical models that are verified by full-scale tests.
Numerical modeling of a burst failure will take into account the secondary effects due to large
plastic deformation. For instance, burst failure involving material strength, as well as geometric
factors such as the expansion of the circumference and the simultaneous decrease of wall
thickness. As a result, internal pressure is applied to a pipe with a larger inside surface and
thinner walls than its original configuration. Accordingly, the FEA model will have the
following features:

inelastic material behavior (yielding and strain-hardening);

large deformation formulation (equilibrium at every load step is based on increased diameter
and decreased wall thickness);

deformation dependent pressure load (surface area associated with internal pressure varies
with pipe deformation);

realistic failure criteria (fracture mechanics based criteria or strain-based criteria); and

displacement-controlled solution algorithm (rather than a load-controlled algorithm to


capture both the ascending and the descending portions of the response curve and identify the
maximum pressure).
5

C-FER Technologies

Technical Background
It is proposed that the ABAQUS finite element program be used for this project. ABAQUS is a
general-purpose software package with excellent non-linear capabilities. A model based on an
appropriate selection of libraries of elements, material models, loading mechanisms and solution
algorithms, within ABAQUS, will address the above-mentioned modeling concerns.

C-FER Technologies

3. PROPOSED PROGRAM
3.1 Objective

The objective of the proposed project is to assess the effect of axial stress on the remaining burst
capacity of corroded pipes by conducting full-scale tests and finite element analysis. If such an
effect is found to be significant, the limiting axial stress beyond which standard assessment
methods are no longer applicable will be determined. Currently available predictive methods
will be evaluated to identify the most suitable approaches for incorporating axial stress into the
prediction of burst pressure.
3.2 Incentive

Standard methods currently used in the pipeline industry for assessing the burst capacity of
corroded pipes do not take axial stress into account. This is an important uncertainty factor in
integrity assessment for pipelines with metal loss corrosion. The practice of pipeline integrity
management can be improved if the effects of axial stress on the remaining burst capacity is
better understood, and the most appropriate methods for incorporating bending and axial loading
are identified.
3.3 Work Plan

The proposed objectives can be achieved by carrying out the following five tasks.
3.3.1 Task 1: Review of Previous Research

A review of existing prediction methods for burst under biaxial stresses, such those published by
DNV and the University of Waterloo, will be performed. It is believed that most of the relevant
information has been gathered by C-FER in the past and is available for this project; but C-FER
will seek assistance from organizations like DNV and the University of Waterloo to collect test
and numerical data produced from previous work. In addition, a literature search will be
conducted to identify and gather new information.
3.3.2 Task 2: Full-Scale Burst Tests

The design, preparation and execution of full-scale burst tests include the following sub-tasks:

Design of the test matrix

Design of test set-up and fabrication of end cap fixtures


7

C-FER Technologies

Proposed Program

Design and fabrication of test specimens

Measurements and preparation of test specimens

Design and set-up of a data acquisition system

Execution of biaxial burst tests

Material tests

Data reduction

A test matrix will be designed according to parameters chosen, based on the review of existing
information and selected cases of preliminary finite element analysis. The test matrix may
consider different axial stresses (magnitude, tension vs. compression), and representative defect
types (groove, patch or pitting) and geometries (depth and axial and circumferential dimensions).
Test specimens will be manufactured using representative line pipes of a typical steel grade. It is
proposed that defects similar to metal loss corrosions be machined using a process that will
minimize strain hardening during machining and stress concentration during pressurizing.
It is anticipated that six to nine tests will be carried out. The exact number of tests will be
determined once the details of test set-up and test specimens are decided.
3.3.3 Task 3: Finite Element Analysis

Following full-scale tests, FEA models will be developed and calibrated for the purpose of
parametric analysis. The objective of parametric FEA analysis is to numerically expand the
experimental database such that the influence of additional variables can be determined.
This task may include the following:

Development of FEA model

Development of failure criteria

Calibration of FEA model with full-scale tests

Design of parametric analysis cases

Parametric FEA analysis

Data reduction

In addition to defect types and geometries, and axial stress magnitude, other parameters to be
considered may include diameter, wall thickness and material properties such as yield stress,
ultimate tensile stress and toughness.

C-FER Technologies

Proposed Program
In order to facilitate the evaluation of axial stress effects, cases with baseline axial stress values
will also be analyzed.
3.3.4 Task 4: Assessment of Axial Stress Effects

Based on test and FEA results, the effect of axial stress on remaining burst capacity will be
assessed by comparing burst pressures of pipes with identical size, material and defects but
different axial stresses. It is expected that the axial stress effect will vary for different pipe sizes,
materials and defect combinations.
If axial stress is found to be influential on the burst pressure, current assessment methods for
corroded pipes will be compared and evaluated to determine their limitations with respect to the
range of axial stress within which the assessment results are acceptable. The evaluation will also
identify which current methods can be used to assess remaining burst capacity when axial
stresses are present.
3.3.5 Task 5: Reporting

Following the reporting guidelines of PRCI, this task includes the preparation of project status
reports at the required intervals, two presentations at committee meetings, and preparation of the
final report.
A comprehensive draft final report documenting the project methodology and conclusions will be
prepared and submitted to the committee for review. Copies of the final report will be issued
after the committee's comments are incorporated.
3.4 Schedule

As shown in Table 1, it is proposed that the project be completed within one year from the
starting date. The draft final report will be submitted at ten months, and the final report will be
submitted one month after receiving the clients comments.

C-FER Technologies

Proposed Program

Month
Task

10

11

12

1. Review of Existing Assessment


Methods
2. Full-Scale Biaxial Burst Tests
3. Finite Element Analysis
4. Assessment of Axial Stress Effect
5. Reporting

Table 1 Proposed Schedule

3.5 Cost

We propose to carry out the work for a fixed price of US$120,000. Breakdown of this total cost
by task is shown in Table 2.
Task

Labour

Materials

Subcontract

Travel

Total

1. Review of Existing Assessment


Methods

$3,800

$0

$2,100

$0

$5,900

2. Full-Scale Biaxial Burst Tests

$39,300

$9,800

$9,400

$0

$58,500

3. Finite Element Analysis

$21,100

$4,600

$0

$0

$25,700

4. Assessment of Axial Stress Effect

$11,000

$0

$0

$0

$11,000

5. Reporting

$14,400

$100

$0

$4,400

$18,900

Total

$89,600

$14,500

$11,500

$4,400

$120,000

Table 2 Cost Breakdown by Task (US$)

We propose to invoice PRCI monthly based on the estimated value of the work completed
(according to this proposal) up to the end of the previous month.

10

C-FER Technologies

4. PROJECT TEAM ORGANIZATION AND QUALIFICATIONS

The proposed project team possesses the technical and managerial qualifications required to
complete the project and produce a high quality product. It will consist of Dr. Qishi Chen who
will act as project manager and principal investigator, Dr. Tom Zimmerman and
Mr. Mark Stephens as senior advisors, and Mr. Chris Timms and Mr. Amir Muradali who will
act as project engineers. Other C-FER personnel will contribute to the project as required.
Relevant qualifications and experience of the project personnel is summarized below. One-page
resumes are included in Appendix A.
Qishi Chen, Ph.D., P.Eng. (Project Manager)

Dr. Chen, Principal Research Engineer - Pipeline Technology, will be responsible for managing
the project budget and schedule, interacting with the ad hoc group, and preparing the final report.
Dr. Chen has fifteen years of engineering experience and has managed projects with individual
budgets exceeding $500,000. He is a structural engineer with expertise in numerical analysis,
structural testing, structural design and risk and reliability of pipelines. He has been involved in
numerous projects related to pipeline reliability including the calibration of reliability levels for
limit states design of pipelines, assessment of pipeline failure consequences, and mechanical
damage prevention for onshore pipelines. Dr. Chen was project manager and principal
investigator for several PRCI projects including Local Buckling and Collapse of Corroded
Pipelines (PR-244-9827) and Reliability-based Prevention of Mechanical Damage to
Pipelines (PR-244-9729).
Tom Zimmerman, Ph.D., P.Eng. (Senior Advisor)

Dr. Zimmerman, Manager - Special Projects, will advise on fracture mechanics failure criteria.
Dr. Zimmerman has twenty years of experience in engineering design and research. His
responsibilities during fifteen years at C-FER include: project management, development of
work scopes and methodologies, technical direction and review of engineering services, market
development, client liaison and long-term strategic core research planning. He managed C-FER's
Pipeline and Structures Department from 1990 to 1998. Projects conducted under his leadership
include: the development of limit states design procedures for pipelines; an investigation of the
structural integrity and buckling behavior of pipelines subjected to extreme ground movements; a
full-scale experimental study of the collapse resistance of an ultra-deep water pipeline; and an
investigation of the reserve capacity and ultimate strength of stiffened steel plate systems for
Arctic offshore structures. Dr. Zimmerman chairs the Canadian Standards Association (CSA)
Task Force on Limit States Design of Pipelines and is also a member of an ISO working group
that is developing a limit states pipeline design standard. He has led several PRCI projects
including PR-244-9517, Limit States Design of Pipelines, and PR-244-9805, Effect of Y/T Ratio
on Mechanical Damage Tolerance.

11

C-FER Technologies Inc.


Project Team Organization and Qualifications
Mark Stephens, M.Sc, P.Eng. (Senior Advisor)

Mr. Stephens, Senior Specialist - Pipeline Technology, will advise on current standard
assessment methods for corroded pipes and review project results including the final report.
Mr. Stephens has nineteen years of experience in the areas of advanced structural analysis,
large-scale testing, and risk and reliability of engineering systems with an emphasis on pipelines.
Pipeline research projects for which he has been the project manger and/or principal investigator
include: the development of risk-based methods and software for the optimization of integrity
maintenance activities for transmission pipelines; the development of guidelines for the limit
states design of buried pipelines; probabilistic assessments of the fracture initiation and
propagation susceptibility of older pipelines; the assessment of the effects of ground movement
on the integrity of buried pipelines; and large-scale experimental and analytical investigations of
the structural integrity and buckling behavior of pipelines subjected to extreme loads.
Mr. Stephens has been actively involved in the development of the sections of the Canadian
pipeline code (CSA Z662) pertaining to Risk Assessment and Limit States Design.
Chris Timms, B.Sc, P.Eng. (Project Engineer)

Mr. Timms, Research Engineer - Technical Services, will be responsible for the full-scale tests.
He comes from a mechanical engineering background with over 10 years of experience covering
a wide assortment of technical assignments and research projects. Since joining C-FER in 1991,
Mr. Timms has been involved in all phases of many C-FER projects. Frequently, he assumes the
role of design engineer for large laboratory programs such as the Bluestream and Mardi-Gras
pipeline projects. Mr. Timms has also served as project manager for large laboratory programs
such as the recently completed TAMSA full-scale pipeline combined load test program. In
addition to continued project work, Mr. Timms is currently the primary technical resource to
C-FERs calibration program.
Amir Muradali, M.Sc. (Project Engineer)

Mr. Muradali, Research Engineer - Pipeline Technology, will be responsible for the numerical
analysis. Mr. Muradali has over five years of wide industry experience. Since joining C-FER,
Mr. Muradali has served as project engineer in several pipeline integrity related projects.
Recently Mr. Muradali completed an assessment of improved corrosion assessment methods and
updated the corrosion model implemented in PIRAMID. Mr. Muradali has an extensive
background in numerical modeling. He has taught a course on the fundamentals of finite element
analysis at the University of Alberta (Dept. of Mechanical Engineering) and served as project
engineer on numerous structural finite element analysis projects.

12

C-FER Technologies

5. CORPORATE QUALIFICATIONS
5.1 Corporate Profile

C-FER Technologies was initially established in 1983 to meet the engineering research and
innovation needs of the pipeline, and oil and gas industries by developing new technologies to
enhance both safety and economics. C-FER conducts theoretical and experimental research in
engineering materials and systems, and accesses broad expertise through collaboration with its
member companies and other research organizations.
Concentrating on research programs that are need-driven, C-FER maintains a strong commitment
to meeting the technology needs of its clients and members. A unique laboratory facility, opened
in 1990, provides new opportunities for generating maximum return on investment in R&D. The
facility includes approximately 5,200 square metres of office and laboratory space, and
accommodates up to 85 research and support staff. Experimental equipment in the laboratory is
unique in the world, and makes possible the realistic simulation of load, temperature, and other
environmental conditions during the testing of components and systems. Appendix B presents
summary information of C-FERs testing facilities. C-FER also maintains a network of powerful
engineering workstations for developing software and conducting sophisticated numerical
analyses.
C-FERs generic technical expertise and resources are organized in three research departments:
Pipeline Technology, Production Technology, and Drilling & Completions Technology. C-FER
has a total staff of approximately 45 with diverse technical capabilities in the above areas and an
annual budget of approximately $6 million. C-FERs latest Annual Report and latest
organizational chart are already on file at PRCI, and with members of the Committee on Pipeline
Design, Construction and Operations. Additional copies can be provided upon request.
5.2 Qualifications Related to the Proposed Project

C-FER has an active research program in the area of pipeline design, testing, analysis and
integrity management. The breadth of C-FERs capabilities in this area is demonstrated by the
list of selected projects, which is already on file at PRCI, and with members of the Committee on
Pipeline Design, Construction and Operations. Additional copies can be provided upon request.
C-FER has had a leading role in developing new technologies to design and assess pipelines with
respect to mechanical damage, as evidenced by the following recent projects:

Local Buckling and Collapse of Corroded Pipelines: The ultimate objective of this
three-phase project is to develop local buckling and collapse criteria for onshore and offshore
pipelines that have experienced some form of metal-loss corrosion. Phase 1 involved
developing finite element models and establishing the relative importance of various
13

C-FER Technologies

Corporate Qualifications
corrosion features for these failure modes. Phase 2 focused on large-scale experiments
involving the combination of pressure and axial loads. In Phase 3, practical assessment
criteria were developed based on test and FEA data.

High Design Factor for High Strength Pipelines. The purpose of this PRCI project was to
evaluate the structural integrity and lifetime benefits of high-strength, high-design-factor
pipelines. It involved the assessment of pressure limit for mill and field hydrotests, and
in-service reliability associated with manufacturing defects, corrosion and mechanical
damage. Lifetime cost-benefits were evaluated by designing a number of typical pipelines
and developing appropriate maintenance plans to maintain similar lifetime reliability levels to
those achieved by existing pipelines. It was also shown that, for typical Class 1 pipelines, the
use of steel grades of up to X80 with a design factor of up to 0.8 has an overall economic
advantage.

Safe Use of Low Toughness Pipe. The objective of the project is to develop a methodology
to evaluate the susceptibility of low toughness pipelines to ductile and brittle propagating
fractures and to implement the approach in the form of a user-friendly software program.
The methodology will formally account for the uncertainties inherent in data used to estimate
the fracture arrest potential and in the arrest prediction models themselves. The added
uncertainties associated with parameter estimates obtained from small data sets will also be
addressed.

Risk-based Maintenance Optimization of Pipelines (PIRAMID). This program is sponsored


by thirteen pipeline companies and regulators, and has a budget of C$500,000 per year since
1994. Relevant work carried out under this project is developing limit states functions for all
major pipeline failure causes (including burst models for corroded pipes), collecting
statistical data on all input parameters and developing approaches to estimate pipeline
reliability. The work is coded in an extensive software package (PIRAMID) that stores the
attributes of a pipeline system and uses them to determine maintenance priorities and
optimize maintenance choices on critical segments.

14

C-FER Technologies

6. REFERENCES

ASME 1991. Manual for Determining the Remaining Strength of Corroded Pipeline. ASME
B31G. A Supplement to ASME B31 Code for Pressure Piping. American Society of
Mechanical Engineers.
DNV 1999. Corroded Pipelines. Recommended Practice, RP-F101. Det Norske Veritas.
Kiefner, J.F., Maxey, W.A., Eiber, R.J. and Duffy, A.R. 1973. Failure Stress Levels of Flaws in
Pressurized Cylinders. Progress in Flaw Growth and Fracture Toughness Testing, ASTM
STP 536, American Society for Testing and Materials, pp. 461 - 481.
Kiefner, J.F. and Vieth, P.H. 1989. Project PR 3-805: A Modified Criterion for Evaluating the
Remaining Strength of Corroded Pipe. A Report for the Pipeline Corrosion Supervisory
Committee of the Pipeline Research Committee of the American Gas Association.
Roberts, K.A. and Pick, R.J. 1998. Correction for Longitudinal Stress in the Assessment of
Corroded Line Pipe. Proceedings of the International Pipeline Conference.

15

C-FER Technologies

APPENDIX A RESUMES OF PROJECT TEAM

A.1

C-FER Technologies

Appendix A-Resumes of Project Team

Rsum

Qishi Chen
C-FER Technologies
2001-present

Principal Research Engineer

1997-2001
1993-1997

Senior Research Engineer


Research Engineer

Work History

1990-1993
1986-1990

Research & Teaching Assistant, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta


Lecturer (Civil Eng.), Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China

Education

Ph.D., Civil Engineering, University of Alberta, 1993.


M.Sc., Civil Engineering, Zhejiang University, China, 1986.
B.Sc., Civil Engineering, Zhejiang University, China, 1983.

Professional
Accreditation

P.Eng., Registered Professional Engineer in Alberta.

Expertise

Structure engineering; finite element analysis; structural reliability; risk analysis; design and
maintenance of pipelines; structural testing.

Relevant
Experience

Over 15 years of experience in engineering design and research and project management.
During the past eight years at C-FER, he is primarily involved in projects of pipelines and
marine structures. He acted as project manager and/or principal investigator for projects on
reliability-based design and maintenance of pipelines, design verification of special
structures, large scale testing of stiffened plates, compressive strain limits for buried
pipelines, development of pipe-soil interaction models, and implementation of consequence
analysis models for hydrocarbon releases from pipelines.

Professional
Activities

Association of Professional Engineers, Geologists and Geophysicists of Alberta (APEGGA):


Member.

Selected
Publications

Chen, Q., DeGeer, D.D., Bjornoy, O., Zhou, J. and Verley, R. 2001. Collapse of Corroded
Pipelines. Presented at the 13th Biennial EPRG/PRCI Joint Technical Meeting, April 30 May 3, New Orleans.
Chen, Q., Fuglem. M.K., Stephens, M.J. and Zhou, J. 2001. Reliability-based Pipeline
Design for Mechanical Damage. Presented at the 13th Biennial EPRG/PRCI Joint
Technical Meeting, April 30 - May 3, New Orleans.
Nessim, M.A., Fuglem, M.K., Chen, Q. and Odom, T. 2001. Lifetime Benefit of Highstrength, High-design-factor Pipelines. Presented at the 13th Biennial EPRG/PRCI Joint
Technical Meeting, April 30 - May 3, New Orleans.
Nessim, M.A., Chen, Q., Fuglem, M.K. and Muradali, A. 1999. Hydrotest Requirements for
High-Strength, High-Usage-Factor Pipelines. Presented at the Twelfth EPRG/PRCI Joint
Meeting, Groningen, The Netherlands, May.
Chen, Q. and Nessim, M.A. 1999. Reliability-based Prevention of Mechanical Damage.
Presented at the Twelfth EPRG/PRCI Joint Meeting, Groningen, The Netherlands, May
Zimmerman, T.J.E., Stephens, M.J., DeGeer, D.D. and Chen, Q. 1995. Compressive Strain
Limits for Buried Pipelines. Proceedings of the 1995 Offshore Mechanics and Arctic
Engineering Conference, Denmark, June.

A.2

C-FER Technologies

Appendix A-Resumes of Project Team

Rsum

Tom J.E. Zimmerman


C-FER Technologies
1999-present Manager, Special Projects
1998-1999
1990-1998
1989-1990
1988-1989
1985-1988

Manager, Tubulars and Structures


Manager, Pipelines and Structures
Manager, Offshore and Marine Technology
Senior Research Engineer
Research Engineer

Work History

1981-1985 Design Engineer, Morrison Hershfield Ltd., Toronto, Ontario


1980-1981
Structural Engineer, Canadian Inst. of Steel Construction, Toronto, Ontario

Education

Ph.D., Civil Engineering, University of Alberta, 1993.


M.Sc., Civil Engineering, University of Alberta, 1981.
B.Sc., Civil Engineering, University of Alberta, 1978.

Professional
Accreditation

P.Eng., Registered Professional Engineer in Alberta.

Expertise

Structural engineering; project management; limit states design; pipeline integrity


assessment; design code development; and fracture mechanics.

Relevant
Experience

Research and development activities related to down-hole tubulars, pipelines, offshore


structures, advanced materials and conventional bridge and building structural systems.
Projects include: testing premium connection leakage performance for heavy oil wells;
development of limit states design procedures for pipelines; investigation of the collapse
behaviour of ultra-deep water pipeline; investigation of the structural integrity and buckling
behaviour of pipelines subjected to extreme loads; and strength of stiffened steel plate
systems for arctic offshore structures.

Professional
Activities

Association of Professional Engineers, Geologists and Geophysicists of Alberta (APEGGA):


Member.
Subcommittee on Design for CSA Standard Z662-94, Oil and Gas Pipeline Systems:
Member (Chairman of Limit States Design Task Force).
Technical Committee on Steel Structures for CSA Standard S473, Code for the Design,
Construction and Installation of Fixed Offshore Structures: Member; Chairman of the
Working Group on Composite Structures.
CSCE Technical Committee on Advanced Composite Materials in Bridges and Structures:
Member.

Publications

Driver, R.G. and Zimmerman, T.J.E. 1998. A Limit States Approach to the Design of
Pipelines for Mechanical Damage. Proceedings of the 17th International
Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, Paper No. OMAE981017.
Zimmerman, T.J.E., Cosham, A., Hopkins, P. and Sanderson, N. 1998. Can Limit States
Design Be Used to Design a Pipeline Above 80% SMYS? Proceedings of the 17th
International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, Paper No.
OMAE98-902.

A.3

C-FER Technologies

Appendix A-Resumes of Project Team

Rsum

Mark Stephens
C-FER Technologies
2000-present Senior Specialist, Pipeline Technology
1998-2000
1993-1998
1988-1993

Research Manager
Principal Research Engineer
Senior Research Engineer

Work History

1990 Sessional Lecturer (Civil Eng.), University of Alberta, Edmonton


1982-1988
Design Engineer, Lamb McManus Associates Ltd., Edmonton

Education

M.Sc., Civil Engineering, University of Alberta, 1982.


B.Sc., Civil Engineering, University of Alberta, 1979.

Professional
Accreditation

P.Eng., Registered Professional Engineer in Alberta.

Expertise

Engineering system risk and reliability assessment; pipeline integrity; pipe-soil interaction;
large-scale testing, structural analysis and design; and fracture mechanics.

Relevant
Experience

Nineteen years of experience in the field of structural analysis, design and research, with a
major focus on pipeline integrity maintenance and risk assessment over the past six years.
Project manager for and/or principal developer of: failure consequence analysis models,
mechanical damage, crack-like defect and ground movement failure prediction models; and
risk prioritization tools for onshore and offshore pipeline systems. Project manager and/or
principal engineer for other pipeline projects in the areas of ground movement induced
damage and susceptibility to both ductile and brittle fracture initiation and propagation.
Actively participated in the development of CSA pipeline code appendices on Limit States
Design and Risk Assessment. Managed dozens of research projects with budgets to
$500,000.

Professional
Activities

Association of Professional Engineers, Geologists and Geophysicists of Alberta (APEGGA):


Member.
Task Force on Risk Assessment, CSA Z662-99, Oil and Gas Pipeline Systems: Member.

Publications

Nessim, M.A., Stephens, M.J. and Zimmerman, T.J.E. 2000. Risk-based Maintenance
Planning for Offshore Pipelines. Presented at the 2000 Offshore Technology Conference
(OTC), Houston, Texas, May 1-4.
Nessim, M.A. and Stephens, M.J. 1998. Managing the Operating Risk Posed by Metal Loss
Corrosion and Mechanical Interference. Pipe Line and Gas Industry, Gulf Publishing,
Part 1-June and Part 2-August.
Nessim, M.A. and Stephens, M.J. 1997. A Risk-based Approach to Managing Pipeline
Damage Caused by Metal Loss Corrosion and Mechanical Interference. Proceedings of
the Pipeline Week Conference, sponsored by Pipe Line & Gas Industry, Houston.
Stephens, M.J. and Nessim, M.A. 1996. Pipeline Maintenance Planning Based on
Quantitative Risk Analysis. Proceedings of the International Pipeline Conference,
sponsored by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), Calgary.
Stephens, M.J. and Nessim, M.A. 1995. A Risk-based Approach to Pipeline Integrity
Maintnenance Optimization. Proceedings of the 1995 API Pipeline Conference, Dallas,
Texas.

A.4

C-FER Technologies

Appendix A-Resumes of Project Team

Rsum

Amir Muradali
C-FER Technologies

Work History

2001-present

Research Engineer

1998-1999

Research Engineer

2000
1998
1997

Mechanical Engineer, GKO Engineering, Edmonton, Alberta.


Project Analyst, Beta Machinery Analysis, Calgary, Alberta.
Private Contract, Mechanical Engineering Department, University of
Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta.
Teaching Assistant, Mechanical Engineering Department, University of
Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta.
Research Assistant, Mechanical Engineering Department, University of
Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta.

1996
1995
Education

M.Sc., Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, 1997.


B.Sc., Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, 1996 (with Distinction).

Professional
Accreditation

P.Eng., Registered Professional Engineer in Alberta.

Expertise

Numerical modeling, pipeline integrity modeling, pipeline corrosion assessment, finite


element analysis.

Relevant
Experience

Over five years of broad research and consulting experience. Major focus at C-FER is in
the area of pipeline risk and reliability engineering. Actively involved in various research
projects related to this area and in upgrading/developing failure prediction models for
PIRAMID.

Professional
Activities

Association of Professional Engineers, Geologists and Geophysicists of Alberta (APEGGA):


Member.

Awards

Province of Alberta Graduate Scholarship, 1996-1997.


Aga Khan Foundation Scholarship, 1991-1995.

Publications

Muradali, A. and Fyfe, K.R., 1998. A Study of 2D and 3D Barrier Insertion Loss Using
Improved Diffraction Based Methods. Applied Acoustics, 53, 49-75.
Muradali, A. and Fyfe, K.R., 1998. Accurate Barrier Modeling in the Presence of
Atmospheric Effects. Accepted for publication in Applied Acoustics.

Presentations

Muradali, A. and Fyfe, K.R., 1997. Accurate Geometric Modeling of Barrier Attenuation with
Atmospheric Effects. Transportation Research Board Summer Conference on
Transportation Related Noise and Vibration, Toronto, Ontario.
Muradali, A. and Fyfe, K.R., 1996. Single and Parallel Barrier Insertion Loss by Means of
Improved Diffraction Based Methods. Canadian Acoustics Association (CAA)
Acoustics Week, October, Calgary, Alberta.

A.5

C-FER Technologies

Appendix A-Resumes of Project Team

Rsum

Chris M. Timms
C-FER Technologies
1993-present Research Engineer
1991

Research Assistant (co-op term)

Work History

1990
1989
1989

Co-op Student (Transmission Eng.), Northwestern Utilities, Edmonton, AB


Co-op Student (Operations Eng.), British Petroleum Res., Edmonton, AB
Co-op Student (Field Operator), British Petroleum Resources

Education

B.Sc., Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, 1992 with distinction.

Professional
Accreditation

P.Eng., Registered Professional Engineer in Alberta.

Expertise

Mechanical design; experimental design; instrumentation; and solid mechanics.

Relevant
Experience

Mr. Timms comes from a mechanical engineering background with over 10 years of
experience covering a wide assortment of technical assignments and research projects.
Since joining C-FER in 1991, Mr. Timms has had involvement in all phases of many C-FER
projects. Frequently, he assumes the role of Design Engineer for large laboratory
programs such as the Bluestream or Mardi Gras pipeline project Mr. Timms has also
frequently served as project manager for laboratory programs such as the recently
completed TAMSA full-scale pipeline combined load test program. In addition to continued
project work, Mr. Timms is currently the primary technical resource to C-FERs calibration
program.

Professional
Activities

Association of Professional Engineers, Geologists and Geophysicists of Alberta (APEGGA):


Member.

Publications

Timms, C.M. 1999. Testing of Modified 6-5/8 inch API Oilfield Connection. Confidential to
Tesco Drilling Technology, C-FER Report 98001.032, June.
Timms, C.M. 1996 Additional Testing of Deformation Tubes for the GBS Bearing System.
Confidential to Hibernia Management and Development Company Ltd., C-FER
Report 95031, January.
Timms, C.M. 1995. Testing of Deformation Tubes for the GBS Bearing System.
Confidential to Hibernia Management and Development Company Ltd., C-FER
Report 95031, August.

A.6

C-FER Technologies

APPENDIX B C-FERS STRUCTURAL TESTING FACILITIES

B.1

Tel 780.450.3300

Fax 780.450.3700

www.cfertech.com

200 Karl Clark Road


Edmonton, Alberta
Canada T6N 1H2

Corporate Profile
For over 15 years, C-FER has created innovative technologies and developed new processes for the energy,
transportation and manufacturing industries that have reduced costs, increased revenues, extended the life of
systems and ensured regulatory compliance. C-FER holds patents and intellectual property rights to dozens of
energy industry products and processes including revolutionary Downhole Oil/Water Separation technology,
PC-PUMP software, CalTranTM software, PIRAMIDTM software and more.
C-FER offers state-of-the-art engineering expertise from the ground up,
including:
project management
production engineering
experimental design
risk and reliability engineering
limit states design
failure analysis/structural
testing

investigative engineering
software development
computer modeling
solid mechanics
materials engineering
field services
prototype design and
manufacture
One of the keys to successfully bringing new technologies to market lies
in the ability to perform tests at full scale, simulated within a controlled
environment. C-FER's world-class laboratory services offer a powerful
combination of testing and analysis tools designed to accommodate a
vast range of applied research to meet energy industry requirements.
C-FER has the know-how to make solutions work in the real world.
When there is a lot at risk,
operators and suppliers alike
rely on C-FERs third party,
independent
verification
methodology. Whether you are
pushing the boundaries of
technology, optimizing design,
or
quantifying
reliability,
C-FERs expertise and one-ofa-kind
facility
can
meet
your performance qualification
requirements.

For energy producers who use technology for strategic advantage,


C-FER's innovation expertise is a powerful resource for improving
profitability and safety. Our know-how extends beyond applied
research to include collaboration with manufacturers and service
companies to ensure the viable commercialization of new energy
industry products and services.
For more information on our products and services, visit
www.cfertech.com

Facilities and Equipment


Extreme Climate Chamber
Large temperature-controlled test space
(12 m x 12 m x 9 m high), can be partitioned
and sub-divided internally
Large doors give access to drive-in
equipment and 10 t overhead travelling crane
Capable of continuous operation at -60C,
with heat load
Can be moved to fully envelop the UTS
Make-up air and exhaust handling available
Special Environments Facility
Twin in-ground test chambers provide
secondary containment for toxic and
flammable gases, with capacity to fully
contain explosions
Simulation of corrosive and flammable
environments, including flow
External remote control of test systems
Sealable below-ground test vessel,
12 m deep x 2.5 m diameter
Deep Well Simulator
Cased well bore 0.6 metres (2 feet) in
diameter, providing 14 MPa (2,000 psi)
containment capacity
Control tests on pump systems with full
pressure fluid mixing (single and two phase),
flowmeters, and tankage
Easy access to electric and hydraulic power,
fluid handling and instrumentation
Accommodates concentric and dual
tubing/casing strings
Maximum tool string and specimen
configuration 46 m (150 ft) in length and 560
mm (22 inches) in diameter
Operating temperatures from 20C (68F) to
200C (392F)
Coupled to a flowloop
Able to handle a variety of fluids
Hyperbaric Pressure Vessel
Working pressures to 55 MPa (8,000 psi)
10.7 m (35 ft) long with a 1.22 m (4 ft)
diameter
Equipped with internal rams and reaction
frames to apply tension, compression, torsion
and bending loads to specimens while under
pressure

Full scale pipeline testing at working


pressures, both internally and externally
Rapid installation and removal of test
specimens and assemblies
Internal video monitoring
Accommodates hydraulic, electrical, video
and instrumentation leads
Universal Testing System
MTS closed-loop hydraulic system capable of
static, cyclic, or impact loads to 15 MN and
cyclic to 5 MN
Expandable to 25 MN static axial load
High strain rate capability
Service temperature range -60C to +40C
Specimen sizes to 6m high x 2m wide x 18m
Tubulars Testing System
MTS closed-loop hydraulic system capable of
applying static loads to 15 MN, cyclic loads
to 5 MN
Vertically-oriented support shaft with reaction
points to induce prescribed curvatures or
apply lateral loads
Expandable to 25 MN static axial load
Specimen sizes to 15 m x 1.5 m diameter
Strong Floor and Walls
High capacity multi-use reaction floor
(22 m x 12 m)
Buttressed multi-directional reaction wall
(15 m long x 6 m high) for application of
multi-directional loading
Accommodates large-scale structural
assemblies and components with more than
1,300 tie-down locations
Serviced by 10 t overhead travelling crane
Component Testing
Self-contained computer-controlled load and
pressure systems for serviceability and proof
testing of hoisting equipment, couplings,
valves, vessels, etc.

w ww .cferte ch .co m

August 2002

REMAINING STRENGTH OF
CORRODED PIPE UNDER BIAXIAL
LOADING
(RPTG 0323)

Confidential

Prepared for:
Steve Foh
Pipeline Research Council
International, Inc.
c/o Gas Technology Institute
1700 South Mount Prospect Road
Des Plaines
Illinois 60018-1804
USA

Prepared by:
Mark McQueen (& Vinod Chauhan, Paul Ng)
Advantica Technologies Inc.
5177 Richmond Avenue
Suite 900
Houston
TX 77056
USA
Tel:
Fax:
Email:
Website:

713 586 7000


713 586 0604
mark.mcqueen@advanticatechinc.com
www.advanticatechinc.com

Sales Opportunity ID: 1001421


2002 Advantica Technologies Inc.

CONFIDENTIAL REMAINING STRENGTH OF CORRODED PIPE UNDER BIAXIAL LOADING


(RPTG 0323)
August 2002 Rev 0

Page 1

PROPOSAL SUMMARY
Proposal:

RPTG 0323

Title: REMAINING STRENGTH OF CORRODED PIPE UNDER BIAXIAL LOAD.


Contractors: Advantica Technologies Inc.
Type: New.
Period: Start date January 2003, duration 12 months.
Total estimated cost:

US$120,000.

Objective:
To extend the assessment methods for corroded pipelines to incorporate the effects
of bending and axial loads on internal pressure.
Incentive:
The recognized methods commonly used for assessing the remaining strength of
corroded pipelines are based on pressure loading, and do not address
superimposed axial or bend loading. At present the only option is to use
sophisticated finite element analysis on a case-by-case basis. Development of a
generalised approach will remove an important area of uncertainty in the present
methods.
Work Plan:
TASK 1 Pipeline external loading case history review.
TASK 2 Evaluation of bounding external loads due to ground movement.
TASK 3 Numerical simulation of corroded pipe subjected to combinations of
internal pressure and external loading.
TASK 4 Development of a revised method incorporating combined internal
pressure and external loading.
Deliverables:
A report incorporating:
Review of loading scenarios in onshore pipelines
Numerical simulation and assessment
Development of a new (modified) guidance procedure

CONFIDENTIAL REMAINING STRENGTH OF CORRODED PIPE UNDER BIAXIAL LOADING


(RPTG 0323)
August 2002 Rev 0

Page 2

Table of Contents
PART I
TECHNICAL PROPOSAL
1
2

3
4
5
6

INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................ 2
TECHNICAL DISCUSSION ................................................................................ 3
2.1
Objective..................................................................................................... 3
2.2
Work to be Performed and Approach ...................................................... 3
2.3
TASK 1 PIPELINE EXTERNAL LOADING Case History Review ...... 3
2.4
TASK 2 EVALUATION OF BOUNDING EXTERNAL LOADS DUE TO
GROUND MOVEMENT ...................................................................................... 4
2.5
TASK 3 NUMERICAL SIMULATION of Corroded Pipe SUBJECTED
TO COMBINATIONS OF INTERNAL PRESSURE AND EXTERNAL LOADING
4
2.6
TASK 4 Assessment and Development of A Revised Method TO
ASSESS CORROSION METAL LOSS DEFECTS IN PIPELINES SUBJECTED
TO COMBINED INTERNAL PRESSURE AND EXTERNAL LOADING ............ 5
SCHEDULE ........................................................................................................ 5
DELIVERABLES ................................................................................................ 5
ADVANTICA INFORMATION............................................................................. 6
REFERENCES ................................................................................................... 8
PART II
COST PROPOSAL

1
2

COSTS ............................................................................................................. 10
COMMERCIAL TERMS.................................................................................... 12

Confidentiality Statement
THE INFORMATION CONTAINED IN THIS PROPOSAL IS PROVIDED ON A COMMERCIAL BASIS IN
CONFIDENCE AND IS THE PROPERTY OF ADVANTICA TECHNOLOGIES INC.
IT MUST NOT BE DISCLOSED TO ANY THIRD PARTY, IS COPYRIGHT, AND MAY NOT BE
REPRODUCED IN WHOLE OR IN PART BY ANY MEANS WITHOUT THE APPROVAL IN WRITING
OF ADVANTICA TECHNOLOGIES INC.

CONFIDENTIAL REMAINING STRENGTH OF CORRODED PIPE UNDER BIAXIAL LOADING


(RPTG 0323)
August 2002 Rev 0

Page 3

PART I
TECHNICAL PROPOSAL

CONFIDENTIAL REMAINING STRENGTH OF CORRODED PIPE UNDER BIAXIAL LOADING


(RPTG 0323)
August 2002 Rev 0

Page 1

1 INTRODUCTION
Corrosion metal-loss is one of the major damage mechanisms to transmission
pipelines worldwide and particularly in North America. Corrosion metal-loss defects
reduce the strength of the damaged pipeline sections from the required levels and
introduce localized stress concentrations in the pipeline.
Several methods have been developed for assessment of corrosion defects, such as
ASME B31G[1], RSTRENG[2, 3] and LPC[4]. All these methods were derived based on
experimental tests and theoretical/numerical studies of the failure behavior of
corroded pipelines subjected to internal pressure loading.
PRCI have recognized the importance of improving corrosion assessment of
pipelines and have funded a number of projects with Advantica to improve existing
assessment methods. These have included;

State of the art review of corrosion assessment methods

Development of new methods for assessing interacting


corrosion defects

(PR 273-9803)
(PR 273-9803)
(GTI 8549)

Assessment of corrosion defects in low toughness pipe

(PR 273-0136)

The available methods for assessing the remaining strength of corroded pipelines
assume that the pipeline is subjected to internal pressure loading. However, in
reality pipelines could also be subjected to significant external loading. For onshore
pipelines, these additional loads could be as a result of ground movement due to
landslides, mining subsidence, or earthquakes. Significant bending loads can also be
generated in the vicinity of pipe bends or pipe branch connections.
In the case of offshore pipelines the formation of free spans may impose significant
bending loads. For instance, seabed scour can lead to the development and growth
of free spans of pipelines resting on the seabed, particularly if they are not trenched.
The formation of free spans combined with sea currents could impose significant
external loading on the pipeline.
The various external loading mechanisms on a pipeline can produce the following;
1. Tensile or buckling failure of the pipeline due to excessive local displacement
2. Shearing of the pipeline
This proposal identifies a programme of work that will allow internal pressure and
external loading to be included in the corrosion assessment. Completion of this work
will help to remove an important area of uncertainty in the assessment methods
currently used by the pipeline industry.

CONFIDENTIAL REMAINING STRENGTH OF CORRODED PIPE UNDER BIAXIAL LOADING


(RPTG 0323)
August 2002 Rev 0

Page 2

2 TECHNICAL DISCUSSION
The recognized assessment methods[1, 2, 3] commonly used in North America for
assessing corroded pipelines assume that the loading is dominated by internal
pressure. Only the DnV Guidance Document, RP-F101[5], includes an allowance for
assessing corroded pipeline that is also subjected to bending and axial loads. This is
because RP-F101 was primarily developed for the assessment of offshore pipelines
where it was recognized that bending and axial loading could be significant. This
guidance is, however, based on the results of a small number (ten) of full-scale burst
tests. Some limited work has also been undertaken by Southwest Research
Institute[6]. However, the methods developed to date have not been well validated
and it is recognized that further work is now required to develop the methods further.
Hence there is a need to establish the influence of external additional loading on the
corroded pipeline firstly by defining the limits of applicability of the assessment methods
for pressure-only loading and secondly by identifying appropriate methods for cases
where significant bending or axial loading is imposed onto the pipeline.
The objective of this proposal is to determine bounding external loads that could be
realistically imposed onto buried transmission pipelines; these loads could be as a
result of ground movement and/or landslides. A non-linear finite element based
analysis and assessment will be subsequently undertaken using the Level 3 procedure
described in the PRCI Guidance Document[7]. Corrosion metal loss defects of varying
depth and length will be analyzed. Both single and interacting defects will be modeled
with various combinations of internal pressure, bending and axial loading. A detailed
description of the technical proposal follows.
2.1 OBJECTIVE
The objective of this proposal is to extend the assessment methods for corroded
pipelines subjected to combinations of internal pressure, bending and axial loads.
Inclusion of this additional loading will remove an important area of uncertainty in the
assessment methods that are currently used within the pipeline industry.
2.2 WORK TO BE PERFORMED AND APPROACH
With the budget available, it is recommended that the work to be performed is
confined to a detailed analytical investigation as opposed to undertaking test work.
The work to be performed has been split into five tasks and will be carried out over a
twelve-month period. Details of each task are given below.
2.3 TASK 1 PIPELINE EXTERNAL LOADING CASE HISTORY REVIEW
A review of onshore transmission pipeline case histories involving mining subsidence
and/or landslides will be undertaken. The review will concentrate on identifying
typical magnitudes of forces and moments imposed on onshore transmission
pipelines due to landslides and/or mining subsidence. Any external loading
information that is readily available for offshore pipelines will also be reported.
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2.4 TASK 2 EVALUATION OF BOUNDING EXTERNAL LOADS DUE TO


GROUND MOVEMENT
A geotechnics assessment will be undertaken for two bounding pipeline geometries
and material grades which will be agreed with the Materials Committee. One of the
major uncertainties in soil/pipe interaction problem is the determination of the
appropriate soil restraint. This is influenced by the pipe size and cover depth, the
trench geometry, the pipe coating, the soil properties, and the direction of the
restraint. Advantica is the world leader in soil/pipe interaction research[8, 9] and has
access to a comprehensive database of pipe backfill properties. Non-linear
hyperbolic soil restraints will be determined in all four directions (upward, downward,
lateral and axial). This method is superior to the common assumptions of liner and
bi-liner elastic soil restraints. Sensitivity studies assuming four bounding soil types
and conditions (soft and stiff clay; loose and dense sand) will be investigated.
The calculated soil restraints, together with the three dimensional ground movement,
will be subsequently input into an in-house analysis program PIPELINE[10].
PIPELINE is a WINDOWS based stress analysis program for linear buried pipe
systems subjected to internal and external loadings. It is based on the well-known
finite difference theory for elastic beam on elastic foundation problems and has an
excellent track record in solving practical problems for gas transmission operators.
The software has been fully validated against analytical solutions and commercial
software[11].
Bounding axial loads and moments will be calculated for two pipeline geometries and
material grade to be agreed with the Materials Committee. These loads will be
compared with those obtained from published data. A commentary on the relative
magnitude of the bounding forces and moments will be given. The bounding forces
and moments will be subsequently used in the detailed finite element analysis
described below.
2.5 TASK 3 NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF CORRODED PIPE SUBJECTED
TO COMBINATIONS OF INTERNAL PRESSURE AND EXTERNAL
LOADING
Advantica has already generated a significant number (in excess of seventy-five) of
non-linear three dimensional finite element models of interacting corrosion metal loss
defects in pipelines as part of Phase 4 of PRCI project PR-273-9803. These models
will be modified to incorporate both internal pressure combined with bounding axial
forces and moments obtained from the geotechnics assessment. Use of the finite
element models already generated by Advantica will be cost efficient and will enable
an extensive and comprehensive study to be undertaken. Various combinations of
both in plane and out of plane bending moments, axial loading and internal pressure
loading will be investigated. Both single defect and combinations of interacting
axial/circumferential defects will be investigated. Further non-linear finite element
models of elbow geometries will also be generated. The well documented and
validated procedure described in section 5 of Ref[7] will be used to derive failure
pressures for the cases analyzed.

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Page 4

A revised failure criterion and guidance for the assessing corroded pipelines
subjected to combinations of internal pressure, bending and axial loading will be
generated.
2.6 TASK 4 ASSESSMENT AND DEVELOPMENT OF A REVISED METHOD
TO ASSESS CORROSION METAL LOSS DEFECTS IN PIPELINES
SUBJECTED TO COMBINED INTERNAL PRESSURE AND EXTERNAL
LOADING
The results of the finite element analyses will be assessed and failure pressure
predictions will be reviewed. The influence of the external loading on the corroded
pipeline firstly by defining the limits of applicability of the assessment methods for
pressure-only loading and secondly by identifying new and revised methods for cases
where significant bending or axial loading is imposed onto the pipeline.

3 SCHEDULE
The work will be undertaken by Advantica over a twelve month period. A summary
of the main tasks of the project and their duration, assuming work commences in Q1
of 2003, is detailed below. The case history review and Geotechnics assessment is
estimated to require approximately one and a half man months of effort. The finite
element analysis, assessment, development of new criteria, checking, verification
and reporting is estimated to take eight and a half months of effort.
2003
TASK
1

PIPELINE EXTERNAL LOADING


CASE HISTORY REVIEW

EVALUATION OF BOUNDING
EXTERNAL LOADS DUE TO
GROUND MOVEMENT

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF
CORRODED PIPE SUBJECTED TO
COMBINATIONS OF INTERNAL
PRESSURE AND EXTERNAL
LOADING
ASSESSMENT AND DEVELOPMENT
OF A REVISED METHOD TO
ASSESS CORROSION METAL LOSS
DEFECTS IN PIPELINES
SUBJECTED TO COMBINED
INTERNAL PRESSURE AND
EXTERNAL LOADING

Notes: Q is quarter year

4 DELIVERABLES
The deliverable will be a verified technical report that detailing the following;

Review of published literature summarizing the magnitude of loading on


onshore transmission pipelines.

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Geotechnics analysis and assessment to generate bounding forces and


moments on onshore transmission pipelines.

Numerical simulation and assessment of corrosion metal loss defects in


pipelines using the validated procedure described in section 5 of Ref[7] .

Description of a new guidance procedure that will allow external loads


combined with internal pressure to be considered in the corrosion assessment
of pipelines.

5 ADVANTICA INFORMATION
Advantica is part of the Lattice Group, the UK-based infrastructure technology group
that includes the gas pipeline operator Transco, and is a leading supplier of
innovative technologies and technical services to the global energy marketplace.
Advantica's aim is to be a leading improver of business and operating performance
for customers in gas, pipelines and associated industries internationally. Advantica
has its origins in the British Gas (BG) group of companies and is now a $100 million
business with over 800 skilled staff and centers in Houston, Charlotte and the UK.
Advantica has fully equipped in-house facilities to undertake a wide variety of
experimental testing programs. These are complemented by a comprehensive suite
of state-of-the-art numerical computing and finite element analysis facilities.
Advantica is a long established technology supplier to the PRCI member companies
and has a substantial track record in the management and execution of major Joint
Industry Projects for groups of international gas and oil operators.
Advantica is a recognized leader in the development of assessment methods of
corrosion metal loss defects in pipelines. Advantica has led the corrosion Group
Sponsored Project and has undertaken a large number of full-scale tests and
numerical simulations of corroded pipelines. We, therefore, have access to an
extensive database of test/numerical data. The output from this work has been
embodied in internationally used standards such as BS 7910[12]. Advantica, together
with DnV have also developed the guidance document RP-F101[4] which allows
external loading to be incorporated into the corrosion assessment.
Advantica is presently undertaking a number of projects on behalf of PRCI. These
are to extend methods for assessing metal loss defects in low toughness pipe and to
improve the methods for assessing interacting metal loss defects. In particular
Advantica now has access to a large library of FE models already generated as part
of this latter project will enable Advantica to undertake a detailed and comprehensive
assessment of corrosion defects in pipelines subjected to combinations of internal
pressure and external loading.
Advantica is, therefore, well placed to develop the assessment methods given in Ref
[4, 12]
.
Vinod Chauhan has seventeen years professional experience gained in the oil, gas,
nuclear and defence industries. He is a co-author of the pipeline corrosion

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Page 6

assessment Guidance Document, Ref[7] and is the principal researcher undertaking


the Phase 4 corrosion interaction study on behalf of PRCI.
Paul Ng has worked on a wide variety of onshore pipeline geotechnical
investigations. Paul has undertaken numerous stress analysis of pipelines subjected
to external loads and provided advice on site specific soil restraint parameters. He is
a chartered member of the Institution of Civil Engineers, a chartered Member of the
Institute of Gas Engineers and Managers, and a member of the Institution of
Highways and Transportation. Paul is an active member of the United Kingdom
Society of Trenchless Technology and the associate editor of the Trenchless
Technology Research Journal.

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Page 7

6 REFERENCES
[1]. Anon. ASME B31G-1991 (revision of ANSI/ASME B31G-1984). Manual for
determining the remaining strength of corroded pipelines a supplement to
ASME B31 code for pressure piping. The American Society of Mechanical
Engineers, 1991.
[2]. Kiefner, J. F. and Vieth, P. H., A modified criterion for evaluating the remaining
strength of corroded pipe, Final report on PR-3-805 to Pipeline Corrosion
Supervisory Committee of the Pipeline Research Committee of the American
Gas Association, Battelle, Ohio, 1989.
[3]. Vieth, P. H. and Kiefner, J. F., RSTRENG2 users manual, Final report on PR218-9205 to Corrosion Supervisory Committee, Pipeline Research Committee,
American Gas Association, Kiefner & Associates, Inc., Ohio, 1993.
[4]. Anon. DnV Recommended Practice RP-F101: Corroded Pipelines, Det Norske
Veritas, Oslo, 1999
[5]. Fu, B. and Batte, A. D., Advanced methods for the assessment of corrosion in
linepipe, Summary Report OTO 97065, UK Health and Safety Executive,
London, 1998.
[6]. Smith, M.Q., and Grigory, S.C., New Procedures for the Residual Strength
Assessment of Corroded Pipe Subjected to Combined Loads, ASME
International Pipeline Conference, 1996.
[7]. Fu, B., Chauhan, V and Jones, L. Guidance for Assessing the Remaining
Strength of Corroded Pipeline, Final Report on PR 273-9803 (Phase-2) to the
Material Supervisory Committee Pipeline Research Council International Inc.,
June 2002.
[8]. Ng, P. C. F.; Pyrah, I. C. & Anderson, W. F. (2002). The prediction of ultimate
lateral soil pressure on shallow pipelines in trench cohesive backfill.
Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Numerical Models in
Geomechanics NUMOG VIII, Rome, Italy, Eds: Pande, G. N. & Pietruszczak,
S., 1012 April 2002, pp. 393-397. Balkema, Lisse.
[9]. Ng, P. C. F.; Leach, G. & Harrold, S. (2001). International collaborative
research on soil/pipe interaction. Proceedings of the 2001 International Gas
Research Conference, IGRC 2001, Amsterdam, Netherlands. 58 November
2001.
[10]. Ng, P. C. F., Pyrah, I. C. and Anderson, W. F. (1995). Modelling of laterally
loaded pipelines using elastic beam on elastic foundation approach.
Developments in Computational Techniques for Structural Engineering,
Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Civil and Structural
Engineering Computing, Cambridge, UK, 2830 August 1995, pp. 7176.
[11]. Ng, P. C. F. (1999). Benchmark Tests for WOMODNT Version 3. Advantica
Technologies Ltd., June 1999.
[12]. Anon. Guide on Methods for Assessing the Acceptability of Flaws in Metallic
Structures, BS 7910: 1999 (incorporating amendment no. 1), BSi, October
2000.

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PART II
COST PROPOSAL

1 COSTS
The work described in this proposal will be undertaken on a fixed cost basis. The fixed cost is
$120,000. The total cost is inclusive of labor, computing, consumables, overheads, project
management. An allowance for one technical presentation to the Committee has also been
included. A cost breakdown of the main tasks is summarized in Table 1.

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CONTRACT COST ESTIMATE

Name of Offeror
Advantica Technologies Inc.
Home Office Address
5177 Richmond Avenue, Suite 900
Houston, TX 77056
USA
Division(s) and Location(s) (where work is being performed)
Pipeline Transportation Division, Loughborough, UK

RFP No/Prp No
Page Number
Number of Pages
RPTG 0323
1
1
Name of Proposed Project
REMAINING STRENGTH OF CORRODED PIPE UNDER
BIAXIAL LOADING
(RPTG 0323)
Total Amount of Proposal
$ 104,753 (US)
Estimated Cost
(dollars)

Cost Elements
1.

Total Estimated
Cost (dollars)

Supporting
Schedule

Direct Material
a. Purchased Parts
b. Interdivisional Effort
c. Equipment Rental/Lease
d. Other (software licence costs)

7,700

Total Direct Material


2.
3.

Material Overhead (Rate

7,700
% x Base $

Subcontracted Effort (Attach Detailed Schedule)


Subcontractor Cofunding
Net Subcontracted Effort

4.

Est. Hours

Rate/Hour

Manager/Consultant

Direct Labor - Specify

65

195

12,675

Senior Engineer

433

143

61,919

Engineer

334

109

36,406

69

O.H. Rate

X Base $

Est. Cost

Technician

Est. Cost

Total Direct Labor


5.

Labor Overhead - Specify

111,000

Total Labor Overhead


6.

Special Testing

7.

Purchased Special Equipment

8.

Travel

9.

Consultants (Attach Detailed Schedule)

10. Other Direct Costs


11. Total Direct Cost and Overhead

1,300

Travel & Direct


Expenditure

12. General and Administrative Expenses (w/o IR&D)


Rate

% of cost element numbers

13. Independent Research and Development


Rate

% of cost element numbers

14. Total Estimated Cost

120,000

15. Fixed Fee


16. Total Estimated Cost and Fee

120,000

17. Contractor/Third Party Cofunding


18. Net PRCI Estimated Cost and Fee

120,000

This proposal reflects our best estimates as of this date, in accordance with the instructions to offerors and the footnotes which
follow.
Typed Name and Title
Signature
Date
Mr Vinod Chauhan and Dr Paul Ng
2 August 2002

Table 1.

Contract Cost Estimate

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Page 11

2 COMMERCIAL TERMS
Terms and conditions for undertaking the proposed work will be consistent with those
previously agreed between Advantica Technology Inc. and GTI.

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Page 12

PART I TECHNICAL PROPOSAL


TP296-3442

EXTERNAL MIC GROWTH RATE MODELING

PREPARED FOR

PRC INTERNATIONAL
Pipeline Materials Committee

PREPARED BY

CC TECHNOLOGIES LABORATORIES, INC.


OLIVER C. MOGHISSI
AUGUST 05, 2002

CC Technologies
6141 AVERY ROAD
DUBLIN, OHIO 43016
614.761.1214 614.761.1633 fax
www.cctechnologies.com

Technical Proposal

External MIC Growth Rate Modeling

PROPOSAL SUMMARY

TITLE: External MIC Growth Rate Modeling


CONTRACTOR: CC Technologies Laboratories, Inc.
NEW PROJECT:
FUNDING REQUEST:
2003
PRCI
2004
PRCI
Total

$ 75,000
$ 49,500
$ 124,500

OBJECTIVE
To measure growth rates of external pipeline MIC under realistic soil conditions
through a matrix of laboratory tests.

WORK PLAN
The work scope spans over two years.
1. Assemble a matrix of 60 test cells representing a welded pipe sample
with crevice under a range of soil, bacteria, and nutrient environments.
2. Allow bacteria to grow and measure corrosion damage after 6, 12, and
18 months.
Calculate corrosion rates based on time of exposure and environment to predict
realistic MIC rates on buried pipelines.

ii

Technical Proposal

External MIC Growth Rate Modeling

TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................. 1
OBJECTIVE AND SCOPE .............................................................................................. 1
WORK PLAN................................................................................................................... 2
SCHEDULE..................................................................................................................... 5
COSTING AND MANPOWER REQUIREMENTS ........................................................... 6
PROJECT ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT ........................................................ 6
CORPORATE QUALIFICATIONS................................................................................... 7
RELATED PROJECT DESCRIPTIONS .......................................................................... 7
PROFESSIONAL SUMMARIES...................................................................................... 9

FIGURES
Figure 1. Test panel with weld and polyolefin crevice. Circle represents test cell
containing soil. Panel size is approximately 4 inches................................. 4
Figure 2. Test cell assembly. A cylindrical cell sits on a flat test panel and is filled with
soil. The top is sealed. .............................................................................. 5
Figure 3. Project Schedule .............................................................................................. 6

APPENDICIES
APPENDIX A

iii

Technical Proposal

External MIC Growth Rate Modeling

INTRODUCTION
Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is widely recognized as a contributing
factor to pipeline corrosion (internal and external), but agreement does not exist on the
growth rate of MIC damage and the influence of metallurgical characteristics. Previous
work is limited by several factors and has therefore not provided sufficient information
from which to base engineering decisions.
Typical and maximum MIC growth rates are not presently known, and it is not
presently possible to determine if a particular pipeline or portion of pipeline is more
susceptible to MIC than others. This can result in undetected MIC damage, poor
scheduling of maintenance or inspection tasks, selection of inappropriate mitigation
schemes, or unnecessary corrosion mitigation costs to compensate for lack of
information.
Agreement does not exist on the influence of metallurgical characteristics on MIC.
Field observations and limited laboratory testing have suggested that particular types of
weld metal or heat affected zones are more susceptible than the base metal, but clear
evidence has not been presented. If it is determined that particular types of weld metal
or heat affected zones are more susceptible than the base metal, an operator would
examine those areas to determine if a MIC problem exists throughout the system and
gauge the effectiveness of mitigation. Otherwise, examination of arbitrary pipe
segments may not identify MIC damage occurring in other parts of the system.
Knowledge about the rate of MIC at welds may also lead an operator to modify field
coating applications at joints or perhaps even the weld procedure of new pipe.
Previous work related to MIC of steel components has been limited by several
parameters. One significant limitation is that previous work typically has not included
long-term exposure of samples having characteristics typical of actual pipelines in MIC
environments. The results of some short-term laboratory testing have suggested an
influence of metallurgical factors on susceptibility to bacterial colonization and
subsequent corrosion. However, the test times have been too short to demonstrate a
relationship between metallurgical characteristics and long-term MIC penetration rates.
The relationship of colonization rates in short term testing to long-term penetration rates
has not been demonstrated. Long-term immersion testing in laboratory experiments
has typically not produced results representative of the observed performance of actual
pipelines, primarily because it is difficult to establish realistic viable consortia of bacteria,
maintain them in the laboratory for long periods of time, and experience accelerated
corrosion

OBJECTIVE AND SCOPE


To measure growth rates of external pipeline MIC under realistic soil conditions
through a matrix of laboratory tests.
1
TP296-3442
CC Technologies Laboratories, Inc.

Technical Proposal

External MIC Growth Rate Modeling

WORK PLAN
It is proposed to perform a series of laboratory tests to measure corrosion damage
as a function of soil type and microbiological variables. The tests will cover a range of
conditions to simulate realistic field conditions, sterile conditions, and environments
supplemented with bacteria and/or nutrients.The work scope spans over two years.
1. Assemble a matrix of 60 test cells representing a welded pipe sample
with crevice under a range of soil, bacteria, and nutrient environments.
2. Allow bacteria to grow and measure corrosion damage after 6, 12, and
18 months.
3. Calculate corrosion rates based on time of exposure and environment
to predict realistic MIC rates on buried pipelines.
A schematic of the test panel is shown in Figure 1. The panel will be approximately
4 inches, and cut from a section of pipe so that the weld (ERW is proposed) passes
through the middle of the sample. The specimen will be flattened by a press so that a
cylindrical test cell can be placed on the surface and sealed. Other than solvent
cleaning to remove organics, minimal surface preparation will be conducted to preserve
the structure of the surface. If possible, a thin walled pipe sample will be selected
allowing weight loss measurements. A small section of polyolefin will be placed on the
front of the panel forming a crevice like what might be found under disbonded coating
on a field joint.
The test cell assembly is shown in Figure 2. A cylinder will be placed on the test
panel and sealed with gasket material. The cylinder will be filled with soil, and the top
will be sealed with a panel. A small port will be added so that bacteria and/or nutrients
can be added during the test. This port will contain a 2 micron filter to prevent the entry
of bacteria. For the cells in which bacteria will be introduced, a seal will be used that
allows the use of a syringe without contaminating the cell.
A total of 60 cells will be constructed according to the test matrix shown inTable 1. .
Four soil types will be tested:
4. The first will be soil collected from a pipeline dig site where MIC is
suspected to have occurred. This is intended to most closely simulate
a field environment known to have the ability to support MIC.
5. Sandy soil will be used to represent a porous and permeable material.
6. Clay will be used to represent a tight material with little void space and
poor ability to transport biological or chemical materials.
7. Water will serve as a laboratory control sample. Use of water will allow
visual inspection of the test panel throughout the test period.
Five

bacteria

related

environments
2

TP296-3442
CC Technologies Laboratories, Inc.

will

be

tested

for

each

soil

type:

Technical Proposal

External MIC Growth Rate Modeling

8. The first environment will be sterile. The test cell and soil will be
sterilized by autoclaving, any restoration of water will be sterile, and
the cell will be sealed using a 2 micron filter (not allowing bacteria to
pass).
9. Fresh native soil will be used as the most natural of environments. Soil
samples will be collected from field locations, and no attempt will be
made to add bacteria or sterilize. Proper handling procedures (e.g.,
chilling) will be used to transport the soil so that any native bacteria are
not destroyed during transport.
10. Nutrients will be added to the native soils to allow naturally resident
bacteria to have access to food. This will simulate a condition of native
bacteria with plentiful food source. One drawback to using nutrients is
that previous testing has shown that planktonic bacterial growth can be
stimulated over the preferred sessile bacteria that attaches to a surface
and causes corrosion.
11. A fourth test will have bacteria added without nutrients. This simulates
the condition of a natural soil environment and ensures that bacteria
associated with corrosion are present. At minimum, the cell will be
inoculated with two bacteria. Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) will be
added because it is most frequently associated with corrosion damage.
In addition, a slime former will be added because MIC due to SRB is
almost always associated with a biofilm dominated by slime. The slime
allows a local environment to exist underneath it so that the anaerobic
SRB is isolated from oxygen, and the corrosive metabolic products are
concentrated under the film. Inoculation with acid producing bacteria
(APB) is also preferred in the test because biofilms associated with
corrosion are believed to be a complex matrix of bacteria including
APB.
12. The last test cells will be inoculated with bacteria and contain excess
nutrients. This environment will ensure bacterial growth in all soil
environments.
Three cells will be assembled for each environmental combination giving a total of
60 tests. The triplicate cells are intended to allow measurement of corrosion (and
bacteria) after three time periods so that corrosion rate can be calculated. It is expected
that the corrosion rate will not be constant over the test period. The longest test period
will be 18 months. This long period is considered necessary because previous work has
shown that the period for bacteria to attach themselves to a metal surface, grow to form
a biofilm, and generate corrosive metabolic products can take a period of several
months. The first two cells will be disassembled after 6 months and 1 year.
Each panel will be evaluated for corrosion and bacterial activity. Corrosion will be
measured by pit depth measurements and, if possible, weight loss. Bacteria counts will
3
TP296-3442
CC Technologies Laboratories, Inc.

Technical Proposal

External MIC Growth Rate Modeling

be taken and a qualitative characterization of the biofilm will be made. The distribution
of all observations will be noted with respect to the bare area and position down the
crevice.
Table 1. Test Matrix
Initially
Sterilized

Fresh Native

Nutrient
Supplement

Inoculated

Inoculated &
Nutrient
Supplement

Field Soil

6,12,18 mo

6,12,18 mo

6,12,18 mo

6,12,18 mo

6,12,18 mo

Sandy Soil

6,12,18 mo

6,12,18 mo

6,12,18 mo

6,12,18 mo

6,12,18 mo

Clay

6,12,18 mo

6,12,18 mo

6,12,18 mo

6,12,18 mo

6,12,18 mo

Water

6,12,18 mo

6,12,18 mo

6,12,18 mo

6,12,18 mo

6,12,18 mo

Figure 1. Test panel with weld and polyolefin crevice. Circle represents test cell
containing soil. Panel size is approximately 4 inches.

4
TP296-3442
CC Technologies Laboratories, Inc.

Technical Proposal

External MIC Growth Rate Modeling

Figure 2. Test cell assembly. A cylindrical cell sits on a flat test panel and is filled with
soil. The top is sealed.

DELIVERABLES
The final deliverable will be a report documenting the results of the work and
summarizing the conclusions. An interim report will be provided at the end of year 1,
and quarterly reports will be provided.

SCHEDULE
The entire project will be completed within 24-months. Figure 3 gives the project
schedule for the individual tasks.

5
TP296-3442
CC Technologies Laboratories, Inc.

24

12

18

External MIC Growth Rate Modeling

Technical Proposal

Months

Collect Materials
Assemble Test Cells
Run 6 Month Test
Interim Report
Run 12 Month Test
Run 18 Month Test
Final Report

Figure 3. Project Schedule

COSTING AND MANPOWER REQUIREMENTS


The total project cost over 2 years is $124,500 and is broken down for each year. A
detailed cost summary is attached.
The Year One cost of the project is $75,000. The manpower requirements are:
Senior Group Leader

190 hours

Project Engineer

140 hours

Technologist

260 hours

Office Staff
Year 1 Total Labor

40 hours
630 Hours

The Year two cost of the project is $49,500. The manpower requirements are:
Senior Group Leader

120 hours

Project Engineer
Technologist

80 hours
170 hours

Office Staff
Year 2 Total Labor

40 hours
410 Hours

PROJECT ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT


The Project Manager and overall project administrator for the proposed project will
be Dr. Oliver Moghissi. Dr. Moghissi has experience in managing multi-disciplinary
research programs for government and industrial clients (including PRCI) and previous
6
TP296-3442
CC Technologies Laboratories, Inc.

Technical Proposal

External MIC Growth Rate Modeling

experience working for a pipeline operating company. Dr. John Beavers will support the
project and has a long history with performing successful projects for PRCI and other
research organizations. Professional summaries are attached.

CORPORATE QUALIFICATIONS
CC Technologies Laboratories, Inc. is a contract research and engineering
organization that specializes in corrosion and corrosion control. CC Technologies'
philosophy is to provide an organization that can accommodate leading experts in
various fields of corrosion in both research and engineering; providing its clients with the
highest level of expertise available anywhere in the country. The combination of
research and engineering expertise permits CC Technologies to provide research
tempered by engineering applicability, and engineering services that are of the highest
quality from both practical and fundamental aspects.
CC Technologies was started in 1985 and has grown to a staff of over eighty
people. The staff includes eight Ph.D. scientists, four M.S. researchers, and fourteen
B.S. engineers. On this staff are P.E.s registered in ten states and Canada and NACE
Certificated Corrosion Specialists. Degrees earned by the staff include:

Metallurgical Engineering.

Materials Science.

Electrical Engineering.

Mechanical Engineering.

Chemical Engineering.

Petroleum Engineering.

Theoretical and Applied Mechanics.

Aerospace Engineering.

Geology.

CC Technologies is a fully equipped corrosion testing and research laboratory


specializing in the evaluation of materials properties, materials selection, corrosion,
corrosion control, and design and development of instrumentation and engineering
software. CC Technologies has continued to grow since its inception in 1985 and now
occupies a 21,000-ft2 office and laboratory facility. In addition to numerous laboratory
soil cells and soil boxes to perform laboratory tests for underground related projects, CC
Technologies has 400-ft of 20-inch diameter pipe buried at its facility in Dublin, Ohio,
which is instrumented for use on CP related research projects. In addition, there is a
full-scale pipe burst facility available for structural analyses involving pipe ruptures.

RELATED PROJECT DESCRIPTIONS


CC Technologies Laboratories, Inc. is a contract research and engineering
organization that specializes in corrosion and corrosion control. CC Technologies'
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External MIC Growth Rate Modeling

philosophy is to provide an organization that can accommodate leading experts in


various fields of corrosion in both research and engineering; providing its clients with the
highest level of expertise available anywhere in the country. The combination of
research and engineering expertise permits CC Technologies to provide research
tempered by engineering applicability, and engineering services that are of the highest
quality from both practical and fundamental aspects.
CC Technologies was started in 1985 and has grown to a staff of over eighty
people. The staff includes eight Ph.D. scientists, four M.S. researchers, and fourteen
B.S. engineers. On this staff are P.E.s registered in ten states and Canada and NACE
Certificated Corrosion Specialists. Degrees earned by the staff include:

Metallurgical Engineering.

Materials Science.

Electrical Engineering.

Mechanical Engineering.

Chemical Engineering.

Petroleum Engineering.

Theoretical and Applied Mechanics.

Aerospace Engineering.

Geology.

CC Technologies is a fully equipped corrosion testing and research laboratory


specializing in the evaluation of materials properties, materials selection, corrosion,
corrosion control, and design and development of instrumentation and engineering
software. CC Technologies has continued to grow since its inception in 1985 and now
occupies a 21,000-ft2 office and laboratory facility. In addition to numerous laboratory
soil cells and soil boxes to perform laboratory tests for underground related projects, CC
Technologies has 400-ft of 20-inch diameter pipe buried at its facility in Dublin, Ohio,
which is instrumented for use on CP related research projects. In addition, there is a
full-scale pipe burst facility available for structural analyses involving pipe ruptures.

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External MIC Growth Rate Modeling

PROFESSIONAL SUMMARIES
OLIVER C. MOGHISSI, Ph.D.
Dr. Moghissi is a Senior Group Leader for CC Technologies Laboratories, Inc. He
is a Chemical Engineer with fifteen years experience working on corrosion problems as
a researcher, oil and gas technical specialist, and university research assistant. Prior to
joining CC Technologies, Dr. Moghissi held positions with Southwest Research Institute
and ARCO. His experience includes basic and applied research, laboratory testing,
field support and training, interaction with state and federal regulators, and routine
technical service.
Dr. Moghissi has worked on diverse applications, but his expertise is primarily
directed toward technical service in the area of oil and gas production and
transportation.
Specifically, he conducts applied research, laboratory testing,
consulting, and field support to assist with maintaining facility integrity and optimizing
corrosion control programs.
Dr. Moghissi has experience with internal corrosion of pipelines and production
facilities. He cooperated with pipeline operators and regulators to develop a method to
assess internal corrosion in gas transmission pipelines (i.e., internal corrosion direct
assessment). ICDA is a simple and intuitive method to predict the most likely locations
of corrosion along a nominally dry gas pipeline. Dr. Moghissi has supported several
other programs on internal pipeline corrosion including the simulation of microbially
influence corrosion (MIC) under high pressure, use of financial decision analysis
principles to optimize maintenance, and optimizing chemical treatment. While at ARCO,
Dr. Moghissi managed a global program to evaluate corrosion inhibitor performance in
production facilities. For new facilities, he designed treating/monitoring programs
including assessing the fitness of inhibited carbon steel in harsh environments. For
existing facilities, he provided on-site trouble shooting, auditing, and reduced cost of
chemicals by optimizing product selection, dose, and pricing.
Dr. Moghissi has experience with external corrosion control of buried structures. He
developed and coordinated laboratory programs to design and implement buried
cathodic protection (CP) coupons along the Trans-Alaska Pipeline. He co-developed a
disbonded coating coupon to predict when steel under CP may be susceptible to
corrosion. He also implemented a technique to remove the effects of Telluric-current
interference on a full-line close interval survey of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline. While at
Southwest Research Institute, Dr. Moghissi supported a program to evaluate the life of
corrosion resistant alloys for high level radioactive waste in a geologic repository (i.e.,
Yucca Mountain) including development of performance confirmation methods.
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Dr. Moghissi has experience with offshore (i.e., seawater) corrosion. He has
performed laboratory studies to evaluate the effects of bacteria and shielding on
structures under CP, evaluated the use of stainless steels and mitigation schemes, and
provided routine technical service for platforms and subsea pipelines. Dr. Moghissis
dissertation was targeted at mitigating velocity accelerated corrosion of aluminum
bronze marine screws (i.e., for propulsion of US Navy vessels). Work included
development of transport based mathematical models with numerical solution and
regression to electrochemical impedance spectra.
Education
Ph.D., Chemical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida (1992)
M.S., Chemical Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia (1989)
B.A., Chemistry, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia (1987)
Experience
Senior Group Leader
Senior Research Engineer
Senior Research Engineer
1999

CC Technologies
Southwest Research Institute
ARCO Exploration and
Production Technology
ARCO Oil and Gas Company

2002 Present
1999 2002
1992

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

Summer 1984,

Summer

1991
1985
Awards
ARCO Outstanding Corporate Technical Achievement Award (1997).
ARCO Exploration and Production Technology Award of Excellence for 'Major Impact
on Operations' (1996).
Professional Activities
NACE International
Chairman, Education Committee (1999 2001)
Member, Public Affairs Committee (2000 2001)
Chairman, TG254 on Pipeline MIC (2001)
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Vice Chairman, Education Committee (1997 1998)


Chairman, Corrosion Inhibitor Course Development Task Group (1998)
Chairman, CP Coupon Course Development (1997 1998)
Chairman, Basic Corrosion Course Development Task Group (1996 1998)
Instructor, NACE CP Coupon TechEdge Course (1997)
Chairman, North Texas Local Section Membership (1993 1995)

Presentations / Publications
1. O. C. Moghissi, L. Norris, P. Dusek, and B. Cookingham, Internal Corrosion Direct
Assessment, CORROSION/2002.
2. D. Mauney, O. Moghissi, N. Sridhar, Internal Corrosion Risk Assessment and
Management of Steel Pipelines, PRCI Final Report, PR 15-9808, 2001.
3. O. Moghissi, N. Sridhar, M. Hill, P. Angell, B. Cookingham, R. Eckert,
Interdependent Effects of Bacteria, Gas Composition, and Water Chemistry on
Internal Corrosion of Steel Pipelines, PRCI Final Report, PR 15-9916, 2001.
4. O. C. Moghissi, Advances in Corrosion Monitoring for the Pipeline Industry,
Research in Progress Symposium, CORROSION/2001.
5. C. S. Brossia, D. S. Dunn, and O. C. Moghissi, Approaches to Confirm Waste
Package Performance, The International High-Level Radioactive Waste
Management Conference, Las Vegas, NV, 2001.
6. C. S. Brossia, D. S. Dunn, O. C. Moghissi, and N. Sridhar, Assessment of
Methodologies to Confirm Container Performance Model Predictions, NRC Report
01402.571.030, July 2000.
7. O. C. Moghissi, Y-M Pan, D. D. Daruwalla, J. Weldy, Ultrafiltration in Low-Activity
Waste and High-Level Waste Processes:
A Critical Review, NRC Report
01403.102.00, July 2000.
8. N. Sridhar, D. S. Dunn, C. S. Brossia, and O. C. Moghissi, Corrosion Monitoring
Techniques for Thermally Driven Wet and Dry Conditions, Paper No. 283,
CORROSION/2000.
9. C. S. Brossia, D. S. Dunn, O. C. Moghissi, and N. Sridhar, Assessment of
Methodologies to Confirm Container Performance Model Predictions, NRC Report
01402.571.030, July 2000.
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Presentations / Publications (Continued)


10. O. C. Moghissi, Y-M Pan, D. D. Daruwalla, J. Weldy, Ultrafiltration in Low-Activity
Waste and High-Level Waste Processes:
A Critical Review, NRC Report
01403.102.00, July 2000.
11. N. Sridhar, D. S. Dunn, C. S. Brossia, and O. C. Moghissi, Corrosion Monitoring
Techniques for Thermally Driven Wet and Dry Conditions, Paper No. 283,
CORROSION/2000.
12. O. C. Moghissi and M. Bohon, Oil and Gas Production internal Corrosion Control,
Tutorials in Corrosion Science & Engineering, AlChE 1999 Annual Meeting, Dallas,
TX.
13. C. D. Stears, O. C. Moghissi, L. Bone, Field Program on CP Coupons, Materials
Performance, Vol. 37, No. 2, 1998.
14. O. C. Moghissi, C. D. Stears, P. Lara, L. Bone, Laboratory Program on the Use of
CP Coupons, Paper No. 563, CORROSION/97.
15. C. D. Stears, O. C. Moghissi, L. Bone, Field Program on the Use of CP Coupons,
Paper No. 564, CORROSION/97.
16. R. M. Degerstedt, K. J. Kennelley, P. F. Lara, and O. C. Moghissi, Acquiring Telluric Nulled
Pipe to Soil Potentials on the Trans Alaska Pipeline, Paper No. 345, CORROSION/95.

17. L. Bone, G. Ruschau, and 0. Moghissi, Methods to Develop a Performance


Envelope for Internal Linings in Oilfield Production Environments, Paper No. 549,
12th International Corrosion Congress: Corrosion Control for Low Cost Reliability
Conference, 1993.
18. P. Agarwal, O. C. Moghissi, M. E. Orazem, and L. H. Garcia-Rubio, Application of
Measurement Models for Analysis of Impedance Spectra, Corrosion, (1993), Vol.
49, No. 4,278-89.
19. P. Agarwal, O. C. Moghissi, M. E. Orazem, and L. H. Garcia-Rubio, Application of
Measurement Models for Analysis of Impedance Spectra, Paper No. 227,
CORROSION/92.
20. M. E. Orazem, J. M. Esteban, and O. C. Moghissi, Practical Applications of the
Kramers-Kronig Relations, Paper No. 139, CORROSION/91.

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Presentations / Publications (Continued)


21. O. C. Moghissi and M. E. Orazem, A Mathematical Model for the Impedance
Response of Copper in Alkaline Chloride Solutions, 179th Electrochemical Society
Meeting, 1991.
22. M. E. Orazem, J. M. Esteban, and O. C. Moghissi, Practical Applications of the
Kramers-Kronig Relations, Corrosion, Vol. 47, No. 4, 1991, pp 248-259.
23. O. C. Moghissi and M. E. Orazem, An Electrochemical Impedance Study on the
Corrosion of Copper and its Aluminum Alloys in Alkaline Chloride Solutions,
CORROSION/90 Research in Progress Symposium.

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JOHN A. BEAVERS, Ph.D.


Dr. Beavers is Executive Vice President of CC Technologies Laboratories, Inc.
(CC Technologies) a corrosion engineering and research company. He has directed
and contributed to numerous research programs on corrosion performance of structural
materials. These programs have included failure analyses, critical literature reviews,
and laboratory and field evaluations of metallic and non-metallic materials. Dr. Beavers
has utilized state-of-the-art electrochemical, surface analytical, and mechanical
techniques for evaluation of materials performance for different forms of corrosion.
Electrochemical techniques used include potentiodynamic polarization, polarization
resistance, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, electrochemical noise, and
galvanic current measurements. Surface analytical techniques used include Auger
electron spectroscopy (AES), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy
dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM),
transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron microprobe, and x-ray diffraction.
Mechanical techniques used include elastic and plastic fracture mechanics and dynamic
mechanical loading techniques such as slow strain rate and low cycle fatigue.
A major emphasis of the research of Dr. Beavers has been addressing mechanistic
and practical aspects of corrosion and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) on underground
structures.

Education
B.S., Metallurgical Engineering with Highest Honors (1973), University of Illinois
Ph.D., Metallurgical Engineering (1977), University of Illinois
Experience
Executive VP

CC Technologies Laboratories, Inc.

Senior Scientist

CC Technologies

1987 1989

Research Leader

Battelle Memorial Institute


(Corrosion Section)

1977 1987

Graduate Research

University of Illinois

1973 1977
14

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Technical Proposal
Assistant

External MIC Growth Rate Modeling


Metallurgical Engineering
Urbana, Illinois

Professional Organizations
NACE International

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Professional Activities
Member of Publications Committee, NACE (1982 1993)
Chairman, Research In Progress Symposium, NACE (1993 1994)
Chairman of Publications Committee, NACE (1991 1992)
Member Awards Committee, NACE (1999 Present)
Selected Publications
1. Beavers, J. A. and Garrity, K. C., 100 mV Polarization Criterion and External SCC of
Underground Pipelines, Corrosion NACExpo 2001, NACE International, Paper No.
01592, Houston, Texas (March 2001).
2. Beavers, J. A., Durr, C. L., Delanty, B. S., Owen, D. M., and Sutherby, R. L., NearNeutral pH SCC: Crack Propagation in Susceptible Soil Environments, Corrosion
NACExpo 2001, NACE International, Paper No. 01217, Houston, Texas (March
2001).
3. Beavers, J. A., Author of Chapters 1, 3, 4, 10, and 16 of Peabodys Control of
Pipeline Corrosion, Second Edition, NACE International, 2001.
4. C. E. Jaske and John A. Beavers, Evaluating the Remaining Strength and Life of
Pipelines Subject to Local Corrosion or Cracking. NACE Northern Area Premiere
Conference (Corrosion Prevention 2000), Toronto, Ontario, Canada, November
2000.
5. Beavers, J. A., Johnson, J. T., and Sutherby, R. L., Material Factors Influencing the
Initiation of Near-Neutral pH SCC on Underground Pipelines, ASME International,
OMAE Division (Calgary Chapter) International Pipeline Conference (IPC 2000),
Calgary, Alberta, Canada, October 1 5, 2000, ASME Paper No. IPC 0047.
6. Brongers, M. P. H., Beavers, J. A., Jaske, C. E., Influence Of Metallurgy On Ductile
Tearing During Hydrostatic Testing Of Line-Pipe Steels With Stress-Corrosion
Cracks, ASME International, OMAE Division (Calgary Chapter) International
Pipeline Conference (IPC 2000), Calgary, Alberta, Canada, October 1 5, 2000,
ASME Paper No. IPC 0048.
7. Johnson, J. T., Durr, C. L., and Beavers, J. A., Effects of O2 and CO2 on NearNeutral-pH Stress Corrosion Crack Propagation, CORROSION/2000, NACE
International, Paper No. 00356, Orlando, Florida (March 2000).
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Selected Publications (Continued)


8. Brongers, M. P. H., Beavers, J. A., and Jaske, C. E., Effect of Hydrostatic Testing
on Ductile Tearing of X-65 LinePipe Steel With Stress Corrosion Cracks,
Corrosion NACExpo 2000, NACE International, Paper No. 00355, Orlando, Florida
(March 2000).
9. C. E. Jaske and J. A. Beavers, "Fitness-For-Service Evaluation of Pipelines with
Stress-Corrosion Cracks or Local Corrosion," International Conference on Advances
in Welding Technology (ICAWT 99), Galveston, Texas USA, October 26-28, 1999.
10. Beavers, J. A. and Johnson, J. T., Stress Corrosion Cracking: An Overview Of Field
Data Collection, EPRG / PRCI 12th Biennial Joint Technical Meeting on Line Pipe
Research, Groningen, The Netherlands, May 1999.
11. Beavers, J. A. and C. E. Jaske, SCC of Underground Pipelines: A History of The
Development of Test Techniques, Corrosion NACExpo 99, NACE International,
Paper No. 99142, San Antonio, Texas (April 1999).
12. Jaske, C. E. and J. A. Beavers, Predicting the Failure and Remaining Life of Gas
Pipelines Subject to Stress Corrosion Cracking, International Gas Research
Conference, San Diego, California; November 8 11, 1998; Paper TS0-13.
13. Beavers, J. A., Durr, C. L., and Shademan, S. S., Mechanistic Studies of NearNeutral-pH SCC on Underground Pipelines.
37th Annual Conference of
Metallurgists, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, August 1998.
14. Jaske, C. E. and J. A. Beavers, Review and Proposed Improvement of a Failure
Model for SCC of Pipelines, International Pipeline Conference, ASME International
(OMAE Division) Calgary, Alberta, Canada; June 7 11, 1998.
15. J. A. Beavers, C. L. Durr, and B. S. Delanty, High-pH SCC: Temperature and
Potential Dependence for Cracking in Field Environments, Proceedings for the 3rd
International Pipeline Conference, ASME (OMAE Division), Calgary, Alberta,
Canada; June 7 11, 1998.
16. Kiefner, J. F. and Beavers, J. A., "The History of Stress-Corrosion Cracking in
Pipelines in North America," presented at the A.G.A. Operations Conference,
Westin Hotel, Seattle, Washington (May 17-19, 1998).
17. Beavers, J. A. and C. L. Durr, Corrosion of Steel Piling in Nonmarine Applications,
National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP), Transportation
Research Board, National Research Council, National Academy Press, Washington,
D.C., Report 408, (1998).
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Selected Publications (Continued)


18. Beavers, J. A., C. L. Durr, and N. G. Thompson, Interpretations Of Potentiodynamic
Polarization Curves, Corrosion NACExpo '98, NACE International, San Diego, CA,
Paper No.300, March 1998.
19. Beavers, J. A. and C. E. Jaske, Near-Neutral pH SCC In Pipelines: Effects Of
Pressure Fluctuations On Crack Propagation, Corrosion NACExpo '98, NACE
International, San Diego, CA, Paper No. 257, March 1998.
20. Durr, C. L. and J. A. Beavers, Techniques For Assessment Of Soil Corrosivity,
Corrosion NACExpo '98, NACE International, San Diego, CA, Paper No. 667, March
1998.
21. Syrett, B. C., A. K. Agrawal, and J. A. Beavers, Preventing Leakage in the
Strand-to-Clip Connection of Water Cooled Generator Stator Windings,
ESKOM/EPRI International Conference on Process Water Treatment and Power
Plant Chemistry, Midrand, South Africa (November 1997).
22. Jaske, C. E. and J. A. Beavers, Fitness-for-Service Evaluation of Pipelines in
Ground-Water Environments, PRCI / EPRG 11th Biennial Joint Technical Meeting on
Line Pipe Research; Arlington, Virginia; April 8 10, 1997; Paper No. 12.
23. Beavers, J. A. and Thompson, N. G., Corrosion Beneath Disbonded Coatings: A
Review, CORROSION/96; Denver, Colorado, March 1996, NACE Paper No. 208,
and Materials Performance, 36 (4), p. 13 (April 1997).
24. Beavers, J. A. and Harle, B. A., Mechanisms of High-pH and Near-Neutral-pH SCC of
Underground Pipelines, ASME International Pipeline Conference; Calgary, Alberta
Canada, June 1996, Paper No. IPC 96408.
25. Jaske, C. E., Beavers, J. A., and Harle, B. A., Effect Of Stress Corrosion Cracking On
Integrity And Remaining Life Of Natural Gas Pipelines,@ CORROSION/96; Denver,
Colorado, March 1996, NACE Paper No. 255.
26. Beavers, J. A. and Harle, B. A., Low-pH Versus High-pH Stress Corrosion Cracking
Of Natural Gas Pipelines, NACE Canadian Region Western Conference in
Anchorage, Alaska, February 1996.
27. Beavers, J. A., Thompson, N. G., and Coulson, K. E. W., Field Studies To Review
The Effects Of Surface Preparation On The SCC Susceptibility Of Line-Pipe,
Corrosion Management, August/September 1995.

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Selected Publications (Continued)


28. Beavers, J. A. and Thompson, N. G., Effects Of Coatings On SCC Of Pipelines: New
Developments, 14th International Conference On Offshore Mechanics and Arctic
Engineering (OMAE); Copenhagen, Denmark; June 1995, Paper No. 95-886.
29. Beavers, J. A., Harle, B. A., and Jaske, C. E., Stress Corrosion Cracking Of Line Pipe
Steels In A Low-ph Environment, The 10th European Pipeline Research
Group/American Gas Association Pipeline Research Committee (EPRG/PRC);
Cambridge, England; April 1995.
30. Harle, B. A., Beavers, J. A., and Jaske, C. E., Mechanical And Metallurgical Effects
On Low-pH Stress Corrosion Cracking Of Natural Gas Pipelines, CORROSION/95;
Orlando, FL; March 1995, NACE Paper No. 646.
31. Harle, B. A., Beavers, J. A., and Jaske, C. E., Low-pH Stress Corrosion Cracking Of
Natural Gas Pipelines, CORROSION/94; Baltimore, MD; March 1994, NACE Paper
No. 242.
32. Thompson, N. G., Beavers, J. A., and Lawson, Kurt M., Internal Corrosion Monitoring
Of Pipelines, International Conference and Exhibition on Internal Corrosion And
Pipe Protection, Houston, Texas (September 12 14, 1994).
33. Beavers, J. A. and Thompson, N. G., Effects Of Coatings On SCC Of Pipelines: New
Developments, Pipes & Pipelines International, Prevention of Pipeline Corrosion
Conference; Houston, TX; October 1994.
34. Beavers, J. A. and Thompson, N. G., Effects Of Surface Preparation And Coatings
On SCC Susceptibility Of Line Pipe; Phase 2 Field Studies, 12th International
Conference On Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering (OMAE); Glasgow,
Scotland; June 1993, Paper No. 93-983.
35. Beavers, J. A., Thompson, N. G., and Silverman, D. C., Corrosion Engineering
Applications Of Electrochemical Techniques: Laboratory Testing, CORROSION/93,
NACE Paper No. 348, March 1993.
36. Beavers, J. A., Thompson, N. G., and Coulson, K. E. W., Effects Of Surface
Preparation And Coatings On SCC Susceptibility Of Line Pipe: Phase 1
Laboratory Studies, CORROSION/93, NACE Paper No. 597, March 1993.
37. Durr, C. L. and Beavers, J. A., Interpretation Of The Polarization Behavior For
Copper-Base Alloys In The Tuff Repository, CORROSION/93, NACE Paper No.
195, March 1993.
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Selected Publications (Continued)


38. Beavers, J. A., Chapter 7, Stress-Corrosion Cracking of Copper Alloys, StressCorrosion Cracking, Ed. Russell H. Jones, ASM International, (1992).
39. Beavers, J. A., Approaches To Life Prediction For High-Level Nuclear Waste
Containers In The Tuff Repository, Symposium on Application of Accelerated
Corrosion Tests to Service Life Prediction of Materials, G. Cragnolino, Ed., American
Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, 1992.
40. Beavers, J. A., Limitations Of The Slow-Strain-Rate SCC Test Technique, ASTM
Symposium On Slow-Strain-Rate Testing; Pittsburgh, PA, May 1992.
41. Beavers, J. A. and Durr, C. L., Stress Corrosion Cracking Studies On Candidate
Container Alloys For The Tuff Repository, NUREG/CR-5710 - May 1992.
42. Durr, C. L. and Beavers, J. A., Immersion Studies Of Candidate Container Alloys For
The Tuff Repository, CORROSION/92, NACE Paper No. 80, April 1992.
43. Thompson, N. G., Lawson, K. M., and Beavers, J. A., Area Of Bare Pipe Sampled
During A Pipe-To-Soil Potential Measurement, CORROSION/92, NACE Paper No.
382, April 1992.
44. Beavers, J. A., Thompson, N. G., and Durr, C. L., Pitting, Galvanic, And Long-Term
Corrosion Studies On Candidate Container Alloys For The Tuff Repository,
NUREG/CR-5709 January 1992.
45. Thompson, N. G., Beavers, J. A., and Durr, C. L., Potentiodynamic Polarization
Studies On Candidate Container Alloys For The Tuff Repository, NUREG/CR-5708
January 1992.
46. Beavers, J. A. and Durr, C. L., Immersion Studies On Candidate Container Alloys For
The Tuff Repository, NUREG/CR-5598 May 1991.
47. Krause, H. H. and Beavers, J. A., High Temperature Corrosion Of Stainless Steel By
Borate Waste Glass, CORROSION/91, NACE Paper No. 462, March 1991.
48. Beavers, J. A. and Durr C. L., Environmental Effects On Corrosion In The Tuff
Repository, NUREG/CR-5435 February 1990.
49. Agrawal, A. K., Aller, J. E., Hamilton II, A. R., and Beavers, J. A., Cracking Behavior
Of A Cu-Mn Weld Alloy In Phosphoric Acid, CORROSION/89, NACE Paper No.
101, April 1989.
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Selected Publications (Continued)


50. Christman, T. K., Good, G. W., Beavers, J. A., and Mackenzie, J. D., Modeling The
Growth Of Multiple Stress-Corrosion Cracks In Line Pipe Steels, NG-18/EPRG
Seventh Biennial Joint Technical Meeting On Line Pipe Research, Paper No. 27,
(August 29 Sept. 1, 1988).
51. Christman, T. K. and Beavers, J. A., The Role Of Environmental Species In Line Pipe
Stress Corrosion Cracking, NG-18/EPRG Seventh Biennial Joint Technical Meeting
On Line Pipe Research, Paper No. 29, (August 29 Sept. 1, 1988).
52. Koch, G. H., Beavers, J. A., Berry, W. E., Chapter 4 Marine Corrosion, Materials
for Marine Systems and Structures, D. F. Hasson and C. R. Crowe, Eds., Treatise on
Materials Science and Technology, Vol. 28, Academic Press (1988).
53. Thompson, N. G., Lawson, K. M., and Beavers, J. A., Monitoring Cathodically
Protected Concrete Structures with Electrochemical Impedance Techniques,
CORROSION/87, NACE Paper No. 139, (1987).
54. Beavers, J. A. and Thompson, N. G., Effect of Pit Wall Reactivity on Pit Propagation
in Carbon Steel, Corrosion Journal, 43 (3), p. 185 (March 1987).
55. Beavers, J. A., Thompson, N. G. and Parkins, R. N., Stress-Corrosion Cracking of
Low Strength Carbon Steels in Candidate High-Level Waste Repository
Environments, NUREG/CR-3861, BMI-2147, (Feb. 1987).
56. Han, M. K., Beavers, J. A. and Goins, W., Stress Corrosion Cracking Failure of Brass
Electrical Connectors in an Outdoor Atmospheric Environment, CORROSION/87,
Paper No. 184, NACE, (1987).
57. Beavers, J. A., Christman, T. K. and Parkins, R. N., Some Effects of Surface
Condition on the Stress Corrosion Cracking of Line Pipe Steel, CORROSION/87,
Paper No. 178, NACE, (1987).
58. Beavers, J. A., Koch, G. H. and Berry, W. E., Corrosion of Metals in Marine
Environments, MCIC Report 86-50, Metals and Ceramics Information Center,
Columbus, Ohio, July 1986.
59. Cialone, H., Beavers, J. A., and Koch, G. H., Fractographic Features of Stress
Corrosion Cracking and Hydrogen Embrittlement, Microscopy Fractography and
Failure Analysis Eds. M. R. Louthan, Jr. and T. A. Place, Virginia Tech Printing
Department, Blacksburg, VA, (1986).

21
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CC Technologies Laboratories, Inc.

Technical Proposal

External MIC Growth Rate Modeling

Selected Publications (Continued)


60. Beavers, J. A., and Parkins, R. N., Standard Test Procedure for Stress-Corrosion
Cracking Threshold Stress Determination, CORROSION/86, Houston, Texas, and
Materials Performance, 25 (6), p. 9 (1986).
61. Beavers, J. A., Parkins, R. N., and Thompson, N. G., Stress-Corrosion Cracking of
Low Strength Carbon Steels in Candidate High Level Waste Repository
Environments: Environmental Effects, Nuclear and Chemical Waste Management,
Vol. 5, 279-296 (1985).
62. Rosenberg, H. S., Koch, G. H., Kistler, C. W., Jr., and Beavers, J. A., Performance of
Duct and Stack Materials in Wet Scrubbers, Ninth Symposium on Flue Gas
Desulfurization, Cincinnati, Ohio, No. 58 (June 4-7, 1985).
63. Beavers, J. A. and Thompson, N. G., Electrochemical Studies of the Corrosion
Performance of Carbon Steel in Simulated Basalt Repository Environments,
Proceedings of Waste Management 85 (1985).
64. Beavers, J. A., Agrawal, A. K., Berry, W. E., Corrosion Related Failures in Feedwater
Heaters, CORROSION/84, New Orleans, Louisiana, Paper No. 169 (1984).
65. Beavers, J. A., Berry, W. E., and Griess, J. C., Materials Performance in Moist Iodine
Vapors at Low Temperatures, Proceedings of 9th International Congress on Metallic
Corrosion, Toronto, Canada, (June 3-7, 1984).
66. Leis, B. N., Rungta, R., Mayfield, M. E. and Beavers, J. A., Corrosion-Fatigue Crack
Initiation in an Iron-Caustic System, ASTM STP 801, p.197, (1983).
67. Koch, G. H. and Beavers, J. A., The Influence of Scrubber Chemistry on the
Corrosion of Alloys in Lime/Limestone Flue Gas Desulfurization Systems,
CORROSION/83, Anaheim, California, Paper No. 186 (1983).
68. Beavers, J. A. and Diegle, R. B., Corrosion of Iron Aluminum and Copper Base Alloys
in Glycols under Simulated Solar Collector Conditions, Proc. Electrochemical Soc.
1983, 83-1
69. (Proc. Symposium on Corrosion Batteries, Fuel Cells, Corros. Solar Energy Systems)
pp. 298-318.
70. Beavers, J. A. and Breeze, G. A., Inhibiting Steam-Condensate Corrosion of CopperBased Alloys by Hydrazine, EPRI-NP-2492, 1982.

22
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CC Technologies Laboratories, Inc.

Technical Proposal

External MIC Growth Rate Modeling

Selected Publications (Continued)


71. Koch, G. H., Beavers, J. A., and Syrett, B. C., Experimental Evaluation of Alloys and
Linings in Simulated Duct Environments for a Lime/Limestone Scrubber,
CORROSION/82, Houston, Texas, Paper 197, (1982).
72. Dene, C. E., Syrett, B. C., Koch, G. H., and Beavers, J. A., Alloys and Coatings for
SO2 Scrubbers, 1982 American Power Conference, Chicago, Illinois (April 1982).
73. Koch, G. H., and Beavers, J. A., Laboratory and Field Evaluation of Materials for Flue
Gas Desulfurization Systems, Seventh Symposium on Flue Gas Desulfurization,
Hollywood, Florida (June 1982).
74. Koch, G. H., Beavers, J. A., Thompson, N. G., and Berry, W. E., Literature Review of
FGD Construction Materials, EPRI Report CS-2533, (August 1982).
75. Koch, G. H., and Beavers, J. A., Materials Testing in Simulated Flue Gas
Desulfurization Duct Environments, EPRI Report CS-2537, (August 1982).
76. Beavers, J. A., and Koch, G. H., Review of Corrosion Related Failures in Flue Gas
Desulfurization Systems, Materials Performance, Vol. 21, October, p. 13 (1982).
77. Koch, G. H., and Beavers, J. A., Performance of Candidate Materials for Flue Gas
Desulfurization Systems, Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Conference on
Materials for Coal Conversion and Utilization, Gaithersburg, Maryland, (October
1982).
78. Beavers, J. A., Berry, W. E., Griess, J. C., and White, R. R., Corrosion Studies in Fuel
Element Reprocessing Environments Containing Nitric Acid, ORNL/Sub-7237/13
(April 1982).
79. Beavers, J. A., Agrawal, A. K., and Berry, W. E., Corrosion Related Failures in
Feedwater Heaters, EPRI CS-3184, July 1983.
80. Beavers, J. A., and Diegle, R. B., The Effect of Degradation of Glycols on Corrosion
of Metals Used in Non-Concentrating Solar Collectors, CORROSION/81, Paper No.
207 (1981).
81. Beavers, J. A., Griess, J. C., and Boyd, W. K., Stress-Corrosion Cracking of
Zirconium in Nitric Acid, CORROSION/80, Paper No. 238, and Corrosion, 37 (5), p.
292 (May 1981).

23
TP296-3442
CC Technologies Laboratories, Inc.

Technical Proposal

External MIC Growth Rate Modeling

Selected Publications (Continued)


82. Griess, J. C., and Beavers, J. A., Materials Compatibility in Selected Fuel Element
Reprocessing Environments, Trans. American Nuclear Society, 39 146, Winter Meeting,
San Francisco, California (November 29-December 3, 1981).

83. Beavers, J. A., Agrawal, A. K., and Berry, W. E., Corrosion Related Failures in Power
Plant Condensers, CORROSION/81, Paper No. 17, and Materials Performance, 20
(10), p. 19 (October 1981).
84. Beavers, J. A., Berry, W. E., and Griess, J. C., Materials Performance in Off-Gas
Systems Containing Iodine, ORNL/Sub-7327/11 (November 1981).
85. Beavers, J. A., Stiegelmeyer, W. N., and Berry, W. E., Failure Analyses of Corrosion
in RAD Waste Systems, CORROSION/80, Paper No. 261 (1980).
86. Diegle, R. B., Beavers, J. A., and Clifford, J. E., Corrosion Problems with Aqueous
Coolants, DOE/CS/10510-T11 (1980), NTIS, Energy Res. Abstr. (1980) 5 (21),
Abstr. No. 33516.
87. Beavers, J. A., and Pugh, E. N., The Propagation of Transgranular Stress-Corrosion
Cracks in Admiralty Metal, Metallurgical Transaction, 11 (809) (1980).
88. Beavers, J. A., Agrawal, A. K., and Berry, W. E., Corrosion Related Failures in Power
Plant Condensers@ EPRI NP-1468, (August 1980).
89. Beavers, J. A., Boyd, W. K., Griess, J. C., and Berry W. E., Materials Compatibility in
Hydriodic Acid Solutions, ORNL/TM-7330 (July 1980).
90. Beavers, J. A., Boyd, W. L., and Berry, W . E., Materials Performance in Nitric Acid
Solutions Containing Fluoride, ORNL/CFRP-78/7 (January 1979).
91. Beavers, J. A., Boyd, W. K., Griess, J. C., and Berry, W. E., Selection of Materials for
the Iodox Process, ORNL/Sub-79/77327/1 (December 1979).
92. Nelson, J. L., and Beavers, J. A., The Application of a Photogrammetric Technique to
the Determination of the Orientation of Stress-Corrosion Fractures, Metallurgical
Transactions, 10 (658) (1979).
93. Beavers, J. A., Berry, W. E., and Boyd, W. K., Selection and Evaluation of Materials
for Advanced Fuel Reprocessing Equipment, ORNL/AFRP-78/1 (August, 1978).

24
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CC Technologies Laboratories, Inc.

Technical Proposal

External MIC Growth Rate Modeling

94. Gabel, H., Beavers, J. A., Woodhouse, J. B., and Pugh, E. N., The Structure and
Composition of Thick Films on Alpha Phase Copper Alloys, Corrosion, 32 (253)
(1976).
95. Beavers, J. A., Rosenburg, I. C., and Pugh, E. N., The Role of Intergranular Attack in
Stress-Corrosion Phenomena, Tri-Services Conference on Corrosion, Houston,
Texas, p. 57 (1972).
Patents
1.

Probe For Monitoring


Thompson, N. G., Patent
design and measurement
corrosion cracking (SCC)
vessels.

Stress Corrosion Cracking, Beavers, J. A. and


No. 5.571,143; November 5, 1996. The novel probe
methodology provides real-time information on stress
in chemical process equipment, pipelines, and other

2.

Galvanic Corrosion Inhibiting Coupling Interposed Between Two Dissimilar


Pipes, Beavers, J. A.; Patent No. 5,739,424; April 14, 1998. The device mitigates
corrosion in piping systems containing dissimilar metal couples without promoting the
degradation that is sometime associated with cathodic protection.

25
TP296-3442
CC Technologies Laboratories, Inc.

Technical Proposal

External MIC Growth Rate Modeling


APPENDIX A

PRC International Project Descriptions


Performed by CC Technologies and Staff LIST OF PRCI PROJECTS
EXECUTED BY CC TECHNOLOGIES STAFF

26

Technical Proposal

External MIC Growth Rate Modeling


PRC International Project Descriptions Performed by CC Technologies and Staff.

Lead
Organization/Staff

Manager/
Principal Investigator

Funding
PRCI
Organization Committee

Project/ Contract

Project Name

Starting Date

No. of
Years

Project Description

GRI-81-0125

Corrosion of Underground Pipe

1980

GRI project to examine the basic processes of corrosion and


cathodic protection. Environmental changes at the steel surface
were examined in simulated ground water solutions.

$210,000

Funding
Level

CCT Staff

N. G. Thompson

GRI

CCT Staff

T. J. Barlo,
N. G. Thompson

PRCI

Corrosion

PR-3-129

Assessment of Criteria for


Cathodic Protection of Buried
Pipelines

1981

PRC International project to examine the requirements to mitigate


corrosion on buried steel and to refine the criteria for effective
cathodic protection where appropriate. The scope included both
laboratory and field evaluations.

$250,000

CCT Staff

N. G. Thompson

PRCI

Corrosion

PR-3-163

Criteria to Stop Active Pit


Growth

1981

PRC International project to establish the cathodic protection


requirement to stop active pitting as compared to mitigate
corrosion on bare steel with no on-going pitting.

$150,000

NG-18 Report 136

Effects of Shot Peening and


Grit blasting on the StressCorrosion-Cracking Behavior
of Line-Pipe Steel

1982

PRC International project to demonstrate the beneficial effect of


shot peening and grit blasting to SCC susceptibility and to
determine the effect of oxidation after blasting.

$60,000

CCT Staff

G. H. Koch, T. J. Barlo

PRCI

Materials

Investigation of Line Pipe that


is Highly Resistant to SCC

1983

NG-18 Report 146

Test Method for Defining


Susceptibility of Line Pipe to
SCC

1984

GRI-5084-271-1009

Effectiveness
of
Cathodic
Protection (Phases I - IV)

1981

Materials

NG-18 Report 148

Effect of Temperature on
Stress-Corrosion Cracking of
Precracked Line Pipe Steel

1985

Materials

NG-18 Report 167

Surface Effects on Stress


Corrosion Susceptibility of Line
Pipe Steels

1985

CCT Staff

J. A. Beavers

AGA

Materials

CCT Staff

J. A. Beavers,
G. H. Koch

AGA

Materials

CCT Staff

N. G. Thompson
G. T. Ruck

GRI

CCT Staff

G. H. Koch,
J. A. Beavers

AGA

CCT Staff

J. A. Beavers

AGA

CC Technologies Laboratories, Inc.

27

PRC International project to investigate the relationship between


metallurgical characteristics of line pipe steel and stress corrosion
cracking susceptibility. A specific goal of this work was to
understand the influence of processing parameters on those
characteristics that control SCC susceptibility so that steels can be
made consistently resistant to SCC.
PRC International project to develop a standardized test method
for defining the SCC susceptibility of line pipe steels. Previous
studies had identified the optimum environmental conditions and
specimen geometry for performing such an evaluation and the aim
of the work was to identify the optimum loading conditions and test
time.
GRI project to develop methodologies and instrumentation to
evaluate the effectiveness of a cathodic protection system in
mitigating corrosion. A primary focus was to measure the "offpotential" without synchronous interruption. The research resulted
in three patents for instrumentation and the commercialization of
two instruments.
PRC International project to determine the effect of temperature
on the KISCC and the effect of temperature and KI on stresscorrosion crack velocity on line pipe steels. This study was
initiated to determine whether lowering the temperature of the
environment could prevent a stress-corrosion crack from initiating
or could stop existing propagating cracks.
PRC International project to investigate the surface related factors
affecting SCC initiation. Specific goals were to identify those
surface factors that affect and control SCC initiation to reduce the
variation in the results of SCC tests and to optimize surface
properties of operating pipelines.

$130,000

$150,000

$800,000

$50,000

$100,000

Technical Proposal
Lead
Organization/Staff
CCT Staff

Manager/
Principal Investigator

External MIC Growth Rate Modeling


Funding
PRCI
Organization Committee

Project/ Contract

Project Name

Starting Date

No. of
Years

Effects of Seasonal Variations


on Requirement to Prevent
Corrosion
in
Soils(1985
Annual)

1985

Current
Requirement
Cathodic Protection

1986

1988

N. G. Thompson

PRCI

Corrosion

PR-3-505

CC Technologies N. G. Thompson

PRCI

Corrosion

PR-186-619

CCT Staff

AGA

Materials

NG-18 Report 186

J. A. Beavers

For

Effect of Loading on the


Growth Rates of Deep Stress
Corrosion Cracks

CC Technologies N. G. Thompson

PRCI

Corrosion

PR-186-807

Improved
Pipe
To
Soil
Potential
Survey
Methods
(Phases I - III)

1988

CC Technologies N. G. Thompson

PRCI

Corrosion

PR-186-916

Assessment Of Research On
Cathodic Protection Of Buried
Pipelines

1989

CC Technologies J. A. Beavers

PRCI

Materials

PR-186-917

Assessment of Line Pipe


Susceptibility to SCC Under
Tape, Enamel, and Fusion
Bonded Epoxy Coatings

1989

CC Technologies

N. G. Thompson
K. M. Lawson

PRCI

Corrosion

PR-186-006

Causes And Effects Of The


Spiking Phenomena

1990

CC Technologies

N. G. Thompson
K. M. Lawson

PRCI

Corrosion

PR-186-9106

Investigation Of The -0.85 Volt


On-Potential Criteria

1991

CC Technologies

N. G. Thompson
K. M. Lawson

PRCI

Corrosion

PR-186-9126

Evaluation Of Commercial
Systems
For
Measuring
Cathodic Protection

1991

CC Technologies Laboratories, Inc.

28

Project Description
PRC International project to examine effects of seasonal variations
on the corrosion behavior of steel in soils and to determine the
response of the steel to cathodic protection during seasonal
variations.
PRC International program to determine the feasibility of using
polarization resistance techniques for establishing a current
requirement for cathodically protected buried gas pipelines. An
instrument was developed for measuring the polarization
resistance in the field, free of IR drop.
PRC International project to determine the effect of loading
parameters on the propagation rates of high pH stress-corrosion
cracking.
PRC International project to improve the ability to perform and
interpret close interval on and off potential surveys for buried
piping. A field site of 80 feet of 20 inch bare pipe has been
established for which ground level pipe to soil potential
measurements can be compared to potentials at the pipe surface.
Finite Element Analysis computer modeling also is being
performed to establish what area of the pipe is being "sensed"
during a ground level pipe to soil potential measurement.
PRC International project to provide a critical review of PRCI.
funded research and outside research as it relates to the specific
goals of PRCI in the general area of cathodic protection. The
specific goals were to examine the effects that the research had
on the state-of-the-art for cathodic protection and to provide a
convenient, comprehensive report that documents and
summarizes the accomplishments of research projects relating to
the specific goals of PRCI.
PRC International project to evaluate the susceptibility of line pipe
to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) when coated with polyethylene
(PE) tape, coal tar enamel (CTE), and fusion bonded epoxy (FBE)
and to establish whether SCC can occur on FBE coated pipelines.
PRC International project to establish the cause and effects of the
spiking phenomena so as to provide the CP engineer with a
standard practice for measuring off-potentials in the presence of
the spiking phenomena.
PRC International project to investigate the effectiveness of the 0.85 V on-potential criteria. The specific goals were: (1) to
establish a substantial database of pipeline inspection reports and
soil analyses, and (2) to provide an analysis of the database that
will evaluate the effective of the -0.85 V on-potential criterion.
PRC International project to provide an evaluation of commercially
available cathodic protection survey equipment. The scope of this
program included field evaluations, primarily on operation
pipelines, examining the equipment's accuracy, reliability, and
ease of use.

Funding
Level
$90,000

$70,000

$70,000

$220,000

$125,000

$150,000

$140,000

$120,000

$80,000

Technical Proposal
Lead
Organization/Staff

Manager/
Principal Investigator

External MIC Growth Rate Modeling


Funding
PRCI
Organization Committee

Project/ Contract

Project Name

Starting Date

No. of
Years

CC Technologies

N. G. Thompson
K. M. Lawson

PRCI

Corrosion

PR-186-9105

Multiple Pipelines In The Same


Right-of-Way

1991

CC Technologies

N. G. Thompson
K. M. Lawson

PRCI

Corrosion

PR-186-9220

The Use Of Coupons For


Estimating
Off-Potentials
(Phases I - IV)

1992

CC Technologies

N. G. Thompson
K. M. Lawson

PRCI

Corrosion

PR-186-9203

Most Accurate Method For


Measuring An Off-Potential

1992

CC Technologies

N. G. Thompson
K. M. Lawson

PRCI

Corrosion

PR-186-9412

Cathodic Protection
Stray Current Areas

1994

CC Technologies J. A. Beavers

PRCI

Materials

PR-186-9402

Low-pH SCC:
Mechanical
Effects On Crack Propagation

1994

CC Technologies J. A. Beavers

PRCI

Materials

PR-186-9506

An Overview of SCC Field


Data Collection

1995

In

DC

CC Technologies

N. G. Thompson
K. M. Lawson

PRCI

Corrosion

PR-186-9611

Impact
of
Short-Term
Depolarization of Pipelines

1996

CC Technologies

N. G. Thompson
K. M. Lawson

PRCI

Corrosion

PR-186-9610

External Corrosion
Monitoring Practices

1996

CC Technologies Laboratories, Inc.

Control

29

Project Description
PRC International project to improve the ability to interpret close
interval on- and off-potential surveys in right-of-ways containing
multiple pipelines. The specific objectives were to develop a
computer model, which could be used to predict interaction
between the pipelines, to extend the module to more complex real
life pipeline situations, and to provide field verification of the
model.
PRC International project to establish guidelines for the use of
coupons as a monitoring methodology for determining the level of
protection on a pipeline. The specific goals are to examine other
recent studies utilizing coupons, to expand conditions for operating
pipelines for which coupons have been examined, and to verify the
accuracy of coupon off-potentials as a function of the level of CP.
PRC International project to develop the most accurate method for
estimating the polarized potential of a pipeline utilizing interruption.
The specific goals of the research were (1) to establish and verify
the amount of error introduced by long-line currents when
measuring an off-potential and (2) to develop a test protocol for
estimating the polarized potential by interruption techniques in
view of all possible errors.
PRC International project to develop reliable measurement
techniques to assess stray current effects, to develop reliable
procedures for measuring CP criteria in the presence of stray
currents or develop improved CP criteria if necessary, and to
identify mitigation procedures and assess their ability to mitigate
corrosion in stray current areas.
PRC International project to determine the role of hydrotesting on
stress corrosion crack growth in a low-pH SCC environment.
Crack growth rate measurements were performed on 1/2 T
compact type specimens of pipeline steels under cyclic loading
conditions in a low-pH environment. An electric potential drop
technique was used to monitor crack extension and the data were
analyzed using elastic plastic fracture mechanics.
PRC International project to establish a standard protocol for the
collection of field data on SCC and to train technicians on this
protocol. To this end, a manual on field data collection was
created. This manual includes an overview of SCC, reviewing
mechanisms of SCC and information on conducting an
investigative program.
PRC International project to examine the effect of repeated
depolarization of the pipeline during either interrupted closeinterval-surveys or during longer term interruptions of the CP
system due to intentional depolarization to validate a CP criterion
or scheduled and unscheduled maintenance.
PRC International project to provide recommended practices for
corrosion control monitoring for a wide range of pipeline conditions
and monitoring scenarios.

Funding
Level

$140,000

$800,000

$150,000

$75,000

$240,000

$80,000

$120,000

$90,000

Technical Proposal
Lead
Organization/Staff

Manager/
Principal Investigator

CC Technologies N. G. Thompson

External MIC Growth Rate Modeling


Funding
PRCI
Organization Committee
GRI

Corrosion

Project/ Contract

Project Name

Starting Date

No. of
Years

Project Description

GRI-5097-260-3825

Cathodic
Protection
Requirements for Mitigating
Corrosion on Buried Pipelines

1997

GRI project to determine the requirements for effective mitigation


of corrosion for buried steel and to develop a model based on
fundamental mechanisms for cathodic protection of steel in soils.

CC Technologies J. A. Beavers

PRCI

Materials

PR-186-9706

Effects
of
Fluctuations
Propagation

CC Technologies

C. E. Jaske
J. A. Beavers

PRCI

Materials

PR-186-9709

CCT Staff

O. C. Moghissi

PRCI

Corrosion

CC Technologies J. A. Beavers

PRCI

CC Technologies J. A. Beavers

PRCI

on

Pressure
SCC

1997

Integrity and Remaining Life of


Pipe with Stress Corrosion
Cracking

1997

PR 15-9808

Internal
Corrosion
Risk
Assessment and Management
of Steel Pipelines

1998

Corrosion

PR-186-9807

CP Conditions Conducive to
SCC

1998

Corrosion

PR-186-9810

Performance of Blistered FBE


Coated Pipe

1998

1999

PRC International project to define the relationship between the


nature of pressure fluctuations on gas transmission pipelines and
the crack-growth behavior under conditions designed to simulate
near-neutral pH SCC. The roles of R ratio (ratio of minimum to
maximum cyclic load), frequency, waveform, time, and pressure
transients on crack-growth behavior were evaluated.
PRC International project to improve the CorLAS(TM) Version 1.0
model for predicting the failure and remaining life of pipelines with
stress-corrosion cracks. Improvements were made by (1) adding
a tearing instability criterion for toughness-dependent failure, (2)
adding improved formulations for computing values of the J
integral for surface flaws, (3) incorporating procedures to evaluate
flaw Interaction, and (4) validating strain hardening approximations
that are used in computing values of plastic J integral.
PRC International project to develop Maintenance Optimization
Risk Management software to maximize the net present value
savings for a series of pipeline segments by scheduling their
inspection/ repair/ or replacements. A probabilistic internal
corrosion rate prediction model was included.
PRC International project to define pipeline conditions where use
of the 100 mV polarization criterion may be conducive to possible
SCC problems. Each of the controlling conditions for SCC were
examined, using a combination of analysis of previous research
results, analysis of field data, and laboratory testing.
PRC International project to (i) determine the corrosion rate of
steel beneath blistered, but holiday-free, FBE coatings under
aerated and deaerated conditions, (ii) evaluate the effectiveness of
CP through such coatings, and (iii) evaluate the effect of increased
levels of CP on the rate of degradation of such coatings.
PRC International project to develop a high pressure system to
maintain a mixed MIC-biofilm and determine the influence of a
consortium of microorganisms on the internal corrosion of steel
pipeline exposed to CO2, H2S, and O2 and varied liquid
chemistry.

Funding
Level
$620,000

$160,000

$125,000

$75,000

$100,000

$70,000

GRI

Corrosion

PR 15-9916

Interdependent
Effects
of
Bacteria, Gas Composition,
and Water Chemistry on
Internal Corrosion of Steel
Pipelines

N. G. Thompson
K. M. Lawson

PRCI

Corrosion

PR-186-9918

Hot
Spot
Protection
for
Impressed Current Systems

1999

PRC International project to determine the effectiveness of "hotspot" magnesium anode protection on a pipeline protected by an
impressed current CP system.

$120,000

N. G. Thompson
M. Yunovich

GRI

Corrosion

GRI-8187

AC Corrosion

2000

GRI project to validate whether "AC corrosion" is the cause of


corrosion observed on pipelines in high voltage AC corridors and
to determine the mechanism of the corrosion observed and
monitoring practices and criteria to mitigate the corrosion.

$220,000

CCT Staff

O. C. Moghissi

CC Technologies

CC Technologies

CC Technologies Laboratories, Inc.

30

$100,000

Technical Proposal
Lead
Organization/Staff

Manager/
Principal Investigator

CC Technologies J. A. Beavers

External MIC Growth Rate Modeling


Funding
PRCI
Organization Committee
GRI

Project/ Contract

Project Name

Starting Date

No. of
Years

Project Description

GRI-7045

Near-Neutral
pH
SCC:
Dormancy and Re-Initiation of
Stress Corrosion Cracks

2000

GRI project to identify the environmental and mechanical


conditions that lead to dormancy of stress corrosion cracks and reinitiation of previously dormant cracks.

2000

PRC International project to establish the specifications and a


quality test for the magnesium anodes used in sacrificial anode CP
systems that insures the expected anode efficiency used to design
the CP system is realized in field installations.
PRC International project to develop a standard overall
performance test for pipeline coatings, one which correctly ranks
coatings and indicates failure modes which are representative of
field performance.
PRC International project to determine the chemical compatibility
of different small area repair patch coatings to the most common
mainline coating chemistries by measuring coating-to-coating
adhesion. Both initial and long-term adhesion was determined.

Funding
Level
$200,000

N. G. Thompson
CC Technologies
M. Yunovich

PRCI

Corrosion

PR-186-0025

Development of Quality &


Performance
Specifications
For Magnesium Anodes

CC Technologies G. R. Ruschau

PRCI

Corrosion

PR-186-0028

Developing
Predictive
Accelerated Test Methods for
Pipeline Coatings

2000

CC Technologies G. R. Ruschau

PRCI

Corrosion

PR-186-0029

Compatibility
of
Repair
Coatings
to
Existing
Underground Coatings

2000

Seasonal Variations Effects on


Free-Corrosion
GRI NRTC Subcontract
Potentials/Monitoring CP in
High Resistivity Soils

2001

GRI project to establish the effect of seasonal variations on


operating pipelines and the ability of existing criteria to effectively
mitigate corrosion during fluctuating soil conditions.

$100,000

2001

GRI
project
to
examine
the
application
of
the
polarization/depolarization criterion based on fundamental
mechanisms and to establish methodology to apply the criterion
based on depolarization/repolarization times less than the multiple
days necessary with the current practice.

$210,000

2001

GRI project to develop a method to assess internal corrosion


damage in gas transmission pipelines.

$130,000

2001

PRC International project to determine the adhesion of different


repair coatings to the various components of a thermite weld, and
determine the repair coatings' ability to be applied during a
keyhole excavation. The short and long term performance of each
was to be determined.

$55,000

2002

PRC International project to explore the field-compatible


techniques for permanently repairing SCC cracks and colonies
without the need for service interruption.

$60,000

CC Technologies / N. G. Thompson
NRTC
K. M. Lawson

CC Technologies

CCT Staff

N. G. Thompson
O. C. Moghissi

O. C. Moghissi

CC Technologies G. R. Ruschau

CC Technologies C. E. Jaske

GRI

GRI

GRI

Corrosion

GRI-8468

Efficient Use of
Protection Criteria

GRI-8329

Internal
Corrosion
Direct
Assessment
of
Gas
Transmission
Pipelines
Methodology

Corrosion

PR-186-0109

GRI

Pipeline
Materials

GRI-8511

GRI

CC Technologies J. A. Beavers

GRI

CC Technologies Laboratories, Inc.

Corrosion

PRCI

J. A. Beavers
E. B. Clark

CC Technologies

Corrosion

Materials

Cathodic

Coating
Compatibility
Special Repairs

Permanent Field
SCC - Review

for

Repair

of

GRI-8512

In-Situ Pipeline Mechanical


Property Characterization

2002

GRI-8513

Reliable Diagnosis Of SCC


During Field Inspection

2002

31

GRI project to identify reliable, field applicable nondestructive test


methods that can be used for estimating the yield strength, tensile
strength, and fracture toughness of line pipe materials. This will
include the proper procedures for using the equipment identified
and its limitations.
GRI project to prepare a document containing a compilation of
types of crack-like MPI or visual indications found on underground
transmission pipelines for the purpose of proper interpretation of
their type and cause.

$172,000

$440,000

$65,000

$80,000

$65,000

Technical Proposal
Lead
Organization/Staff

Manager/
Principal Investigator

External MIC Growth Rate Modeling


Funding
PRCI
Organization Committee

Project/ Contract

Project Name

Starting Date

No. of
Years

Project Description

Funding
Level

CC Technologies N. G. Thompson

PRCI

Corrosion

PR-186-02107

High CP Potential Effects on


Pipelines

2002

PRC International project to determine the detrimental effects of


over protection of the CP system to high potentials sometimes
achieved on pipelines.

$80,000

CC Technologies O. C. Moghissi

PRCI

Corrosion

PR-186-02124

Coupons
Coatings

2002

PRC International project to develop a buried coupon to identify


conditions under which disbonded coatings create susceptibility to
external corrosion.

$270,000

for

Disbonded

$8,177,000

CC Technologies Laboratories, Inc.

32

PART II COST PROPOSAL


TP296-3442

EXTERNAL MIC GROWTH RATE MODELING


2003 - 2004
PREPARED FOR

PRC INTERNATIONAL
Pipeline Materials Committee

PREPARED BY

CC TECHNOLOGIES LABORATORIES, INC.


OLIVER C. MOGHISSI
AUGUST 05, 2002

CC Technologies
6141 AVERY ROAD
DUBLIN, OHIO 43016
614.761.1214 614.761.1633 fax
www.cctechnologies.com

Part II Cost Proposal

External MIC Growth Rate Modeling

Table 1a. Cost Summary for 2003


PRCI / GAS TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE CONTRACT COST ESTIMATE (FOOTNOTE A)
Name of Offeror

RFP No./ Prp. No.

Page Number

Number of Pages

CC Technologies Laboratories I nc.


Home Office Address

Name of Proposed Project

6141 Avery Road, Dublin Ohio 43016

External MI C Grow th Rate Modeling - Proposal No. TP2743555 ( 2003)

Division(s) and Location(s) (where work is to be performed)

Total Amount of Proposal

$75,000
Estimated Cost
(dollars)

Total Estimated Cost


(dollars)

Supporting Schedule
(Footnote B)

1. Direct Material
a. Purchased Parts

$0

b. I nterdivisional Effort

$0
$0

c. Equipment Rental

$1,000

d. Other (Supplies and Materials)

$1,000 Table 1b

Total Direct Material


2. Material Overhead

Rate

10%

$1,000

x Base $

$100

3. Subcontracted Effort

Subcontractor Cofunding (Footnote D)

$0 Table 1b

Net Subcontracted Effort


4. Direct Labor - Specify

Est. Hours

Rate/ Hour

Est. Cost

Sen Group Leader

190

$44.68

$8,489

Project Engineer

140

$29.15

$4,081

Technologist

260

$25.25

$6,565

40

$14.84

$594

Office Staff

$19,729 Table 1b

Total Direct Labor


5. Labor Overhead - Specify

O.H. Rate

Labor Overhead ( Fringes)


General Overhead

X Base $

Est. Cost

40%

$19,729

$7,892

132%

$27,621

$36,459

Non- Labor Overhead

$44,351

Total Labor & General Overhead

$0 Table 1b

6. Special Testing

$0 Table 1b

7. Purchased Special Equipment


8. Travel

$990 Table 1b

G&A on travel

9. Consultants (I dentify - Purpose - Rate)

Est. Cost

$2,400 Table 1b

Total Consultants

$195 Table 1b

10. Other Direct Costs

$68,765

11. Total Direct Cost and Overhead


12. General and Administrative Expense
Rate

10%

x Base $

3,585 (Cost element no(s).

3, 6, 7, 8, 9, & 10)

(Cost element no(s).

$359

13. I ndependent Research and Development


Rate

x Base $

$0
$69,124

14. Total Estimated Cost (Footnote C)

$5,876

15. Fixed Fee

$75,000

16. Total Estimated Cost and Fee


17. Contractor/ Third Party Cofunding (Footnote D)

$75,000

18. Net Estimated Cost and Fee to GRI


This proposal reflects our best estimate as of this date, in accordance with the instructions to offerors and the footnotes which follow.
Typed Name and Title
Neil G. Thompson, CEO
FOOTNOTES:

A.
B.
C.
D.

Signature

Date
7/ 31/ 02

The submission of this form does not constitute an acceptable proposal. Required supporting information must also be submitted.
For each item of cost, reference the schedule which contains the required supporting data.
This should be the total cost of the research project. Any contractor cost sharing should be shown on the Line 17 as a reduction from total costs.
This line should contain (I ) total proposed fee, (ii) contractor cofunding, (3) third party cash cofunding, or (iv)be blank, depending on the contract type.
Fixed fee should be cofunded before any contractor in-kind cofunding is proposed.

CC Technologies Laboratories, Inc.

Part II Cost Proposal

External MIC Growth Rate Modeling

Table 1b. Cost Detail for Table 1a.


(1) LABOR COSTS

Staff
Sen Group Leader
Project Engineer
Technologist
Office Staff
TOTAL LABOR

Hours
Billed
190
140
260
40
630

Average
Rate x Infl
5.0%
$44.68
$29.15
$25.25
$14.84

Total
Labor
Charged
$8,489.20
$4,081.00
$6,565.00
$593.60
$19,728.80

(3) MATERIALS

Item
Misc
Total Materials

Unit
Cost
$1,000.00

Quantity
1

Total
Cost
$1,000.00
$1,000.00

(4) CONSULTANT

Consultant
Microbiologist
Total Consultants

Cost
Per Hr
$50.00

No. of
Hours

No. of
Persons

No. of
Trips

48

Cost
$2,400.00
$2,400.00

(5) TRAVEL

Trip
Project Review
Total Travel

No. of
Days
1

Airfare
$550.00

Subsistence
/day
$170.00

Rental
Car/day
$50.00

Trip
Cost
$990.00
$990.00

(7) OTHER COSTS

Item
Misc/Postage
Total Other Costs

Unit
Cost
$195.00

CC Technologies Laboratories, Inc.

Quantity
1

Total
Cost
$195.00
$195.00

Part II Cost Proposal

External MIC Growth Rate Modeling

Table 2a. Cost Summary for 2004


PRCI / GAS TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE CONTRACT COST ESTIMATE (FOOTNOTE A)
Name of Offeror

RFP No./ Prp. No.

Page Number

Number of Pages

CC Technologies Laboratories I nc.


Home Office Address

Name of Proposed Project

6141 Avery Road, Dublin Ohio 43016

External MI C Grow th Rate Modeling - Proposal No. TP2743555 ( 2004)

Division(s) and Location(s) (where work is to be performed)

Total Amount of Proposal

$49,500
Estimated Cost
(dollars)

Total Estimated Cost


(dollars)

Supporting Schedule
(Footnote B)

1. Direct Material
a. Purchased Parts

$0

b. I nterdivisional Effort

$0
$0

c. Equipment Rental

$500

d. Other (Supplies and Materials)

$500 Table 2b

Total Direct Material


2. Material Overhead

Rate

10%

$500

x Base $

$50

3. Subcontracted Effort

Subcontractor Cofunding (Footnote D)

$0 Table 2b

Net Subcontracted Effort


4. Direct Labor - Specify

Est. Hours

Sen Group Leader


Project Engineer
Technologist
Office Staff

Rate/ Hour

Est. Cost

120

$45.74

80

$29.84

$5,489
$2,387

170

$25.85

$4,395

40

$15.19

$608
$12,878 Table 2b

Total Direct Labor


5. Labor Overhead - Specify

O.H. Rate

Labor Overhead ( Fringes)


General Overhead

X Base $

Est. Cost

40%

$12,878

$5,151

132%

$18,029

$23,799

Non- Labor Overhead

$28,950

Total Labor & General Overhead

$0 Table 2b

6. Special Testing

$0 Table 2b

7. Purchased Special Equipment


8. Travel

$1,040 Table 2b

G&A on travel

9. Consultants (I dentify - Purpose - Rate)

Est. Cost

$1,600 Table 2b

Total Consultants

$309 Table 2b

10. Other Direct Costs

$45,327

11. Total Direct Cost and Overhead


12. General and Administrative Expense
Rate

10%

x Base $

2,949 (Cost element no(s).

3, 6, 7, 8, 9, & 10)

(Cost element no(s).

$295

13. I ndependent Research and Development


Rate

x Base $

$0
$45,622

14. Total Estimated Cost (Footnote C)

$3,878

15. Fixed Fee

$49,500

16. Total Estimated Cost and Fee


17. Contractor/ Third Party Cofunding (Footnote D)

$49,500

18. Net Estimated Cost and Fee to GRI


This proposal reflects our best estimate as of this date, in accordance with the instructions to offerors and the footnotes which follow.
Typed Name and Title
Neil G. Thompson, CEO
FOOTNOTES:

A.
B.
C.
D.

Signature

Date
7/ 31/ 02

The submission of this form does not constitute an acceptable proposal. Required supporting information must also be submitted.
For each item of cost, reference the schedule which contains the required supporting data.
This should be the total cost of the research project. Any contractor cost sharing should be shown on the Line 17 as a reduction from total costs.
This line should contain (I ) total proposed fee, (ii) contractor cofunding, (3) third party cash cofunding, or (iv)be blank, depending on the contract type.
Fixed fee should be cofunded before any contractor in-kind cofunding is proposed.

CC Technologies Laboratories, Inc.

Part II Cost Proposal

External MIC Growth Rate Modeling

Table 2b. Cost Detail for Table 2a.

(1) LABOR COSTS

Staff
Sen Group Leader/Total
Project Engineer/Total
Technologist/Total
Office Staff/Total
TOTAL LABOR

Hours
Billed
120
80
170
40
410

Average
Rate x Infl
7.5%
$45.74
$29.84
$25.85
$15.19

Total
Labor
Charged
$5,488.80
$2,387.20
$4,394.50
$607.60
$12,878.10

(3) MATERIALS

Item
Misc
Total Materials

Unit
Cost
$500.00

Quantity
1

Total
Cost
$500.00
$500.00

(4) CONSULTANT

Consultant
Microbiologist
Total Consultants

Cost
Per Hr
$50.00

No. of
Hours

No. of
Persons

No. of
Trips

32

Cost
$1,600.00
$1,600.00

(5) TRAVEL

Trip
Project Review
Total Travel

No. of
Days
1

Airfare
$600.00

Subsistence
/day
$170.00

Rental
Car/day
$50.00

Trip
Cost
$1,040.00
$1,040.00

(7) OTHER COSTS

Item
Misc/Postage
Total Other Costs

Unit
Cost
$309.00

CC Technologies Laboratories, Inc.

Quantity
1

Total
Cost
$309.00
$309.00

Proposal

Direct Assessment
Approaches to
Mechanical Damage
(RPTG-0321)

Submitted to
Materials Technical Committee of
the Pipeline Research Council
International

Prepared by
Maher A. Nessim, Ph.D., P.Eng.
tel:
780 450 8989 ext 207
email: m.nessim@cfertech.com

Copyright 2002
C-FER Technologies

August 2002
Project L074

C-FER Technologies

NOTICE
Restriction on Disclosure

Information contained in this proposal may not be disclosed, duplicated or used in whole or in
part for any purpose other than in evaluation of the Pipeline Research Council International, Inc.
(PRCI). In the event that the proposal is not accepted, this proposal document should be returned
to C-FER Technologies. This restriction does not limit the use of information contained in the
document if it is obtained from another source without restriction.

C-FER Technologies

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Notice
Table of Contents
List of Figures and Tables
Executive Summary

i
ii
iii
iv

1.

TERMS OF REFERENCE ................................................................................................... 1

2.

TECHNICAL BACKGROUND............................................................................................. 2

2.1 General
2.2 Previous Work
2.3 Proposed Framework
2.4 Technical Issues
3.

2
2
2
4

PROPOSED PROGRAM..................................................................................................... 5

3.1 Objective and Scope


3.2 Incentive
3.3 Work Plan
3.3.1 Task 1: Finalize Project Plan
3.3.2 Task 2: Investigate Methodologies for Identifying Likely Damage Sites
3.3.3 Task 3: Develop Reliability Evaluation Model
3.3.4 Task 4: Develop Decision Models
3.3.5 Task 5: Assess Overall Methodology
3.3.6 Task 6: Preparation of Deliverables and Reporting
3.4 Schedule
3.5 Cost

5
5
6
6
6
6
7
7
8
8
9

4.

PROJECT TEAM ORGANIZATION AND QUALIFICATIONS ......................................... 10

5.

CORPORATE QUALIFICATIONS .................................................................................... 11

5.1
5.2

Corporate Profile
Qualifications Related to the Proposed Project

11
11

APPENDICES

Appendix A

Resumes of Project Team

ii

C-FER Technologies

LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES

Figures

Figure 1

Overview of Direct Assessment Methodology

Tables

Table 1

Proposed Schedule

Table 2

Cost Breakdown by Task (US$)

iii

C-FER Technologies

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
TITLE

Direct Assessment Approaches to Mechanical


Damage

CONTRACTOR

C-FER Technologies

NEW PROJECT
FUNDING REQUESTED

PRCI

$150,000

ESTIMATED COMPLETION DATE

December 31, 2004

TOTAL ESTIMATED COST

PRCI

2003 - 2004

$150,000

Objective

The objective of the proposed project is to develop a methodology for direct assessment of
pipelines with respect to mechanical damage. The project will focus on in-service mechanical
damage, which is defined as dent and gouge features that occur due to equipment impact during
the service life of the pipeline (other damage such as dents occurring during construction is not
included).
Incentive

Mechanical damage is the most common cause of pipeline failures and is responsible for a
significant proportion of ruptures and large leaks. Although the majority of mechanical damage
failures occur at or immediately after the damage incident, delayed failures can occur due to the
fatigue growth of gouge defects. Such damage features can be identified by in-line inspection or
eliminated through hydrostatic testing; however, there is no economical way to assess integrity
for pipelines that are not amenable to these methods. The development of such a methodology
will enable operators to cost-effectively manage the integrity of old pipelines with respect to
mechanical damage.

Framework

The proposed basic direct assessment methodology for in-service mechanical damage is
demonstrated in Figure 1. The first step is to define likely damage sites based on the best
available method and select the most critical damage sites for excavation. These sites are then
excavated and any necessary repairs carried out. Based on the information obtained from the
damage site identification analysis and the excavations, the integrity of the pipeline can be
evaluated. If the integrity is adequate the process is terminated. If the integrity is not adequate,
one must determine whether or not the direct assessment method is sufficiently promising to
warrant further excavations. If further excavations are to be undertaken, the information from
previous excavations is used to update the site selection method before the new excavation site
locations are defined. This creates an iterative process that should be continued until sufficient
confidence is achieved in the integrity of the line, or the assessment method is shown to be
ineffective.
iv

C-FER Technologies
Executive Summary
Define Likely Damage
Sites

Select Excavation Sites

Update Likely Damage


Site Selection Model

Excavate and Repair


Critical Sites

Evaluate Pipeline
Integrity

Yes

No
Promising ?

Adequate ?

Yes

No
End

Figure 1 Overview of Direct Assessment Methodology

Work Plan

Tasks that will be carried out to achieve the project objectives are as follows:
1. Finalize Project Plan. The project plan will be finalized based on the comments of the
project ad hoc committee and the results of a literature review.
2. Investigate Methodologies for Identifying Likely Damage Sites. Produce a listing of possible
methods of identifying likely damage sites, a summary of all available information relating to
their potential accuracy, and a proposed approach to characterize their accuracy. Approaches
that will be considered include coating damage surveys supplemented by other information
(such as clock position of the coating damage) and damage susceptibility models (such as the
fault tree model developed by C-FER).
3. Develop Reliability Evaluation Model. Develop a model to calculate reliability taking into
account the additional uncertainties resulting from the use of indirect information (e.g. from
v

C-FER Technologies
Executive Summary

ground surveys) and limited excavation information. Define the reliability levels that must
be met to demonstrate adequate integrity.
4. Develop Decision Models. Develop a model that uses accumulated excavation data to
determine whether additional excavations should be undertaken for cases that do not meet the
target reliability with the amount of data available. Where additional excavations are
required, update the model used to select initial damage sites using the information from
previous excavations. Demonstrate the model by realistic example cases.
5. Assess Overall Methodology. Use a suitable test case to demonstrate and assess the
integrated methodology, and define bounds within which it could be successfully
implemented. Use sensitivity analyses to investigate the conditions under which a direct
assessment approach can be successfully used. Determine the required accuracy of the
damage location method and evaluate the methods proposed in Task 2 against these
requirements. Develop project conclusions and recommendations based on the results.
6. Present findings at two committee meetings, deliver quarterly project updates, and prepare a
comprehensive final report.

vi

C-FER Technologies

1. TERMS OF REFERENCE

This document contains a proposal submitted by C-FER Technologies in response to a Request


For Proposal (RFP) issued by PRCI on the subject of Direct Assessment Methods for
Mechanical Damage. The objective of the proposed project is to develop methods to assess
integrity with respect to in-service mechanical damage for pipelines that are not amenable to
in-line inspection or hydrostatic testing.
This proposal describes the approach that will be used for this work. It includes a technical
background section (Section 2) that describes previous work on direct assessment and the major
technical issues involved in implementing it for in-service mechanical damage. Section 3 deals
with the objective, incentive, proposed tasks, schedule and cost. Section 4 outlines the project
management structure and team qualifications, while Section 5 summarizes the relevant
experience of the proposed team.

C-FER Technologies

2. TECHNICAL BACKGROUND
2.1 General

With growing emphasis on pipeline safety over the past few years, there has been an increasing
demand for effective ways to demonstrate and maintain pipeline integrity. The main tools used
for this purpose are In-Line Inspection (ILI) and hydrostatic testing, but these methods are not
always viable. For example, hydrostatic testing is not practical for lines with no supply
redundancy. Similarly, some pipelines that are not fitted with launch/receive facilities, or have
sharp bends or small diameter valves that cannot be negotiated by an inspection tool. Direct
assessment methods, which infer the condition of the pipeline from information that can be
obtained from sources other than an in-line inspection, have been developed as an alternative
integrity management approach for pipelines that are not amenable to ILI or hydrostatic testing.
2.2 Previous Work

Ongoing work by Battelle on direct assessment is focused on external corrosion. The


information used in the assessment is obtained from ground surveys (such as close interval and
direct current voltage gradient surveys) and bell hole excavations. Ground surveys detect areas
of coating damage and determine the condition of the cathodic protection system. The
information from ground surveys typically provides 100% coverage of the pipeline, but is
indirect in the sense that it provides the location of potential rather than actual areas of corrosion.
Direct information is then obtained from excavations, in which the defects in the excavated
sections are located and accurately measured. Battelle suggests that confidence in the model can
be developed by correlating the excavation information to the survey data and repeating the
process until the model predictions compare favourably to the excavation findings. This
methodology is still under development, requiring further validation with actual pipeline data.
Although not referred to as direct assessment, a similar methodology has been used for some
years to manage SCC damage. In this context, potential defect locations are identified using a
susceptibility model that is based on coating type, soil type, topography and drainage. The most
susceptible locations are excavated to locate and repair any existing defects. Confidence in the
susceptibility model improves as more excavations are undertaken, allowing better correlation
between reality and model results. The susceptibility models used in this case are largely
line-specific and proprietary.
2.3 Proposed Framework

The proposed basic direct assessment methodology for in-service mechanical damage is
demonstrated in Figure 1. The first step is to define likely damage sites based on the best
available method and select the most critical damage sites for excavation. These sites would then
be excavated and any necessary repairs carried out. Based on the information obtained from the
2

C-FER Technologies

Technical Background
damage site identification analysis and the excavations, the integrity of the pipeline can be
evaluated. If the integrity is adequate the process is terminated. If the integrity is not adequate,
one must determine whether or not the direct assessment method is sufficiently promising to
warrant further excavations. If further excavations are to be undertaken, the information from
previous excavations is used to update the site selection method before the new excavation site
locations are defined. This creates an iterative process that should be continued until sufficient
confidence is achieved in the integrity of the line, or the assessment method shown to be
ineffective.

Define Likely Damage


Sites

Select Excavation Sites

Update Likely Damage


Site Selection Model

Excavate and Repair


Critical Sites

Evaluate Pipeline
Integrity

Yes

No
Promising ?

Adequate ?

Yes

No
End

Figure 1 Overview of Direct Assessment Methodology

It is noted that an in-line inspection can be represented by a single pass through the steps shown
in Figure 1. Only one pass is required for an accurate ILI tool, because the results of the first
excavation are likely to match the tool data. This suggests that the efficiency of direct
assessment depends largely on the ability of the initial damage site definition method to identify
critical defect locations. If the method is perfect, critical defects will be identified in the first
pass, leading to complete confidence in the integrity of the pipeline. In the other extreme, if a
method of identifying defect locations is not available, the initial excavation sites will be selected
3

C-FER Technologies

Technical Background
randomly and a significant pipeline length may need to be excavated in order to demonstrate
integrity with sufficient confidence. In general, the number of iterations required and the length
of pipeline excavated is a function of the accuracy of the defect identification method.
2.4 Technical Issues

Based on the discussion in Section 2.3, the technical issues involved in developing a direct
assessment method for mechanical damage are as follows:
1. Identification of likely damage sites. As argued earlier, the effectiveness of direct assessment
is highly dependent on the accuracy of the method used to identify likely damage sites.
There are currently no recognized methods to locate mechanical damage features, and
therefore a methodology needs to be developed for this purpose.
2. Characterizing integrity based on incomplete information. In a direct assessment situation
integrity assessment is affected by two sources of uncertainty. The first source is the basic
uncertainty resulting from variability in material properties, dimensions and loading. This
uncertainty affects all pipelines regardless of the assessment methodology. The second
source is the incompleteness of available information (referred to here as measurement
uncertainty). This relates to the fact that the assessment is being made using a combination
of indirect information (e.g. CIS data for external corrosion) and incomplete direct
information (i.e. from selected excavations). While basic uncertainty cannot be reduced
because it relates to intrinsic variability in loading and manufacturing processes,
measurement uncertainty can be reduced by carrying out more excavations and improving the
methods used to predict damage locations. The integrity measure used should be capable of
incorporating the impact of these two sources of uncertainty.
3. Measuring the effectiveness of direct assessment. The RFP states that direct assessment
methods should be as effective as in-line inspection and hydrostatic testing. The
effectiveness of direct assessment can be measured by the level of confidence in the
reliability estimates obtained using the information available for the assessment. If an
adequate reliability estimate is demonstrated with a high level of confidence, the assessment
is successful. On the other hand, if it is demonstrated that there is a low chance of achieving
the desired level of confidence with a reasonable amount of further excavations, then the
direct assessment approach may be deemed unsuccessful. To make these determinations, a
methodology is required to estimate the level of confidence in calculated reliability as a
function of the accuracy of the method used to identify initial damage sites and the total
length of pipeline excavated.
While the first issue mentioned above is unique to mechanical damage, the other two relate to
direct assessment methodology in general. Therefore, some of the project results will be
applicable to direct assessments related to other failure causes such as corrosion and SCC.

C-FER Technologies

3. PROPOSED PROGRAM
3.1 Objective and Scope

The objective of the proposed project is to develop a methodology for direct assessment of
pipelines with respect to mechanical damage. The project will focus on in-service mechanical
damage, which is defined as dent and gouge features that occur due to equipment impact during
the service life of the pipeline (other damage such as dents occurring during construction is not
included).
The focus areas of the project will be as follows:
1. Develop a direct assessment framework for mechanical damage (see Section 2.3).
2. Develop models to address the individual components of the framework (Section 2.4).
3. Use the models in 2, to assess the feasibility of the framework and define the bounds within
which the methodology is likely to be successful (e.g. What is the required accuracy of the
method used to identify damage locations for a specific pipeline?).
To develop a fully functional methodology, a specific method to identify damage locations must
be selected and its accuracy characterized and validated using excavation data. This activity
cannot be undertaken under the current project, as it requires a significant level of effort. The
project will identify promising methods and make recommendations on how to characterize,
quantify and validate their accuracy.
3.2 Incentive

Mechanical damage is the most common cause of pipeline failures and is responsible for a
significant proportion of ruptures and large leaks. Although the majority of mechanical damage
failures occur at or immediately after the damage incident, delayed failures can occur due to the
fatigue growth of gouge defects. Such damage features can be identified by in-line inspection or
eliminated through hydrostatic testing; however, there is no economical way to assess integrity
for pipelines that are not amenable to these methods. The development of such a methodology
will enable operators to cost-effectively manage the integrity of old pipelines with respect to
mechanical damage.

C-FER Technologies

Proposed Program
3.3 Work Plan
3.3.1 Task 1: Finalize Project Plan

The project ad hoc committee will be contacted to obtain comments on the project scope and
approach. A literature search will also be carried out to ensure that all published relevant
information is obtained. Any required adjustments to the project plan will be made at this stage.
3.3.2 Task 2: Investigate Methodologies for Identifying Likely Damage Sites

This task will produce a listing of possible methods of identifying likely damage sites, a
summary of all available information relating to their potential accuracy, and a proposed
approach to characterize their accuracy. Approaches that will be considered include:

Modified coating damage surveys. Since most mechanical damage events result in a coating
holiday, coating damage surveys are likely to identify in-service mechanical damage sites.
This method however, cannot directly distinguish between coating holidays resulting from
mechanical damage and those resulting from other causes. Methods that could be
considered to make this distinction include the clock position (mechanical damage is likely
to occur near he top of the pipe) and the characteristics of the signal obtained.

Damage susceptibility model. Damage susceptibility is dependent on the hit rate and the
potential for damage given a hit. The hit rate is a function of such pipeline attributes as land
use, burial depth, one-call system, surveillance interval, right-of-way condition, and
excavation procedures. The potential for damage given a hit is a function of the pipe wall
thickness, grade and pressure. Excavations could be initially directed to sections with the
highest damage potential. Damage susceptibility characterization will utilize a fault tree
model previously developed and calibrated by C-FER for PRCI. The model calculates the
likelihood of an impact in a specific location, allowing initial excavations to be targeted to
more susceptible locations.

Information for this task will be collected from the literature and from informal discussions with
member companies. Information on mechanical damage features found during excavations
aimed to corrosion or SCC repair will be especially valuable.
3.3.3 Task 3: Develop Reliability Evaluation Model

This task will develop the measures that will be used to characterize pipeline integrity based on
the information obtained from a direct assessment, and the criteria that must be met to
demonstrate adequate integrity.
To address the second issue discussed in Section 2.4, integrity of a given pipeline will be
characterized by its reliability, defined as the probability that it will not fail for a period of one
6

C-FER Technologies

Proposed Program
year (reliability = 1 annual failure rate). Bayesian methods will be used to estimate reliability,
because they combine the effect of basic uncertainty and measurement uncertainty into the
reliability estimate. The resulting estimate incorporates a degree of conservatism commensurate
with the level of measurement uncertainty associated with the information used in the
assessment. In addition, the model will update the reliability based on new information obtained
from subsequent excavations.
A reliability-based criterion will be defined, against which the calculated reliability can be
evaluated. Confidence in the calculated reliability level (as determined by the quality of the
damage site selection model and the total length of pipeline excavated) will be considered in the
criteria. The model will be tested and demonstrated by realistic example cases that will be
included in the project report.
The basic reliability calculation will utilize the PRISM software, which has been developed by
C-FER to calculate the reliability of pipelines with respect to a number of failure modes
including mechanical damage. Adjustments to the model will be made to account for
measurement uncertainty.
3.3.4 Task 4: Develop Decision Models

This task will develop a model that uses accumulated excavation data to determine whether
additional excavations should be undertaken for cases that do not meet the target reliability with
the amount of data available. This choice will be based on the probability that additional
excavations will be successful in demonstrating adequate reliability. Should further excavations
be required, the effectiveness of the model used to select initial damage sites will be updated
using the information from previous excavations. The model will be tested and demonstrated by
realistic example cases that will be included in the project report.
C-FER has developed a similar model and software for PRCI to address sampling strategies for
low toughness pipelines. The same general approach will be utilized in this work.
3.3.5 Task 5: Assess Overall Methodology

The purpose of this task is to demonstrate and assess the overall methodology, and define bounds
within which it could be successfully implemented. This will be achieved by selecting and
analyzing a realistic case study. Ideally, the case study would be based on an actual pipeline for
which a coating survey (e.g. DCVG), in-line inspection (MFL and/or geometry tool) and some
verification excavations have been carried out. If this information cannot be provided by any of
the member companies, a hypothetical but realistic example will be developed.
The models developed in Tasks 2 through 4 will be integrated and used to analyze the test case as
an example application. To examine the direct assessment approach, the case study will be
analyzed as a non-piggable pipeline. The success of the method will be evaluated by comparing
7

C-FER Technologies

Proposed Program
the reliability estimates and recommended actions to those based on the more accurate ILI
information.
Variations in key parameters will be made to investigate the conditions under which a direct
assessment approach can be successfully used. Parameters that could be considered include wall
thickness, location and condition of the pipeline. Since the success of direct assessment is
dependent on the accuracy of the method used to identify likely damage locations, and since the
development of a reliable method might still be on-going after completion of this project (see
Section 3.1), an analysis of the required accuracy of the damage location method will be
undertaken. Existing and proposed damage location methods analyzed in Task 2 will be
evaluated against these requirements in order to develop an assessment of the likely success of
different methods.
This assessment will be used to develop a set of final conclusions and recommendations that
reflect the findings of the work.
3.3.6 Task 6: Preparation of Deliverables and Reporting

This task will cover preparation of the project deliverables that include the following:

Quarterly progress reports.

A comprehensive draft final report documenting the research work, the direct assessment
methodology and the project conclusions/recommendations.

Presentations at two committee meetings. The timing of the presentations will be finalized in
discussion with the PRCI representative.

3.4 Schedule

The proposed project schedule is shown in Table 1 (on a quarterly basis). The total duration of
the project is assumed to be 2 years.

C-FER Technologies

Proposed Program
Quarter
Task

1. Project Plan
2. Damage Site Identification
3. Reliability Evaluation Model
4. Decision Model
5. Methodology Assessment
6. Reporting

Draft Report
Final Report

Table 1 Proposed Schedule

3.5 Cost

We propose to carry out the work for a fixed price of US$150,000. Breakdown of this total cost
by task is shown in Table 2.
Task
1. Project Plan

Labour

Travel

Total

$5,800

$5,800

2. Damage Site Identification

$34,000

$34,000

3. Reliability Evaluation Model

$14,500

$14,500

4. Decision Model

$24,200

$24,200

5. Methodology Assessment

$42,500

$42,500

6. Reporting

$24,400

$4,600

$29,000

$145,400

$4,600

$150,000

Total

Table 2 Cost Breakdown by Task (US$)

We propose to invoice PRCI monthly, based on the estimated value of the work completed
(according to this proposal) up to the end of the previous month.

C-FER Technologies

4. PROJECT TEAM ORGANIZATION AND QUALIFICATIONS

The proposed project team possesses the technical and managerial qualifications required to
complete the project and produce a high quality product. It will consist of Dr. Maher Nessim
who will act as project manager and principal investigator, and Dr. Mark Fuglem and
Mr. Amir Muradali who will act as project engineers. Other C-FER personnel will contribute to
the project as required.
Relevant qualifications and experience of the project personnel is summarized below. One-page
resumes are included in Appendix A.
Maher Nessim (Project Manager and Principal Investigator)

Maher Nessim, Ph.D., P.Eng., Manager - Pipeline Technology, will act as project manager and
principal investigator. He will be responsible for the final quality of the project deliverables.
Dr. Nessim has over 20 years of experience in engineering research, consulting and management.
His main areas of expertise are risk management and reliability-based engineering, applied to a
variety of engineering systems including offshore structures, ships, buildings, nuclear facilities,
and bridges. His work has had a special focus on pipeline integrity problems over the past few
years. He has been involved in a number of research projects funded by the Pipeline Materials
Committee and the Onshore and Offshore Design Committee of PRCI, and has been co-manager
of C-FERs multi-year joint industry project on Risk-based Optimization of Pipeline Integrity
Maintenance Activities.
Mark Fuglem (Project Engineer)

Mark Fuglem, Ph.D., Research Scientist Pipeline Technology, will act as a project engineer.
Dr. Fuglem has over 15 years of experience in research related to the oil and gas industry with a
strong emphasis on reliability-based design. Recent work includes development for PRCI of a
pipeline design method to ensure adequate reliability with respect to mechanical damage,
reliability-based design of large diameter pipelines subject to mechanical damage and corrosion,
and optimization of sampling procedures to ensure adequate fracture arrest capabilities for old
pipe given measurement and sampling uncertainty.
Amir Muradali (Project Engineer)

Amir Muradali, M.Sc., P.Eng., Research Engineer - Pipeline Technology, will act as a project
engineer. Mr. Muradali has over five years of experience in engineering research and consulting.
His main focus recently at C-FER has been working with improved corrosion assessment
methods, crack assessment and propagation prediction methods, as well as conducting risk
analysis for pipelines.

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C-FER Technologies

5. CORPORATE QUALIFICATIONS
5.1 Corporate Profile

C-FER Technologies was initially established in 1983 to meet the engineering research and
innovation needs of the pipeline, and oil and gas industries by developing new technologies to
enhance both safety and economics. C-FER conducts theoretical and experimental research in
engineering materials and systems, and accesses broad expertise through collaboration with its
member companies and other research organizations.
Concentrating on research programs that are need-driven, C-FER maintains a strong commitment
to meeting the technology needs of its clients and members. A unique laboratory facility, opened
in 1990, provides new opportunities for generating maximum return on investment in R & D.
The facility includes approximately 5,200 square metres of office and laboratory space, and
accommodates up to 85 research and support staff. Experimental equipment in the laboratory is
unique in the world, and makes possible the realistic simulation of load, temperature, and other
environmental conditions during the testing of components and systems. C-FER also maintains a
network of powerful engineering workstations for developing software and conducting
sophisticated numerical analyses.
C-FERs generic technical expertise and resources are organized in three research departments:
Pipeline Technology, Production Technology, and Drilling & Completions Technology. C-FER
has a total staff of approximately 45 with diverse technical capabilities in the above areas and an
annual budget of approximately $6 million. C-FERs latest Annual Report and latest
organizational chart are already on file at PRCI, and with members of the Committee on Pipeline
Design, Construction and Operations. Additional copies can be provided upon request.
5.2 Qualifications Related to the Proposed Project

C-FER has an active research program in the area of pipeline design, testing, analysis and
integrity management. The breadth of C-FERs capabilities in this area is demonstrated by the
list of selected projects, which is already on file at PRCI, and with members of the Committee on
Pipeline Design, Construction and Operations. Additional copies can be provided upon request.
C-FER has had a leading role in developing new technologies to design and assess pipelines with
respect to mechanical damage, as evidenced by the following recent projects:

Effectiveness of Mechanical Damage Prevention Methods (PRCI, US$56,000, 1997 - 1999).


Development of a model to assess the effectiveness of various damage preventions methods.
Developed a fault tree model to estimate the likelihood of damage as a function of location
and carried out an industry survey to obtain the data required to quantify the model.

11

C-FER Technologies

Corporate Qualifications

Design for Mechanical Damage (PRCI, US$75,000, 1999 2000). Development of a


reliability-based approach to design pipeline against mechanical damage and assessment of
the implications on pipeline wall thicknesses.

Effectiveness of New Prevention Technologies for Mechanical Damage (PRCI US$80,000,


on-going). The objective of this project is to evaluate the effectiveness, cost-benefit and
technical feasibility of new technologies that are being proposed to prevent mechanical
damage to pipelines, and to develop recommendations regarding the most effective path to
further development and implementation of these new technologies. Effectiveness of each
technology will be measured by the associated potential reduction in failure incidents and
will be evaluated using reliability models developed by C-FER in previous PRCI projects.

Risk-based Maintenance Optimization of Pipelines. This program is sponsored by twelve


pipeline companies and regulators, and has a budget of C$500,000 per year since 1994.
Relevant work carried out under this project included developing models to calculate
reliability with respect to mechanical damage (both immediate and delayed failures) and
models to evaluate integrity and reliability based on ground survey and excavation methods.

Other recent project that are relevant to this proposal include:

Safe Use of Low Toughness Pipe (PRCI US$105,000, on-going). Development of a model
to assess the integrity of low toughness pipe based on information form a limited number of
toughness tests. Developed a model and software tool optimize the sampling process using
an iterative approach similar to the one proposed in this project.

Guidelines for Reliability-based Design (BP and TCPL, C$350,000, 2001 - 2001).
Development of guidelines and a software tool for the application of reliability based design
to onshore pipelines. The project developed the PRISM software, which will be used as the
primary tool of reliability calculation in this project. Also developed a set of reliability
targets that can be used to evaluate the integrity of pipelines in various location classes.

12

C-FER Technologies

APPENDIX A RESUMES OF PROJECT TEAM

A.1

C-FER Technologies

Appendix A-Resumes of Project Team

Rsum

Maher A. Nessim
C-FER Technologies
2000-present Manager, Pipeline Technology and Chief Engineer
1999-2000
1998-1999
1993-1998
1989-1993

Vice President and General Manager


General Manager, Research and Technology
Manager, Engineering Systems Technology
Manager, Safety and Risk Technology

Work History

1985-1989
1983-1985
1979-1983
1978-1979

Senior Research Engineer, Det Norske Veritas (Canada), Calgary, Alberta


Research Engineer, Det Norske Veritas (Canada), Calgary, Alberta
Teaching Assistant (Civil Eng.), University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta
Instructor (Civil Eng.), Cairo University, Egypt

Education

Ph.D., Structural Engineering, University of Calgary, 1983.


B.Sc., Civil Engineering, Cairo University, Egypt, 1976.

Professional
Accreditation

P.Eng., Registered Professional Engineer in Alberta.

Expertise

Risk and reliability analysis; decision theory, probabilistic methods and statistical analysis;
structural engineering; arctic and ice engineering; and pipeline design and maintenance.

Relevant
Experience

Over twenty years of experience in engineering design, research and management. During
the past fifteen years his technical work focused on risk and reliability analysis and its
applications to a variety of engineering systems. Over the past eight years he has led
C-FERs efforts in this area, developing proposal and project ideas, interacting with C-FERs
members and clients, and supervising up to ten highly qualified professionals.

Professional
Activities

Association of Professional Engineers, Geologists and Geophysicists of Alberta (APEGGA):


Member.
Institute for Risk Research, University of Waterloo, Ontario: Member
Advisory Committee, International Workshops on the Reliability of Offshore Operations:
Member, March 1991.
CSA Technical Committee on "General Requirements, Design Criteria, the Environment and
Loads - S471", Part I of the Code for Fixed Offshore Structures: Member, 1990 - present.

Awards

National Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada's Industrial Research


Fellowship, 1984 - 1987, DNV (Canada) Ltd.
Issac Walton Killam Memorial Scholarship, 1981 - 1983 University of Calgary.
Robert Paugh Memorial Bursary, 1980, University of Calgary.

Publications

Nessim, M.A. and Zimmerman, T.J.E. 1999. Is Limit States Design a Probabilistic Design
Method? Risk Based and Limit State Design and Operation of Pipelines, Oslo,
Norway, October.
Chen, Q. and Nessim, M.A. 1999. Reliability-based Prevention of Mechanical Damage.
Presented at the Twelfth EPRG/PRCI Joint Meeting, Groningen, The Netherlands,
May

A.2

C-FER Technologies

Appendix A-Resumes of Project Team

Rsum

Mark K. Fuglem
C-FER Technologies
1998-present

Research Scientist

Work History

1998
1993-1998
1991-1998
1988-1991
1986-1988
1981-1986

Research Engineer, C-CORE, St. Johns


Research and Project Engineer, Mem. Univ. of Nfld, St. Johns
Project Engineer (Consultant), Ian Jordaan & Assoc., St. Johns
Research Scientist, C-CORE, St. Johns
Applied Mathematician, HydroQual Consultants, Calgary
Programmer Analyst, Petro-Canada, Calgary

Education

Ph.D., Ocean Engineering, Memorial University of Newfoundland, 1998.


B.Sc., Computer Science, University of Calgary, 1981.
B.Sc., Math-Physics, Carleton University, 1979 (Honours).

Expertise

Reliability-based design, decision-making, risk analysis, and engineering economics.

Relevant
Experience

Over 15 years of experience in research related to the oil and gas industry. Dr. Fuglem has
been responsible for the development and application of probabilistic methods applied to
pipeline reliability, ice keel impacts with pipelines, ice strengthening of offshore structures,
production downtime, arctic shipping regulations, offshore transportation of crude oil,
iceberg trajectory forecasting, and analysis of the reliability of offshore standby vessel
systems.

Awards

Atlantic Accord Career Development Award


Memorial Graduate Student Support, Memorial University of Newfoundland
C-CORE Graduate Fellowship

Publications

Chen, Q., Fuglem. M.K., Stephens, M.J. and Zhou, J. 2001. Reliability-based Pipeline
Design for Mechanical Damage. Presented at the 13th Biennial EPRG/PRCI Joint
Technical Meeting, April 30 - May 3, New Orleans.
Nessim, M.A., Fuglem, M.K., Chen, Q. and Odom, T. 2001. Lifetime Benefit of Highstrength, High-design-factor Pipelines. Presented at the 13th Biennial EPRG/PRCI
Joint Technical Meeting, April 30 - May 3, New Orleans.
Nessim, M.A., Chen, Q., Fuglem, M.K. and Muradali, A. 1999. Hydrotest Requirements for
High-Strength, High-Usage-Factor Pipelines. Presented at the Twelfth EPRG/PRCI
Joint Meeting, Groningen, The Netherlands, May.
Fuglem, M.K. and Jordaan, I.J. 1998. Estimation of Maximum Bow Force for Arctic Vessels.
14th International Symposium on Ice (IAHR).

Consulting
and Internal
Reports

Fuglem, M.K., Chen, Q., and Stephens, M.J. 2001. Pipeline Design for Mechanical
Damage. Submitted to the Pipeline Research Committee International, Pipeline
Design, Construction and Operations Technical Committee, Project PR-244-9910,
C-FER Report 99024, October.
Nessim, M.A., Fuglem, M.K., Chen, Q., and Muradali, A.M. 2001. Influence of Higher
Design Factor on Structural Integrity of X70 and X80 Pipelines. Submitted to the
Pipeline Research Committee International, Materials Technical Committee, Project
PR-244-9806, C-FER Report 98056, August.

A.3

C-FER Technologies

Appendix A-Resumes of Project Team

Rsum

Amir Muradali
C-FER Technologies

Work History

2001-present
1998-1999

Research Engineer
Research Engineer

2000
1998
1997

Mechanical Engineer, GKO Engineering, Edmonton, Alberta.


Project Analyst, Beta Machinery Analysis, Calgary, Alberta.
Private Contract, Mechanical Engineering Department, University of
Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta.
Teaching Assistant, Mechanical Engineering Department, University of
Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta.
Research Assistant, Mechanical Engineering Department, University of
Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta.

1996
1995
Education

M.Sc., Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, 1997.


B.Sc., Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, 1996 (with Distinction).

Professional
Accreditation

P.Eng., Registered Professional Engineer in Alberta.

Expertise

Numerical modeling, pipeline integrity modeling, pipeline corrosion assessment, finite


element analysis.

Relevant
Experience

Over five years of broad research and consulting experience. Major focus at C-FER is in
the area of pipeline risk and reliability engineering. Actively involved in various research
projects related to this area and in upgrading/developing failure prediction models for
PIRAMID.

Professional
Activities

Association of Professional Engineers, Geologists and Geophysicists of Alberta (APEGGA):


Member.

Awards

Province of Alberta Graduate Scholarship, 1996-1997.


Aga Khan Foundation Scholarship, 1991-1995.

Publications

Muradali, A. and Fyfe, K.R., 1998. A Study of 2D and 3D Barrier Insertion Loss Using
Improved Diffraction Based Methods. Applied Acoustics, 53, 49-75.

Presentations

Muradali, A. and Fyfe, K.R., 1998. Accurate Barrier Modeling in the Presence of
Atmospheric Effects. Accepted for publication in Applied Acoustics.
Muradali, A. and Fyfe, K.R., 1997. Accurate Geometric Modeling of Barrier Attenuation with
Atmospheric Effects. Transportation Research Board Summer Conference on
Transportation Related Noise and Vibration, Toronto, Ontario.
Muradali, A. and Fyfe, K.R., 1996. Single and Parallel Barrier Insertion Loss by Means of
Improved Diffraction Based Methods. Canadian Acoustics Association (CAA)
Acoustics Week, October, Calgary, Alberta.

A.4

August 2002

DIRECT ASSESSMENT
APPROACHES TO MECHANICAL
DAMAGE (RPTG 0321)

Confidential

Prepared for:
Steve Foh
Pipeline Research Council
International, Inc.
c/o Gas Technology Institute
1700 South Mount Prospect Road
Des Plaines
Illinois 60018-1804
USA

Prepared by:
Mark McQueen (& Robert Owen)
Advantica Technologies Inc.
5177 Richmond Avenue
Suite 900
Houston
TX 77056
USA
Tel:
Fax:
Email:
Website:

713 586 7000


713 586 0604
mark.mcqueen@advanticatechinc.com

www.advanticatechinc.com

Sales Opportunity ID: 1001421


2002 Advantica Technologies Ltd
CONFIDENTIAL
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DIRECT ASSESSMENT APPROACHES TO MECHANICAL DAMAGE (RPTG 0321)

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August 2002

PROPOSAL SUMMARY
Proposal:

RPTG 0321

Title: DIRECT ASSESSMENT APPROACHES TO MECHANICAL DAMAGE.


Contractors: Advantica Technologies Inc.
Type: New.
Period: Start date January 2003, duration 24 months.
Total estimated cost:

US$150,000.

Objective:
To develop a quantifiable and validated basis for utilizing Direct Assessment
methods for addressing time-independent mechanical damage, focusing particularly
on delayed failure.
Incentive:
Direct Assessment methods are being developed for application to pipelines that are
not amenable to hydrostatic testing or pigging, in line with emerging legislative
requirements for managing pipeline integrity. At present the focus is on corrosion,
but mechanical damage is the most frequent cause of failure and delayed failure has
resulted in several recent high-profile incidents.
Work Plan:
TASK 1 Overall framework development.
TASK 2 Reliability assessment.
TASK 3 Validation.
TASK 4 Standardized procedure.
Deliverables:
A report setting out a standardized and validated procedure, supported by
documented technical justification.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
PART I
TECHNICAL PROPOSAL
1
2

INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................ 5
TECHNICAL DISCUSSION ................................................................................ 5
2.1
Objectives................................................................................................... 5
2.2
Approach .................................................................................................... 5
2.3
WORK TO BE PERFORMED...................................................................... 6
3 SCHEDULE ........................................................................................................ 7
4 DELIVERABLES ................................................................................................ 7
5 ADVANTICA INFORMATION............................................................................. 7
PART I
TECHNICAL PROPOSAL
1
2

COSTS ............................................................................................................. 10
COMMERCIAL TERMS.................................................................................... 12

Confidentiality Statement
THE INFORMATION CONTAINED IN THIS PROPOSAL IS PROVIDED ON A COMMERCIAL BASIS IN
CONFIDENCE AND IS THE PROPERTY OF ADVANTICA TECHNOLOGIES LIMITED.
IT MUST NOT BE DISCLOSED TO ANY THIRD PARTY, IS COPYRIGHT, AND MAY NOT BE
REPRODUCED IN WHOLE OR IN PART BY ANY MEANS WITHOUT THE APPROVAL IN WRITING
OF ADVANTICA TECHNOLOGIES LIMITED.

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August 2002

PART I
TECHNICAL PROPOSAL

1 INTRODUCTION
Mechanical interference is the most frequent cause of failure in high-pressure gas
transmission pipelines. Whilst in most instances leaks or ruptures occur almost
immediately, delayed failures also result from subsequent further damage
development, usually in the form of cracks extending or linking the prior damage.
Such damage can sometimes be identified and managed using regular hydrostatic
testing or in-line inspection; however there are many pipelines for which such
approaches are extremely difficult and/or expensive.
Direct assessment (DA) methodologies are being developed for application to
pipelines that are not amenable to pigging or hydrotesting, in line with the
requirements for managing the integrity of gas pipelines (e.g. ASME B31.8
supplement). The primary focus of DA is currently on in-service corrosion; however,
it is also potentially applicable to the management of other forms of in-service
damage, including mechanical damage, for which specific tools and methods are
necessary in order to characterize and assess the significance of the damage found.
It will be necessary to demonstrate that these tools and methods are as effective as
those based on pigging or hydrotesting in eliminating the risk of failure.
A primary concern for delayed failure is unreported mechanical damage. Unreported
damage can result from previous mechanical interference, vandalism or earth
movement and may incorporate several features including denting, buckling, coating
damage/removal, metal gouging or removal, residual stresses, cold working and
surface cracking. Whilst the DOT failure statistics for gas pipelines show that less
than 5% of reportable incidences are due to delayed failures, they nevertheless can
be extremely costly to the industry when they occur, and play an important role in
influencing public perceptions of pipeline safety.

2 TECHNICAL DISCUSSION
2.1

OBJECTIVES

The overall objectives of the proposed program of work are to deliver a quantifiable
and validated basis for incorporating DA methods into the integrity management
methodology for addressing time-independent mechanical damage threats to natural
gas pipelines, focusing particularly on those that are potentially responsible for
delayed failure. The methodology will be compatible with the requirements of ASME
B31.8.
2.2

APPROACH

The approach to integrity management in ASME B31.8 incorporates both


prescriptive and performance-based methods.
The performance-based method
requires additional knowledge of the pipeline to undertake data-intensive risk
assessment, but allows more options for inspection intervals, inspection tools,
mitigation and prevention methods.

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DA utilizes a structured process through which the operator is able to integrate


knowledge of the physical characteristics and operating history of a pipeline segment
with the results of inspection, examination and evaluation in order to determine
integrity. The process for external threats typically has four components: preassessment, inspection, evaluation and post-assessment. DA can be employed as
part of either a prescriptive or a performance-based integrity management
methodology.
Advanticas approach will be firstly, to develop the overall framework for a structured
approach to the threat of mechanical damage, incorporating DA methods within a
performance-based integrity management methodology as outlined in ASME B31.8.
It is expected that the framework will be very similar to that developed by NACE for
external corrosion; indeed, many of the mechanical damage occurrences will be
detected in the first instance by application of the NACE External Corrosion Direct
Assessment methods. The assessment part of the framework will incorporate the
results from a substantial body of work undertaken previously by PRCI, API, EPRG
and GRI on aspects of mechanical damage.
The second task will be to conduct a critical review/gap analysis to
quantify/demonstrate how the weakest links in the methodology can be improved to
deliver a reliable overall assessment, consistent with DA approaches for other forms
of in-service damage (NACE, INGAA, ASME etc.)
In the third task topic-specific detailed analysis will be supported as necessary by
selected experimental testing of methods, inspection tools or integrity assessment
(defect significance), in order to establish and validate a basis for applying DA. It is
expected that a main focus of testing will be on the accuracy, repeatability and
overall reliability of the individual steps in the assessment process.
The final task will be to draft a standardized process incorporating the validated
methods, in a format consistent with other DA methodologies (e.g. NACE).
2.3

WORK TO BE PERFORMED

The specific activities included in each of these tasks are as follows:


Task 1

Overall framework development

Task 2

Reliability assessment

CONFIDENTIAL
Rev 0

Review current status of DA methods, legislative requirements.


Review recent data and trends in damage frequency, type, causes,
severity, consequences.
Review information on reliability of inspection, examination and
interrogation techniques.
Develop linked suite of assessment algothrims and criteria
compatible with prescriptive and performance-based approaches
for DA.

Assess reliability of each element in the assessment methodology.

DIRECT ASSESSMENT APPROACHES TO MECHANICAL DAMAGE (RPTG 0321)

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August 2002

Task 3

Validation

Task 4

Evaluate consequences of uncertainties/inaccuracies in input data.


Identify and quantify benefits of changing the frequency of
inspection/examination.
Identify potential weak points in the approach.
Develop a strategy for validating the methodology.

Optimize performance of weak links in methodology, based on


analysis/experimental assessment of specific methods and tools.
Conduct overall validation exercise on selected line with a known
history of mechanical damage (preferably including comparison with
hydrostatic testing or pigging approach).

Standardized procedure

Draft finalized methodology incorporating optimized methods and


procedures, in a format compatible with industry-wide
developments in DA methods.
Finalize methodology based on feedback from members.

3 SCHEDULE
The work will be undertaken by Advantica over a 24-month period.
defined above will be completed as follows:
Task 1.
Task 2.
Task 3.
Task 4.

Overall Framework development


Reliability assessment
Validation
Standardized procedure

The tasks

Months 1-8
Months 9-12
Months 13-20
Months 21-24

4 DELIVERABLES
The outcome of this project will be a standardized and validated basis for utilizing DA
methods to address time-independent mechanical damage threats, focusing
particularly on those that are potentially responsible for delayed failure.
The deliverable will be a report documenting the methodology and procedures,
supported by technical justification. The methodology will be compatible with the
requirements of ASME B31.8.

5 ADVANTICA INFORMATION
Advantica is part of the Lattice Group, the UK-based infrastructure technology group
that includes the gas pipeline operator Transco, and is a leading provider of
consultancy and technical solutions for improved business and operating

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August 2002

performance for customers in gas, pipelines and associated industries worldwide.


Advantica has its origins in the British Gas (BG) group of companies and is now a
$150 million business with over 800 skilled staff and centers in Houston, Charlotte
and the UK.
Advantica is a long-established technology supplier to the PRCI member companies
and brings an important end-user operator perspective to their research programs.
Of particular relevance, Advantica recently undertook a peer review of a GRI-funded
project at SwRI on development of methods for assessing mechanical damage, and
is assisting the INGAA Direct Assessment Task Group in the development and
validation of direct assessment methods for external corrosion.
Advantica staff have for many years played an active role in the direction and
execution of EPRGs projects on integrity management. Robert Owen is the
Companys member of the European Gas Pipeline Incident Data Group (EGIG),
responsible for analyzing trends in pipeline incident frequencies and causes
throughout Western Europe.

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PART II
COST PROPOSAL

1 COSTS
The work described in this proposal will be undertaken on a fixed cost basis of
$150,000 (one hundred and fifty thousand US dollars). The total cost is inclusive of
labor, computing, consumables, overheads and project management. A breakdown
of costs is given in Table 1

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CONTRACT COST ESTIMATE

Name of Offeror
Advantica Technologies Inc.
Home Office Address
5177 Richmond Avenue, Suite 900
Houston, TX 77056
USA
Division(s) and Location(s) (where work is being performed)
Pipeline Transportation Division, Loughborough, UK

RFP No/Prp No
Page Number
Number of Pages
RPTG 0321
1
1
Name of Proposed Project
DIRECT ASSESSMENT APPROACHES TO MECHANICAL
DAMAGE (RTPG 0321)
Total Amount of Proposal
$ 150,000 (US)
Estimated Cost
(dollars)

Cost Elements
1.

Total Estimated
Cost (dollars)

Supporting
Schedule

Direct Material
a. Purchased Parts
b. Interdivisional Effort
c. Equipment Rental/Lease
d. Other (software licence costs)
Total Direct Material

2.

Material Overhead (Rate

3.

Subcontracted Effort (Attach Detailed Schedule)

% x Base $

Subcontractor Cofunding
Net Subcontracted Effort
4.

Est. Hours

Rate/Hour

Manager/Consultant

Direct Labor - Specify

50

195

Est. Cost
9,750

Senior Engineer

500

143

71,500

Engineer

500

109

54,500

Technician

60

69

4,140

O.H. Rate

X Base $

Est. Cost

Total Direct Labor


5.

Labor Overhead - Specify

139,890

Total Labor Overhead


6.

Special Testing

7.

Purchased Special Equipment

8.

Travel

9.

Consultants (Attach Detailed Schedule)

10. Other Direct Costs

10,110

11. Total Direct Cost and Overhead


12. General and Administrative Expenses (w/o IR&D)
Rate

% of cost element numbers

13. Independent Research and Development


Rate

% of cost element numbers

14. Total Estimated Cost

100,000

15. Fixed Fee


16. Total Estimated Cost and Fee

100,000

17. Contractor/Third Party Cofunding


18. Net PRCI Estimated Cost and Fee

100,000

This proposal reflects our best estimates as of this date, in accordance with the instructions to offerors and the footnotes which
follow.
nd
Typed Name and Title
R. Owen
Signature
Date 2 Aug 2002

Table 1.

Contract Cost Estimate

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2 COMMERCIAL TERMS
Terms and conditions for undertaking the proposed work will be consistent with
those previously agreed between Advantica Technology Inc. and GTI.

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5561P

MECHANICAL DAMAGE DIRECT ASSESSMENT


- RPTG-0321 PART 1 TECHNICAL PROPOSAL
August 5, 2002

Submitted to:
Steve Foh
Gas Technology Institute
1700 South Mount Prospect Road
Des Plaines, IL 60018

Submitted by:
BMT Fleet Technology Limited
311 Legget Drive
Kanata, Ontario
Canada K2K 1Z8

BMT FTL Contact: L. Blair Carroll, P. Eng.


Tel: 613-592-2830, Ext 242
Fax: 613-592-4950
e-mail: bcarroll@fleetech.com

Project Summary
Committee:

Pipeline Materials

Project
Title:

Mechanical Damage Direct Assessment


- RPTG-0321 -

Author:
Principal Researcher:
Name of Organization:
Project Type:

L. Blair Carroll
L. Blair Carroll / Robert Lazor
BMT Fleet Technology Limited (BMT FTL)
New

1) Statement of the Problem (What is to be solved):


There are a number of tools and methods available for characterizing and
assessing the structural significance of corrosion or cracking that are not directly
applicable to mechanical damage. Such a tool for direct assessment will require
the ability to combine the relative impact of several features of the mechanical
damage, which include associated pipe deformation, gouging and the presence of
other localized effects such as weld seams or corrosion. A mechanical damage
assessment methodology will require consideration of stress analysis techniques,
materials damage models and fracture mechanics based algorithms.

2) Background (What is the historical data):


A significant amount of research effort has been attributed to denting and mechanical
damage. Programs of note include the API 1156 study and the GRI-97/0413 study.
In conjunction with industry support, BMT Fleet Technology has developed a Dent
Assessment Model aimed at evaluating the impact of the presence of dents on the
integrity of a pipeline. The model incorporates finite element analysis of the dented
pipe geometry and a fracture mechanics based fatigue crack growth algorithm, and is
currently being used in an industry consortium to develop a dent criticality criteria that
can be applied to dents found in-service (in-line inspection) or during excavation
programs. Phase I of this project was completed in May 2002 and Phase II will
commence in Fall 2002. Part of the Phase II project scope will consider the impact of
localized effects including gouging and weld seams.

Project Summary
Committee:

Pipeline Materials

Project
Title:

Mechanical Damage Direct Assessment


- RPTG-0321 -

3) Proposed Research Action Plan (How will the problem be solved):


In order to develop an assessment model, several areas of investigation will be
required:
Year 1 - Task 1 - Assessment of Pipe Deformation on the Integrity of the Pipeline
This work was developed in Phase I of the industry consortium project at BMT FTL
and will be further developed in Phase II. The dent ranking criteria developed in the
Phase I project was a function of pipe and dent geometry and pipeline operating
conditions and was used to develop a relative ranking of the severity of a list of dents.
The Phase II work will carry this forward to assign residual lives to a dented pipe
segment.
Year 1 - Task 2 - Modeling the Impact of Line Strike Material Damage
This phase of the project will first require a review of all available literature to
determine the extent of the past projects related to characterizing the severity and
failure modes for mechanical damage. This work is scheduled as part of the Phase II
industry consortium project and can be carried further in conjunction with the funding
proposed by PRCI. The next stage of this work will involve numerical modeling of
mechanical damage in pipelines to obtain a calibrated model to predict the
morphology of mechanical damage features and their effects on localized stress
distributions. The LS Dyna finite element analysis package is well suited for modeling
impact, contact and material cold working and will be used in this phase of the
analysis process. The conclusions will be added to the dent characterization criteria
to expand the methodology beyond smooth dents to dents with associated material
damage.
Year 1 - Task 3 - Consideration of Other Localized Effects
The dent characterization model will be further modified to account for the impact of
additional features which may be associated with mechanical damage (metal loss,
cracking, weld seams) and can further impact the integrity of the pipeline. Numerical
modeling will be validated using the published results from full-scale trials.
Year 2 - Task 4 - Further Model Validation and Implementation.
As a further measure of the validity of the model, the funding made available in Year
2 will be used to conduct further testing to ensure that all appropriate information is
available when validating the model. Any shortcomings in available published data
will be identified during Year 1.

ii

Project Summary
Committee:

Pipeline Materials

Project
Title:

Mechanical Damage Direct Assessment


- RPTG-0321 -

4) Expected Deliverables (List Specifically what PRCI will get out of the work):
A validated and robust methodology for characterizing the impact of mechanical
damage on the integrity of a pipeline. The methodology will be developed using
numerical modeling, but will be adapted so that it can be applied without the need for
detailed numerical analysis.
A set of guidelines with examples of how the methodology can be applied to various
forms of data, whether it was collected using in-line inspection tools or during field
excavation.
A report documenting the results of the modeling processes.

5) Resource Requirements (total cost, year-by-year breakdown, capital costs vs.


overhead, and outside resources to be used):
It is anticipated that the total expenditures required to complete this work will be in the
order of $460,000 USD and will be broken down as follows:
In-kind contributions:
$100,000: Initial development of the BMT FTL Dent Assessment Model
$100,000: Phase I work of the dent characterization consortium project
$60,000: Contribution of the Phase II work from the dent characterization
consortium project supported by the consortium members
$50,000: Licensing fees for FEA modeling packages covered by BMT FTL.

iii

Project Summary
Committee:

Pipeline Materials

Project
Title:

Mechanical Damage Direct Assessment


- RPTG-0321 -

6) Organization Information (Describe major business of contractor, facilities


available for use in this project, related concurrent/recent projects):
BMT FTL provides engineering research and services to the pipeline industry in
the welding, materials characterization, and damage tolerance (ECA) areas of
interest. Research efforts at BMT FTL have resulted in the development of dent
and buckle/wrinkle assessment models. These tools support the integrity
assessment of mechanically damaged pipes segments. Beyond the assessment of
dents and wrinkles, the metallurgical, mechanical testing, welding and numerical
simulation labs at BMT FTL have been involved in the following related projects:
Development of a hot tap tee design model
Development and calibration of pipeline pressure retaining sleeve design
models
Development of fatigue and fracture analysis tools and courses for industry

7) Contractor Contacts:
Mr. L. Blair Carroll
Materials Technology Centre
BMT Fleet Technology Limited
311 Legget Drive
Kanata, Ontario
Canada K2K 1Z8
Tel: 613-592-2830
Fax: 613-592-4950
E-mail: bcarroll@fleetech.com
Internet: www.fleetech.com

Mr. Robert B. Lazor


Materials Technology Centre
BMT Fleet Technology Limited
Box 82057, 2037-111 Street
Edmonton, Alberta
Canada
Tel: 780-465-0077
Fax: 780-465-0085
E-mail: rlazor@fleetech.com
Internet: www.fleetech.com

8) Alternative Funding Sources:


The proposed program will be subsidised and progress facilitated through:
the use of pre-existing mechanical damage (dent and wrinkle) modeling tools
developed under separate contracts,
the use of previously completed full-scale trial data to validate the numerical
modeling tools,
the use of previously developed pipeline operation characterization techniques
and tools
the use of previously collected and characterised pipeline material and
operational data.
Co-operative funding will also be sought from on-going parallel industry group
sponsored projects to subsidise the work in this project.

iv

BMT FLEET TECHNOLOGY LIMITED

5561P

BMT FTL Document Quality Control Data Sheet


Report:

Mechanical Damage Direct Assessment


RPTG-0321

Project No.

5561P

Date:

5 August 2002

Prepared by:
L. Blair Carroll, Project Engineer

Reviewed by:
R. B. Lazor, Manager BMT FTL Western Canada Office

Approved by:

A. Dinovitzer, Vice-President

BMT FLEET TECHNOLOGY LIMITED

5561P

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page

1.

INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................................. 1
1.1
Proposal Layout/Administrative Details ...................................................................................1
1.2
Background and Incentives .....................................................................................................1
1.2.1
Project Objective ..................................................................................................................2

2.

WORK PLAN........................................................................................................................ 2
2.1
Overview ..................................................................................................................................2
2.2
Scope of Work .........................................................................................................................2
2.2.1
Task 1 Literature Review ..................................................................................................2
2.2.2
Task 2 Formalization of Pipeline Specific Parameters .....................................................2
2.2.3
Task 3 Formalization of Inspection Information Parameters ............................................4
2.2.4
Task 4 Evaluation of Model on Test Sections...................................................................4
2.2.5
Task 5 Final Report...........................................................................................................6
2.3
References...............................................................................................................................6

3.

PROJECT TEAM AND QUALIFICATIONS.......................................................................... 7


3.1
3.2

4.

Project Team............................................................................................................................7
Related Projects ......................................................................................................................8

PROJECT MANAGEMENT.................................................................................................. 9
4.1

Project Schedule......................................................................................................................9

APPENDICES
APPENDIX A: RESUMES
APPENDIX B: CORPORATE CAPABILITIES

vi

BMT FLEET TECHNOLOGY LIMITED

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LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES

Figure 2.1:
Figure 2.2:
Figure 3.1:
Figure 4.1:
Figure 4.2:

BMT Fleet Technology Dent Assessment Modeling Process [3]...............................................5


Effect of D/t on Remaining Life Estimates for Dented Pipe [2] ..................................................6
Proposed Project Team and Additional Available Staff .............................................................8
Project Management Control ...................................................................................................10
Example of Weekly Project Cost Summary Sheet...................................................................11

vii

BMT FLEET TECHNOLOGY LIMITED

1.

5561P

INTRODUCTION

In this section we describe the proposal layout, provide our understanding of the need for the
project, its objectives and summarize the technical approach proposed for the project.

1.1

Proposal Layout/Administrative Details

This proposal is prepared in response to PRCI Request for Proposal No. RPTG-0321. It is
submitted by BMT Fleet Technology Limited (BMT FTL) of Kanata, Ontario, who will act as the
prime contractor.
The proposal is presented in two parts contained in one volume:

Part I - Technical and Management Proposal, and


Part II - Price Proposal

The proposal includes a copy of the pre-proposal submitted by BMT FTL as a summary of the
following information:
Section
1
2
3
4

1.2

Contents
Proposal Summary (PRCI Pre-Proposal)
Proposal Introduction and Technical Summary
Details of the Technical Approach by Task
Project Team Qualifications
Project Management Approach

Background and Incentives

With the increased emphasis placed upon pipeline integrity management programs, new
approaches to detecting and repairing pipeline flaws have been, and continue to be, developed.
Current requirements placed on pipeline operators mandate the inspection of pipeline systems on
regular intervals via either pressure testing or in-line inspection. Unfortunately, a large
percentage of pipeline systems are neither equipped to allow the passage of in-line inspection
tools, nor can one readily isolate the lines for hydrostatic testing. Furthermore, many pipelines
provide single product sources so downtime related to in-line inspections and pressure testing
would result in significant disruption for the end user of the product.
In an effort to address these issues, new processes are under development to mitigate corrosion
and stress corrosion cracking related degradation process using the concept of Direct
Assessment. Some of the recent developments include:

NACE International has implemented working groups to develop recommend practices


for Direct Assessment Procedures related to external corrosion (TG-041);
The draft version of the revised ASME B31.8 contains summary information to address
internal corrosion direct assessment approaches;
Formalized procedures are being developed to address Direct Assessment
methodologies to mitigate stress corrosion cracking [1].

Each of the above utilizes databases of information collected on pipeline systems combined with
known features of the degradation mechanism to predict the most probable locations the of
degradation on a pipeline. After these locations are identified, exploratory excavation programs
are planned to assess the current condition of the pipeline and address long-term integrity
concerns. The methodologies essentially employ four categories of data:
1. Pipeline specific: material properties, pipe geometry, coating type, operating
pressure history, past excavation history, failure history, etc.
2. Inspection information: closed spaced CP surveys, etc.

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BMT FLEET TECHNOLOGY LIMITED

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3. Environmental: soil type along right of way, drainage, etc.


4. Degradation mechanism specific
Overlaying the four categories of data in a risk-based approach, models can be developed to
highlight the most probable locations of the damage along a pipeline right of way.
The prevention of mechanical damage related failures using direct assessment type
methodologies have not been formalized. Unlike corrosion or environmental cracking, the
environmental and degradation specific degradation data is not applicable. It is proposed that
pipeline specific and inspection information can be used to develop a direct assessment
approach to mitigate mechanical damage on a pipeline system.

1.2.1

Project Objective

The work proposed in this document will seek to develop a recommended practice based upon
direct assessment concepts to address mechanical damage concerns on a pipeline system that
cannot be inspected using applicable ILI technologies or be easily pressure tested. The process
will incorporate pipeline specific data, land use information, inspection results and operating
history details.

2.

WORK PLAN

2.1

Overview

This proposal includes the technical experience and expertise of personnel at BMT Fleet
Technology Limited (BMT FTL) in the development of techniques to determine the damage
tolerance of, or significance of damage to, pipeline systems. The full-scale evaluation of the
range of mechanical damage induced failure modes proposed in this project would be a
monumental task financially, therefore a numerical modeling approach has been proposed. The
scope of the model development is limited by previous work completed by the staff at FTL. The
six tasks proposed for this work are summarized in Figure 1.9 and the section that follow provide
detailed descriptions of the work to be carried out in this project. These tasks include a first year
of model refinement and validation followed by their application to develop damage acceptance
criteria.

2.2

Scope of Work

2.2.1

Task 1 Literature Review

An extensive literature summary will be compiled to identify key elements contributing to


mechanical damage related failures using several data sources, which include available
regulatory agency or operating company failure reports, and sponsor company maintenance
excavation histories. This information gathering phase of the project will summarize failure
mechanisms associated with mechanical damage, and also to develop statistics related to pipe
contact incidents by third parties that had not failed. The focus will be to identify common
occurrences associated with the failures that may lead to previously unanticipated elements of a
direct assessment procedure. It is proposed that the elements will be subdivided into two primary
categories:
Pipeline Specific Parameters
Inspection Information Parameters

2.2.2

Task 2 Formalization of Pipeline Specific Parameters

The pipeline specific parameters identified from Task 1 will be assessed as to their potential use
in a direct assessment methodology. It is anticipated that the weighting applied to the different
parameters will address both the contribution to the possibility of failure and also their usefulness

Mechanical Damage Direct Assessment

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5561P

in a direct assessment approach. It is anticipated that the following pipeline specific parameters
will be included in the methodology:
Pipe material properties: The material properties may impact the potential for
mechanical damage related failures. If a pipeline was constructed over a series of
several years, different pipe material may have been used to construct different
segments of the pipeline. Older lower toughness pipe would have a higher risk of failure
from mechanical damage. Additionally, the consequences of a failure in low toughness
pipe could be more severe than in high toughness pipe since resulting fractures could be
larger and run for longer distances before arresting.
Pipe geometry: The pipe D/t ratio influences the risk of a failure on a pipeline. If the
diameter and wall thickness changes along a pipeline then certain areas may be more
susceptible to failure than others. Larger diameter pipe also is more likely to be struck
during excavation because of its greater size.
Pipe manufacturing process: If pipe from different sources and/or manufacturing
practices was used to construct a pipeline, the end result could have similar results on
the risk of failure as the material properties since the two are related. If a mix of low
frequency ERW pipe and DSAW pipe were used then mechanical damage associated
with LFERW welds would have a higher potential for failure because of the low
toughness traditionally associated with the fusion line of this welding process.
Land use: Land use in the vicinity of a pipeline can identify regions with a higher
likelihood for the presence of mechanical damage. Pipelines running through farmers
fields, for instance, have a higher probability of a line strike than a pipeline running
through a wilderness area. Pipelines near residential areas would similarly have a higher
likelihood and consequence of failure than a pipeline in a remote location. Recent
development and changes in class location would be additional factors to consider.
Separate risk and consequence indices would have to be applied.
Historical Failure Data: Some regions may have experienced a higher number of
mechanical damage failures than others. Factors affecting this could be related to work
conducted around the pipeline right of way. If for instance several failures occurred in an
area where a particular contractor was working and the entire region was not excavated
and visually inspected, then there is a potential for additional line strikes in the same
region.
Pipeline Route: Pipelines routed through areas with deep clay soil layers would be less
likely to have dents resulting from pipe laying or in-service dents resulting from pipe
movement than pipelines routed through regions where the bedrock is nearer to the
surface. The soil could also include large boulders, which are known to be associated
with pipe deformation.
Pipeline Operating Pressure History and Pressure Profile: For time dependent
failures related to mechanical damage, fatigue crack growth is likely a contributor to the
failure process. Operating pressure data from the pipeline system can be analyzed to
identify regions with the potential for the highest fatigue crack growth rates.
The pipeline specific parameters could be used to rank the highest risk locations along a pipeline
right of way using a pipeline indexing measure, Ip, of the form:

I P = f (Risk Parameters ) + f (Consequence Parameters)


The functions applied to the risk and consequence parameters could include weighting features
that would be applied to the individual parameter.

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To address issues related to the pipe material and pipe geometry parameters, BMT Fleet
Technology Limited can draw upon the results of its two-year industry sponsored project to
develop a pipeline dent characterization criteria [2]. The project was undertaken to address
shortcomings in current industry codes when assessing the need to repair dented pipeline
segments and utilizes the BMT Fleet Technology Limited Dent Assessment Model [3]. The model
is illustrated schematically in Figure 2.1. It first uses pipe material properties and geometry, then
dent geometry and the pipeline operating pressure history to predict the remaining life of a dented
pipeline section. The model has been validated using full-scale test data from the API 1156 [4]
and GRI-97/0413 [5] studies.
In general, codes specify that dents with depths less than 6% of the pipeline OD do not require
repair if no secondary effects are present (weld seams, corrosion, etc.). Operating experience for
several liquid pipeline operators in North America have indicated that dent failures can occur at
dent depths as small as 2-3% of the OD. These incidents suggest that the dent shape and pipe
geometry may be more important than dent depth when assessing the likelihood of a failure. The
group sponsored project has successfully demonstrated trends based upon pipe and dent
geometry measures when quantifying the lives of a series of simulated dents generated using the
BMT FTL Dent Assessment Model (Figure 2.2). It is proposed that an approach using the dent
assessment criteria could be used to develop the risk functions required for the pipe material and
geometry parameters used in the direct assessment methodology.

2.2.3

Task 3 Formalization of Inspection Information Parameters

Inspection methods which could assist in developing a direct assessment process for mechanical
damage include:
Visual inspection (aerial surveys): Regular pipeline right of way aerial surveys can
provide information on encroachment on the pipeline since the time of construction. It
can also be used as a tool to identify unreported construction activity.
Close-spaced CP surveys: While mechanical damage alone would not be affected by
the CP applied to the pipeline system, data from CP surveys could indicate regions of
coating damage. This information combined with known locations of pipeline excavation
work could suggest that the coating damage was due to line strikes.
Both of the inspection parameters could be formulated to give an inspection risk based index:

I I = f (RiskParameters )

After completion of Task 3, the total risk of a mechanical damage based failure at a location could
be characterized using the equation:

I = f (I P + I I )

2.2.4

Task 4 Evaluation of Model on Test Sections

It is proposed that a validation of the risk index be conducted using data from several actual
operating pipeline systems known to have had mechanical damage defects or failures. The data
could be supplied by PRCI member companies and the work conducted at the BMT Fleet
Technology facilities or a representative from BMT Fleet Technology could travel to an operating
companys offices to gather the required information. The data required will likely include, but
not necessarily be limited to:
Pipeline route sheets
Construction details of the pipeline, such as daily log books
Operating pressure data
Aerial photographs
Reported construction activity along the right of way
Land use information
CP survey data
Locations of specific mechanical damage flaws or failures should be withheld until after the
assessments have been completed. The results of the assessments would then be compared to

Mechanical Damage Direct Assessment

BMT FLEET TECHNOLOGY LIMITED

5561P

the operators experience along the pipe sections. The results will be confirmation of the validity
of the direct assessment process.

Figure 2.1: BMT Fleet Technology Dent Assessment Modeling Process [3]

Mechanical Damage Direct Assessment

BMT FLEET TECHNOLOGY LIMITED

5561P

Figure 2.2: Effect of D/t on Remaining Life Estimates for Dented Pipe [2]
2.2.5

Task 5 Final Report

The outcome of the project will be documented in a final report that will include a discussion of
the theory behind each parameter used and the sources of information utilized. The results of the
validation trial and the process required to conduct a direct assessment survey of a pipeline
system will be documented.

2.3

References

1. Beavers, J., SCC Direct Assessment, NACE Pipeline Integrity Management Seminar,
January, 2002.
2. Dinovitzer, A., Lazor, R., Carroll, L.B., Zhou, J., McCarver, F., Ironside, S., Raghu, D., and
Keith, K., Geometric Dent Characterization, pending publication at IPC 2002.
3. Dinovitzer, A., Lazor, R., & R. Walker, A Pipeline Dent Assessment Model, OMAE99.
4. Alexander, C.R., & J.F. Kiefner, Effects of Smooth and Rock Dents on Liquid Petroleum
Pipelines, American Petroleum Institute, API Publication 1156, November 1997.
5. Gas Research Institute, Evaluation of a Composite System for Repair of Mechanical
Damage in Gas Transmission Lines, GRI-97/0413, December 1998.

Mechanical Damage Direct Assessment

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3.

5561P

PROJECT TEAM AND QUALIFICATIONS

BMT Fleet Technology Limited offers multi-disciplinary solutions to applied engineering and
research projects. The Materials Technology Center has a history of providing engineering
services to pipeline companies in the fields of pipeline integrity, damage tolerance, structural
reliability, risk assessment and welding engineering.

3.1

Project Team

The BMT Fleet Technology Limited personnel proposed for this project provide over 20 years of
combined experience working on pipeline integrity and damage tolerance issues. Resumes for
the primary project team members are provided in Appendix A and brief biographies are provided
below:
Robert B. Lazor, MASc., P. Eng. Project Manager
Robert Lazor is a Principal Engineer with BMT Fleet Technology Limited and the
Manager of the Western Canada office. One of his primary functions is to provide
consulting services to pipeline companies in the area of damage tolerance and pipeline
integrity. Prior to joining BMT Fleet Technology, Robert worked for 10 years in the
Technical Services and Pipeline Integrity Departments at Enbridge Pipelines Inc. where
he was responsible for developing, updating and implementing pipeline inspection and
repair procedures.
L. Blair Carroll, M.Eng., P. Eng. - Principal Investigator
Blair Carroll is an Intermediate Engineer with BMT Fleet Technology Limited working in
the Materials Technology Center. A key role for Blair is the development and
implementation of damage tolerance criteria and procedures. He is extensively involved
in the application of the BMT Fleet Technology Dent Assessment Model and other
structural analysis and defect assessment projects. His previous employment experience
included two years with the Pipeline Integrity Department of Enbridge Pipelines Inc.
There he was charged with selecting and implementing inspection procedures and
damage tolerance criteria and instructing engineering and field personnel in the practical
application of the protocols.
Aaron S. Dinovitzer, MAsc., P.Eng. Structural Analysis Specialist
Aaron is an Executive Engineer with BMT Fleet Technology Limited and the Manager of
the Materials Technology Center. Aarons expertise in structural analysis, damage
tolerance and risk and reliability will provide guidance to the project team in the
development of appropriate risk and consequence criteria for the direct assessment
process. He has been working in the area of structural integrity and damage tolerance
analysis in which he has led the development of a number of pipeline ECA tools and
techniques. His recent areas of development have included industry-sponsored projects
on the development and extension of the BMT FTL dent assessment model discussed in
Section 2, and a pipeline wrinkle model. Mr. Dinovitzer's experience in advanced
numerical modeling, experimental program oversight and project management will be an
asset to the team.
Figure 3.1 shows the project team proposed for this project. The number of individuals has been
kept small to ensure continuity and familiarity with the project; however, where potential conflicts
with other work could affect the availability of project team members, alternative BMT FTL staff
have been listed in Figure 3.1.

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Project Technical Committee


Robert Lazor - Project Manager
- Technical and Management Lead
- Pipeline Operations
Blair Carroll Senior Mechanical Engineer
- Numerical Modeling and Failure Analysis
Aaron Dinovitzer Principal Engineer
- Numerical Modeling / Structural Analysis
Additional Available FTL Staff:
- N. Pussegoda Senior Metallurgist (Failure Mechanisms)
- A. Fredj Senior Engineer (Numerical Modeling)
- M. Avsare - Mech Eng (Numerical Modeling)
- S Tiku - Met. Eng. (Fatigue and Fracture)
- B. Xu (Numerical Modeling)

Figure 3.1: Proposed Project Team and Additional Available Staff


3.2

Related Projects

The following is a list of current or past projects undertaken by BMT Fleet Technology Limited
related to the tasks proposed in this project:

Development of a Pipeline Dent Characterization Criteria the criteria was developed


under an industry-sponsored project utilizing pipe geometry and material properties, dent
profile information and pipeline operating history. Further work is ongoing.
Review of Damage Tolerance and Repair Guidelines for Pipeline Companies.
Development of a Pipeline Dent Assessment Model - incorporating finite element analysis
and a fracture mechanics based fatigue crack growth algorithm to predict the remaining
useful life of dented pipe in oil and gas transmission pipelines.
Structural integrity analysis of pipeline repair sleeve and Stopple Tee fillet welds, including
fatigue and fracture analysis of flaws in the weld toe and root regions.
Performed reliability-based structural optimization - identifying optimal structural material
properties based on probabilistic fracture mechanics. The optimal material selection
problem has been formulated to produce maximum reliability and minimum cost solutions.
The Review of Strain-Based Pipeline Design - reviewed and compared existing strainbased pipeline design criteria contained in design standards and research projects.
The Development of Rational Criteria for Strain Limits in Pipeline Welds - investigated
and developed preliminary strain criteria for the assessment of pipeline weld integrity.
Development of Pipeline Limit States Design Material Partial Safety Factor - material
property partial safety factors proposed for the limit states design standard were reviewed
based on the material property data collected in previous work.
Risk based review of proposed designs for the Liberty Pipeline System.

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PROJECT MANAGEMENT

Program management is an important component in the successful completion of this study. This
requires that both the technical and financial aspects of the project be closely monitored and
controlled.
BMT Fleet Technology Limited has managed research and development contracts up to $1,000,000
in value and typically is managing some twenty-five contracts at any one time. The Company has
standardized internal procedures for effective management of the programs and these are
schematically shown in Figure 4.1.
The overall management of this program will be handled by Mr. Aaron Dinovitzer, a Vice President at
BMT Fleet Technology Limited. He will be responsible for ensuring that the project work is performed
in a timely fashion and within the projected costs. Financial control is exercised through the
computer generated and weekly updated cost summaries (Figure 4.2). He will also be authorizing
the payment for costs related to this project.
The technical monitoring will be carried out by internal meetings of the BMT FTL staff involved in the
project at no longer than two-week intervals.
Ms. Colleen Seabrook, Assistant Treasurer, will be available to address contractual and financial
questions.

4.1

Project Schedule

It is anticipated that the work can be completed in a 24-month period from the time that the
project is awarded. Quarterly progress reports will be issued throughout the duration of the
project with an interim report after 12 months. BMT Fleet Technology personnel can be made
available to provide presentations at PRCI meetings following submission of the interim and final
reports.
The proposed completion dates for each task are listed below:
Tasks
1

3 4

Months
9 10 11 12 13 14 15

16

17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

Task 1
Task 2
Interim Report
Task 3
Task 4
Draft Final Report
Final Report

Task 1:
Task 2:
Interim Report:
Task 3:
Task 4:
Draft Final Report:
Final Report:

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Month 10
Month 12
Month 14
Month 18
Month 22
Month 24

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Figure 4.1: Project Management Control

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Figure 4.2: Example of Weekly Project Cost Summary Sheet

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Appendix A
Project Team Resumes

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ROBERT B. LAZOR, P. Eng.


MANAGER, WESTERN CANADA

ACADEMIC BACKGROUND
BASc, (Mechanical Engineering), University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON
MASc, (Mechanical Engineering), University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON

PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE
FLEET TECHNOLOGY LIMITED, Edmonton, Manager, Western Canada, March
2000-Present Responsibilities include increasing awareness of FTLs capabilities in the
Energy sector. This involves identifying opportunities for the company as a whole,
building industry contacts, and providing engineering services related to pipeline repair
methods and reliability, engineering critical assessments, welding engineering, material
selection, and failure investigations.
ENBRIDGE PIPELINES INC., Engineering Specialist-Technical Services, 1992-1997;
Engineering Specialist-Pipeline Integrity, 1997-1999 Responsible for failure
investigations, defect assessment procedures, welding procedure approvals, team
leadership, representation on CSA Materials Subcommittee, custodian of Operations &
Maintenance Procedures Manual.
!
Resolved technical issues relating to design, integrity evaluations, and repair
procedures of Company facilities.
!
Provided advice to Operations and Engineering on the selection of materials for
Company facilities, non-conformance issues, and revised Company
specifications to ensure compliance with industry standards and regulations.
!
Collected Company comments relating to the proposed Onshore Pipeline
Regulations and made these known to the National Energy Board staff as part of
an industry committee.
!
Reviewed the fracture design methodology of the Alliance Pipeline to satisfy
corporate interests and concerns for the technical viability of the project.
!
Developed a database of corporate pipe inventory, including material properties,
which provided the ability to establish internal inspection intervals.
!
Supervised co-workers to resolve issues related to internal inspection of
pipelines and the capabilities of the inspection technologies.
!
Analyzed the life cycle costs of fittings and flanges and determined the
competitive bidding process, rather than a sole source supplier was more
effective.
!
Developed Company practices for hydrostatic testing and provided assistance in
field during hydrostatic testing as needed.
ENBRIDGE PIPELINES INC., Senior Engineer, Quality Assurance, 1998-1992
Responsible for projects to support Operations and Engineering related to welding and
material selection and represented Company on industry committees.
!
Developed company program to address stress corrosion cracking to comply
with National Energy Board requirements.
!
nvestigated plant failures and developed recommendations and action plans for
preventing similar failures.
!
Initiated storage system for hydrostatic test results, mill test reports, and
nondestructive examination reports to comply with regulatory requirements.
!
Created Industry standard for qualification of nondestructive examination
technicians for fillet weld inspections.

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!
!
!

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Reviewed manufacturers quality assurance programs and prepared list of


approved manufacturers for material purchases.
Advised Operations on welder training requirements and arranged instruction
program with local college.
Contributed to CSA Standards regarding pipeline maintenance welding and
repair methods.

WELDING INSTITUTE OF CANADA, Scientific Officer, 1979-1982; Group Leader,


Materials Technology, 1982-1988 Supervised a specialized technical staff of two
engineers and three technicians in the execution of research contracts, failure
investigations, and routine mechanical testing.
!
Liaised with government and industry groups to develop and implement research
programs to address timely issues related to welding metallurgy, thermal and
residual stresses, and fracture design concepts for welded structures.
!
Developed weldability test that is currently used throughout the pipeline industry
to establish preheat temperatures for pipeline construction.
!
Instructed at seminars and developed materials for home study welding
metallurgy courses.
WESTINGHOUSE CANADA LIMITED, Junior Project Engineer, 1975-1976
Designed modifications and calculated new operating characteristics for changing the
operation of industrial gas turbines to operate on both gas and oil. Required the
development of new operating manuals and the preparation of design drawings.
ONTARIO MALLEABLE IRON, Junior Project Engineer, 1974-1975 Completed
projects related to plant maintenance, which involved material procurement, liaison
between contractors and plant departments, and the preparation of design drawings.

PROFESSIONAL AFFILIATIONS
Council Member, ASM International
Weldability Committee, Welding Research Council
International Institute of Welding
CSA Task Force on Fracture Toughness
CSA Subcommittee on Materials
CSA Task Force on Joining
APEGGA Career Counselling Committee
API Mechanical Damage Task Force

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L. BLAIR CARROLL, M. ENG., P. ENG


PROJECT ENGINEER
ACADEMIC BACKGROUND
Master of Engineering (Mechanical Engineering Nondestructive Examination),
Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. Johns, NF, 1998
Bachelor of Engineering (Mechanical Engineering), Memorial University of
Newfoundland, St. Johns, NF, 1995

PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE
FLEET TECHNOLOGY LIMITED, Project Engineer-Materials and Structures, June
2000 to Present Responsibilities include:
# FEA analysis
# Engineering critical assessment and damage tolerance
# Assisting with failure investigations
# ILI data analysis and in-field defect assessment services for pipeline operators
# Assisting with structural analysis for pipelines risk and reliability projects
# Evaluation of pipeline repair techniques
ENBRIDGE PIPELINES INC. Edmonton, Alberta, Canada , Pipeline Integrity
Engineer, April 1998 to June 2000 Responsibilities included:
# Performance evaluation of in-line inspection crack detection tools;
# Updated pipeline inspection procedures, maintenance manuals, engineering
standards and material specifications;
# Stress corrosion cracking management program;
# Coordinated failure investigations;
# Welding procedure review and upkeep;
# Technical resource for defect assessment and repair programs;
# Technical resource on codes and standards for operations personnel.
RTD QUALITY SERVICES, LTD. Edmonton, Alberta, Corrosion Engineer, July 1997
to April 1998 Responsibilities included:
# Evaluation of ACFM technology for company inspection procedures;
# Technical resource for field NDT inspectors;
# Corrosion ECAs.
FISHERIES AND MARINE INSTITUTE OF MEMORIAL UNIVERSITY OF
NEWFOUNDLAND St. John's, NF, Part-Time Instructor, May 1995 to April 1997
Instructed theory of machines and engineering mechanics.
CENTRE FOR COLD OCEANS RESOURCES ENGINEERING (C-CORE), St. John's,
NF, Part-Time Research Assistant, December 1995 to March 1996 Responsibilities
included:
# Lab and field testing for a Canadian Coast Guard project investigating the properties
of synthetic fibre mooring lines for buoy systems.
DEUTAG DRILLING, Bad Bentheim, Germany, Co-Op Student, Sept. 1994 to Dec.
1994
# Performed design reviews for drilling rigs systems including mud recycling systems
and automated drill pipe handling equipment

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HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, Helsinki, Finland, Co-Op Student,


January 1994 to April 1994
# Assisted with data analysis of scale model testing of an ice breaker hull design;
assisted with testing of mechanical properties of ice sheet formulations for model ship
testing
NORWEGIAN CONTRACTORS a.s, Hinna, Norway, Co-Op Student, June 1993 to
September 1993
# Assisted with welding procedure qualification tests (carbon steel and titanium);
# Assisted with NDT inspections;
# Conducted quality control inspections of piping systems.
PROFESSIONAL AFFILIATIONS
2001-Present Treasurer, National Capitol Section of the National Association of Corrosion
Engineers
2001
Member, Professional Engineers of Ontario
1999-Present P. Eng., Association of Professional Engineers, Geologists and Geophysicists of
Alberta
1999
Stress Corrosion Cracking Session Chair, Banff 99 Pipeline Workshop
1998-Present Enbridge representative to the CEPA Pipeline Integrity Working Group

Personal/Professional Development
2000
1999
1999
1998
1998
1998
1998

ANSYS Finite Element Modeling Course


British Standards, BS 7910 Course, Structural Integrity Training
CASTI CSA Z662 Course, Oil and Gas Pipeline Systems
Skill Paths Team Management Course
Kiefner & Associates 1-Day Corrosion Assessment Workshop
O.H. & S. First Aider I
CASTI ASME Section IX Welding Codes and Metallurgy Course

PUBLICATIONS
Thesis:
L.B. Carroll, Investigation into the Detection and Classification of Defect Colonies using ACFM
Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, Memorial University of Newfoundland,
St. Johns, Newfoundland, Canada, October, 1998.
Conference Papers:
Carroll, L.B. and M.S. Madi, Crack Detection Program on the Cromer to Gretna, Manitoba
Section of Enbridge Pipelines Inc. Line 3, 2000 ASME International Pipeline Conference, Oct. 15, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, Proceedings of the International Pipeline Conference 2000, Vol. 2,
ASME, New York, pp. 1435-1438.
Carroll, L.B., Monahan, C.C., and R.G. Gosine, An automated ACFM peak detection algorithm
with potential for locating SCC clusters on transmission pipelines, 1998 ASME International
Pipeline Conference, June 7-11, Calgary, Alberta, Proceedings of the International Pipeline
Conference 1998, Vol. 1, ASME, New York, pp. 335-340.
Kania, R., and L.B. Carroll, Non-Destructive Techniques for Measurement and Assessment of
Corrosion Damage on Pipelines, 1998 ASME International Pipeline Conference, June 7-11,
Calgary, Alberta, Proceedings of the International Pipeline Conference 1998, Vol. 1, ASME, New
York, pp. 309-313.
Carroll, L.B., and C.C. Monahan, "Detection and classification of crack colonies using ACFM
technology - Phase I," 1997 ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference, July 27-31,
Orlando, Florida, NDE Performance Demonstration, Planning and Research, PVP-Vol. 352, NDEVol. 16, M.M. Behravesh, M.P. Jones, and C.C. Monahan, Eds., ASME, New York, pp. 57-64.

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Timco, G.W., Irani, M.B., Funke, E R., English, L.A., Carroll, L.B., and J.C. Chao, (1993), "Ice
Load Distribution on a Faceted Conical Structure", Proceedings of the 12th International
Conference on Port and Ocean Engineering under Arctic Conditions (POAC '93), Hamburg,
Volume 2, pp. 607 - 616.
Journal Articles:
Carroll, L.B., and M. Madi, PIPELINE INSPECTION Conclusion: ILI tool detects cracks, SCC in
Canadian liquids line, Oil & Gas Journal, Vol. 99, Issue 19, May 7, 2001.
Contract Reports:
K. Klein, C. Monahan, M. Nahon, R. Driscoll, and B. Carroll, "Investigation of Synthetic Fiber
Rope Moorings for Canadian Coast Guard Navigation Buoys," Contract Report for Canadian
Coast Guard, Transport Canada, C-CORE Publication 96-

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AARON S. DINOVITZER
PRINCIPAL ENGINEER
ACADEMIC BACKGROUND
University of Waterloo, Waterloo, MASc., Civil Engineering, 1992.
Research Assistant, 1990-92, Involved in design approach development to minimise the
effects of local buckling on cold formed steel sections. Studied probabilistic (reliabilitybased) design and optimisation with the goal of comparing it to deterministic approaches.
MASc. thesis: "Probabilistic and Deterministic Structural Optimisation".
University of Waterloo, Waterloo, BASc., Civil Engineering, 1990.
Course of study focused on structural mechanics and design. Awarded undergraduate
research assistantship for study of structural optimisation.

PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE
FLEET TECHNOLOGY LIMITED, Project Engineer, 1992-Present - Contribute expertise
and support to projects involved in the fields of structural design/analysis, reliability and risk,
assessment, Welding Engineering, numerical and analytical modeling and mechanics.
Research and develop structural and reliability-based analysis and modeling techniques for
research projects involving structural design criteria, fracture mechanics, finite element
analysis and closed form solutions for plate and shell behaviour. Involved in the design and
analysis of welded structures for the pipeline, marine, defence and resource sectors.
Recent projects include:
Development of rational material strain limits for pipelines: This project funded by the
Canadian pipeline industry investigated and developed strain based pipeline analysis
criteria. A probabilistic approach has been used to illustrate the conservatism associated
with the current design approaches that neglect the effects of material ductility.
Development of a combined hydrogen/thermal diffusion model to evaluate the potential for
delayed cracking in pipeline welds. Based on a description of essential multi-pass welding
procedure parameters the model develops a time history of thermal and hydrogen diffusion
to illustrate the potential for delayed cracking and allow the optimisation of the welding
procedure to reduce the risk of delayed cracking.
Development of refit specifications including welding procedures to add a self unloading
system to a bulk carries. Finite element analysis to illustrate the effects of the addition of a
deck mounted self unloading system to a bulker. Detailed analyses including analysis of
doubler plate system including slot welds were completed to illustrate integrity of welded
connections. With this information design modifications and details of the self unloading
system were design and modified based on further finite element modeling.
FLEET TECHNOLOGY LIMITED, Project Engineer, 1992-Present
Review existing design of Canadian Coast Guard 47 Aluminium Motorised Lifeboat to
identify compatible aluminium alloys for repairs in Canada. This study demonstrated the
feasibility of making repairs with more readily available and less expensive high strength
aluminium alloys. T he review included fatigue buckling and ultimate strength checks of the
as welded structural system. In addition, promising repair welding procedures were
developed.
Review and demonstration of strain-based limit states design criteria for pipeline design. In
this project the merits of strain-based (post-yield) design criteria were examined and
demonstrated through a series of pipeline design examples.
Development and presentation of a Fatigue Resistant Detail Design Guide for Ship
Structures. In this project, a design guide was developed to present procedures used to
characterise the long term statistical nature of wave induced ship loads and to design

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structural connections with specified fatigue lives. These approaches were presented and
demonstrated in a short course on fatigue and fracture for ship structures.
Reliability-Based Structural Optimisation: In a project funded by CANMET (EMR) techniques
for identifying the optimal match of pipeline weld and base material properties based on
probabilistic fracture mechanics were developed. The optimal material selection problem
has been formulated to produce maximum reliability and minimum cost solutions.
Development of a non-linear finite element modeling system which evaluates the effects of
dents on the fatigue performance of a pipeline. This modeling project included the
development of a FE based software suite which incorporated inspection based dent
configuration data, a client supplied operational loading profile and an a parametric
description of the structure linked to an automated model meshing system. Corrosion, crack
like flaws and weld seams may be superimposed on the dent in the assessment process.
An assessment of ice loading on hydroelectric dams, for the Canadian Electrical
Association, was performed as par of a larger dam safety program. In this project, finite
element modeling was used to assess the magnitude of the loads generated due to the
constrained daily expansion of the reservoir's winter ice cover.
Development of a risk based maintenance management system for the Canadian Navy Ship
Structural Integrity Programme (SSIP). This approach optimally allocated inspection and
repair resources in a continuously updating management system.
FLEET TECHNOLOGY LIMITED, Project Engineer, 1992-Present
Development of Risk-Based inspection tools for Transport Canada Marine Safety to allocate
resources, manage inspection time and rationalised the regulatory enforcement decision
process.
Developed a finite element model to assess the structural behaviour source of cracks in a
longitudinal bulkhead of a tanker structure. By identifying the sloshing induced buckling
mode that was present a structural modification was developed and designed using FEA.
The results of this FEA were compiled and submitted and approved by ABS.
Characterisation and modeling of behind-armour ballistic debris to identify the post
penetration vulnerability of armoured vehicles. The vulnerability/lethality model being
developed in this project, for the Department of National Defence, employs aspects of the
shot conditions and the mechanics of penetration in a probabilistic framework to predict the
mass and velocity distribution of behind-armour debris clouds.
The development of a symbolic finite element analysis approach for reliability analysis: In
this year and a half long project for the Canadian Defence Research Establishment Atlantic
(DREA), an automated approach to the algebraic solution of a finite element structural
analysis problems is being developed for use in reliability analysis.
High strength buoy mooring chain selection based on a comparison of chain residual
strength and service loads. This project, for the Canadian Coast Guard, identifies chains
that provide a required level of safety against failure at the end of a five year service life.
This design project involved the development of a semi-empirical corrosion/wear model and
a mechanics based analytical degraded chain ultimate strength model.
The development of conceptual designs for a lightweight ceramic/FRP composite armour
system to provide ballistic protection for light armoured vehicle weapon stations. In this
material selection and geometric design project, for DVEM 2-5, Mr. Dinovitzer employed
analytical ballistic modeling techniques to identify the ceramic and FRP material components
which provided the required levels of ballistic protection and minimised the overall turret
weight.
Global Stress Concentrations in Ship Structural Details: This project, funded by the
Canadian Navy, includes the identification of stress distributions in structural details, through
finite element analysis, for fatigue life estimation.
Development of Tripping and Buckling Criteria of Framing for Ice Strengthening: In this
project, criteria were developed for the Canadian Arctic Shipping Pollution Prevention
Regulations (CASPPR) to ensure the adequacy of stiffeners in ice strengthened vessels.

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Development of a Materials Property Database for Reliability Analysis: In this project, for the
U.S. Ship Structures Committee, a uniform format for collecting and processing material
property data was developed for use in reliability-based design. The material property
database developed in this project is being considered by the ASTM for adoption as a
standard data reporting format.
Development and evaluation of existing analysis approaches for buckling of partially
stiffened plate elements. Recommendations on optimal section configuration and buckling
analysis approaches resulted in changes to the Canadian handbook of steel construction
and the Canadian cold formed steel design standard.
Engineering Critical Assessment / Fitness-For-Purpose Investigations
Loading, structural analysis and fracture mechanics expertise has been used to assess the
significance of structural damage and weld flaws to determine the root cause of a failure.
These accident reconstruction, failure analysis, fitness for purpose or ECA projects include:
- Reconstruction of tractor trailer accident
- ECA investigation of pipeline girth weld defects
- Pre-Inspection ECA of weld defects for petro-chemical plant reactors and piping
- Determination of chain lashing failure mechanics
- Rail car fatigue and fracture failure investigation
- Marine structure fatigue cracking damage tolerance investigation

PROFESSIONAL SOCIETIES / AFFILIATIONS


Association of Professional Engineers of Ontario, Member
Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, Member
Certified Design Welding Engineer
Canadian Society of Civil Engineering, Associate Member
American Society of Civil Engineers, Associate Member
Society of Reliability Engineers, Vice President (Ottawa Chapter)
Institute for Risk Research, Member
Member of CSA-Z662 Pipeline Risk Assessment Working Group
Member of CSA-Z662 Pipeline Limit States Design Technical Committee

PUBLICATIONS
A.S. Dinovitzer, "Optimization of Cold Formed Steel C-Sections", published in Canadian Journal of
Civil Engineering, February 1992.
A.S. Dinovitzer, M. Sohrabpour, R.M. Schuster, "Observations and Comments Pertaining to
CAN/CSA-S136-M89", presented at the 11th International Specialty Conference on Cold
Formed Steel, Recent Developments in Cold Formed Steel Design and Construction, St. Louis,
Missouri, October 1992.
M.Z. Cohn, A.S. Dinovitzer, "Applications of Structural Optimization", ASCE, Journal of Structural
Engineering, Vol 120, No. 2, February 1994.
A.S. Dinovitzer, M. Szymczak, Characterization of Behind-Armour Debris, 16th International
Ballistics Symposium, Ballistics96, San Francisco, Sept. 1996.
B. Graville, A.S. Dinovitzer, Strain-Based Failure Criteria for Part Wall Defects in Pipes, 8th
International Conference on Pressure Vessel Technology, ICPVT-8, Montreal, July 1996.
A.S. Dinovitzer, Reliability Based Optimal Material Selection, Managing Pipeline Integrity: An
Issues Workshop on Pipeline Lifecycle, Banff, Alberta, June 1994.
G. Comfort, R. Abdelnour, Y. Gong, A. Dinovitzer, Poussee Statique des Glaces Sur les
Ouvrages Hydroelectriques, November 1996.
A.S. Dinovitzer, R. Basu, LCDr K. Holt, A Hybrid Approach to Warship Maintenance
Management, Accepted for presentation at the SNAME Annual General Meeting October
1997.

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A.S. Dinovitzer, M. Szymczak, D. Erickson, Fragmentation of Targets During Ballistic Penetration


Events, to apear in the International Journal of Impact Engineering.
A.S. Dinovitzer, R. Silberhorn, J.L. Rene, The Mooring Selection Guide (MSG) Software,
Accepted for presentation at Oceans97.
A.S. Dinovitzer, M.Szymczak, T. Brown, Behind-Armour Debris Modeling, 17th International
Symposium on Ballistics, 1998.
A.S. Dinovitzer, B. Graville, A. Glover, Strain-Based Failure Criteria for Sharp Part Wall Defects
in Pipelines, International Pipeline Conference, 1998.
A.S. Dinovitzer, R. Smith, Strain-Based Pipeline Design Criteria Review, International Pipeline
Conference, 1998.
A.S. Dinovitzer, R. Lazor, R. Walker, C. Bayley, A Pipeline Dent Assessment Model, paper to be
presented at OMAE99.
A.S. Dinovitzer, I. Konuk, R. Smith, B. Xu, Pipeline Limit States Design, paper to be presented
at OMAE99.
D. Heath, N. Pegg, A. Dinovitze, R. Walker, Detail Analysis of Ship Structures, paper to be
presented at Canadian HydroMechanics Conference, 1999.

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APPENDIX B
BMT FLEET TECHNOLOGY LIMITED
CORPORATE CAPABILITIES

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BMT Fleet Technology Limited has been engaged in the business of contract Research and
Development for more than twenty seven years now. During this time period, hundreds of contracts,
several of these in the $300,000 to $500,000 range, have been successfully completed for clients,
both in Canada and in the United States. BMT FTL has been involved in marine engineering and
structures research since its inception 25 years ago. Since the addition of the Materials
Technology Division in the mid-80s, BMT FTL has been applying its quite unique combination of
structures and materials expertise to welded structures in other industries. In the context of the
pipeline industry, numerous investigations undertaken to date have dealt with pipeline girth weld
fracture toughness, line pipe steel weldability, studies in support of Standards development, and
failure analysis.
The investigations undertaken by the Materials Technology Division are about evenly divided
between experimental and analytical projects. The former have dealt mainly with welding
procedure development and weldability studies, and fracture and fatigue performance of steels
and welded joints; the latter with structural reliability, engineering critical assessment, optimization
and analytical model development.
RECENT BMT FTL PROJECTS
In the recent past, BMT FTL staff has completed a wide range of projects including the following
projects, presented as an example of the types of work completed at BMT FTL:
Welding Related Projects
Repair welding of stiffeners to hull plating in low temperature marine environments (water
backing) without preheat;
Armour steel repair procedure development and implementation in a battlefield tank;
Repair welding procedure development and instructions for aluminum alloy mantlets,
medium girder bridge, and armoured vehicle launched bridge;
Hardfacing repair welding of gas turbine blades;
Simulation of reheated heat affected zone cracking in repaired girth welds;
Development of a Multi-Pass Weld Procedure Delayed Cracking Risk Assessment Software
Pipeline Design and Fitness-for-Service
Risk evaluation of concept designs for the Liberty Pipeline;
Development of pipeline dent assessment model
Strain-Based Corrosion Damage Assessment Technique
Development of Strain-Based Planar (Crack-Like) Defect Assessment Technique
Development of Multi-Pass Weld Delayed Hydrogen Cracking Prediction Software
Preliminary development of a CTOA Based Model to Predict the Potential for Long
Running Ductile Fracture Events
Review of Strain-Based Pipeline Design Criteria, including sample applications
Probabilistic Modeling, and Risk Assessment
Reliability-based calibration of CSA Z662 Limit States Design Appendix
Reliability based optimal material selection for pipeline girth welds
Development of Risk-Based Structural Inspection Management Tools
Development of Risk-Based Maintenance Management System
Material Properties
Development of an Interim Measure of Ductile Fracture
Assessment of a Two Specimen Approach for the Measurement of CTOA Ductile
Toughness
Development of Pipeline Material Property Database for Reliability Analysis

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FACILITIES
The sections that follow provide a brief overview of the facilities and equipment available in the
Materials and Welding Division at Fleet Technology Limited. The facilities and equipment
available at FTL are more than adequate to perform the proposed project. In addition to the
facilities listed, in the sections that follow, the Systems Division of Fleet Technology Limited which
performs software development and field instrumentation can provide assistance in the data
recording requirements for the experimental part of this project.
Metallurgical
Optical microscopes and stereoscope
Hitachi scanning electron microscope equipped with Ortec EDX system
Specimen preparation facilities:
metallurgical cut off wheel
small diamond saw
mounting press
automatic grinding and polishing
facilities
Vickers and Rockwell hardness machines
Lietz micro-hardness unit
Welding & Machining
Automatic oxy fuel and plasma cutting equipment
Fully equipped welding facility for SMAW, GTAW, P-GTAW, GMAW, P-GMAW, FCAW, MCAW
and SAW
Welding parameter high speed data acquisition system
High temperature electric furnace accommodating material up to 600 x 600 mm in size.
Induma 2045 horizontal universal milling machine
Lagun FCM-20W horizontal universal milling machine
Churchill NB horizontal grinder with magnetic chuck
3 ton overhead crane, 2 ton
forklift
Colchester Master 2500 lathe
Drill press NIDER
Belt and disc grinder
Cutting & machining tools
Mechanical Testing
Granite table for distortion measurements
900KN (200 kips) horizontal servo-hydraulic test machine
1360KN (300 kips) Baldwin universal tensile testing machine for tension, compression and
fracture toughness testing
640KN (150 kips), 250KN (50 kips), 100KN (20 kips) and 25KN (5 kips)
servo-hydraulic fatigue, fracture toughness, and crack arrest materials testing
CVN testing machine (325J capacity) along with broaching equipment
Numerical Modeling
Finite element modeling / Structural Analysis services with both ANSYS and Algor
linear and non-linear structural analysis
impact and vibration analysis
heat transfer and fluid flow analysis
structural contact and friction modeling
Fracture mechanics, stress & strain life based fatigue and fracture modeling
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) services with Flowtran
Reliability and risk assessment software
Weld preheat calculator and delayed cracking (hydrogen embrittlement) risk evaluator
Other proprietary modeling and simulation software modules for design and analysis

Mechanical Damage Direct Assessment

13

BMT FLEET TECHNOLOGY LIMITED

5561P

5561P

MECHANICAL DAMAGE DIRECT ASSESSMENT


- RPTG-0321 PART II COST PROPOSAL
August 5, 2002

Submitted to:
Steve Foh
Gas Technology Institute
1700 South Mount Prospect Road
Des Plaines, IL 60018

Submitted by:
BMT Fleet Technology Limited
311 Legget Drive
Kanata, Ontario
Canada K2K 1Z8

BMT FTL Contact: L. Blair Carroll


Tel: 613-592-2830, Ext 242
Fax: 613-592-4950
e-mail: bcarroll@fleetech.com

Mechanical Damage Direct Assessment

14

Project Summary
Committee:

Pipeline Materials

Project
Title:

Mechanical Damage Direct Assessment


- RPTG-0321 -

Author:
Principal Researcher:
Name of Organization:
Project Type:

L. Blair Carroll
L. Blair Carroll / Robert Lazor
BMT Fleet Technology Limited (BMT FTL)
New

9) Statement of the Problem (What is to be solved):


There are a number of tools and methods available for characterizing and
assessing the structural significance of corrosion or cracking that are not directly
applicable to mechanical damage. Such a tool for direct assessment will require
the ability to combine the relative impact of several features of the mechanical
damage, which include associated pipe deformation, gouging and the presence of
other localized effects such as weld seams or corrosion. A mechanical damage
assessment methodology will require consideration of stress analysis techniques,
materials damage models and fracture mechanics based algorithms.

10) Background (What is the historical data):


A significant amount of research effort has been attributed to denting and mechanical
damage. Programs of note include the API 1156 study and the GRI-97/0413 study.
In conjunction with industry support, BMT Fleet Technology has developed a Dent
Assessment Model aimed at evaluating the impact of the presence of dents on the
integrity of a pipeline. The model incorporates finite element analysis of the dented
pipe geometry and a fracture mechanics based fatigue crack growth algorithm, and is
currently being used in an industry consortium to develop a dent criticality criteria that
can be applied to dents found in-service (in-line inspection) or during excavation
programs. Phase I of this project was completed in May 2002 and Phase II will
commence in Fall 2002. Part of the Phase II project scope will consider the impact of
localized effects including gouging and weld seams.

Project Summary
Committee:

Pipeline Materials

Project
Title:

Mechanical Damage Direct Assessment


- RPTG-0321 -

11) Proposed Research Action Plan (How will the problem be solved):
In order to develop an assessment model, several areas of investigation will be required:
Year 1 - Task 1 - Assessment of Pipe Deformation on the Integrity of the Pipeline
This work was developed in Phase I of the industry consortium project at BMT FTL and
will be further developed in Phase II. The dent ranking criteria developed in the Phase I
project was a function of pipe and dent geometry and pipeline operating conditions and
was used to develop a relative ranking of the severity of a list of dents. The Phase II work
will carry this forward to assign residual lives to a dented pipe segment.
Year 1 - Task 2 - Modeling the Impact of Line Strike Material Damage
This phase of the project will first require a review of all available literature to
determine the extent of the past projects related to characterizing the
severity and failure modes for mechanical damage. This work is scheduled
as part of the Phase II industry consortium project and can be carried further
in conjunction with the funding proposed by PRCI. The next stage of this
work will involve numerical modeling of mechanical damage in pipelines to
obtain a calibrated model to predict the morphology of mechanical damage
features and their effects on localized stress distributions. The LS Dyna
finite element analysis package is well suited for modeling impact, contact
and material cold working and will be used in this phase of the analysis
process. The conclusions will be added to the dent characterization criteria
to expand the methodology beyond smooth dents to dents with associated
material damage.
Year 1 - Task 3 - Consideration of Other Localized Effects
The dent characterization model will be further modified to account for the impact of
additional features which may be associated with mechanical damage (metal loss, cracking,
weld seams) and can further impact the integrity of the pipeline. Numerical modeling will
be validated using the published results from full-scale trials.
Year 2 - Task 4 - Further Model Validation and Implementation.
As a further measure of the validity of the model, the funding made available in Year 2 will
be used to conduct further testing to ensure that all appropriate information is available
when validating the model. Any shortcomings in available published data will be
identified during Year 1.

ii

Project Summary
Committee:

Pipeline Materials

Project
Title:

Mechanical Damage Direct Assessment


- RPTG-0321 -

12) Expected Deliverables (List Specifically what PRCI will get out of the work):
A validated and robust methodology for characterizing the impact of mechanical damage
on the integrity of a pipeline. The methodology will be developed using numerical
modeling, but will be adapted so that it can be applied without the need for detailed
numerical analysis.
A set of guidelines with examples of how the methodology can be applied to various forms
of data, whether it was collected using in-line inspection tools or during field excavation.
A report documenting the results of the modeling processes.

13) Resource Requirements (total cost, year-by-year breakdown, capital costs vs.
overhead, and outside resources to be used):
It is anticipated that the total expenditures required to complete this work will be in the
order of $460,000 USD and will be broken down as follows:
In-kind contributions:
$100,000: Initial development of the BMT FTL Dent Assessment Model
$100,000: Phase I work of the dent characterization consortium project
$60,000: Contribution of the Phase II work from the dent characterization consortium
project supported by the consortium members
$50,000: Licensing fees for FEA modeling packages covered by BMT FTL
PRCI Committee Contributions:
Year 1: $75,000 Tasks 1, 2, and 3 described above
Year 2: $75,000 Task 4 described above (as required)

iii

Project Summary
Committee:

Pipeline Materials

Project
Title:

Mechanical Damage Direct Assessment


- RPTG-0321 -

14) Organization Information (Describe major business of contractor, facilities


available for use in this project, related concurrent/recent projects):
BMT FTL provides engineering research and services to the pipeline industry in
the welding, materials characterization, and damage tolerance (ECA) areas of
interest. Research efforts at BMT FTL have resulted in the development of dent
and buckle/wrinkle assessment models. These tools support the integrity
assessment of mechanically damaged pipes segments. Beyond the assessment of
dents and wrinkles, the metallurgical, mechanical testing, welding and numerical
simulation labs at BMT FTL have been involved in the following related projects:
Development of a hot tap tee design model
Development and calibration of pipeline pressure retaining sleeve
design models
Development of fatigue and fracture analysis tools and courses for
industry
15) Contractor Contacts:
Mr. L. Blair Carroll
Materials Technology Centre
BMT Fleet Technology Limited
311 Legget Drive
Kanata, Ontario
Canada K2K 1Z8
Tel: 613-592-2830
Fax: 613-592-4950
E-mail: bcarroll@fleetech.com
Internet: www.fleetech.com

Mr. Robert B. Lazor


Materials Technology Centre
BMT Fleet Technology Limited
Box 82057, 2037-111 Street
Edmonton, Alberta
Canada
Tel: 780-465-0077
Fax: 780-465-0085
E-mail: rlazor@fleetech.com
Internet: www.fleetech.com

16) Alternative Funding Sources:


The proposed program will be subsidised and progress facilitated through:
the use of pre-existing mechanical damage (dent and wrinkle)
modeling tools developed under separate contracts,
the use of previously completed full-scale trial data to validate the
numerical modeling tools,
the use of previously developed pipeline operation characterization
techniques and tools
the use of previously collected and characterised pipeline material
and operational data.
Co-operative funding will also be sought from on-going parallel industry group
sponsored projects to subsidise the work in this project.

iv

BMT FLEET TECHNOLOGY LIMITED

5561P

BMT FTL Document Quality Control Data Sheet


Report:

Mechanical Damage Direct Assessment


RPTG-0321

Project No.

5561P

Date:

5 August 2002

Prepared by:

L. Blair Carroll, Project Engineer

Reviewed by:

R. B. Lazor, Manager, BMT FTL Western Canada Office

Approved by:

A. Dinovitzer, Vice-President

BMT FLEET TECHNOLOGY LIMITED

5561P

TABLE OF CONTENTS

5.

COST AND SCHEDULE ...................................................................................................... 1


5.1
Business Management - General Information .........................................................................1
5.1.1
General Corporate Information ............................................................................................1
5.1.2
Financial Management for Projects .....................................................................................1
5.2
Project Cost Estimate ..............................................................................................................1
5.2
Project Schedule..................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.

6.

CONTRACTING DETAILS................................................................................................... 3

LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES


Table 5.1: Detailed Cost Estimate (with travel required for Task 4)............ Error! Bookmark not defined.

vi

BMT FLEET TECHNOLOGY LIMITED

5.

COST AND SCHEDULE

5.1

Business Management - General Information

5.1.1

General Corporate Information

5561P

The project will be carried out by BMT Fleet Technology Limited, which has offices in Kanata (head office) and
Edmonton, as follows:
BMT Fleet Technology Limited
311 Legget Drive
Kanata, Ontario
Canada K2K 1Z8
BMT Fleet Technology Limited
PO Box 82057, 2037-111 Street
Edmonton, Alta.
T6J 7E6

5.1.2

Financial Management for Projects

The Project Manager is responsible for the financial performance of a contract. Notifications or other
communication concerning invoices for the project should be sent to BMT FTLs Accounting Office to the attention
of:
Mrs. Colleen Seabrook, Assistant Treasurer
BMT Fleet Technology Limited
311 Legget Drive
Kanata, Ontario
Canada K2K 1Z8

5.2

Project Cost Estimate

The cost associated with the completion of this project is $150,000 (USD). The estimated cost of the project would
be reduced by $14,000 to $134,000.00 if the work is completed entirely at BMT Fleet Technology facilities. The
detailed cost breakdown includes a 15% fee on labour only.
The rates are calculated from:
Salary + (Salary x Overhead)
1867.75
where 1867.75 hours is the 2002/2003 working year for an employee with ten days vacation. These rates do not
include fee. The rates are better than those offered our most favored commercial client.
The Government overhead rate for FY02/03 is 130%.

Mechanical Damage Direct Assessment

BMT FLEET TECHNOLOGY LIMITED

5561P

Table 5.1: Detailed Cost Estimate (with travel required for Task 4)
1 day is
7.75
hours
2003
Rates
TASK 1
LABOUR
HOUR
DAY
Executive Engineers
$90.00
$697.50
1
Princ. Engrs/PMs
$75.00
$581.25
15
Intermediate Engrs.
$52.00
$403.00
40
Project Engrs.
$45.00
$348.75
5
Admin/support
$32.00
$248.00
0
TOTAL ESTIMATED COST OF LABOUR
$27,280
SUBCONTRACTORS

TOTAL ESTIMATED COST OF SUBCONTRACTS


CHARGES FOR FTL EQUIPMENT
ANSYS

$0

TOTAL ESTIMATED EQUIPMENT CHARGES


RENTAL OF EQUIPMENT

$0

TOTAL ESTIMATED RENTALS

TASK 2
2
15
40
0
0
$26,234

$0

TASK 3
2
15
35
0
2
$24,715

$0

DAYS BY TASK
TASK 4
TASK 5
2
15
40
5
0
$27,978

$0

1
3
5
1
3
$5,549

Tot

TOTAL
COST

8
63
160
11
5
111,755

$5,580
$36,619
$64,480
$3,836
$1,240
$111,755

$0

$0
$0
$0
$0

$0

$3,750
$0
$3,750

$0

$0
$0
$0
$0
$0
$0
$0
$0

$3,750

$0

$3,750

$0

$0

$0

$0

$0

MATERIALS AND SUPPLIES

TOTAL MATERIALS
TRAVEL AND LIVING
PRIME CONTRACTOR
SUBCONTRACTORS
TOTAL ESTIMATED COST OF TRAVEL
OTHER EXPENSES
COMMUNICATIONS/COURIER
REPRODUCTION
SHIPPING
TOTAL ESTIMATED EXPENSES
%
FEE

On labour
On Subcontractors
On Travel & Living
On materials/ Expenses

15%
0%
0%
0%
TOTAL PROFIT

$0

$0

$0

$0

$0

$0

$0

$1,500

$14,000

$1,500

$1,500

$14,000

$1,500

$17,000
$0
$17,000

$0

$200
$500
$0
$700

$200
$500
$0

$0

$0

$700

4092
0
0
0
$4,092

3935
0
0
0
$3,935

3707
0
0
0
$3,707

4197
0
0
0
$4,197

PROJECT TOTAL

$31,372

$33,919

$29,922

$46,874

$7,881

% OF TOTAL

20.92%

22.62%

19.95%

31.26%

5.26%

Mechanical Damage Direct Assessment

832
0
0
0
$832

$16,763
$0
$0
$0
$16,763
$149,968

1.00

BMT FLEET TECHNOLOGY LIMITED

6.

5561P

CONTRACTING DETAILS

The PRCI Contract Cost Estimate Form has been completed. For the purposes of PRCI, we have extracted overhead
(130%) from our current rates (Table 5.1) for the Contract Cost Estimate Form.

Mechanical Damage Direct Assessment

BMT FLEET TECHNOLOGY LIMITED


5561P

PRCI CONTRACT COST ESTIMATE FORM

CONTRACT COST ESTIMATE


(FOOTNOTE A)
Name of Offeror
BMT Fleet Technology Limited
Home Office Address
311 Legget Drive
Kanata, Ontario, Canada K2K 1Z8
Division(s) and Location(s) (where work is being performed)
Home Office: Kanata, ON
Western Canada Office: Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

RFP No/Prp No
Page Number
RPTG-0321
Name of Proposed Project
Mechanical Damage Direct Assessment
Total Amount of Proposal
$ 150,000.00
Estimated Cost
(dollars)

Cost Elements
1.

Number of Pages

Total Estimated
Cost (dollars)

Supporting Schedule
(Footnote B)

Direct Material
a. Purchased Parts
b. Interdivisional Effort
c. Equipment Rental/Lease
d. Other (ANSYS Lease)

$3,750

Total Direct Material

$3,750

2.

Material Overhead (Rate

0 % x Base $

3.

Subcontracted Effort (Attach Detailed Schedule)

4.

Direct Labor - Specify

Net Subcontracted Effort


Est. Hours

Rate/Hour

Est. Cost

Executive Engineer

62

$39.00

$2,418.00

Principal Engineer

488.25

$32.60

$15,916.95

Intermediate Engineer

1240

$22.60

$28,024.00

Project Engineer

85.25

$19.56

$1,667.49

Support

38.75

$13.91

$539.00

O.H. Rate

X Base $

Est. Cost

130%

$48,565.44

$63,135.00

Total Direct Labor


5.

Labor Overhead - Specify

$48,565.44

Total Labor Overhead


6.

Special Testing

7.

Purchased Special Equipment

8.

Travel

9.

Consultants (Attach Detailed Schedule)

$63,135.00

$17,000

10. Other Direct Costs


11. Total Direct Cost and Overhead

$700
$133,150

12. General and Administrative Expenses (w/o IR&D)


Rate 15 % of cost element numbers
13. Independent Research and Development
Rate

% of cost element numbers

14. Total Estimated Cost (Footnote C)


15. Fixed Fee
16.

$16,795

Total Estimated Cost and Fee

17. Contractor/Third Party Cofunding (Footnote D)


18. Net PRCI Estimated Cost and Fee

$150,000

This proposal reflects our best estimates as of this date, in accordance with the instructions to offerors and the footnotes which follow.

Mechanical Damage Direct Assessment

BMT FLEET TECHNOLOGY LIMITED


5561P
Typed Name and Title

Signature

Date
5 August 2002

A.S. Dinovitzer, Vice-President

Footnotes:

A. The submission of this form does not constitute an acceptable proposal. Required supporting
information must also be submitted.
B. For appropriate items of cost, reference the schedule that contains the required supporting data.
Generally, supply supporting information for cost elements that are extraordinary (subcontracts or special

testing costs above 25% of total costs, large equipment items, etc.).
C. This should be the total cost of the research project. Any contractor cofunding should be shown on line 17
as a reduction from total costs.

D. This line should include (1) total fixed fee, (2) contractor cofunding, (3)
third party cash cofunding, or (4) be blank, depending on the contract type. Fixed fee
should be cofunded before any contractor in-kind cofunding is proposed.

Mechanical Damage Direct Assessment

August 12, 2002


FEDERAL EXPRESS
Proposal No. CP052763
Mr. Steve Foh
PRCI
1700 South Mount Prospect
Des Plaines, IL 60018
Re: PRCI Request for Competed Proposals
Dear Steve:
Enclosed is our proposal for the project Mechanical Damage at Welds, which is PRCI RPTG0326.
This effort is offered under the master set of terms and conditions negotiated between PRCI and
Battelle on June 30, 2000. Our receipt of authorization under these terms and conditions will
allow us to proceed.
This offer shall remain valid for a period of sixty (60) days from the date of this letter.
If you have any technical questions, please call me at (614) 424-4421, or contact me via email at
leis@battelle.org. Questions of a contractual nature should be directed to Ms. LaDonna James,
Contracts Department, at (614) 424-5543 or via email address: jamesl@battelle.org.
Sincerely,

Brian N. Leis
Research Leader
Pipeline Technology Center
BNL/cw
Enclosure

Christina L. Rotunda
Contracting Officer

Mechanical Damage at Welds: RPTG-0326


Background
Mechanical damage due to external interference is consistently a significant threat to the
integrity of natural gas pipelines. As for corrosion and other types of defects, present guidance
and procedures for assessing the significance of mechanical damage does not address the weld
zone. Yet because construction practices often place the weld seam in the upper third of the
pipes circumference, damage due to agriculture or civil engineering activities is likely to occur
in the vicinity of the seam weld. Because guidance and procedures for assessing the significance
of mechanical damage do not reference weld seams, even minor evidence of damage must be
completely removed.
An assessment method or guidance specifically addressing welds and mechanical damage would
help to focus rehabilitation time and resources. This would limit the cost of removing damage
that lacks clear benefit, and thus be a valuable addition to damage assessment and repair manuals
like that written by Keifner, jointly with Battelle authorship. This manual, or the one dealing
with dent assessment for the pipe body1 written by Rosenfield of Keifner and Associates under
PRCI and GTI funding, could be revised or updated to identify circumstances where minor
mechanical damage on weld seams could be left in place without repair or rehabilitation.
Objective
The objective is to develop criteria defining when mechanical damage on weld seams could be
left without repair or rehabilitation.
Approach
Whether mechanical damage could be left without repair or rehabilitation depends on the
severity of the damage and the resistance of the line pipe local to the damage. Damage on weld
seams is complicated by the nature of the seam welding and the thermal-mechanical history
associated with it. It follows that a one-size-fits-all criterion must reflect the worst-case seam
weld and the thermal-mechanical history associated with it, as well as the least resistant type of
secure weld. Because damage can vary from dents through severe gouges and their combination,
it will be necessary to define circumstances where minor damage can remain relative to plain
dents. It follows that developing criteria to define when mechanical damage on weld seams
could be left without repair or rehabilitation requires a sound technical basis, in either full-scale
testing or in validated models and analysis, or their combination.
Battelles approach to develop criteria defining when mechanical damage on weld seams could
be left in place will be based on continuing extensive full-scale testing and analysis work at
Battelle for the DOT involving simple dents and dent and gouge combinations, along with the
modeling and analysis recently completed for PRCI, and some related full-scale testing done for
other clients, including dents on welds.
1

This manual written by Mr. Mike Rosenfield was developed for eventual inclusion within ASME B31.8, but is
still in review, with no clear path forward yet.

Essential differences between current code guidance for the pipe body and the present approach
are inclusion of a weld seam and the need to make better decisions than that based on dent depth.
Guidance and procedures for assessing the significance of such mechanical damage would be
developed relative to dents that encompass welds. Mechanics analysis will be done evaluating
dent depth coupled with a local measure of curvature, which controls local strain, with the focus
on plain dents. Situations leading to failure controlled by toughness as well as plastic collapse
will be considered, as in cases where no defects are present and toughness is adequate (based on
mill or other reliable data), such that much larger dents will be tolerable. Analysis to determine
local strains and stresses, including the effects of weld geometry, will be coupled with material
properties for weld seams. Defects due to the joining practice will be considered.
Specifically, Battelle will use parametric analysis to determine acceptable dent profiles as a
function of line pipe long seam type, pipe grade and geometry, and operating pressure. Where
feasible, Battelle will use the current DOT full-scale test results as well as prior Battelle database
and testing by others to validate the new criteria.
Proposed Work Scope
Five technical tasks are needed to meet the objectives of this project, which will culminate in a
reporting task, as outlined in the ensuing paragraphs.
Task One Quantify Curvature as Function of Dent Depth and Shape
The objective of this task is to relate field measures of dent geometry to local curvature, which
serves as a measure of local bending strain. This task involves parametric analysis done as a
function of dent depth and the extent of denting along and across the pipeline (i.e., dent profile),
to relate curvature to dent depth and profile (i.e., dent geometry).
Task Two Quantify Residual Stress due to Welding
The objective of this task is to estimate the residual stress that might be present in the vicinity of
the long-seam weld. This estimate will be based on results of the very extensive evaluation of
weld-related residual stresses developed in making line pipe and in constructing pipelines, which
was done as part of PR-3-9523 / Phase II (Hydrotest Benefits and Alternatives Project) recently
completed by Battelle. These results reflect the thermal history in forming a double-submergedarc weld (DSAW) long seam and a multi-pass girth weld in different line pipe geometries and
grades, and so should provide a viable measure of residual stresses for many applications. This
task will search and organize project file data to serve as the basis to estimate the residual stress
that might be present in the vicinity of the long-seam weld.
Task Three Properties to Assess Integrity
The objective of this task is to develop data typical of weld seam properties as a function of pipe
grade, seam type, and line pipe vintage and supplier, for use in integrity assessment. This task
will use data developed for failure controlled by both fracture and plastic collapse as part of GRI
Project Number 8521 dealing with Corrosion on Welds. To the extent possible, those data will

be supplemented with data for weld seam types for which fracture data are not yet available but
could be generated as part of the data mining done as part of RPTG-0362. Key concerns for this
project include data describing fracture and strain-limited failure. Available data will be
organized to quantify fracture and flow behavior of weld seams as a function of pipe grade, seam
type, and line pipe vintage and supplier.
Task Four Assess Integrity as a Function of Curvature
The objective of this task is to evaluate the integrity of dents as a function of dent geometry,
leading to criteria defining when mechanical damage on weld seams could be left without repair
or rehabilitation as a function of dent geometry, weld type (and shape where important), pipe
grade, seam type, and line pipe vintage and supplier. Specifically, the parametric analysis of
Task One will be used to determine curvatures that are acceptable as a function of percent
SMYS, seam type, pipe grade, and toughness inferred via line pipe vintage and supplier unless
otherwise known. Membrane strain will be added to curvature-induced strain to estimate
maximum local stress. This local stress will be increased by a shape-determined stress
concentration factor to account for weld profile as appropriate and added to the worst-case
residual stress, with the result compared to the API 5L minimum ultimate tensile stress (UTS).
In all cases, the focus is plain dents.
Criteria for failure controlled by plastic collapse then will be determined for selected factors of
safety for defect-free weld seams. Where defects are present, these criteria would serve as input
to a plastic-collapse based engineering critical assessment (ECA), which would depend on the
nature of the defect and other details specific to each application.
Criteria for failure controlled by toughness also will be developed, with toughness for present
purposes being expressed as both plateau energy and a limiting strain. Criteria for dents on
defect-free seams will be expressed as a function of critical strain. Criteria for welds with
defects will be determined for worst-case defect location and orientation considering the largest
size likely to be missed by appropriate inspection and expressed as a function of toughness.
Task Five Validate the Criteria
The objective of this task is to locate and organize incident, open literature, and other results that
can be used to validate criteria developed to justify leaving selected plain dents on weld seams in
operation. Battelles archives, as well as the DOT incident database, will be considered in this
task.
Task Six Reporting
A summary report describing the procedures and work scope will be provided culminating in an
assessment methodology and guidance specifically addressing the interaction of welds with
plain-dent mechanical damage. This deliverable will be in written and graphical format suitable
for incorporation in pipeline damage assessment and repair manuals.

Deliverable
The deliverable is an assessment methodology and guidance specifically addressing the
interaction of welds with plain-dent mechanical damage. This should eliminate the necessity to
remove all such damage and will provide technical justification for selecting less expensive
options for repair / refurbishment.
While not considered as part of this project, it would be appropriate to prepare a section on
Guidance for the User when incorporating this deliverable into a handbook on repair and
rehabilitation procedures. This would consider factors like field measurements and inspection,
appropriate line pipe properties for toughness and critical strain, and what constitutes a plain
dent. Consideration of gouge-like mechanical damage also could be considered in future but is
outside the present scope.
Cost, Schedule, and Reporting
The above six tasks can be completed and reported within a twelve month period of
performance, for a budget estimated at $100,000. There are no capital purchases planned.
During the course of this research, Battelle will provide quarterly status reports and progress
updates to the ad hoc team leader or oral briefings as appropriate.
Month after
contract

10

11

12

Task One
Task Two
Task Three
Task Four
Task Five
Task Six
Project Organization and Management
This project will be managed within the Pipeline Technology Center at Battelle, which is
organized to meet the needs of the energy pipeline industry. All facilities needed to complete
this work are available at Battelle, where assessing the severity of mechanical damage has been a
research concern for several decades. Battelle has current and recent projects with INGAA/GTI,
DOT, and PRCI that involve mechanical damage, and the development of failure criteria for use in
pipeline applications. We also are currently under contract to several US and International
pipeline companies in projects whose work scope involves mechanical damage severity.
The project manager and principal investigator for this effort will be Dr. Brian Leis, who will be
assisted by Dr. Xiankui Zhu, Mr. Ron Galliher, and others on the Battelle technical staff. Dr.
Leis has worked for hazardous liquids and natural gas transmission pipeline companies and the
pipeline industry in the US and Internationally. Mr. Galliher has extensive experience with

stress analysis and failure, having worked such problems for industry companies in prior
employment with Battelle, as well as since re-joining Battelles Pipeline Technology Center
within the last year. Dr. Zhu has extensive experience in stress analysis, fracture theory, and
failure of structural systems, including pipelines. His experience comes from years of working
such problems for industry companies prior to his employment with Battelle. This type of work
has been his full-time responsibility since joining Battelles Pipeline Technology Center within
the last year.

August 2002

MECHANICAL DAMAGE ON WELDS


(RPTG 0326)

Confidential

Prepared for:
Steve Foh
Pipeline Research Council
International, Inc.
c/o Gas Technology Institute
1700 South Mount Prospect Road
Des Plaines
Illinois 60018-1804
USA

Sales Opportunity ID: 1001421


2002 Advantica Technologies Inc.

Mechanical damage at welds

30 July 2002

Rev 0

Prepared by:
Mark McQueen (& Robert Owen)
Advantica Technologies Inc.
5177 Richmond Avenue, Suite 900
Houston, TX 77056
USA
Tel:
Fax:
Email:
Website:

713 586 7000


713 586 0604
mark.mcqueen@advanticatechinc.com
www.advanticatech.com

PROPOSAL SUMMARY
Proposal:

RPTG 0326

Title: MECHANICAL DAMAGE ON WELDS.


Contractors: Advantica Technologies Inc.
Type: New.
Period: Start date January 2003, duration 24 months.
Total estimated cost:

US$150,000.

Objective:
To develop damage assessment procedures for mechanical damage occurring on
welds.
Incentive:
Mechanical damage due to external interference is a significant threat to the integrity
of pipelines. At present, guidance and procedures for assessing the significance of
mechanical damage do not explicitly address the weld zone, and in some instances
specifically exclude it. An assessment methodology incorporating interactions with
welds will provide a valuable and effective addition to pipeline damage assessment
and repair manuals, leading to reductions in repair costs.
Work Plan:
TASK 1 3 Member survey, literature review and establishment of
priorities/scenarios.
TASK 4 Finite element modeling, small scale experiments.
TASK 5-7 Ring tension testing, comparison with models.
TASK 8 Development of preliminary assessment procedure.
Deliverables:
Reports on
Damage scenarios and priorities
Experimental testing and theoretical modeling.
Preliminary assessment guidance procedure.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
PART I
TECHNICAL PROPOSAL
1
2

INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................ 2
TECHNICAL DISCUSSION ................................................................................ 2
2.1
OBJECTIVE................................................................................................. 2
2.2
WORK TO BE PERFORMED AND APPROACH........................................ 2
3 SCHEDULE ........................................................................................................ 4
4 DELIVERABLES ................................................................................................ 5
5 ADVANTICA INFORMATION............................................................................. 6
PART II
COST PROPOSAL
1
2

COSTS ............................................................................................................... 8
COMMERCIAL TERMS.................................................................................... 10

Confidentiality Statement
THE INFORMATION CONTAINED IN THIS PROPOSAL IS PROVIDED ON A COMMERCIAL BASIS IN
CONFIDENCE AND IS THE PROPERTY OF ADVANTICA TECHNOLOGIES INC.
IT MUST NOT BE DISCLOSED TO ANY THIRD PARTY, IS COPYRIGHT, AND MAY NOT BE
REPRODUCED IN WHOLE OR IN PART BY ANY MEANS WITHOUT THE APPROVAL IN WRITING
OF ADVANTICA TECHNOLOGIES INC.

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PART I
TECHNICAL PROPOSAL

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1 INTRODUCTION
Mechanical damage due to external interference is a significant threat to the integrity
of pipelines. Damage due to mechanised plant, associated for example with
agriculture or civil engineering activities, can occur in the vicinity of the seam and
girth welds. At present the guidance and procedures for assessing the significance of
mechanical damage do not explicitly address the weld zone and may, as in the
original B31.G specifically exclude damage to the weld. It is assumed that the welds
and their HAZ have less tolerance to damage than parent plate. Often any
mechanical damage at welds (including ovalization, dents, buckling etc) is repaired
or completely removed. An assessment methodology and guidance specifically
incorporating the interaction of welds with mechanical damage will provide a
valuable and effective addition to overall pipeline damage assessment and repair
manuals, leading to a reduction in repair costs.

2 TECHNICAL DISCUSSION
2.1 OBJECTIVE
The objective of this programme of work is to develop damage assessment
procedures for mechanical damage occurring on welds. This will be achieved
through the following programme of work.
2.2 WORK TO BE PERFORMED AND APPROACH
Damage assessments procedures for damage to linepipe material are fairly well
developed, at least at the screening level. Such procedures typically cover damage
such as;

Gouges

Spalling or cracks

Smooth dent

Kinked dent

Smooth dent and gouge

Smooth dent and spalling or smooth dent and cracks

General corrosion

Pitting corrosion

Stress corrosion cracking

Arc strikes

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However, there is little historical data available on the mechanical damage behavior
of welds. The Battelle work which led to the development of B31.G and RSTRENG
included limited testing of welds, but this did not consider mechanical damage. There
is some data on the fatigue of dents in welds (PRCI, Battelle, Tokyo Gas etc). A
particular concern is the possibility of tearing at the weld toes due to high strain
concentrations, coupled with the difficulty of detecting small amounts of tearing at the
toe, particularly on the inner surface. In addition, there may be a loss of toughness
due to the plastic strain occurring during the damage process. As the welds are
usually of lower toughness than the parent plate, a further loss of toughness could
reduce defect tolerance to unacceptable levels. However, there is little data available
to show whether these concerns are real. This has led to a conservative approach
being used of repairing or removing mechanical damage at welds.
The programme of work to address these issues will be split over two years.
Year 1 will comprise of the following activities.
PRCI member companies will be surveyed to confirm priorities for the assessment of
mechanical damage at welds, for example static loading or fatigue loading, the type
of mechanical damage of greatest concern and the welds to be considered (seam or
girth, weld processes). Information will also be sought from other industry contacts,
for example through EPRG.
A review of previous work on mechanical damage at welds in pipelines (eg by PRCI,
EPRG, DOT, API) will be undertaken to ensure that all of the limited available data
are considered. This will also include methods of predicting local strains during
denting and subsequent pressurization, as this will provide information on the likely
strains, which will be imposed on a weld. Data on the high strain performance of
welds will also be obtained, as this may give guidelines on the amount of strain that
can be tolerated.
Modelling and/or small scale tests will be carried out to clarify some aspects of the
findings. It is expected that this will investigate the local damage mechanisms at the
weld, and the stress and strain intensifying effects of damage. The exact extent of
this will be determined by the review and member company survey, but it could
include investigations of:

The effect of pre-strain on weld material properties will be measured by


straining welds and then measuring the toughness to determine the reduction
as a function of pre-strain.

The effects of local damage at the weld through pre-strain and tearing at the
weld toe will be investigated by straining coupons containing transverse welds
to various levels of strain and then sectioning the welds to determine if local
tearing has occurred at the toe, and if so to quantify the extent.

Predictions of the combined stress or strain raising effect of dent and weld
combination, through finite element analysis.

Effect of spring back after denting through finite element analysis and rerounding due to pressure loading, again using finite element analysis.

Residual stresses in dented pipe.

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Note, however, that not all of the above are included within the allocated budget, the
investigation will focus on those parameters considered to be of greatest importance.

Year 2 will comprise of the following activities.


Based on the findings from Year 1 a program of tests on damaged welds will be
specified to be carried out using Advanticas ring tension facility. Use of ring tension
testing will provide the greatest amount of test performance data. Ring tension
testing has been extensively used by EPRG, PRCI and others for assessing the
significance of a wide variety of damage and developing guidance for damage
management. Using ring tension tests, data can be generated over a range of
diameters and thicknesses at a significantly reduced cost compared with that for full
vessel testing. The specific pipe geometries, weld geometries and damage
parameters to be tested will be based on the results from the survey and year 1
studies, and agreed with the PRCI Ad Hoc committee.
Damage such as dents or gouges will be introduced on welds before testing; the
rings will then be pressurized to failure. Ring tension tests can be used directly to
assess damaged seam welds. To test damaged girth welds, a girth weld procedure
will be used to make axial welds between two pipe half sections, which will then be
sliced into rings, damaged and tested.
The test results will be compared with predictions from the theoretical models and a
preliminary assessment procedure developed for mechanically damaged welds.
Recommendations will be made for a future work programme to enhance the
assessment procedure for mechanical damage at welds.

3 SCHEDULE
The work will be undertaken by Advantica over a two year period. A summary of the
main tasks of the project and their duration, assuming work commences in Q1 of
2003, is detailed below.

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TASK
1

Member survey

Literature review

Report on review and


member priorities

4#

Finite element
modelling studies
and/or small scale
testing

Ring tension testing


- damage on seam
welds

Ring tension testing


- damage on girth
welds

Comparison of
experimental results
with theoretical
models

Report on preliminary
assessment
procedure for
mechanical damage
on welds and
recommendations for
future work

2003
Q1

Q2

2004
Q3

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Note: # The exact nature of item 4 will be depend on the member survey and
literature review.

4 DELIVERABLES
The deliverables at the end of the first year will be:

Report on review of mechanical damage at welds and priorities for


assessment.

Interim report on experimental testing and theoretical modelling approaches.

The deliverable at the end of the second year will be:

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Report on preliminary guidance for the assessment of mechanical damage


found in the vicinity of welds and recommendations for future work to enhance
the assessment procedure.

5 ADVANTICA INFORMATION
Advantica is part of the Lattice Group, the UK-based infrastructure technology group
that includes the gas pipeline operator Transco, and is a leading supplier of
innovative technologies and technical services to the global energy marketplace.
Advantica's aim is to be a leading improver of business and operating performance
for customers in gas, pipelines and associated industries internationally. Advantica
has its origins in the British Gas (BG) group of companies and is now a $100 million
business with over 800 skilled staff, who have developed proven solutions for the oil
and gas industry.
Advantica has undertaken considerable research in the area of pipeline damage
assessment including experimental, analytical and numerical analyses of damage
arising from external interference. This has included the development of and
provision of support to the Transco damage assessment procedures for the
inspection and repair of damaged steel pipelines. This has been supported by ring
tension and full scale vessel pressure burst tests. Advantica developed the semiempirical fracture mechanics based methodology for calculating the failure strength
of dent-gouge defects (Otherwise known as the British Gas dent-gouge failure
model. This model is included in the EPRG guidance). Advantica is currently
performing research in this area, specifically, including the response of X80 grade
steels to dent-gouge damage. Advantica has previously undertaken work relevant to
this proposal. Advantica performed a review of existing fitness-for-purpose methods
for damaged pipelines for the European Pipelines Research Group, and a review of
work undertaken on GRI project 6026, Assessment of criteria for mechanical
damage in gas transmission pipelines.

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PART II
COST PROPOSAL

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1 COSTS
The work described in this proposal will be undertaken on a fixed price basis. The
fixed price is $150,000 (one hundred and fifty thousand US dollars). The total cost is
inclusive of labor, computing, consumables, overheads and project management. A
breakdown of costs is shown in Table 1.

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Table 1 Contract Cost Estimate Form


CONTRACT COST ESTIMATE

Name of Offeror
Advantica Technologies Inc.

RFP No/Prp No
RPTG 0326

Home Office Address


5177 Richmond Avenue, Suite 900
Houston, TX 77056
USA

Name of Proposed Project


Mechanical damage on welds

Division(s) and Location(s) (where work is being performed)


Pipeline Transportation Division, Loughborough, UK.

Total Amount of Proposal


$150,000 (US)
Estimated Cost
(dollars)

Cost Elements
1.

Page Number
1

Total Estimated
Cost (dollars)

Number of
Pages
1

Supporting
Schedule

Direct Material
a. Purchased Parts
b. Interdivisional Effort
c. Equipment Rental/Lease
d. Other
Total Direct Material

2.
3.

Material Overhead (Rate

% x Base $

Subcontracted Effort (Attach Detailed Schedule)


Subcontractor Cofunding
Net Subcontracted Effort

4.

Direct Labor - Specify

Est. Hours

Rate/Hour

Manager

41

195

Est. Cost
7995

Officer

328

143

46904

Staff

220

109

23980

Technician

349

69

24081

O.H. Rate

X Base $

Est. Cost

Total Direct Labor


5.

Labor Overhead - Specify

102960

Total Labor Overhead


6.

Special Testing (mainly ring tension testing and material property testing)

7.

Purchased Special Equipment

8.

Travel

9.

Consultants (Attach Detailed Schedule)

10. Other Direct Costs

45500

1540

11. Total Direct Cost and Overhead


12. General and Administrative Expenses (w/o IR&D)
Rate

% of cost element numbers

13. Independent Research and Development


Rate

% of cost element numbers

14. Total Estimated Cost

150,000

15. Fixed Fee


16. Total Estimated Cost and Fee

150,000

17. Contractor/Third Party Cofunding


18. Net PRCI Estimated Cost and Fee

150,000

This proposal reflects our best estimates as of this date, in accordance with the instructions to offerors and the footnotes which
follow.
Typed Name and Title
Signature
Date
Mr Robert Owen
2 August 2002

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2 COMMERCIAL TERMS
Terms and conditions for undertaking the proposed work will be consistent with
those previously agreed between Advantica Technology Inc. and GTI.

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5563P

MECHANICAL DAMAGE AT WELDS


- RPTG-0326 PART I TECHNICAL PROPOSAL

August 5, 2002

Submitted to:
Steve Foh
Gas Technology Institute
1700 South Mount Prospect Road
Des Plaines, IL 60018

Submitted by:
BMT Fleet Technology Limited
311 Legget Drive
Kanata, Ontario
Canada K2K 1Z8

BMT FTL Contact: Aaron Dinovitzer


Phone: 613-592-2830 ext 203
Fax: 613-592-4950
e-mail: adinovitzer@fleetech.com

Project Summary
Committee:

Pipeline Materials

Project
Title:

Mechanical Damage at Welds


- RPTG-0326 -

Author:
Principal Researcher:
Name of Organization:
Project Type:

Aaron Dinovitzer
Aaron Dinovitzer / Robert Lazor
BMT Fleet Technology Limited (FTL)
New

1) Statement of the Problem (What is to be solved):


In general, pipeline design standards require the repair of dents with depths
exceeding 6% of the pipeline's outside diameter and the repair of all dents or
signs of mechanical damage that interact with weld seams. This cautious damage
disposition approach is based upon numerical and full-scale trials that
demonstrate the significant impact that weld seams have on the life of the
mechanically damaged pipe segments. It is noted, however, that recent advances
in the understanding of mechanical damage failure suggests that the regulatory
requirements could be made less restrictive by considering the:
- relatively smooth pressure history (low fluctuation) of gas transmission lines,
- the type and extent of the mechanical damage, and
- position of the weld with respect to the mechanical damage
2) Background (What is the historical data):
FTL has developed a pipeline dent assessment model, which uses the actual dent
profile and in-service pressure history as inputs to a non-linear pipe finite element
model with a fracture mechanics crack growth algorithm. This dent assessment
approach has been calibrated using smooth dent full-scale trial data and some
cases that have included localized effects (corrosion, gouges and weld seams).
The BMT FTL model considers the weld profile, material properties and residual
stress field.
The BMT FTL model agrees with full-scale trials and operating experience,
demonstrating that gas transmission line pressure fluctuations are benign in terms
of crack growth, thus reducing the risk of mechanical damage failure. Additional
BMT FTL model studies demonstrated that mechanical damage/weld interaction
severity is significantly affected by mechanical damage form and position with
respect to the weld seam.

Project Summary
Committee:

Pipeline Materials

Project
Title:

Mechanical Damage at Welds


- RPTG-0326 -

3) Proposed Research Action Plan (How will the problem be solved):


The proposed project includes 6 tasks as follows:
Task 1 - Dent Model Demonstration and Calibration
While the dent model has been widely validated for smooth dents its validation for
interaction with welds has not been as rigorous. This task will complete the dent
model validation for welds and take the opportunity to demonstrate the model.
Task 2 - Wrinkle Model Demonstration and Calibration
The wrinkle model has been developed and demonstrated to agree well with fullscale trials, however, it has only considered the effect of weld seams on the
development of the wrinkle not the through life integrity. This task will focus on the
extension of the wrinkle through life integrity assessment and comparison with fullscale experimental data for validation.
Task 3 - Development of Dent and Ovality Criteria
This task will use the BMT FTL dent assessment model to simulate dent and ovality
mechanical damage interaction with weld seams. A range of pipe geometries and
mechanical damages will be considered along with a range of weld qualities (profiles)
and mechanical properties. The results of this sensitivity analysis will be a
conservative guidance note for the disposition of dents and ovality interacting with
longitudinal and girth weld seams.
Task 4 - Development of Wrinkle Criteria
This task will use the BMT FTL wrinkle and buckle model to simulate mechanical
damage interaction with weld seams. A range of pipe geometries and mechanical
damages will be considered along with a range of weld qualities (profiles) and
properties. The results of this sensitivity analysis will be a conservative guidance note
for the disposition of wrinkles or buckles interacting with longitudinal and girth weld
seams.
Task 5 - Development of Other Criteria
This task will consider the interaction of other forms of mechanically induced damage
(e.g. gouges, localized corrosion due to coating damage) and weld seams. A range
of mechanical damage forms will be used to understand the sensitivity of pipeline
welds to these forms of damage and thus develop guidance for their assessment.
Task 6 - Project Reporting
In this task the results of the calibration and analysis will be reported along with a
description of the BMT FTL dent and wrinkle models. The report will outline the
mechanical damage guidance developed in this project, in addition, the databases
of dent full-scale trials will be provided.

ii

Project Summary
Committee:

Pipeline Materials

Project
Title:

Mechanical Damage at Welds


- RPTG-0326 -

4) Expected Deliverables ( List Specifically what PRCI will get out of the work):
It is proposed to develop a guidance note demonstrating the conditions under
which mechanical damage interaction with weld seams is acceptable. This
guidance note will consider the operational characteristics of the pipeline and the
characteristics of the mechanical damage and weld seam. It is expected that the
analysis results will develop separate criteria to consider each form of mechanical
damage (ovalization, dents, buckling, etc.). The recommendations will be in the
form non-dimensional damage characteristic limits similar to those being
developed using the BMT FTL model for the assessment of smooth dents and
those containing localized effects.

5) Resource Requirements (total cost, year-by-year breakdown, capital costs vs.


overhead, and outside resources to be used):
The FTL project team will bring databases of experimental results containing some
197 smooth dent tests and 100+ dent trials with localized effects. In addition, BMT
FTL will seek to secure a similar database of buckle and wrinkle full-scale test results.
Previous BMT FTL Dent and Wrinkle model development will be used and with the
permission of the current dent geometric characterization project sponsor group,
related analytic results could be made available.

iii

Project Summary
Committee:

Pipeline Materials

Project
Title:

Mechanical Damage at Welds


- RPTG-0326 -

6) Organization Information (Describe major business of contractor, facilities


available for use in this project, related concurrent/recent projects):
FTL provides engineering research and services to the pipeline industry in the
welding, materials characterization, and damage tolerance (ECA) areas of interest.
Research efforts at FTL have resulted in the development of dent and
buckle/wrinkle assessment models. These tools support the integrity assessment
of mechanically damaged pipes segments. Beyond the assessment of dents and
wrinkles the metallurgical, mechanical testing, welding and numerical simulation
labs at FTL have been involved in the following related projects:
- Development of a hot tap tee design model
- Development and calibration of pipeline pressure retaining sleeve design models
- Development of fatigue and fracture analysis tools and courses for industry

7) Contractor Contacts:
Mr. Aaron Dinovitzer
Materials Technology Centre
Fleet Technology Limited
Kanata, Ontario
Canada K2K 1Z8
Tel: 613-592-2830
Fax: 613-592-4950
E-mail: adinovit@fleetech.com
Internet: www.fleetech.com

Mr. R. Lazor
Materials Technology Centre
Fleet Technology Limited
Edmonton, Alberta
Canada
Tel: 780-465-0077
Fax:
E-mail: rlazor@fleetech.com
Internet: www.fleetech.com

8) Alternative Funding Sources:


The proposed program will be subsidised and progress facilitated through:
- the use of pre-existing mechanical damage (dent and wrinkle) modelling tools
developed under separate contracts,
- the use of previously completed full-scale trial data to validate the numerical
modeling tools,
- the use of previously developed pipeline operation characterization techniques
and tools
- the use of previously collected and characterized pipeline material and
operational data.
Co-operative funding will also be sought from on-going parallel industry group
sponsored projects to subsidise the work in this project.

iv

BMT FLEET TECHNOLOGY LIMITED

5563P

BMT FTL Document Quality Control Data Sheet


Report:

Mechanical Damage at Welds


- RPTG-0326 -

Project No.

5563P

Date:

5 August 2002

Prepared by:
A. Dinovitzer, Vice President - Principal Engineer

Reviewed by:
R. Lazor - Manager BMT FTL Western Canada Office

Approved by:

A. Dinovitzer, Vice-President

BMT FLEET TECHNOLOGY LIMITED

5563P

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page

1.

INTRODUCTION......................................................................................................1
1.1
1.2
1.2.1
1.2.2
1.2.3
1.2.4
1.3
1.4

2.

Proposal Layout / Administrative Details .................................................................................1


Background and Incentives .....................................................................................................1
FTL Dent Assessment Model ..............................................................................................3
FTL Buckle/Wrinkle Assessment Model..............................................................................5
Gouge Assessment .............................................................................................................8
Ovality Induced Failure........................................................................................................9
Project Objectives..................................................................................................................10
Project Technical Approach Summary ..................................................................................10

WORK PLAN .........................................................................................................12


2.1
2.2
2.2.1
2.2.2
2.2.3
2.2.4
2.2.5
2.2.6
2.3
2.4

Overview ................................................................................................................................12
Scope of Work .......................................................................................................................12
Task 1 - Dent Model Demonstration and Calibration ........................................................12
Task 2 - Wrinkle Model Demonstration and Calibration....................................................12
Task 3 - Development of Dent and Ovality Criteria...........................................................13
Task 4 - Development of Wrinkle Criteria .........................................................................13
Task 5 - Development of Other Criteria ............................................................................14
Task 6 - Reporting & Project Management .......................................................................14
Expected Project Deliverables...............................................................................................15
References.............................................................................................................................15

3.

PROJECT TEAM AND QUALIFICATIONS.............................................................16

4.

PROJECT MANAGEMENT....................................................................................18

APPENDICES
APPENDIX A: RESUMES
APPENDIX B: CORPORATE CAPABILITIES

vi

BMT FLEET TECHNOLOGY LIMITED

5563P

LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES


Page
Figure 1.1:
Figure 1.2:
Figure 1.3:
Figure 1.4:
Figure 1.5:
Figure 1.6:
Figure 1.7:
Figure 1.8:
Figure 1.9:
Figure 3.1:
Figure 4.1:

Pipeline Dent Assessment Model Overview ..............................................................4


Agreement of FTL Dent Assessment Model with Full Scale Trial Results .................5
Effect of Girth Weld Position on Dent Fatigue Life.....................................................5
Sample Buckled Pipe Geometry ................................................................................6
Sample Wrinkled Pipe Geometry ...............................................................................7
Comparison of FTL Buckle Model with Full Scale Trial Results.................................8
Predicted Pipe Rerounding ........................................................................................9
Pipe Cross Section Damage Modes / Limit States ....................................................9
Project Technical Scope Summary ..........................................................................11
Proposed Project Team and Additional Available Staff............................................16
Project Management Control ...................................................................................19

Table 2.1: Expected Project Deliverables ...................................................................................15

vii

BMT FLEET TECHNOLOGY LIMITED

1.

5563P

INTRODUCTION

In this section we describe the proposal layout, provide our understanding of the need for the
project, its objectives and summarise the technical approach proposed for the project.
1.1

Proposal Layout / Administrative Details

This proposal is prepared in response to PRCI Request for Proposal No. RPTG-0326. It is
submitted by BMT Fleet Technology Limited (BMT FTL) of Kanata, Ontario, who will act as the
prime contractor.
The proposal is presented in two parts contained in one volume:
- Part I - Technical and Management Proposal, and
- Part II - Price Proposal
The proposal includes a copy of the pre-proposal submitted by FTL as a summary of the the
following information:
Section
1
2
3
4
1.2

Contents
Proposal Summary (PRCI Pre-Proposal)
Proposal Introduction and Technical Summary
Details of the Technical Approach by Task
Project Team Qualifications
Project Management Approach

Background and Incentives

Failures in transmission pipelines are often the result of mechanical damage. The US DOT has
indicated that 20 to 40 percent of the serious pipeline incidents in any given year are related to
mechanical damage. This damage is due to third party activities, mishandling during
construction, pipeline bedding material consolidation, or ground movement. Damage usually
takes the form of a dent with an associated gouge. In many instances, the dent has re-bounded
such that it is not noticeable and inspection reports simply report the existence of a gouge.
It is postulated that, aside from puncture, mechanical damage to a pipeline can cause a number
of types of damage that may be characterised as deformation or metallurgical/metal loss related
including:
Deformation
- Dents
- Ovality
- Wrinklling or Buckling

Mechanical Damage at Welds

Metallurgical/Metal Loss
- Coating Damage
- Gouge

BMT FLEET TECHNOLOGY LIMITED

5563P

These forms of mechanical damage may be coincident (i.e., a gouge in a dent) and are of
concern due to their potential for promoting failure. The significance of these forms of damage
may be identified in terms of their post damage service life or damage accumulation rate, where
critical amounts of damage may accumulate:

Immediately after damage formation (e.g., a gouge formed by excavation equipment that
will fail as the pipe re-bounds with the removal of the indentor (excavator tooth)), and

Gradual damage accumulation due to post damage formation loading events (e.g., cyclic
re-rounding of dent due to pipeline internal pressure fluctuations, or environmentally
induced cyclic axial and flexural loads applied to a buckle or wrinkle caused by seasonal
ground movements).

In general, pipeline design standards require the repair of dents with depths exceeding 6% of
the pipeline's outside diameter and the repair of all dents or signs of mechanical damage that
interact with weld seams. This cautious damage disposition approach is based upon numerical
and full-scale trials [1, 2, 3, 4 and 5] that demonstrate the significant impact that weld seams
have on the life of the mechanically damaged pipe segments. Weld seams are considered less
damage tolerant than the line pipe base material due to:

the range of weldment mechanical properties weldments contain weld metal and heat
affected zone materials that are not as well defined as standardised grades of linepipe
base materials,

potential for weld faults promoting failure welds have a greater potential to contain
fabrication faults (lack of fusion, inclusions, hydrogen cracks, undercut/overlap, etc.)
than the linepipe base material,

weld geometry stress concentration effects even welds without flaws contain notches
at their weld toes that reduce their effective fatigue lives, and

weld residual stress fields while the weld and fabrication residual stresses, of greater
magnitude in and immediately adjacent to weld seams, have only a secondary effect on
fatigue crack growth, they promote fracture in welded connections.

It is noted, however, that recent advances in the understanding of mechanical damage failure
suggests that the regulatory requirements could be made less restrictive for gas pipelines by
considering the:
relatively smooth pressure history (low fluctuation) of gas transmission lines,
type and extent of the mechanical damage, and
position of the weld with respect to the mechanical damage.

Mechanical Damage at Welds

BMT FLEET TECHNOLOGY LIMITED

1.2.1

5563P

FTL Dent Assessment Model

FTL has developed a pipeline dent assessment model, which uses the actual dent profile and
in-service pressure history as inputs to a non-linear pipe finite element model with a fracture
mechanics crack growth algorithm. This approach would be useful in evaluating the gradual
accumulation of damage at a mechanical damage site. This dent assessment approach has
been calibrated using smooth dent full-scale trial data and some cases that have included
localized effects (corrosion, gouges and weld seams). The FTL model considers the weld
profile, material properties and residual stress field. A pictorial overview of the input data and
analysis procedure is provided in Figure 1.1. The application of this approach relies strictly on
well-defined parameters including:

pipe characteristics (e.g., dimensions and mechanical properties),

a dent description which may consist of a 3-dimensional dent profile from in-line
inspection (ILI),

details of pre-existing localized effects such as planar flaws (e.g., cracks),


volumetric flaws (e.g., corrosion) and weld seams, and

a description of the operating conditions including the pipeline fluid pressure or


load history as well as indenter contact condition (e.g., is the dent stabilized by
the indentor remaining in contact with the pipe).

The FTL dent assessment model [6,7,8,9,10] was developed to study dented pipeline segments
and provide a practical technique to predict their service life. The model considers the dent
shape and line pressure history in a non-linear finite element analysis combined with fracture
mechanics based crack growth analysis techniques. The predictions of this model have been
validated through comparison with full-scale dent fatigue trials [3, 4 and 5]. Limited validation
was completed on the models predictions when considering localized effects. Figure 1.2
illustrates the agreement achieved for the FTL dent life assessment model with full-scale trial
results for a range of dent depths and shapes.
Since some of the information above may not be available, representative data based on field
experience, engineering judgement and modeling studies is used. Once the required
assessment information is provided, a four node quadrilateral shell element non-linear finite
element model is generated. The surface of the pipe model is deformed to comply with the dent
profile. The deformed pipe geometry is then subjected to a representative pressure history to
calculate the mean and cyclic stresses resulting from the line pressure history. Linear elastic
fracture mechanics is applied to the cyclic stress data to track the growth of a fatigue crack
through the pipe wall. The results provide a prediction of the residual safe operating life of a
dented pipe segment, enabling the operator to make an informed maintenance decision.
The FTL model agrees with full-scale trials and operating experience, demonstrating that gas
transmission line pressure fluctuations are benign in terms of crack growth, thus reducing the
risk of mechanical damage failure. Additional FTL model studies demonstrated that mechanical
damage/weld interaction severity is significantly affected by mechanical damage form and
position with respect to the weld seam. However, it is noted that these results indicated that the
significance of the interaction between a weld seam and a dent is significantly related to their
relative position. Figure 1.3 illustrates the significance of girth weld position relative to a smooth
dent in terms service life. This effect is significant when considering high resolution in-line
inspection that can identify the relative location of a weld within a mechanical damage zone.

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Figure 1.1: Pipeline Dent Assessment Model Overview

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Model Cycles to Failure

60000
6% 12%
6%
12%
18%
18%
24%12%
18% 12%

45000
30000
15000

4" Dome
8" Dome
Long Bar

0
0

4" Double Dome


8" Double Dome

15000
30000
Trial Cycle to Failure

45000

60000

Figure 1.2: Agreement of FTL Dent Assessment Model with Full Scale Trial Results

Crack Dpeth (a/t)

0.8

Location 1
0.6

Location 2
0.4

No Weld
Location 1
Location 2
Location 3

0.2

Pipe Long. Axis


Location 3

0
0

100
200
300
Years to 95% Through Crack

Figure 1.3: Effect of Girth Weld Position on Dent Fatigue Life


1.2.2

FTL Buckle/Wrinkle Assessment Model

Similar on-going research and development efforts at FTL have developed a numerical model to
predict the formation and behaviour of pipeline buckles and wrinkles. A buckle (see Figure 1.4)
forms in an unpressurised pipeline due to a combination of axial, flexural and lateral loads,
whereas, a wrinkle (Figure 1.5) forms in a pipeline under similar applied loading conditions if a
significant internal pressure is present. While a buckle or a wrinkle may form in the absence of
a lateral load (mechanically applied loads or construction loads) their formation is facilitated by
the application of lateral loads.
The buckle wrinkle formation and life assessment model considers the continued growth and
damage accumulation of the buckle and wrinkle. The model was developed to simulate the
behaviour of a pipe before during and after the formation of a buckle / wrinkle to support a
damage tolerance assessment approach. The results of the work completed previously at FTL
have developed a technique capable of considering:
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internal pressure (static or cyclic),


axial loads (due to thermal or ground movement)
lateral loads (due to mechanical damage or rock contact)
flexural loads (due to pipe curvature or ground movement)
pipe imperfections (out of roundness, weld seams, ovality or wall thickness), and
residual stresses (from welds or construction).

510

500

490

Pipe Diameter (mm)

480

470

460

450

440

430

420

410
-800

-700

-600

-500

-400

-300

-200

-100
0
100
Pipe Length (mm)

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

Figure 1.4: Sample Buckled Pipe Geometry

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335

330

Pipe Diameter (mm)

325

320

315

310

305
-400

-300

-200

-100

0
Pipe Length (mm)

100

200

300

400

Figure 1.5: Sample Wrinkled Pipe Geometry


When compared with full-scale trials, the wrinkle assessment model has demonstrated good
agreement as shown in Figure 1.6 that illustrates the agreement of the Fleet LS-Dyna model
with the Experimental trial results.

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5563P

800
Fleet LS-DYNA
UGA508- Experimental

700
FEM-Bai & Hauch
ABAQUS
FEM-Mohareb et al.

End Moment (KN-m)

600

FEM-Bruschi et al.
ABAQUS

500

400

300

200

100

0
0

10

15

20

25
30
Curvature(1000/m)

35

40

45

50

Figure 1.6: Comparison of FTL Buckle Model with Full Scale Trial Results
While the dent assessment model discussed in the previous section considered linear elastic
cyclic behaviour using fracture mechanics to estimate crack growth rate, the wrinkle damage
accumulation process can include both elastic and plastic deformations thus a strain life
approach is used to estimate its service life. Thus, this approach considers the gradual
accumulation of damage in a buckle or a wrinkle using a Miners damage accumulation model
based upon a strain life approach.
1.2.3

Gouge Assessment

Mechanical damage in the form of a gouge, formed on a weld seam, holds the potential to fail
immediately after the indenter load is removed and pipe re-bounds occurs. This failure mode
occurring immediately after damage formation is a result of:

metal loss at the gouge causing high net section stresses


cracking in the root of the gouge (in pressure/heat induced brittle martensite layer
caused by gouging friction), and
plastic deformation involved in dent rebound.

Field experience and experimental trials have noted that once indenters are removed from
contact with the pipe wall, dent rebound can be significant. Mechanical damage with dent depth
to pipe diameter ratios of twelve percent have been seen to rebound to 2 or 3 percent deep
dents with the removal of the indenter. The FTL dent assessment model has been used to
explore this behaviour as shown in Figure 1.7 below for two different pipe geometries. This
figure relates the initial dent depth to the rebounded dent depth for two 30-inch diameter pipe
wall thickness. The indenters in these examples are spherical objects with a diameter of one
third of the pipe diameter.

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Figure 1.7: Predicted Pipe Rerounding


In studying the immediate mechanical damage failure mode, similar numerical modeling
techniques used in the dent assessment model may be used. In this work, the gouged pipe wall
thickness reduction is considered explicitly in the non-linear finite element model, and the nonlinear stress and strain state are considered to evaluate the potential for failure due to low cycle
fatigue (one cycle) or fracture (plastic collapse or fracture).
1.2.4

Ovality Induced Failure

While ovality is predominantly considered a serviceability limit state in that it can either impede
pipeline fluid flow or preclude in-line inspection, pipe ovality caused by either bending or lateral
loads has been shown to produce significant circumferential stresses 90 degrees away from the
point of load application along the pipe circumference or at the bending neutral axis. The effect
of this ovality due to bending or a concentrated load can promote failure of the pipe section in
the modes shown in Figure 1.8.

Excessive Tensile Strains


Local Buckling
Curvature Reversal/Denting
Figure 1.8: Pipe Cross Section Damage Modes / Limit States
The tensile strains developed on the side of a pipe subjected to soil pressures and bending
induced ovality include axial and bending components as shown in Figure 1.8. The side wall
tensile strains (first limit state in Figure 1.8) may estimated by first calculating the ovality
induced by the bending strain [11]:

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Ovality =

5563P

D max D min
D no min al

D 0 D 0

b + f0
= 2 0.061 +

120 t t

where:
D0 = pipe diameter
t = wall thickness
f0 = original ovality (0.5%)
b = bending strain

and the maximum bending strain in the side wall of the pipe may be estimated as:

O =

t
1
1

D (1 Oval) 2

Alternatively, the ovality induced stresses and strains may be estimated numerically considering
the contributions of lateral loads, buckling and dent formation, as described in the previous
sections. The resulting stress or strain state could be used to define critical long seam flaws
that may be supported in a weld of a given fracture toughness.
1.3

Project Objectives

The primary objective of this research project is:


to develop a guidance note describing the conditions under which the interaction
of mechanical damage and weld seams could be tolerated.
The desired project result will be sought through the refinement and application of existing
engineering tools developed at FTL. To accomplish the above objective a two-step research
and development plan is presented in the sections that follow. The two steps correspond to
model development/validation (year 1) and application (year 2).
In the development of the proposed guidance notes, the following project technical or subobjectives have been defined:

1.4

to describe and demonstrate conservative validation results for each of the


engineering models applied in deriving the guidance notes,
to perform sensitivity studies to demonstrate the sensitivity of weld seams to
mechanical damage,
to characterise the operational conditions, mechanical damage forms and extents
that are of significance for gas pipelines

Project Technical Approach Summary

The proposed project includes five technical tasks in addition to the administrative and reporting
actions related to a sixth task. The technical scope of work is divided into two steps completed in
the first and second years of the project. The project scope of work in terms of tasks is outlined in
Figure 1.9 along with a brief description of their objectives. A more detailed description of each
task in terms of its objective, approach and expected results is provided in Section 2.

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FIRST YEAR ACTIVITIES

1) Dent Model Calibration & Demonstration


Complete dent model validation with localised
effects (gouge, weld, corrosion). Describe
modeling techniques and demonstration sample
applications.
2) Wrinkle Model Calibration &
Demonstration
Complete wrinkle model validation with localised
effects (gouge, weld, corrosion). Describe
modeling techniques and demonstration sample
applications.

5563P

SECOND YEAR ACTIVITIES


3) Development of Dent & Ovality Criteria
Apply models to explore failure sensitivity
and develop guidance note or criteria for
acceptance of dents and ovality interacting
with welds.
4) Development of Wrinkle Criteria
Apply model to explore failure sensitivity and
develop guidance note or criteria for
acceptance of buckles or wrinkles interacting
with welds.

5) Development of Other Criteria


Apply models to explore failure sensitivity
and develop guidance note or criteria for
acceptance of gouges and corrosion
interacting with welds.
6) Project Reporting
General task to keep Project Technical Committee informed of project technical and financial
status / progress and produce final report and presentation.
Figure 1.9: Project Technical Scope Summary

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2.

WORK PLAN

2.1

Overview

5563P

This proposal includes the technical experience and expertise of personnel at BMT Fleet
Technology Limited (BMT FTL) in the development of techniques to determine the damage
tolerance of, or significance of damage to, pipeline systems. The full-scale evaluation of the
range of mechanical damage induced failure modes proposed in this project would be a
monumental task financially, therefore a numerical modelling approach has been proposed.
The scope of the model development is limited by previous work completed by the staff at FTL.
The six tasks proposed for this work are summarised in Figure 1.9 and the section that follow
provide detailed descriptions of the work to be carried out in this project. These tasks include a
first year of model refinement and validation followed by their application to develop damage
acceptance criteria.
2.2

Scope of Work

2.2.1

Task 1 - Dent Model Demonstration and Calibration

Objective: The objective of this task is to complete the validation of the FTL dent assessment
model considering localised effects.
Approach: While the dent model has been widely validated for smooth dents its validation for
interaction with welds and gouges has not been as rigorous. This task will complete the dent
model validation for welds and gouges and take the opportunity to demonstrate the model. The
validation will compare the model behaviour and life predictions with full-scale trial results. The
BMT FTL database of full scale trial results including several hundred test will be reviewed with the
technical committee to identify a representative sample for use as the basis of the validation. It is
proposed at this time that the validation efforts will consider up to twenty full-scale trials in addition
to the work already completed for smooth dents and those with localised effects (welds, corrosion
and gouges).
The details of the modeling technique as well as the results of the validation effort will be reported
at the end of this task. This report will also include a copy of the BMT FTL full-scale trial dent
experimentation database. It is expected that the report will comment on the level of conservatism
of the model when considering each localised effect combination.
Result: Completion of this task will produce a validated dent assessment model capable of
conservatively predicting the service life of dented pipe segments interacting with localised effects
such as welds, gouges and corrosion features.
2.2.2

Task 2 - Wrinkle Model Demonstration and Calibration

Objective: The objective of this task is to complete the validation of the FTL wrinkle and buckle
model considering the effects of local weld seams and gouges.
Approach: The wrinkle model has been developed and demonstrated to agree well with full-scale
trials, however, it has only considered the effect of weld seams on the development of the wrinkle
not the through life integrity. This task will focus on the extension of the wrinkle through life
integrity assessment and comparison with full-scale experimental data for validation. The data for
full-scale validation is available to the project team based upon trials. The BMT FTL database of
full-scale trial results available will be reviewed with the technical committee to identify a
representative sample for use as the basis of the validation. It is proposed at this time that the
validation efforts will consider up to ten full-scale trials in addition to the work already completed.
Full scale-trial data including gouges is not available at this time, however, if additional data
becomes available, these results will be modeled.

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The effects of a weld seam and gouge will be considered on the life of static wrinkle. It is proposed
that the scope of this task will not consider buckle or wrinkle growth but will consider the effects of
internal pressure fluctuations.
The details of the modeling technique as well as the results of the validation effort will be reported
at the end of this task. This report will also include a copy of the BMT FTL full-scale trial wrinkle
experimentation database. It is expected that the report will comment on the level of conservatism
of the model when considering each localised effect combination.
Result: Completion of this task will produce a validated pipeline wrinkle and buckle assessment
model capable of conservatively predicting the service life of wrinkled or buckled pipe segments
interacting with welds and gouges considering the effects of line pressure fluctuations.
2.2.3

Task 3 - Development of Dent and Ovality Criteria

Objective: The objective of this task is to develop criteria for accepting dent and ovality mechanical
damage interacting with a weld seam.
Approach: This task will use the BMT FTL dent assessment model to simulate dent and ovality
mechanical damage interaction with girth and longitudinal weld seams. A range of pipe geometries
and mechanical damages will be considered along with a range of weld qualities (profiles) and
mechanical properties. In addition, the effect of weld location and pressure history will be
considered in this sensitivity study. Pressure time history data, available at FTL or additional data
provided by PRCI companies, collected from SCADA reports at compressor stations will be
characterised using BMT FTL proprietary software to demonstrate mechanical damage life
sensitivity to operational conditions.
It is expected that the sensitivity studies will consider at least forty mechanical damage scenarios to
identify trends in the damage life expectancy. The results of this sensitivity analysis will be a
conservative guidance note for the disposition of dents and ovality interacting with longitudinal and
girth weld seams.
The details of the sensitivity studies as well and the resulting trends will be reported at the end of
this task. It is expected that the report will comment on the level of conservatism of the results and
any concerns or restrictions in applying the results.
Result: Completion of this task will produce guidance notes or damage acceptance criteria that
may be applied to dent and ovality mechanical damage interacting with weld seams.
2.2.4

Task 4 - Development of Wrinkle Criteria

Objective: The objective of this task to develop criteria for accepting buckles and wrinkles
interacting with weld seams.
Approach: This task will use the FTL wrinkle and buckle model to simulate mechanical damage
interaction with weld seams. A range of pipe geometries and mechanical damages will be
considered along with a range of weld qualities (profiles) and properties. In addition, the effect of
weld location and pressure history will be considered in this sensitivity study. As in the previous
task collected pressure time history will be used to demonstrate service life sensitivity to
operational conditions.
It is expected that the sensitivity studies will consider at least forty mechanical damage scenarios to
identify trends in the damage life expectancy. The results of this sensitivity analysis will be a
conservative guidance note for the disposition of buckles and wrinkles interacting with longitudinal
and girth weld seams.

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The details of the sensitivity studies as well and the resulting trends will be reported at the end of
this task. It is expected that the report will comment on the level of conservatism of the results and
any concerns or restrictions in applying the results.
Result: Completion of this task will produce guidance notes or damage acceptance criteria that
may be applied to wrinkle or buckling promoted by mechanical damage interacting with weld
seams.
2.2.5

Task 5 - Development of Other Criteria

Objective: The objective of this task will be to explore the effects of gouges and corrosion damage
interacting with weld seams.
Approach: This task will consider the interaction of other forms of mechanically induced damage
(e.g., gouges, localized corrosion due to coating damage) and weld seams. This task will consider
both the immediate failure and gradual damage accumulation modes of failure discussed in
Section 1.
A range of mechanical damage forms in dented and undented pipe segments will be used to
understand the sensitivity of pipeline welds to these forms of damage and thus develop guidance
for their assessment.
It is expected that the sensitivity studies will consider at least forty mechanical damage scenarios to
identify trends in the damage life expectancy. The results of this sensitivity analysis will be a
conservative guidance note for the disposition of combinations of dents, gouges and corrosion
interacting with longitudinal and girth weld seams. It is noted that the effects of corrosion features
alone will not be dealt with in this project as their behaviour has been explored in previous PRCI
projects.
The details of the sensitivity studies as well and the resulting trends will be reported at the end of
this task. It is expected that the report will comment on the level of conservatism of the results and
any concerns or restrictions in applying the results.
Result: Completion of this task will produce guidance notes or damage acceptance criteria that
may be applied to gouges and corrosion features at weld seams without the presence of a dent.
2.2.6

Task 6 - Reporting & Project Management

Objective: The objective of this task is to keep the project technical committee up to date on the
project status and disseminate the results of the project.
Approach: In this task the results of the calibration and analysis will be reported along with a
description of the FTL dent and wrinkle models. The report will outline the mechanical damage
guidance developed in this project, in addition, the databases of dent full-scale trials will be
provided.
This task includes all of the reporting and project management duties required by the second
phase of the project. This effort includes the production of Quarterly Progress reports outlining
the project financial and technical status, Task reports outlining the results of each major task
and a Year 2 Final Report. The task budget also allows for a Progress Meeting and a Final
Project Meeting. These meetings will be coordinated with PRCI to coincide with committee
meetings or other major industry technical events to facilitate attendance.
Quarterly, Task and Draft and Final reports will be produced in pdf format suitable for webposting and electronic download. The report delivery schedule is outlined in Section 6.
Project meeting dates, invoicing and reporting will be coordinated by the Fleet Technology
Limited Project Manager.
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Result: Completion of this task will ensure that the Project Technical Committee is kept
appraised of project progress and the technical advances from this project are documented and
disseminated.
2.3

Expected Project Deliverables

With the completion of each task a report will be assembled describing the work completed.
These reports will be delivered as interim reports along with quarterly letter progress reports and
the project final report. A listing of the expected project deliverables are outlined Table 2.1.
Each deliverable is related to a project task along with its approximate delivery date relative to
the project start date.
Table 2.1: Expected Project Deliverables
Deliverable
Task
Dent Model Validation Interim Report
1
Wrinkle and Buckle Model Validation Interim Report
2
Dent and Ovality Acceptance Criteria Interim Report
3
Wrinkle and Buckle Acceptance Criteria Interim Report
4
Other Mechanical Damage Acceptance Criteria Interim Report
5
Draft Project Final Report
6
Project Final Report
6
Quarterly Project Progress Reports
6
2.4

Delivery Date
4 Months
12 Months
15 Months
18 Months
22 Months
23 Months
24 Months
Every 4 Months

References

1) Fowler, J.R., Alexander, C.R., Kovach, P.J., Connelly, L.M., 1995, Fatigue Life of Pipelines
with Dents and Gouges Subjected to Cyclic Internal Pressure, PD Vol. 69, Pipeline
Engineering, ASME.
2) Alexander, C.R., & J.F. Kiefner, Effects of Smooth and Rock Dents on Liquid Petroleum
Pipelines, American Petroleum Institute, API Publication 1156, November 1997.
3) Kiefner, J.F. and Alexander, C.R., , Effects of Smooth and Rock Dents on Liquid Petroleum
Pipelines (Phase II), American Petroleum Institute, Addendum to API Publication 1156,
October 1999.
4) Wang, K.C. and Smith, E.D., The Effect of Mechanical Damage on Fracture Initiation in Line
Pipe: Part 1 Dents, Report ERP/PMRL 82-11(TR), Physical Metallurgy Research
Laboratories, CANMET, January 1982.
5) Evaluation of a Composite System for Repair of Mechanical Damage in Gas Transmission
Lines, GRI, Dec. 1998, GRI-97/0413.
6) Fleet Technology Limited, Pipe Dent ECA Process Development, report prepared for
Interprovincial Pipe Line Inc., Nov. 1997.
7) Dinovitzer, A., Lazor, R., Walker, R., 1999, A Pipeline Dent Assessment Model, OMAE99.
8) Dinovitzer,A., Bhatia,A., Walker,R., Lazor,R., A Pipeline Dent Assessment Model
Considering Localised Effects, IPC 2000, pg 735.
9) Fleet Technology Limited, Pipe Dent ECA Process Extension, report prepared for Enbridge
Pipe Line Inc., Nov. 1998.
10 Fleet Technology Limited, Calibration of the Pipe Dent Assessment Model, report prepared
for Enbridge Pipe Line Inc., May 2000.
11) Murray,N.W., Bilston,P., Rational Acceptance Limits for Field Bends in Oil or Gas
Pipelines, International Pipeline Conference, Calgary, Alberta, 1992.

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3.

5563P

PROJECT TEAM AND QUALIFICATIONS

The proposed project scope requires a multi-disciplinary project team including welding
engineering, stress analysis, metallurgy and numerical modeling skills. This multidisciplinary
project team is available within the proposed BMT Fleet Technology Limited project team.
Figure 8 outlines the project team proposed for this project. The project team has been kept
small to ensure continuity and familiarity with the project. It is noted that potential conflicts with
other work could reduce the availability of project team members. For this reason available
replacement FTL staff have also been listed in Figure 3.1.
Project Technical Committee
Aaron Dinovitzer - Project Manager
- Technical and Management Lead
Robert Lazor Principal Engineer
Pipeline Operations
Nick Pussegoda - Senior Metallurgist
- Failure Mechanisms
Blair Carroll Senior Mechanical Engineer
- Numerical Modeling and Failure Analysis
Stephanie Verbit Project Mechanical Engineer
- Data Reduction / Fatigue and Fracture Analysis
Abdelfettah Fredj Senior Engineer
- Numerical Modelling
Additional Available FTL Staff:
- R. Lazor - Mech. Eng (Project Manager)
- M. Avsare - Mech Eng (Numerical Modelling)
- S Tiku - Met. Eng. (Fatigue and Fracture)
- B. Xu (numerical Modelling)
Figure 3.1: Proposed Project Team and Additional Available Staff
The project manager designated for this project is Mr. Aaron Dinovitzer, a Principal Engineer
and Vice President at Fleet Technology Limited. Mr. Dinovitzer holds a MASc in Civil
Engineering, specializing in structural optimisation and design, and is a CWB certified Welding
Engineer for Steel and Aluminium. He has been working in the area of structural integrity and
damage tolerance analysis in which he has lead the development of a number of pipeline ECA
tools and techniques. His recent areas of development have involved the development and
extension of the FTL dent assessment and wrinkle models. Mr. Dinovitzer's experience in
advanced numerical modelling, experimental program oversight and project management will be
an asset to the team. Mr. Dinovitzer will be assisted in this project primarily by:

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Dr. Nick Pussegoda has a Bachelors degree in Mechanical Engineering and Ph.D. in Physical
and Mechanical Metallurgy. His experience base comprises both research, teaching and
practical consulting and failure analysis. Prior to joining BMT Fleet Technology, he has worked
on projects related to microstructure and properties of dual phase steels, hydrogen
embrittlement in steels, and rolling schedules for micro-alloyed steels. At BMT Fleet
Technology, in addition to being a team member for several of the interdisciplinary projects, he
has been project manager and/or principal investigator for projects involving the hardware and
software development for dynamic fracture toughness testing, fracture toughness of deformed
plate steels, and CTOD and crack arrest toughness testing of weld metals and HAZ. Dr.
Pussegoda leads BMT FTLs experimental programs and is intimately involved in BMT FTLs
work in failure investigations and metallurgy.
Robert B. Lazor has a Bachelors and Masters degrees in Mechanical Engineering, with
specialization in Materials Science and Welding. Robert is a Principal Engineer with BMT Fleet
Technology Limited and the Manager of the Western Canada office. One of his primary
functions is to provide consulting services to pipeline companies in the area of damage
tolerance and pipeline integrity. Prior to joining BMT Fleet Technology, Robert, work for 10
years in the Technical Services and Pipeline Integrity Departments at Enbridge Pipelines Inc.
where he was responsible for developing, updating and implementing pipeline inspection and
repair procedures.
L. Blair Carroll has a Bachelors and Masters degree in Engineering from Memorial University,
with expertise in ultrasonic examination. Recently Blair has been an Intermediate Engineer with
BMT Fleet Technology Limited working in the Materials Technology Center. A key role for Blair
has been the development and implementation of damage tolerance criteria and procedures.
He is extensively involved in the application of the BMT Fleet Technology Dent Assessment
Model and other structural analysis and defect assessment projects. His previous employment
experience included 2 years with the Pipeline Integrity Department of Enbridge Pipelines Inc.
There he was charged with selecting and implementing inspection procedures and damage
tolerance criteria and instructing engineering and field personnel in the practical application of
the protocols.
The resumes of the above named individuals are included in Appendix A.

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4.

5563P

PROJECT MANAGEMENT

Program management is an important component in the successful completion of this study. This
requires that both the technical and financial aspects of the project be closely monitored and
controlled.
Fleet Technology Limited has managed research and development contracts up to $1,000,000 in
value and typically is managing some twenty-five contracts at any one time. The Company has
standardised internal procedures for effective management of the programs and these are
schematically shown in Figure 4.1.
The overall management of this program will be handled by Mr. Aaron Dinovitzer, a Vice President
at Fleet Technology Limited. He will be responsible for ensuring that the project work is performed
in a timely fashion and within the projected costs. Financial control is exercised through the
computer generated and weekly updated cost summaries (Figure 4.2). He will also be authorising
the payment for costs related to this project.
The technical monitoring will be carried out by internal meetings of the FTL staff involved in the
project at no longer than two-week intervals.
Ms. Colleen Seabrook, Assistant Treasurer, will be available to address contractual and financial
questions.

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Figure 4.1: Project Management Control

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Figure 4.2: Example of Weekly Project Cost Summary Sheet

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APPENDIX A
PROJECT TEAM RESUMES

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AARON S. DINOVITZER
PRINCIPAL ENGINEER - VICE PRESIDENT
ACADEMIC BACKGROUND
University of Waterloo, Waterloo, MASc., Civil Engineering, 1992.
Research Assistant, 1990-92, Involved in design approach development to minimise the
effects of local buckling on cold formed steel sections. Studied probabilistic (reliabilitybased) design and optimisation with the goal of comparing it to deterministic approaches.
MASc. thesis: "Probabilistic and Deterministic Structural Optimisation".
University of Waterloo, Waterloo, BASc., Civil Engineering, 1990.
Course of study focused on structural mechanics and design. Awarded undergraduate
research assistantship for study of structural optimisation.
PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE
FLEET TECHNOLOGY LIMITED, Project Engineer, 1992-Present - Contribute expertise
and support to projects involved in the fields of structural design / analysis, reliability & risk,
assessment, Welding Engineering, numerical and analytical modelling and mechanics.
Research and develop structural and reliability-based analysis and modelling techniques
for research projects involving structural design criteria, fracture mechanics, finite element
analysis and closed form solutions for plate and shell behaviour. Involved in the design and
analysis of welded structures for the pipeline, marine, defence and resource sectors.
Recent projects include:
Development of rational material strain limits for pipelines: This project funded by the
Canadian pipeline industry investigated and developed strain based pipeline analysis
criteria. A probabilistic approach has been used to illustrate the conservatism associated
with the current design approaches which neglect the effects of material ductility.
Development of a combined hydrogen/thermal diffusion model to evaluate the potential for
delayed cracking in pipeline welds. Based on a description of essential multi-pass welding
procedure parameters the model develops a time history of thermal and hydrogen diffusion
to illustrate the potential for delayed cracking and allow the optimisation of the welding
procedure to reduce the risk of delayed cracking.
Development of refit specifications including welding procedures to add a self unloading
system to a bulk carries. Finite element analysis to illustrate the effects of the addition of a
deck mounted self unloading system to a bulker. Detailed analyses including analysis of
doubler plate system including slot welds were completed to illustrate integrity of welded
connections. With this information design modifications and details of the self unloading
system were design and modified based on further finite element modelling.
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PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE (continued)
FLEET TECHNOLOGY LIMITED, Project Engineer, 1992-Present
Review existing design of Canadian Coast Guard 47 Aluminium Motorised Lifeboat to
identify compatible aluminium alloys for repairs in Canada. This study demonstrated the
feasibility of making repairs with more readily available and less expensive high strength
aluminium alloys. The review included fatigue buckling and ultimate strength checks of the
as welded structural system. In addition, promising repair welding procedures were
developed.
Review and demonstration of strain-based limit states design criteria for pipeline design. In
this project the merits of strain-based (post-yield) design criteria were examined and
demonstrated through a series of pipeline design examples.
Development and presentation of a Fatigue Resistant Detail Design Guide for Ship
Structures. In this project, a design guide was developed to present procedures used to
characterise the long term statistical nature of wave induced ship loads and to design
structural connections with specified fatigue lives. These approaches were presented and
demonstrated in a short course on fatigue and fracture for ship structures.
Reliability-Based Structural Optimisation: In a project funded by CANMET (EMR)
techniques for identifying the optimal match of pipeline weld and base material properties
based on probabilistic fracture mechanics were developed. The optimal material selection
problem has been formulated to produce maximum reliability and minimum cost solutions.
Development of a non-linear finite element modelling system which evaluates the effects of
dents on the fatigue performance of a pipeline. This modelling project included the
development of a FE based software suite which incorporated inspection based dent
configuration data, a client supplied operational loading profile and an a parametric
description of the structure linked to an automated model meshing system. Corrosion,
crack like flaws and weld seams may be superimposed on the dent in the assessment
process.
An assessment of ice loading on hydroelectric dams, for the Canadian Electrical
Association, was performed as par of a larger dam safety program. In this project finite
element modelling was used to assess the magnitude of the loads generated due to the
constrained daily expansion of the reservoir's winter ice cover.
Development of a risk based maintenance management system for the Canadian Navy
Ship Structural Integrity Programme (SSIP). This approach optimally allocated inspection
and repair resources in a continuously updating management system.

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A.S. DINOVITZER
Page 3
PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE (continued)
FLEET TECHNOLOGY LIMITED, Project Engineer, 1992-Present
Development of Risk-Based inspection tools for Transport Canada Marine Safety to
allocate resources, manage inspection time and rationalised the regulatory enforcement
decision process.
Developed a finite element model to assess the structural behaviour source of cracks in a
longitudinal bulkhead of a tanker structure. By identifying the sloshing induced buckling
mode which was present a structural modification was developed and designed using FEA.
The results of this FEA were compiled and submitted and approved by ABS.
Characterisation and modelling of behind-armour ballistic debris to identify the post
penetration vulnerability of armoured vehicles. The vulnerability/lethality model being
developed in this project, for the Department of National Defence, employs aspects of the
shot conditions and the mechanics of penetration in a probabilistic framework to predict the
mass and velocity distribution of behind-armour debris clouds.
The development of a symbolic finite element analysis approach for reliability analysis: In
this year and a half long project, for the Canadian Defence Research Establishment
Atlantic (DREA), an automated approach to the algebraic solution of a finite element
structural analysis problems is being developed for use in reliability analysis.
High strength buoy mooring chain selection based on a comparison of chain residual
strength and service loads. This project, for the Canadian Coast Guard, identifies chains
which provide a required level of safety against failure at the end of a five year service life.
This design project involved the development of a semi-empirical corrosion/wear model and
a mechanics based analytical degraded chain ultimate strength model.
The development of conceptual designs for a lightweight ceramic/FRP composite armour
system to provide ballistic protection for light armoured vehicle weapon stations. In this
material selection and geometric design project, for DVEM 2-5, Mr. Dinovitzer employed
analytical ballistic modelling techniques to identify the ceramic and FRP material
components which provided the required levels of ballistic protection and minimised the
overall turret weight.
Global Stress Concentrations in Ship Structural Details: This project funded by the
Canadian Navy includes the identification of stress distributions in structural details,
through finite element analysis, for fatigue life estimation.

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A.S. DINOVITZER
Page 4
PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE (continued)
FLEET TECHNOLOGY LIMITED, Project Engineer, 1992-Present
Development of Tripping and Buckling Criteria of Framing for Ice Strengthening: In this
project criteria were developed for the Canadian Arctic Shipping Pollution Prevention
Regulations (CASPPR) to ensure the adequacy of stiffeners in ice strengthened vessels.
Development of a Materials Property Database for Reliability Analysis: In this project, for
the U.S. Ship Structures Committee, a uniform format for collecting and processing
material property data was developed for use in reliability-based design. The material
property database developed in this project is being considered by the ASTM for adoption
as a standard data reporting format.
Development and evaluation of existing analysis approaches for buckling of partially
stiffened plate elements: Recommendations on optimal section configuration and buckling
analysis approaches resulted in changes to the Canadian handbook of steel construction
and the Canadian cold formed steel design standard.
Engineering Critical Assessment / Fitness-For-Purpose Investigations
Loading, structural analysis and fracture mechanics expertise has been used to assess the
significance of structural damage and weld flaws to determine the root cause of a failure.
These accident reconstruction, failure analysis, fitness for purpose or ECA projects include:
- Reconstruction of tractor trailer accident
- Bridge girder damage tolerance analysis
- ECA investigation of pipeline girth weld defects
- Pre-Inspection ECA of weld defects for petro-chemical plant reactors and piping
- Determination of chain lashing failure mechanics
- Rail car fatigue and fracture failure investigation
- Marine structure fatigue cracking damage tolerance investigation

PROFESSIONAL SOCIETIES / AFFILIATIONS


Association of Professional Engineers of Ontario, Member
Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, Member
CWB Certified Design, Procedures and Practice Welding Engineer
Canadian Society of Civil Engineering, Associate Member
American Society of Civil Engineers, Associate Member
Society of Reliability Engineers, Vice President (Ottawa Chapter)
Institute for Risk Research, Member
Member of CSA-Z662 Pipeline Risk Assessment Working Group
Member of CSA-Z662 Pipeline Limit States Design Technical Committee
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A.S. DINOVITZER
Page 5
PUBLICATIONS
A.S. Dinovitzer, "Optimization of Cold Formed Steel C-Sections", published in Canadian Journal of
Civil Engineering, February 1992.
A.S. Dinovitzer, M. Sohrabpour, R.M. Schuster, "Observations and Comments Pertaining to
CAN/CSA-S136-M89", presented at the 11th International Specialty Conference on Cold
Formed Steel, Recent Developments in Cold Formed Steel Design and Construction, St.
Louis, Missouri, October 1992.
M.Z. Cohn, A.S. Dinovitzer, "Applications of Structural Optimization", ASCE, Journal of Structural
Engineering, Vol 120, No. 2, February 1994.
A.S. Dinovitzer, M. Szymczak, Characterization of Behind-Armour Debris, 16th International
Ballistics Symposium, Ballistics96, San Francisco, Sept. 1996.
B. Graville, A.S. Dinovitzer, Strain-Based Failure Criteria for Part Wall Defects in Pipes, 8th
International Conference on Pressure Vessel Technology, ICPVT-8, Montreal, July 1996.
A.S. Dinovitzer, Reliability Based Optimal Material Selection, Managing Pipeline Integrity: An
Issues Workshop on Pipeline Lifecycle, Banff, Alberta, June 1994.
G. Comfort, R. Abdelnour, Y. Gong, A. Dinovitzer, Poussee Statique des Glaces Sur les
Ouvrages Hydroelectriques, November 1996.
A.S. Dinovitzer, R. Basu, LCDr K. Holt, A Hybrid Approach to Warship Maintenance
Management, SNAME Annual General Meeting October 1997.
A.S. Dinovitzer, M. Szymczak, D. Erickson, Fragmentation of Targets During Ballistic
Penetration Events, International Journal of Impact Engineering, 1997.
A.S. Dinovitzer, R. Silberhorn, J.L. Rene, The Mooring Selection Guide (MSG) Software,
Accepted for presentation at Oceans97.
Comfort, G., Singh, S., and Dinovitzer, A., 1997, "Limit-Force Ice Loads and their Significance to
Offshore Structures in the Beaufort Sea.", ISOPE.
A.S. Dinovitzer, M.Szymczak, T. Brown, Behind-Armour Debris Modelling, 17th International
Symposium on Ballistics, 1998.
A.S. Dinovitzer, B. Graville, A. Glover, Strain-Based Failure Criteria for Sharp Part Wall Defects
in Pipelines, International Pipeline Conference, 1998.
A.S. Dinovitzer, R. Smith, Strain-Based Pipeline Design Criteria Review, International Pipeline
Conference, 1998.
A.S. Dinovitzer, R. Lazor, R. Walker, C. Bayley, A Pipeline Dent Assessment Model,
OMAE99, St. Johns Nfld, 1999.
A.S. Dinovitzer, I. Konuk, R. Smith, B. Xu, Pipeline Limit States Design, OMAE99, St. Johns
Nfld, 1999.
D. Heath, N. Pegg, A. Dinovitzer, R. Walker, Detail Analysis of Ship Structures, Canadian
HydroMechanics Conference, St. Johns Nfld, 1999.
A.S. Dinovitzer, Risk-Based Inspection Targeting System for Small Vessels, Canadian
Passenger Vessel Association Conference, Kingston Ontario, 1999.

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ROBERT B. LAZOR, P. Eng.


ACADEMIC BACKGROUND
BASc, (Mechanical Engineering), University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON
MASc, (Mechanical Engineering), University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON
PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE
FLEET TECHNOLOGY LIMITED, Edmonton, Manager, Western Canada, March
2000-Present Responsibilities include building industry contacts and providing
engineering services related to welding engineering services, pipeline repair methods
and reliability, engineering critical assessments, material selection, and failure
investigations. Designated as Canadian Welding Bureau certified engineer for welding
design and welding procedures and practices. Familiar with ASME and CSA welding
and design requirements for piping and related equipment.
ENBRIDGE PIPELINES INC., Engineering Specialist-Technical Services, 19921997; Engineering Specialist-Pipeline Integrity, 1997-1999 Responsible for failure
investigations, defect assessment procedures, welding procedure approvals, team
leadership, representation on CSA Materials Subcommittee, custodian of Operations &
Maintenance Procedures Manual.
!
Resolved technical issues relating to design, integrity evaluations, and repair
procedures of Company facilities.
This often involved designing welded
assemblies for repair of damaged pipe and components and to design branch
connections for new facilities. The designs followed CSA Z662 and ASME B31.4
standards.
!
Provided advice to Operations and Engineering on the selection of materials for
Company facilities, non-conformance issues, and revised Company
specifications to ensure compliance with industry standards and regulations.
!
Collected Company comments relating to the proposed Onshore Pipeline
Regulations and made these known to the National Energy Board staff as part of
an industry committee.
!
Reviewed the fracture design methodology of the Alliance Pipeline to satisfy
corporate interests and concerns for the technical viability of the project.
!
Developed a database of corporate pipe inventory, including material properties,
which provided the ability to establish internal inspection intervals.
!
Supervised co-workers to resolve issues related to internal inspection of
pipelines and the capabilities of the inspection technologies.
!
Analyzed the life cycle costs of fittings and flanges and determined the
competitive bidding process, rather than a sole source supplier was more
effective.
!
Developed Company practices for hydrostatic testing and provided assistance in
field during hydrostatic testing as needed.
!
Maintained company operating manual for welding, revising as needed and
providing advice to welders and engineering as required. Attended pipeline
maintenance supervisors meetings to answer questions related to welding
procedures.
!
Acted as the corporate contact for welding procedure review and approval for all
contractors working on Enbridge facilities, either maintenance or new
construction.

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ENBRIDGE PIPELINES INC., Senior Engineer, Quality Assurance, 1998-1992


Responsible for projects to support Operations and Engineering related to welding and
material selection and represented Company on industry committees.
!
Developed company response to National Energy Board concerns related to fillet
weld failures as a result of fillet welding to in-service pipelines. This involved
developing welding procedure specifications and nondestructive inspection
techniques, qualification of inspectors, design of repair sleeve configurations and
summarizing results for presentation to industry groups.
!
Developed company program to address stress corrosion cracking to comply
with National Energy Board requirements.
!
Represented company on CSA Task Force on Joining and Task Force on
Fracture Toughness. On the Joining TF, I was the secretary and was primarily
responsible for amalgamating Z183 and Z184 clauses related to joining,
eventually becoming CSA Z662. A major effort was required on my part to
address the sections on joining of piping with unequal wall thickness.
!
Investigated plant failures and developed recommendations and action plans for
preventing similar failures. For example, following two failures of booster pump
cans, a fatigue study of the failed weld configuration showed that it had been
operating at 3/4 of the maximum allowable stress. The connection was
redesigned to 1/3 of the allowable stress and all of the cans similar to the ones
that had failed have been repaired.
!
Initiated storage system for hydrostatic test results, mill test reports, and
nondestructive examination reports to comply with regulatory requirements.
!
Created Industry standard for qualification of nondestructive examination
technicians for fillet weld inspections. The standard is referenced in CSA Z662
as a recommended test procedure to demonstrate the competency of NDE
inspectors.
!
Reviewed manufacturers quality assurance programs and prepared list of
approved manufacturers for material purchases.
!
Advised Operations on welder training requirements and arranged instruction
program with local college. In addition, attended yearly welder performance
qualification testing to supervise testing and to respond to questions from the
welders and supervisors. Usually provided short seminars on issues such as
hydrogen-induced cracking, practices for welding in liquid-filled pipelines under
operating conditions, or NDE techniques to measure remaining wall thickness in
pipe.
!
Contributed to CSA Standards regarding pipeline maintenance welding and
repair methods.
WELDING INSTITUTE OF CANADA, Scientific Officer, 1979-1982; Group Leader, Materials
Technology, 1982-1988 Supervised a specialized technical staff of two engineers and three
technicians in the execution of research contracts, failure investigations, and routine mechanical
testing.
!
!

Developed and implemented research programs to address timely issues related


to welding metallurgy, thermal and residual stresses, and fracture design
concepts for welded structures.
Developed the WIC weldability test that is currently used throughout the pipeline
industry to establish preheat temperatures for linepipe purchase specifications
and pipeline construction.

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!

!
!
!
!

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Resolved inquiries from member companies on a wide range of problems related


to welding and material selection, often as a follow-on activity from failure
investigations. Recommended and supervised material testing requirements in
accordance with design standards and codes.
Undertook specific projects related to welded construction for buildings such as
penetration characteristics of flare bevel groove welds, and penetration of arc
spot welds used for attaching galvanized sheeting to structural members.
Conducted several studies related to determine weld contraction in pipeline girth
welds, working with other researchers who complemented the studies with
measurements of residual stresses using blind hole drilling and neutron
diffraction techniques.
Examined the use of several NDE techniques for non-radiographic inspection of
pipeline girth welds. This involved making the defects in the welds, organizing
the inspections, destructive examination to confirm the defect sizes, and
preparation of the final report.
Worked on many projects related to welding metallurgy and how properties are
affected by changes in welding conditions and stress relief.
The main
sponsorship was from the pipeline industry, looking to improve the girth weld
toughness.
Investigated the influence of baseplate composition, welding conditions, and
stress relief treatments on the susceptibility of submerged arc strip cladding to
weld overlay disbanding.
Instructed at seminars and developed materials for WIC modular welding
metallurgy courses. These modules are recommended reference materials for
persons preparing to take the CWB examinations.
Participated actively on Welding Research Council, International Institute of
Welding Assembly, and was a contributing author for the Metals Handbook.
Was a member of the CSA W48 Filler Metal Committee and one of my related
responsibilities at WIC was to conduct weld metal hydrogen testing of
consumables.
This testing supported many research projects related to
hydrogen-induced cracking.

WESTINGHOUSE CANADA LIMITED, Junior Project Engineer, 1975-1976


Designed modifications and calculated new operating characteristics for changing the
operation of industrial gas turbines to operate on both gas and oil. Required the
development of new operating manuals and the preparation of design drawings.
ONTARIO MALLEABLE IRON, Junior Project Engineer, 1974-1975 Completed
projects related to plant maintenance, which involved material procurement, liaison
between contractors and plant departments, and the preparation of design drawings.
PROFESSIONAL AFFILIATIONS (Past and Present)
ASM International, Council Member
Welding Research Council, Weldability Committee
International Institute of Welding
CSA Task Force on Fracture Toughness
CSA Subcommittee on Materials
CSA Filler Metals Committee
CSA Task Force on Joining
APEGGA Career Counselling Committee
API Mechanical Damage Task Force

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PUBLICATIONS
R.B. Lazor and H.W. Kerr, The Effects of Nickel and Titanium on Submerged Arc Welds in
HSLA Steels, Pipeline and Energy Plant Piping: Design and Technology, Pergamon Press,
1980, p 141.
R.B. Lazor and B.A. Graville, Effect of Microalloying on Weld Cracking in Low Carbon Steels,
ibid, p. 247.
R.B. Lazor, R.D. McDonald, and A.G. Glover, Properties of Welds in Thick Section NbContaining Steels, Welding in Energy-Related Projects, Pergamon Press, 1984, p. 1.
J.T. Bowker, R.B. Lazor and A.G. Glover, The Structure and Toughness of the Weld and HeatAffected Zone of a C-Mn-V Steel, HSLA Steels Technology and Applications, American Society
for Metals, 1984, p 679.
B.G. Kenny, H.W. Kerr, R.B. Lazor, and B.A. Graville, Ferrite Transformation Characteristics
and CCT Diagrams in Weld Metals, Metal Construction, Vol 17(6), 1985, p 374.
T.W. Lau, J.T. Bowker, and R.B. Lazor, First Report on HAZ Study, Welding for Challenging
Environments, Pergamon Press, 1986, p 167.
K.S. Ko and R.B. Lazor, Flare Groove Welds in Hollow Structural Steels, IIW Commission XVE, 1983.
R.B. Lazor, R.H. Legget, and A.G. Glover, Experimental Stress Analysis of Pipeline Girth
Welds, 6th Biennial Joint Technical Meeting on Line Pipe Research(AGA NG-18/EPRG),
Camogli, Italy, 1985.
A.G. Glover and R.B. Lazor, The Role of Residual Stresses in Fracture of Pipeline Girth
Welds, 7th Biennial Joint Technical Meeting on Line Pipe Research (AGA NG-18/EPRG), July
1988.
A.G. Glover and R.B. Lazor, Metallurgical Factors in Fracture Toughness, World Materials
Congress, Calgary, 1988.
T.M. Holden, J.H. Root, R.R. Hosbons, K.G. Leewis, an R.B. Lazor, Neutron Diffraction
Measurements of Axial Residual Strain Near Cracks in Typical Pipeline Girth Welds, The
Canadian Fracture Conference 21, April 24-26, 1990.
J.F. Keifner, W.A. Maxey, J.D. Smith, and R.B. Lazor, Validating the Serviceability of IPLs Line
13, Calgary, 1996.
R.J. Pick, D.S. Cronin, F.E. Nippard, and R.B. Lazor, The Influence of Weld Geometry on the
Fatigue Life of a 864 mm Diameter Line Pipe, Pressure Vessel Technology, Montreal, 1996.
A. Dinovitzer, R.B. Lazor, R. Walker and C. Bayley, A Pipeline Dent Assessment Model,
Offshore Mechanics and Engineering, St. Johns, NF, 1999.
A. Dinovitzer, A. Bhatia, R. Walker and R.B. Lazor, A Pipeline Dent Assessment Model
Considering Localized Effects, International Pipeline Conference 2000, Calgary, AB, ASME
International, 2000.

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Presentations
! New Problems in the Welding of Steels for Major Structures, CIM Conference, August
1982.
! Arc Burns in Pipeline Steels, 64th Annual AWS Convention, Philadelphia, PA, 1983.
! Properties and Problems in Structural Steel Welds, ibid.
! A Restraint Test for Developing Girth Weld Procedures, ASM Metals Congress, Detroit,
1984.Heat-Affected Zone Toughness in C/Mn Steels, ASTM Committee on Effect of
Temperature on the Properties of Metals, May 1984.
! Heat-Affected Zone Toughness on Bean-on-Plate Welds in Titanium Steels, CCIIW
Working Group, Commission IX/X, May 1984.
! Weld Overlay Techniques, WIC Calgary Chapter Seminar on Improved Welding
Productivity, February, 1985.

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L. BLAIR CARROLL, M. ENG., P. ENG


PROJECT ENGINEER
ACADEMIC BACKGROUND
Master of Engineering (Mechanical Engineering Nondestructive Examination), Memorial
University of Newfoundland, St. Johns, NF, 1998
Bachelor of Engineering (Mechanical Engineering), Memorial University of Newfoundland,
St. Johns, NF, 1995
PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE
FLEET TECHNOLOGY LIMITED, Project Engineer-Materials and Structures,
June 2000 to Present Responsibilities include:
# Assisting with pipeline related risk and reliability projects
# Data analysis and in-field assessment services for pipeline operators
# Evaluation of pipeline repair techniques
# Failure analysis
ENBRIDGE PIPELINES INC. Edmonton, AB, Canada , Pipeline Integrity Engineer,
April 1998 to June 2000 Responsibilities included:
# Updated pipeline inspection procedures, maintenance manuals, engineering
standards and material specifications;
# Technical resource on codes and standards for operations personnel.
PROFESSIONAL AFFILIATIONS
2001-Present Treasurer, National Capitol Section of the National Association of Corrosion
Engineers
2001
Member, Professional Engineers of Ontario
1999-Present P. Eng., Association of Professional Engineers, Geologists and Geophysicists of
Alberta
1999
Stress Corrosion Cracking Session Chair, Banff 99 Pipeline Workshop
1998-Present Enbridge representative to the CEPA Pipeline Integrity Working Group
Personal/Professional Development
2000
1999
1999
1998
1998

ANSYS Finite Element Modeling Course


British Standards, BS 7910 Course, Structural Integrity Training
CASTI CSA Z662 Course, Oil and Gas Pipeline Systems
Skill Paths Team Management Course
Transportation of Dangerous Goods

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L. BLAIR CARROLL (Page 2)


PUBLICATIONS
Thesis:
L.B. Carroll, Investigation into the Detection and Classification of Defect Colonies using ACFM
Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, Memorial University of Newfoundland,
St. Johns, Newfoundland, Canada, October, 1998.
Conference Papers:
Carroll, L.B. and M.S. Madi, Crack Detection Program on the Cromer to Gretna, Manitoba
Section of Enbridge Pipelines Inc. Line 3, 2000 ASME International Pipeline Conference, Oct.
1-5, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, Proceedings of the International Pipeline Conference 2000, Vol.
2, ASME, New York, pp. 1435-1438.
Carroll, L.B., Monahan, C.C., and R.G. Gosine, An automated ACFM peak detection algorithm
with potential for locating SCC clusters on transmission pipelines, 1998 ASME International
Pipeline Conference, June 7-11, Calgary, Alberta, Proceedings of the International Pipeline
Conference 1998, Vol. 1, ASME, New York, pp. 335-340.
Kania, R., and L.B. Carroll, Non-Destructive Techniques for Measurement and Assessment of
Corrosion Damage on Pipelines, 1998 ASME International Pipeline Conference, June 7-11,
Calgary, Alberta, Proceedings of the International Pipeline Conference 1998, Vol. 1, ASME,
New York, pp. 309-313.
Carroll, L.B., and C.C. Monahan, "Detection and classification of crack colonies using ACFM
technology - Phase I," 1997 ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference, July 27-31,
Orlando, Florida, NDE Performance Demonstration, Planning and Research, PVP-Vol. 352,
NDE-Vol. 16, M.M. Behravesh, M.P. Jones, and C.C. Monahan, Eds., ASME, New York, pp. 5764.
Timco, G.W., Irani, M.B., Funke, E R., English, L.A., Carroll, L.B., and J.C. Chao, (1993), "Ice
Load Distribution on a Faceted Conical Structure", Proceedings of the 12th International
Conference on Port and Ocean Engineering under Arctic Conditions (POAC '93), Hamburg,
Volume 2, pp. 607 - 616.
Journal Articles:
Carroll, L.B., and M. Madi, PIPELINE INSPECTION Conclusion: ILI tool detects cracks, SCC
in Canadian liquids line, Oil & Gas Journal, Vol. 99, Issue 19, May 7, 2001.
Contract Reports:
K. Klein, C. Monahan, M. Nahon, R. Driscoll, and B. Carroll, "Investigation of Synthetic Fiber
Rope Moorings for Canadian Coast Guard Navigation Buoys," Contract Report for Canadian
Coast Guard, Transport Canada, C-CORE Publication 96-

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LAKSHMAN N. (NICK) PUSSEGODA


SENIOR METALLURGICAL ENGINEER
ACADEMIC BACKGROUND
University of Canterbury, New Zealand, PhD (Metallurgical Engineering), 1978
University of Ceylon, BSc (Eng) (Hons), (Mechanical Engineering), 1970
PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE
FLEET TECHNOLOGY LIMITED, 1990-Present - As Senior Metallurgical Engineer,
responsible for management of projects up to $200,000 in value. Principal Investigator for
projects associated with performance of materials in engineering applications such as
marine structures, pipe lines, utilities and other land based structures. The projects involve
strength, toughness of steels and their weldments as well as corrosion of the joints and
degradation of composites. In the case of strength and toughness, over 20 years of
experience has been obtained in the analysis of results in relation to the steel and weld joint
microstructure. On the corrosion side, attack on the material and weld in the field has been
simulated in the laboratory.
Failure investigations have been performed on pipes, machine components and materials
handling equipment that have suffered degradation during service and automotive
components to name a few.
McGILL UNIVERSITY, Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Visiting Professor,
July 1988-September 1990 - Performed research and development on the simulation of
industrial rolling leading to optimization of the rolling process, and designing of steel alloys
to achieve the required microstructure and mechanical properties, in collaboration with steel
industry.
UNIVERSITY OF PERADENIYA, SRI LANKA, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Associate Professor, May 1981-June 1988 - Teaching metallurgy and design for
mechanical engineering students, collaborating with metal working industries through
student projects and funded research and development projects. Consulting services for
the Bureau of Standards, metal and chemical processing industry, and design and
consulting engineering organizations. Served as a Board Member in the Ceylon State
Hardware Corporation.
CANMET (Metals Technology Laboratories), Ottawa, Visiting Fellow, November 1978March 1981 - Research on problems associated with fabrication and performance of metal
products for the oil and gas industry, and on production of new high strength automotive
materials.
UNIVERSITY OF CATERBURY, New Zealand, Graduate Student, March 1975-July
1978 - Research on production of reinforcing bar to be used in earthquake resistant
structural design. Proposed new specifications for reinforcing in earthquake resistant
structural design.
.../2

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L.N. PUSSEGODA
Page 2
PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE (continued)
UNIVERSITY OF PERADENIYA, SRI LANKA, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Assistant Lecturer, February 1972-February 1975 - Teaching mechanics and design for
mechanical engineering students and supervision of student vacation projects performed in
industry.
SRI LANKA TRANSPORT BOARD, SRI LANKA, Mechanical Engineer, August 1971January 1972 - Completed an industrial training program.
UNIVERSITY OF PERADENIYA, SRI LANKA, Department of Engineering
Mathematics, Instructor, August 1970-July 1971 - Correcting student assignments,
worked on a project on application statistical methods on quality control of batch-produced
components.
MAJOR ACHIEVEMENTS
$

Visiting fellowship awarded by NSERC and EMR, Canada, to work at the Metals
Technology Laboratories, CANMET (1978-1981).

A number of research grants awarded by Natural Resources, Energy and Science Authority
(NARESA) of Sri Lanka (1982-1988).

Physical and engineering sciences merit award by NARESA of Sri Lanka.

Merit promotion from Lecturer to Associate Professor (bypassing Senior Lecturer) by


University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka, in December, 1985.

United States Patent - "Seamless Steel Tube Manufacture", (co-inventors P.J. Hunt, J.J.
Jonas, S. Yue and G.E. Ruddle), Patent No. 5,186,769, Feb. 16, 1993.

PROFESSIONAL SOCIETIES
Member, Professional Engineers of Ontario.
Member, E8 committee, ASTM, USA
Member, ASM International
Corporate Member, Institution of Engineers of Sri Lanka
../3

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L.N. PUSSEGODA
Page 3
PUBLICATIONS
Papers in Refereed Journals
"Strain Age Embrittlement of Reinforcing Steels", (co-author with L.A. Erasmus), New
Zealand Eng., V32, 1977, pp. 178-83.
"Safe Bend Radii for Deformed Reinforcing Bar to Avoid Failure by Strain Age
Embrittlement", (co-author with L.A. Erasmus), New Zealand Eng., V33, 1978, pp 170-177.
"The Strain Aging Characteristics of Reinforcing Steel with a Range of Vanadium
Contents", (co-author with L.A. Erasmus), Metall. Trans., V11A, 1980, pp 231-37.
"Hydrogen Embrittlement of HSLA Direct Quenched Steel and Its Simulated HAZ
Microstructures", (co-author with W.R. Tyson), Can. Metall. Q., V20, 1981, pp 407-19.
"Sensitivity of Electroslag Weld Metal to Hydrogen", (Co-author with W.R. Tyson), Welding
Journal, V60, 1981, pp 252S-57S.
"Cleavage Fracture of Bent Reinforcing Bar", Met. Technol., V9, 1982, pp 312-16.
"Strength and Ductility of Reinforcing Bar", Engineer, 1982/83, V1, pp 8-19.
"Grain Size Dependence of Yield and Flow Stresses of a Fe-Mn-Si Alloy", (co-author with
W.R. Tyson), Scripta Metall. V18, 1984, pp 241-45.
"Comparison of Two Methods of Cold Work to Increase Strength of Hot Rolled Reinforcing
Bar", Met. Technol. V11, 1984, pp 207-210.
"Segregation of Manganese During Intercritical Annealing of Dual Phase Steels", (coauthor with W.R. Tyson, P. Wycliffe and G.R. Purdy), Metall. Trans., V15A, 1984, pp. 1449502.
"Modelling of Dual Phase Steel from Its Ferrite and Martensite Constituents", (co-author
with W.R. Tyson), Can. Metall. Q., V24, 1984, pp 341-47.
"The Role of Mechanical Properties of Metals in Engineering Design", Engineer, March
1985, pp. 26-33.
"Testing of Welds in Ferrous Metals", (co-author with C.B. Ratnayake and A. Alvapillai),
Engineering, September 1985, pp 25-29.
.../4

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Page 4
PUBLICATIONS (continued)
Papers in Refereed Journals (continued)
"Comparison of Two Methods of Cold Work to Increase Strength of Hot Rolled Reinforcing
Bar - A Further Study", (co-author with K.E.D. Sumanasiri), Can. Metall., V17, 1988, pp
197-203.
"Estimates of Yield Strength Changes due to Dislocation Pinning and Internal Stress
Relaxation During Aging of a Ferrite-Martensite Dual-Phase Steel", (co-authored with W.R.
Tyson), Mat. Sci. Eng., VA111, 1989, pp. L9-L11.
"Laboratory Simulation of Seamless Tube Piercing and Rolling Using Dynamic
Recrystallization Schedules", (co-author with S. Yue, and J.J. Jonas), Metall. Trans., V15A,
1984, pp. 1449-502.
"Simulation of Seamless Tube Rolling Process", (co-author with R. Barbosa, S. Yue, J.J.
Jonas and P.J. Hunt), J. Materials Processing Technol., V25, 1991, pp 69-90.
"Effect of Intermediate Cooling on Grain Refinement and Precipitation During Rolling of
Seamless Tubes", (co-authored with S. Yue and J.J. Jonas), Mat. Sci. Technol. V7, 1991,
pp. 278-288.
"Comparison of Dynamic Recrystallization and Conventional Controlled Rolling Schedules
by Laboratory Simulation", (co-authored with J.J. Jones), ISIJ International, V31, 1991, pp.
278-288.
"Design of Dynamic Recrystallization Controlled Rolling Schedules for Seamless Tube
Rolling", (co-authored with P.D. Hodgson and J.J. Jonas), Mat. Sci. Technol., V8, 1992, pp.
63-71.
Strain rate effects on fracture toughness of ship plate steels (co authored with L. Malik, R.
Bouchard & W.R. Tyson), Jour. Offshore Mechanics & Engineering, Transaction of ASME,
v. 118, (1996), pp. 127-134.
Crack arrest toughness of a HAZ containing LBZs (co authored with L. Malik, B.A.
Graville & W.R. Tyson), Jour. Offshore Mechanics & Engineering, Transaction of ASME, v.
118, (1996), pp. 292-299.
Effects of plastic deformation on fracture toughness of ship plate steels (co authored with
L. Malik & W.R. Tyson), Can. Metallurgical Q, v. 36, (1997), pp. 39-47.
Measurement of crack arrest fracture toughness of a ship steel plate (co authored with L.
Malik, & J. Morrison), Jour.of Testing & Evaluation, JTEVA, v.26, (1998), pp.187-197.
.../5

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L.N. PUSSEGODA
Page 5
PUBLICATIONS (continued)
Papers in Refereed Conference Proceedings
"The Effect of Titanium on the Strain Aging Characteristics of a C-Mn Structural Steel", (coauthored with L.A. Erasmus), Proc. 6th Australasian Conf. on Mechanics of Structures and
Materials, Christchurch, New Zealand, 1977, pp. 445-51.
"Relationship between Microstructure and Hydrogen Susceptibility of Some Low Carbon
Steels", (co-authored with W.R. Tyson), in I.M. Bernstein and A.W. Thompson (eds.),
Hydrogen Effect in Metals, Metallurgical Society of AIME, Warrendale, PA, 1981, pp. 34960.
"Processing, Properties and Modelling of Experimental Batch Annealed C-Mn Dual Phase
Steels", (co-authored with A. Crawley, C.M. Mitchell, M. Shehata and W.R. Tyson), in R.A.
Kot and B.L. Bramfitt (eds), Fundamentals of Dual Phase Steels, Metallurgical Society of
AIME, Warrendale, PA, 1981, pp 181-97.
"An Improved Locally Produced Mammoty", (co-authored with S. Thayalan and G.
Jesuthasan), Trans. Inst. of Engineers, Sri Lanka, 1984, pp 63-67.
"Metallurgy of Soil Working Tools for Agriculture", Proc. National Symposium for
Agriculture, The Institution of Engineers, Colombo, Sri Lanka, 1985.
"Results of Tensile Test of Reinforcing Bar - A Case Study", (co-authored with H.B.
Maliyasena), Trans. Inst. of Engineers, Sri Lanka, 1986, pp 124-29.
"Effect of Aging on Yield and Flow Stresses of C-Mn Dual Phase Steel", (co-authored with
W.R. Tyson), Proc. Australasian Conf. "Materials for Industrial Development", Christchurch,
New Zealand, 1987, pp 159-63.
"Optimization of Hot Rolling Parameters for Improving the Mechanical Properties of
Microalloyed Steels", (co-authored with S. Yue and J.J. Jonas), Professor E.O.E. Pereria
Commemoration Vol., Inst. Engineers S.L., Colombo, Sri Lanka, 1991, pp 169-176.
"Development of Dynamic Recrystallization Controlled Rolling Schedules During Seamless
Tub Rolling", (co-authored with S. Yue, J.J. Jonas and P.J. Hunt) in HSLA Steels:
Processing, Properties and Applications, Eds. G. Tither and Z. Shouhua, The Minerals,
Metals & Materials Soc., 1992, pp. 159-163.
"Fracture Toughness Properties of Cast Aluminum Alloys for Line Hardware", (co-authored
with L. Malik, G. Bellamy and H.J. Houston), Proc. Ann. Conf. Canadian Electrical
Association, Transmission Section, E&O Division, March 1992.
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L.N. PUSSEGODA
Page 6
PUBLICATIONS (continued)
Papers in Refereed Conference Proceedings(continued)
"Significance of Local Brittle Zones in Weld Heat Affected Zones: Wide Plate Test", (coauthored with L. Malik, M. Chambers, U. Mohaupt, B.A. Graville, W.R. Tyson and P.W.
Marshall), in Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, 1992, VIII, Part A, ASME, NY, pp
41-52.
Toughness of Damaged Plate, (co-authored with W.R. Tyson. L. Malik, G.C.J Carpenter,
M. Charest, B.A. Graville, and P.W. Marshall), in Inelasticity and Damage in Solids Subject
to Microstructural Change, Sept. 1996, St. Johns, New Foundland, Canada.
Investigation on a Damaged Propeller, (co-authored with L. Malik), Proc. Analysis InService Failures and Advances in Microstructural Characterization, 31st Ann. Convention of
the IMS, (in press)
Prediction of Maximum Time for Delayed Cracking in a Ssimulated Girth Weld Repair, (coauthored with L. Malik, B.A. Graville, and A.G. Glover), Proc. Int. Pipeline Conf. 1998, v.1,
ASME, N.Y., pp. 513-520
Interim Approach to Determine Ductile Fracture Arrest Toughness Progress, (coauthored with L. Malik, and B.A. Graville,), Proc. EPRG/PRCI 12th Biennial Joint Technical
Meeting on Pipeline Research, Groningen, The Netherlands, May 17-21, 1999, Paper 15.
REPORTS
About 100 reports have been prepared. In most cases, these have been for documenting
the findings from funded projects. The next major portion is failure analysis reports.
PRESENTATIONS
More than 60 presentations have been made at conferences, seminars, technical meetings
and delivery of reports to clients in the case of funded projects. They have been in the
following countries: Australia, Belgium, Canada, Germany, India, Italy, The Netherlands,
New Zealand, Sri Lanka, United Kingdom and the USA.

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APPENDIX B
BMT FLEET TECHNOLOGY LIMITED
CORPORATE CAPABILITIES

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BMT Fleet Technology Limited has been engaged in the business of contract Research and
Development for more than twenty seven years now. During this time period, hundreds of
contracts, several of these in the $300,000 to $500,000 range, have been successfully completed
for clients, both in Canada and in the United States. BMT FTL has been involved in marine
engineering and structures research since its inception 25 years ago. Since the addition of the
Materials Technology Division in the mid-80s, BMT FTL has been applying its quite unique
combination of structures and materials expertise to welded structures in other industries. In the
context of the pipeline industry, numerous investigations undertaken to date have dealt with
pipeline girth weld fracture toughness, line pipe steel weldability, studies in support of Standards
development, and failure analysis.
The investigations undertaken by the Materials Technology Division are about evenly divided
between experimental and analytical projects. The former have dealt mainly with welding
procedure development and weldability studies, and fracture and fatigue performance of steels
and welded joints; the latter with structural reliability, engineering critical assessment,
optimisation and analytical model development.
RECENT BMT FTL PROJECTS
In the recent past, staff have completed a wide range of projects including the following projects,
presented as an example of the types of work completed at BMT FTL:
Welding Related Projects
Repair welding of stiffeners to hull plating in low temperature marine environments (water
backing) without preheat;
Armour steel repair procedure development and implementation in a battlefield tank;
Repair welding procedure development and instructions for aluminum alloy mantlets,
medium girder bridge, and armoured vehicle launched bridge;
Hardfacing repair welding of gas turbine blades;
Simulation of reheated heat affected zone cracking in repaired girth welds;
Development of a Multi-Pass Weld Procedure Delayed Cracking Risk Assessment Software
Pipeline Design and Fitness-for-Service
Risk evaluation of concept designs for the Liberty Pipeline;
Development of pipeline dent assessment model
Strain-Based Corrosion Damage Assessment Technique
Development of Strain-Based Planar (Crack-Like) Defect Assessment Technique
Development of Multi-Pass Weld Delayed Hydrogen Cracking Prediction Software
Preliminary development of a CTOA Based Model to Predict the Potential for Long
Running Ductile Fracture Events
Review of Strain-Based Pipeline Design Criteria, including sample applications
Probabilistic Modelling, and Risk Assessment
Reliability-based calibration of CSA Z662 Limit States Design Appendix
Reliability based optimal material selection for pipeline girth welds
Development of Risk-Based Structural Inspection Management Tools
Development of Risk-Based Maintenance Management System
Material Properties
Development of an Interim Measure of Ductile Fracture
Assessment of a Two Specimen Approach for the Measurement of CTOA Ductile
Toughness
Development of Pipeline Material Property Database for Reliability Analysis

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FACILITIES
The sections that follow provide a brief overview of the facilities and equipment available in the
Materials and Welding Division at BMT Fleet Technology Limited. The facilities and equipment
available are more than adequate to perform the proposed project. In addition to the facilities
listed, in the sections that follow, the Systems Division of BMT Fleet Technology Limited which
performs software development and field instrumentation can provide assistance in the data
recording requirements for the experimental part of this project.
Metallurgical
Optical microscopes and stereoscope
Hitachi scanning electron microscope equipped with Ortec EDX system
Specimen preparation facilities:
metallurgical cut off wheel
small diamond saw
mounting press
automatic grinding and polishing facilities
Vickers and Rockwell hardness machines
Lietz micro-hardness unit
Welding & Machining
Automatic oxy fuel and plasma cutting equipment
Fully equipped welding facility for SMAW, GTAW, P-GTAW, GMAW, P-GMAW, FCAW,
MCAW and SAW
Welding parameter high speed data acquisition system
High temperature electric furnace accommodating material up to 600 x 600 mm in size.
Induma 2045 horizontal universal milling machine
Lagun FCM-20W horizontal universal milling machine
Churchill NB horizontal grinder with magnetic chuck 3 ton overhead crane, 2 ton forklift
Colchester Master 2500 lathe
Drill press NIDER
Belt and disc grinder
Cutting & machining tools
Mechanical Testing
Granite table for distortion measurements
900KN (200 kips) horizontal servo-hydraulic test machine
1360KN (300 kips) Baldwin universal tensile testing machine for tension, compression and
fracture toughness testing
640KN (150 kips), 250KN (50 kips), 100KN (20 kips) and 25KN (5 kips)
servo-hydraulic fatigue, fracture toughness, and crack arrest materials testing
CVN testing machine (325J capacity) along with broaching equipment
Numerical Modeling
Finite element modelling / Structural Analysis services with both ANSYS and Algor
linear and non-linear structural analysis
impact and vibration analysis
heat transfer and fluid flow analysis
structural contact and friction modelling
Fracture mechanics, stress & strain life based fatigue and fracture modeling
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) services with Flowtran
Reliability and risk assessment software
Weld preheat calculator and delayed cracking (hydrogen embrittlement) risk evaluator
Other proprietary modelling and simulation software modules for design and analysis

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5563P

MECHANICAL DAMAGE AT WELDS


- RPTG-0326 PART II COST PROPOSAL

August 5, 2002

Submitted to:

Steve Foh
Gas Technology Institute
1700 South Mount Prospect Road
Des Plaines, IL 60018

Submitted by:
BMT Fleet Technology Limited
311 Legget Drive
Kanata, Ontario
Mechanical Damage at Welds

BMT FLEET TECHNOLOGY LIMITED

5563P

Canada

K2K 1Z8

BMT FTL Contact: Aaron Dinovitzer


Phone: 613-592-2830 ext 203
Fax: 613-592-4950
e-mail: adinovitzer@fleetech.com

Mechanical Damage at Welds

Project Summary
Committee:

Pipeline Materials

Project
Title:

Mechanical Damage at Welds


- RPTG-0326 -

Author:
Principal Researcher:
Name of Organization:
Project Type:

Aaron Dinovitzer
Aaron Dinovitzer / Robert Lazor
BMT Fleet Technology Limited (FTL)
New

9) Statement of the Problem (What is to be solved):


In general, pipeline design standards require the repair of dents with depths
exceeding 6% of the pipeline's outside diameter and the repair of all dents or
signs of mechanical damage that interact with weld seams. This cautious damage
disposition approach is based upon numerical and full-scale trials that
demonstrate the significant impact that weld seams have on the life of the
mechanically damaged pipe segments. It is noted, however, that recent advances
in the understanding of mechanical damage failure suggests that the regulatory
requirements could be made less restrictive by considering the:
- relatively smooth pressure history (low fluctuation) of gas transmission lines,
- the type and extent of the mechanical damage, and
- position of the weld with respect to the mechanical damage
10) Background (What is the historical data):
FTL has developed a pipeline dent assessment model, which uses the actual dent
profile and in-service pressure history as inputs to a non-linear pipe finite element
model with a fracture mechanics crack growth algorithm. This dent assessment
approach has been calibrated using smooth dent full-scale trial data and some
cases that have included localized effects (corrosion, gouges and weld seams).
The BMT FTL model considers the weld profile, material properties and residual
stress field.
The BMT FTL model agrees with full-scale trials and operating experience,
demonstrating that gas transmission line pressure fluctuations are benign in terms
of crack growth, thus reducing the risk of mechanical damage failure. Additional
BMT FTL model studies demonstrated that mechanical damage/weld interaction
severity is significantly affected by mechanical damage form and position with
respect to the weld seam.

Project Summary
Committee:

Pipeline Materials

Project
Title:

Mechanical Damage at Welds


- RPTG-0326 -

11) Proposed Research Action Plan (How will the problem be solved):
The proposed project includes 6 tasks as follows:
Task 1 - Dent Model Demonstration and Calibration
While the dent model has been widely validated for smooth dents its validation for
interaction with welds has not been as rigorous. This task will complete the dent
model validation for welds and take the opportunity to demonstrate the model.
Task 2 - Wrinkle Model Demonstration and Calibration
The wrinkle model has been developed and demonstrated to agree well with fullscale trials, however, it has only considered the effect of weld seams on the
development of the wrinkle not the through life integrity. This task will focus on the
extension of the wrinkle through life integrity assessment and comparison with fullscale experimental data for validation.
Task 3 - Development of Dent and Ovality Criteria
This task will use the BMT FTL dent assessment model to simulate dent and ovality
mechanical damage interaction with weld seams. A range of pipe geometries and
mechanical damages will be considered along with a range of weld qualities (profiles)
and mechanical properties. The results of this sensitivity analysis will be a
conservative guidance note for the disposition of dents and ovality interacting with
longitudinal and girth weld seams.
Task 4 - Development of Wrinkle Criteria
This task will use the BMT FTL wrinkle and buckle model to simulate mechanical
damage interaction with weld seams. A range of pipe geometries and mechanical
damages will be considered along with a range of weld qualities (profiles) and
properties. The results of this sensitivity analysis will be a conservative guidance note
for the disposition of wrinkles or buckles interacting with longitudinal and girth weld
seams.
Task 5 - Development of Other Criteria
This task will consider the interaction of other forms of mechanically induced damage
(e.g. gouges, localized corrosion due to coating damage) and weld seams. A range
of mechanical damage forms will be used to understand the sensitivity of pipeline
welds to these forms of damage and thus develop guidance for their assessment.
Task 6 - Project Reporting
In this task the results of the calibration and analysis will be reported along with a
description of the BMT FTL dent and wrinkle models. The report will outline the
mechanical damage guidance developed in this project, in addition, the databases
of dent full-scale trials will be provided.

ii

Project Summary
Committee:

Pipeline Materials

Project
Title:

Mechanical Damage at Welds


- RPTG-0326 -

12) Expected Deliverables ( List Specifically what PRCI will get out of the work):
It is proposed to develop a guidance note demonstrating the conditions under
which mechanical damage interaction with weld seams is acceptable. This
guidance note will consider the operational characteristics of the pipeline and the
characteristics of the mechanical damage and weld seam. It is expected that the
analysis results will develop separate criteria to consider each form of mechanical
damage (ovalization, dents, buckling, etc.). The recommendations will be in the
form non-dimensional damage characteristic limits similar to those being
developed using the BMT FTL model for the assessment of smooth dents and
those containing localized effects.

13) Resource Requirements (total cost, year-by-year breakdown, capital costs vs.
overhead, and outside resources to be used):
The FTL project team will bring databases of experimental results containing some
197 smooth dent tests and 100+ dent trials with localized effects. In addition, BMT
FTL will seek to secure a similar database of buckle and wrinkle full-scale test results.
Previous BMT FTL Dent and Wrinkle model development will be used and with the
permission of the current dent geometric characterization project sponsor group,
related analytic results could be made available.

iii

Project Summary
Committee:

Pipeline Materials

Project
Title:

Mechanical Damage at Welds


- RPTG-0326 -

14) Organization Information (Describe major business of contractor, facilities


available for use in this project, related concurrent/recent projects):
FTL provides engineering research and services to the pipeline industry in the
welding, materials characterization, and damage tolerance (ECA) areas of interest.
Research efforts at FTL have resulted in the development of dent and
buckle/wrinkle assessment models. These tools support the integrity assessment
of mechanically damaged pipes segments. Beyond the assessment of dents and
wrinkles the metallurgical, mechanical testing, welding and numerical simulation
labs at FTL have been involved in the following related projects:
- Development of a hot tap tee design model
- Development and calibration of pipeline pressure retaining sleeve design models
- Development of fatigue and fracture analysis tools and courses for industry

15) Contractor Contacts:


Mr. Aaron Dinovitzer
Materials Technology Centre
Fleet Technology Limited
Kanata, Ontario
Canada K2K 1Z8
Tel: 613-592-2830
Fax: 613-592-4950
E-mail: adinovit@fleetech.com
Internet: www.fleetech.com

Mr. R. Lazor
Materials Technology Centre
Fleet Technology Limited
Edmonton, Alberta
Canada
Tel: 780-465-0077
Fax:
E-mail: rlazor@fleetech.com
Internet: www.fleetech.com

16) Alternative Funding Sources:


The proposed program will be subsidised and progress facilitated through:
- the use of pre-existing mechanical damage (dent and wrinkle) modelling tools
developed under separate contracts,
- the use of previously completed full-scale trial data to validate the numerical
modeling tools,
- the use of previously developed pipeline operation characterization techniques
and tools
- the use of previously collected and characterized pipeline material and
operational data.
Co-operative funding will also be sought from on-going parallel industry group
sponsored projects to subsidise the work in this project.

iv

BMT FLEET TECHNOLOGY LIMITED

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BMT FTL DOCUMENT QUALITY CONTROL DATA SHEET

Report:

Mechanical Damage at Welds


- RPTG-0326 -

Project No.

5563P

Date:

5 August 2002

Prepared by:
A. Dinovitzer, Vice President - Principal Engineer

Reviewed by:
R. Lazor - Manager BMT FTL Western Canada Office

Approved by:

A. Dinovitzer, Vice-President

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page

5.

COST AND SCHEDULE ..........................................................................................1


5.1
Business Management - General Information .......................................................... 1
5.1.1 General Corporate Information ............................................................................. 1
5.1.2 Financial Management for Projects ...................................................................... 1
5.2
Project Cost .............................................................................................................. 1
5.3
Project Schedule....................................................................................................... 5

6.

CONTRACTING DETAILS .......................................................................................6

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LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES

Figure 5.1: Contract Plan and Report Form ................................................................................ 5

Table 5.1: Detailed Task Cost Breakdown .................................................................................. 3

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BMT FLEET TECHNOLOGY LIMITED

5.

5563P

COST AND SCHEDULE

5.1

Business Management - General Information

5.1.1

General Corporate Information

The project will be carried out by BMT Fleet Technology Limited, which has offices in
Kanata (head office) and Edmonton, as follows:
BMT Fleet Technology Limited
311 Legget Drive
Kanata, Ontario
Canada K2K 1Z8

BMT Fleet Technology Limited


PO Box 82057, 2037-111 Street
Edmonton, Alta.
T6J 7E6

5.1.2

Financial Management for Projects

The Project Manager is responsible for the financial performance of a contract. Notifications or other
communication concerning invoices for the project should be sent to BMT FTLs Accounting Office to the
attention of:

Mrs. Colleen Seabrook, Assistant Treasurer


BMT Fleet Technology Limited
311 Legget Drive
Kanata, Ontario
Canada K2K 1Z8

5.2

Project Cost

The total cost of the project is a fixed price of $150,000 US. This project cost includes:

Rates calculated from:

Salary + (Salary x Overhead)

Mechanical Damage at Welds

BMT FLEET TECHNOLOGY LIMITED

5563P

1867.75

where 1867.75 hours is the 2002/2003 working year for an employee with ten days vacation. These rates
do not include fee. The rates are better than those offered our most favored commercial client.

The Government overhead rate for FY02/03 is 130%.

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Table 5.1: Detailed Task Cost Breakdown


1 day is

7.75

LABOUR

2002

Rates

HOUR

DAY

Executive
Engineers

hours

DAYS
TASK

TASK 1

BY

Tot

TASK 2 TASK 3 TASK 4 TASK 5 TASK 6

TOTAL

COST

$90.00 $697.50

23

$16,043

Princ. Engrs/PMs $75.00 $581.25

11

12

11

12

56

$32,550

Intermediate
Engrs.

$52.00 $403.00

20

21

19.5

19

19.5

102

$41,106

Project Engrs.

$45.00 $348.75

10

35

10

10

10

78

$27,203

Admin/support

$32.00 $248.00

$992

TOTAL ESTIMATED COST OF


LABOUR

$19,336 $28,838 $19,71 $18,933 $19,716 $11,354


6

$117,893

CHARGES FOR FTL EQUIPMENT


ANSYS

$1,000

$1,000 $1,000 $1,000 $1,000

TOTAL EQUIPMENT CHARGES

$1,000

$1,000 $1,000 $1,000 $1,000

MATERIALS AND SUPPLIES

$500

$5,000
$0

$500

$5,000
$1,000

TRAVEL AND LIVING


PRIME CONTRACTOR

$1,250

$1,250 $1,250 $1,250 $1,250 $1,250

$7,500

TOTAL ESTIMATED COST OF


TRAVEL

$1,250

$1,250 $1,250 $1,250 $1,250 $1,250

$7,500

OTHER EXPENSES
COMMUNICATIONS/COURIER
REPRODUCTION
TOTAL ESTIMATED EXPENSES
FEE

$400

$400

$500

$500

$0

$0

$0

$900

$0

$0

$900

%
On labour

15%

2900

4326

2957

2840

2957

1703

$17,684

On Travel & Living

0%

$0

On materials/
Expenses

0%

$0

Mechanical Damage at Welds

BMT FLEET TECHNOLOGY LIMITED

TOTAL PROFIT

5563P

$4,326 $2,957 $2,840 $2,957 $1,703

$17,684

PROJECT TOTAL

$24,987 $35,913 $24,92 $24,923 $24,923 $14,307


3

$149,977

% OF TOTAL

16.66% 23.95% 16.62% 16.62% 16.62%

Mechanical Damage at Welds

$2,900

9.54%

1.00

BMT FLEET TECHNOLOGY LIMITED

5.3

5563P

Project Schedule

Subject to contract, the project will commence on 1st January 2003 and is due for completion on the 31st
of December 2004.

Figure 5.1: Contract Plan and Report Form

Each invoice will be accompanied by a quarterly report as shown in the contract plan and report
form above. Payment will be due within 30 days from date of invoice.

Mechanical Damage at Welds

BMT FLEET TECHNOLOGY LIMITED

6.

5563P

CONTRACTING DETAILS

The PRCI Contract Cost Estimate Form has been completed. For the purposes of PRCI,
we have extracted overhead (130%) from our current rates (Table 5.1) for the Contract
Cost Estimate Form.

Mechanical Damage at Welds

BMT FLEET TECHNOLOGY LIMITED

5563P

PRCI CONTRACT COST ESTIMATE FORM

CONTRACT COST ESTIMATE


(FOOTNOTE A)

Name of Offeror

RFP No/Prp No

Page Number

BMT Fleet Technology Limited

RPTG-0326

Home Office Address

Name of Proposed Project

311 Legget Drive

Mechanical Damage Direct Assessment

Number of Pages

Kanata, Ontario, Canada K2K 1Z8


Division(s) and Location(s) (where work is being performed)

Total Amount of Proposal

Home Office: Kanata, ON

$ 150,000.00

Western Canada Office: Edmonton, Alberta, Canada


Estimated Cost
Cost Elements

(dollars)

Total Estimated
Cost (dollars)

Supporting
Schedule
(Footnote B)

1.

Direct Material
a. Purchased Parts
b. Interdivisional Effort
c. Equipment Rental/Lease
d. Other (ANSYS Lease)

$5,000

Total Direct Material

$5,000

2.

Material Overhead (Rate

0 % x Base $

3.

Subcontracted Effort (Attach Detailed Schedule)

Net Subcontracted Effort


4.

Direct Labor - Specify

Est. Hours

Rate/Hour

Est. Cost

Executive Engineer

178.25

$39.13

$6,975.22

Principal Engineer

434

$32.61

$14,152.17

Intermediate Engineer

790.5

$22.61

$17,872.17

Project Engineer

604.5

$19.57

$11,827.39

31

$13.91

$431.30

Support
Total Direct Labor

Mechanical Damage at Welds

$51,258.25

BMT FLEET TECHNOLOGY LIMITED

5.

Labor Overhead - Specify

5563P

O.H. Rate

X Base $

Est. Cost

130 %

$51,258.25

$66,635.73

Total Labor Overhead


6.

Special Testing

7.

Purchased Special Equipment

8.

Travel

9.

Consultants (Attach Detailed Schedule)

$66,635.73

$7,500.00

10. Other Direct Costs

$6,900.00

11. Total Direct Cost and Overhead


12. General and Administrative Expenses (w/o IR&D)
Rate

% of cost element numbers

13. Independent Research and Development


Rate

% of cost element numbers

14. Total Estimated Cost (Footnote C)


15. Fixed Fee

$17,684.10

16. Total Estimated Cost and Fee

$149,978.00

17. Contractor/Third Party Cofunding (Footnote D)


18. Net PRCI Estimated Cost and Fee

$149,978.00

This proposal reflects our best estimates as of this date, in accordance with the instructions to offerors and the footnotes which
follow.
Typed Name and Title

Signature

Date
5 August 2002

A. Dinovitzer

Footnotes: A. The submission of this form does not constitute an acceptable proposal.

Required supporting

information must also be submitted.


B. For appropriate items of cost, reference the schedule that contains the required supporting data.
Generally, supply supporting information for cost elements that are extraordinary (subcontracts or special
testing costs above 25% of total costs, large equipment items, etc.).
C. This should be the total cost of the research project. Any contractor cofunding should be shown on line 17 as a reduction
from total costs.

D. This line should include (1) total fixed fee, (2) contractor cofunding, (3)
third party cash cofunding, or (4) be blank, depending on the contract type. Fixed fee
should be cofunded before any contractor in-kind cofunding is proposed.

Mechanical Damage at Welds

PART I TECHNICAL PROPOSAL


T 274-3553

UPDATED PIPELINE REPAIR MANUAL

PREPARED FOR

PRC INTERNATIONAL
Pipeline Materials Committee

PREPARED BY

CC TECHNOLOGIES LABORATORIES, INC.


CARL E. JASKE, PH.D., P.E.
AUGUST 1, 2002

CC Technologies
6141 AVERY ROAD
DUBLIN, OHIO 43016
614.761.1214 614.761.1633 fax
www.cctechnologies.com

SUMMARY
The objective of the proposed project is to develop and produce an update of PRCI
Pipeline Repair Manual, PR-218-9307 (AGA L51716), which was published 1994. It will
discuss response to anomaly or defect discovery, review repair methods, identify
appropriate repairs for various types of defects, and provide generic guidelines for use
of various repair methods taking into account current codes and regulations.
CC Technologies will review existing and emerging pipeline repair technologies and
evaluate them in comparison with those in the current repair manual. Then, the Manual
will be revised to add and update the information on repair technologies. The review
will be based on published literature, vendor literature, and industry experience.
Methods for evaluating cost versus effectiveness of repair techniques will be included.
The final product will be an updated printed and electronic Pipeline Repair Manual.
The electronic version will be indexed and in Adobe Acrobat format and will include both
written descriptions and illustrations of various repair methods. The Manual will include
a generic repair procedure that can be used to upgrade or develop a companys repair
procedures. The generic procedure will be provided in an electronic, as well as printed,
format so that an operator can easily tailor it for specific company use.

ii

CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................. 1
TECHNICAL DISCUSSION............................................................................................. 1
Objectives .................................................................................................................. 2
Work to Be Performed ............................................................................................... 2
Approach ................................................................................................................... 3
End Product ............................................................................................................... 3
Schedule.................................................................................................................... 4
Manpower Requirements........................................................................................... 4
SUPPORTING DATA ...................................................................................................... 4
Organization Information............................................................................................ 4
Corporate Qualifications ............................................................................................ 5
Related Project Descriptions...................................................................................... 5
Facilities..................................................................................................................... 9
CONTRACT REQUIREMENTS ...................................................................................... 9

iii

APPENDICES
Appendix A Rsums

iv

Part I Technical Proposal (TP 274-3553)

Updated Pipeline Repair Manual

INTRODUCTION
The current PRCI Pipeline Repair Manual, PR-218-9307 (AGA L51716), was
published in 1994. The Manual first discusses how an operator should respond to the
discovery of an anomaly or defect. It then reviews various repair methods that are
available and identifies appropriate repairs for the various types of defects. Finally, it
provides a set of generic guidelines for use of the various repair methods. It is based
on the state-of-the-art, accepted repair techniques, codes, and regulations in existence
at the time of its development and has become an important benchmark for the
development of pipeline damage assessment and repair strategies throughout the
natural gas pipeline industry. Since its publication, there have been significant changes
in codes and regulations as well as major advances in repair technology.
U.S. DOT Regulations have been revised to accept new methods of permanent
pipeline repair and to provide criteria for pipeline repair. GRI has completed extensive
studies of reinforced composite repairs; the repair materials and procedures are now
commercially available to pipeline operators. Others have developed similar composite
repair methods. PRCI has developed new methods for in-service repair of pipelines by
welding, and the in-service welding requirements of API and ASME Codes have been
revised. Several pipeline operators have extensively evaluated the use of steel
compression sleeves for repairing crack-like defects. Operators have also modified
procedures for the application of standard steel sleeves and developed methods for
improving and quantifying load transfer from the sleeve to the carrier pipe.
Complete replacement of damaged pipeline segments with new sections of pipe is
an obvious repair procedure. However, the replacement approach requires the pipeline
segment to be taken out of service during the repair. Repairs that can be implemented
without a service outage are preferred because they are less costly to implement than
those that require pipeline shutdown and they do not significantly impact gas supply.
The repair methods must satisfy the requirements of applicable codes, such as ASME
B31.8, and regulations, such as CFR Title 49, Part 192.
Because of these significant changes and developments in the gas pipeline
industry, it is necessary to update the Pipeline Repair Manual to incorporate new
information and include the best and most cost-effective practices that are available
worldwide.

TECHNICAL DISCUSSION
The project objectives, work to be performed, technical approach, end product,
schedule, and manpower requirements are discussed in this section of the proposal.

CC Technologies Laboratories, Inc.

Part I Technical Proposal (TP 274-3553)

Updated Pipeline Repair Manual

Objectives
The objective of the proposed work is to develop and produce an updated PRCI
Pipeline Repair Manual. The Manual will be in both printed and electronic versions.
Work to Be Performed
CC Technologies proposes to achieve the project objective by thoroughly reviewing
both existing and emerging pipeline repair technologies and then evaluating them in
comparison with those described in the current Pipeline Repair Manual. Based on the
comparative evaluations, areas of outdated or missing information will be identified. The
Manual then will be revised and expanded as required to update and add its contents.
There will be three steps in the review phase of the work. The first step will be a
review and evaluation of the published literature on pipeline repair techniques. The
literature review will concentrate on publications produced since 1994, when the current
Pipeline Repair Manual was issued. The second step will be a review and evaluation of
vendor publications and literature on repair techniques. We will contact vendors to
make sure that we have the latest information on their products. The list of vendors
contacted and incorporated into the manual will include linked Internet addresses for
their web sites to facilitate use of the list. The third step will be a review and evaluation
of industry experience with repair techniques for similar applications. Operators will be
contacted and interviewed to obtain their experience and recommendations. We also
will consider offshore repair techniques that have on-shore applications. Since we are
doing similar reviews on our current PRCI project on Permanent Field Repair of SCC
(GRI Contract Number 8511), we will expand that work to cover all types of anomalies
and defects.
CC Technologies extensive experience in pipeline integrity management uniquely
qualifies us to undertake the proposed work. One particularly important topic is
methods for evaluating the effectiveness versus cost of various repair techniques,
especially for crack-like anomalies or defects where past repairs have often been
replacement of pipe sections. Some repair techniques will either reduce the flaw
severity or reduce the stress in the carrier pipe. Use of these techniques requires
models for predicting the conditions for which no additional damage would be expected
to occur. The models and their use will be included with the discussion of each repair
applicable technique. Examples will be presented to illustrate their use in typical
applications.
As indicated above, CC Technologies will contact pipeline operators to obtain
information on their experience with repairs. Much of this information is available in our
files from past projects, and it will only be necessary to obtain permission to use it in the
proposed research. This work has been for both U.S. and Canadian companies.

CC Technologies Laboratories, Inc.

Part I Technical Proposal (TP 274-3553)

Updated Pipeline Repair Manual

The final product will be an updated printed and electronic Pipeline Repair Manual.
The electronic version will be indexed in Adobe Acrobat format, so it can be easily and
readily used in the field. The Manual will include both written descriptions and
illustrations of various repair methods, organized in a modular fashion to facilitate their
use. It also will include a generic repair procedure that can be used to upgrade or
develop a companys repair procedures. The generic procedure will be provided in an
electronic, as well as printed, format so that an operator can easily tailor it for specific
company use. The electronic version will include an interactive interface to facilitate
input of the information that is typically operator dependent.
Approach
We will prepare a written review of the recently published literature (since 1994) on
pipeline repair methods and incorporate the results into the updated Repair Manual. We
already have much of the relevant literature in our files from recent and current projects,
so we will just make sure that no recent information is excluded. For example, we will
review the proceedings of the ASME International Pipeline Conference (IPC) that is to
be held in Calgary, September 29 through October 3, 2002.
We also will prepare a written synopsis of vendor information on various applicable
repair techniques. Again, we have most of the relevant information in our files, so we
will only need to contact the vendors to obtain any recent updates on their products and
repair methods.
CC Technologies will contact pipeline operators to obtain information on their
experience with repairs. Much of this information is available in our files from past
industrial projects. In these cases, it will only be necessary to obtain permission to use
that information on the proposed research. This includes work for both United States
and Canadian companies that have addressed repairs of various types of defects in
operating pipelines.
Once the information has been collected, we will evaluate and compare it with that
in the current Manual. Areas of the Manual where revisions and additions are required
will be identified. Based on these results, the Manual will be updated.
End Product
This project will produce an updated printed and electronic PRCI Pipeline Repair
Manual. The electronic version will facilitate field use and development of company
specific procedures. The discussion of response to discovery of an anomaly or defect
will take into account current codes and regulations. A summary table and flowchart of
various repair options will be produced. It will indicate the types of anomalies or defects
that can be repaired by each technique and the advantages and disadvantages of each

CC Technologies Laboratories, Inc.

Part I Technical Proposal (TP 274-3553)

Updated Pipeline Repair Manual

technique, including relative costs. The techniques to be included are pipe removal and
replacement, grinding of metal, deposition of weld metal, steel sleeves, composite
reinforcement, mechanical clamps, and hot taps. Methods of evaluating the effect of
metal removal will be included in the discussion of grinding. Acceptable procedures for
in-service welding will be presented. For reinforcement repairs, methods of determining
load transfer will be presented. The generic repair procedure will incorporate the new
and improved techniques.
Schedule
The proposed project will be completed within one year of the receipt of the
contract.
Manpower Requirements
CC Technologies estimates that the following hours of manpower will be required to
complete the proposed work:

Senior Group Leader


Project Engineer
Technologist
Office Staff/Total

90
360
205
70

No subcontractors will be used. Based on the above requirements, the estimated


project cost is $75,000. A detailed cost breakdown is given in Part II Cost Proposal.

SUPPORTING DATA
Supporting data on CC Technologies are included in this section of the proposal.
They include organizational information, a discussion of corporate qualifications,
descriptions of related past projects, and a description of available facilities.
Organization Information
CC Technologies is an engineering and research firm specializing in corrosion
control, corrosion monitoring, and materials evaluation. We have laboratories in
Columbus, Ohio and Calgary, Alberta, with a staff that includes Ph.D. scientists and
engineers in a number of relevant fields including corrosion, metallurgical, mechanical,
and welding engineering.
Dr. Carl E. Jaske, P.E. will be the Principal Investigator on the proposed project. His
resume is given in Appendix A. Dr. Jaske has conducted numerous investigations of
pipeline and equipment mechanical integrity and fitness for service. His work includes
studies of SCC, fatigue, fracture, and creep, as well as development of the CorLAS
computer program for the assessment of crack-like flaws in pipelines. In addition,
CC Technologies Laboratories, Inc.

Part I Technical Proposal (TP 274-3553)

Updated Pipeline Repair Manual

Dr. Jaske has worked with pipeline operators in the development of pipeline repair
manuals and procedures, including innovative procedures for application to crack-like
flaws.
Mr. Patrick H. Vieth of CC Technologies will serve as a technical advisor. Mr. Vieth
is well known for his pipeline integrity work. Resumes are given in Appendix A.
Corporate Qualifications
CC Technologies is a contract research and engineering organization that
specializes in corrosion control, metallurgy, and structural integrity. The combination of
research and engineering experience permits CC Technologies to provide our clients
with research results that are tempered by engineering applicability and engineering
services that are of the highest quality from both practical and fundamental aspects.
CC Technologies is highly qualified to perform the proposed research program.
Since its inception in 1985, CC Technologies has grown to a staff of over ninety people
that includes Ph.D. scientists, M.S. researchers, and B.S. engineers. Degrees earned
by the staff cover a range of relevant disciplines, including, Metallurgical Engineering,
Materials Science, Mechanical Engineering, Theoretical and Applied Mechanics,
Chemical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, and Civil Engineering, and Geology.
The highly qualified staff at CC Technologies has performed research for PRCI,
GRI, and individual pipeline companies on underground corrosion, cathodic protection,
and stress corrosion cracking since inception of the company in 1985.
Related Project Descriptions
Presented below is a list of projects that were performed by members of the
CC Technologies staff and are specifically related to the proposed project. Highlighted
for each project description are the accomplishments of the particular project, the client,
and the principal investigator.
Permanent Field Repair of SCC Review. This research project is exploring the fieldcompatible techniques for permanently repairing SCC cracks and colonies without the
need for service interruption. A review report is being prepared.
C. E. Jaske PRCI (GRI Contract No. 8511), One year, 2002
Evaluation And Use Of A Steel Compression Sleeve To Repair Longitudinal
Seam-Weld Defects. An engineering evaluation of a steel compression sleeve as a
means to repair longitudinal seam-weld defects in pipelines was performed. The
technique was used in a subsequent field program in which more than 200 such repair
sleeves were installed on an operating crude oil pipeline. The steel compression sleeve
evaluated has been commercially available since 1994 and has been installed on NPS
6 to NPS 42 pipelines in Canada and Mexico; primarily as a means to repair stress
CC Technologies Laboratories, Inc.

Part I Technical Proposal (TP 274-3553)

Updated Pipeline Repair Manual

corrosion cracking, corrosion, and dents. The field program undertaken in 2000
represents the first use of this repair sleeve in the United States.
C. E. Jaske Industrial Client, One year, 2000
Compression Sleeve Repair of Gas Pipeline. CC Technologies developed a
simplified model for evaluating the effectiveness of compression steel sleeves. It
included the effect of load transfer between the sleeve and carrier pipe as a function of
internal pressure, filler material, and sleeve temperature. The model was validated by
finite-element stress analysis and strain-gage measurements on test sleeve
installations.
TransCanada Pipelines
Sleeve Repair of Crack-Like Defects in ERW Seams in an Oil Pipeline.
CC Technologies performed an engineering critical assessment (ECA) to develop
guidelines for repair of crack-like defects in ERW seams in an oil pipeline. The
evaluation included the detection capabilities of in-line inspection, the possibility of
fatigue crack propagation, and the potential of fracture.
Industrial Client
Pipeline Repair Manual. CC Technologies developed a pipeline repair manual for the
operator of an oil pipeline. The manual included procedures for various repair options
that can be implemented depending on the type of defect encountered. The manual
was approved by the U.S. DOT.
Industrial Client
Compression Sleeve Repair of Oil Pipeline. CC Technologies helped implement the
first US use of a steel compression sleeve for pipeline repair. The method can be used
to permanently repair longitudinal defects on an operating pipeline, including crack-like
defects in ERW seams. The method is non-intrusive and requires no welding to the
carrier pipe. In comparison with a Type B sleeve, which relies on tapping through the
pipe and the sleeve to reduce hoop stress, the steel sleeve applies compression to the
carrier pipe to reduce the hoop stress and prevent crack growth. Evaluation of the
sleeve included measuring mechanical properties of the three different steels, modeling
of the stresses in the carrier pipe and in the sleeve, and full-scale burst and fatigue
testing.
AEC Pipelines Ltd.'s Platte Pipeline
Environmentally Assisted Cracking
Low-pH SCC: Mechanical Effects on Crack Propagation The objective of this PRCI
program was to determine the effects of mechanical factors such as hydrotesting on
low-pH stress corrosion crack growth. All testing was performed in a low-pH (nearneutral-pH) electrolyte (NS4 solution) under cyclic load conditions on pre-cracked
specimens of one X-65 line pipe steel. The cyclic load conditions in the testing were
related to field conditions using the J-integral parameter. Crack growth was initiated in
specimens under cyclic load conditions. Once steady state crack growth had been

CC Technologies Laboratories, Inc.

Part I Technical Proposal (TP 274-3553)

Updated Pipeline Repair Manual

achieved, a typical hydrostatic test sequence was applied to the specimen. The initial
cyclic load conditions were then reapplied to the specimen and crack growth was
monitored to evaluate the effect of the hydrostatic testing on the rate of crack growth. It
was found that some crack extension occurred during the simulated hydrostatic test
sequence but the hydrostatic testing also promoted a decrease in the cracking velocity.
The magnitude of the crack extension was slightly greater than that observed upon
reloading, following unloading of the specimens. It was concluded that hydrostatic
testing is no more harmful than simple depressurization of a pipeline.
J. A. Beavers CC Technologies, PRC International, 1994 1996
Investigations of Propagation of Low-pH SCC The objectives of this research for
TransCanada Pipelines included: (1) to develop a laboratory technique to simulate the
propagation of low-pH SCC, (2) to estimate rates of crack propagation, and (3) to
evaluate the effects of environmental and metallurgical factors such as welding and pipe
steel grade on crack growth rates. In this research, CC Technologies was one of the
first laboratories to reproduce this form of cracking in the laboratory. An experimental
technique that utilizes pre-crack compact type specimens was developed in the
laboratory studies. The crack propagation rate information generated in the research
has been utilized to assist TCPL in establishing safe hydrostatic testing intervals. The
studies of metallurgical factors have demonstrated that some weld structures exhibit
much higher crack propagation rates than the wrought steel.
J. A. Beavers TransCanada Pipelines Ltd., 1992 1997
Assessment Of Line Pipe Susceptibility To Stress Corrosion Cracking Under
Tape, Enamel And Fusion Bonded Epoxy Coatings. The objectives of this PRC
program were to evaluate the susceptibility of line pipe to stress corrosion cracking
(SCC) when coated with polyethylene (PE) tape, coal tar enamel (CTE), and fusion
bonded epoxy (FBE) and to establish whether SCC can occur on FBE coated pipelines.
The program was divided into two tasks: Task 1 - Coating Characterization, and Task 2
- SCC Testing. The purposes of Task 1 were: (1) to establish a standard specimen
geometry, incorporating a disbonded coating, for electrochemical and SCC tests, (2) to
evaluate the effect of coating type on the potential gradients beneath a disbonded
coating, and (3) to correlate the testing described above with standard industrial tests
for coating evaluation. In Task 1, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and
other electrochemical techniques were used for coating characterization. The purpose
of Task 2 was to evaluate the individual and combined roles of surface preparation and
cathodic protection shielding on SCC susceptibility. Two types of SCC tests were
performed. Tapered Tensile SCC tests are being performed on uncoated specimens of
line pipe steel to evaluate the role of surface preparation alone on SCC surface
susceptibility. Cyclic load SCC tests were performed on coated straight-sided tensile
specimens to evaluate the roles of cathodic protection shielding and surface preparation
on SCC susceptibility.
J. A. Beavers CCT, American Gas Association (1989-1991).
Investigation Of Line Pipe Steel That Is Highly Resistant To SCC. Principal
Investigator on a Pipeline Research Committee of the American Gas Association

CC Technologies Laboratories, Inc.

Part I Technical Proposal (TP 274-3553)

Updated Pipeline Repair Manual

(A.G.A.) program in which the relationship between metallurgical characteristics of line


pipe steel and stress corrosion cracking susceptibility was investigated. The goal of this
work was to understand the influence of processing parameters on those characteristics
that control SCC susceptibility so that steels can be made consistently resistant to SCC.
Experimental techniques used included potentiodynamic polarization, slow strain rate
and constant load and fracture mechanics tests.
J. A. Beavers - CCT, Client: American Gas Association (1983-1984).
Test Method For Defining Susceptibility Of Line Pipe Steels To SCC. Principal
Investigator on an A.G.A. program in which a standardized test method for defining the
SCC susceptibility of line pipe steels was developed. Previous studies had identified
the optimum environmental conditions and specimen geometry for performing such an
evaluation and the aim of the work was to identify the optimum loading conditions and
test time.
J. A. Beavers - CCT, Client: American Gas Association (1984-1986).
Modeling Of Stress-Corrosion Crack Initiation And Propagation. Program Manager
of a program in which the initiation and propagation of stress-corrosion cracking in
natural gas pipelines were being modeled. The goals of the research included the
development of a methodology to estimate hydrostatic retest frequencies in operating
pipelines and the development of SCC resistant steels.
J. A. Beavers - CCT, Industrial Client (1986).
Surface Related Factors Affecting Stress-Corrosion Cracking.
Principal
Investigator of an A.G.A. program to investigate the surface related factors affecting
SCC initiation. The objective of the research was to identify those surface factors that
affect and control SCC initiation to reduce the variation in the results of SCC tests and
to optimize surface properties of operating pipelines.
J. A. Beavers - CCT, Client: The American Gas Association (1985).
Limitations Of The Slow Strain Rate Test For Stress Corrosion Cracking Testing.
Materials Technology Institute of the Chemical Process Industries (MTI) Report
Number 61. The overall objective of the program, which was performed for MTI, was to
determine if SSR testing methods yield useful data in predicting SCC susceptibility of
metals used in the Chemical Process Industry (CPI). The specific objectives of the
Year 1 research were to identify the alloy-environment systems in which the SSR
technique produces anomalous SCC results, identify which test variables must be
controlled to make the SSR test results applicable to the CPI, identify the limitations of
the SSR test technique, and identify what further program support is needed to resolve
unanswered questions. The open literature was surveyed and contacts were made
within the industry by means of a questionnaire and follow-up telephone calls.
J. A. Beavers and G. H. Koch, Client: MTI. (1990)
Stress Corrosion Cracking Of Low Strength Carbon Steels In Candidate High
Level Waste Repository Environments. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Report
NUREG/CR-3861, February 1987. Co-authors on a report of a literature survey

CC Technologies Laboratories, Inc.

Part I Technical Proposal (TP 274-3553)

Updated Pipeline Repair Manual

performed to identify the potential stress corrosion cracking agents for low strength
carbon and low alloy steels in repository environments. It was found that a number of
potent cracking agents are present, but stress corrosion cracking is relatively unlikely in
the bulk repository environments because of the low concentration of these species.
J. A. Beavers, N. G. Thompson - CCT, Client: Nuclear Regulatory Comm. (1985-1986).
Stress Corrosion Cracking Environments. A series of programs to establish the
likely stress corrosion cracking environment containing CO2 for buried gas pipelines.
The work includes examining changes to the environment at the pipe surface and
beneath a coating during cathodic protection in the presence of CO2.
J. A. Beavers - CCT, Industrial Client (1988).
Estimating Intervals For Hydrostatic Retesting. Developed a Monte Carlo type
model for estimating the safe time between hydrotests for a pipeline in which stress
corrosion cracks are propagating.
J. A. Beavers - CCT, Industrial Client (1987).
Facilities
CC Technologies is a fully equipped corrosion testing and research laboratory
specializing in the evaluation of materials properties, materials selection, corrosion,
corrosion control, and design and development of instrumentation and engineering
software. CC Technologies has continued to grow since its inception in 1985 and has
more than 25,000 square feet of space in its current office and laboratory facility.

CONTRACT REQUIREMENTS
CC Technologies accepts the terms and conditions of its current standard contract
agreements with PRC International. This same type of contract is proposed for this
work.

CC Technologies Laboratories, Inc.

APPENDIX A
Rsums

6141 Avery Road, Dublin, OH 43016-8761 USA


TEL 614-761-1214
FAX 614-761-1633

CARL E. JASKE, Ph.D., P.E.


Dr. Jaske is Senior Group Leader of Materials Engineering and Research for CC Technologies.
He is leading work in the areas of mechanical integrity, fitness-for-service, and remaining-life
assessment of structures and equipment. He has developed the www.Fitness4Service.com
web site and a short course on the API 579 Fitness-For-Service recommended practice. His
work includes projects on fatigue, corrosion-fatigue, creep, creep-crack growth, hightemperature properties, in-service aging, and failure analysis of structural materials. These
projects typically incorporate both analytical assessments and experimental evaluations of
failure lives and material damage. Much of his work has been concerned with relating the
physical metallurgy of carbon steels, low-alloy steels, stainless steels, and heat-resistant alloys
to their mechanical properties and in-service aging. This research includes wrought products,
castings, and weldments.
Dr. Jaske has evaluated the effects of elevated temperatures and corrosive environments on
mechanical properties of materials. He has developed and applied fracture-mechanics
approaches for assessing creep, fatigue, and stress-corrosion cracking degradation and failure
of engineering components, such as in-service pressure vessels and piping. He has served on
industry and government advisory groups for life extension and remaining life assessment of
key engineering equipment and facilities. Also, he has developed computer programs for life
assessment of welded steam pipes, reformer furnace tubes, and pressure vessels.
A major portion of Dr. Jaskes work, since joining CC Technologies in 1990, has addressed the
mechanical integrity of oil and gas pipelines. He developed a model for predicting the failure
and remaining life of pipelines with local defects, including crack-like flaws, and commercialized
the CorLAS computer program to make the model easily usable by engineers. His work on
pipelines includes evaluations of stress-corrosion cracks, corrosion flaws, weld defects, dents,
gouges, and dents with corrosion. He utilizes inspection and operational data to predict failures
and remaining service life and advises companies on implementing and maintaining appropriate
integrity programs.
Education
B.S.,
B.S.,
M.S.,
Ph.D.,

Liberal Arts and Sciences (Mathematics) with High Honors, University of Illinois
General Engineering with Highest Honors, University of Illinois
Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, University of Illinois
Metallurgical Engineering, The Ohio State University

Experience
Senior Group Leader
Senior Research Scientist

CC Technologies
Battelle Memorial Institute

1991 Present
1967 1990

Resume: Carl E. Jaske, Ph.D., P.E.


Page 2
Professional Organizations
Fellow, American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
Member, American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
Member, NACE International
Professional Activities
Program Chair, ASME Pipeline Systems Subdivision
Associate Editor, Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology
Past Chair, ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping (PVP) Division
Past Chair of Central Ohio Section of ASME
Technical Program Chairman (1992) and General Chairman (1993) of ASME PVP Conferences
API Working Group on Pipeline Integrity Management Standard
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Committee, Subgroup on Fatigue Strength
ASTM Committee E8 on Fatigue and Fracture
Short Courses/Forums/Tutorials
ASME Short Course on API-579 Fitness-For-Service Evaluation of Vessels, Tanks, and Piping
ASME Short Course on Assessment of Material Aging and Prediction of Remaining Life
Developer of NDE Demonstration Forum, 1996-2001 ASME PVP Conferences
Tutorial on Remaining Life Prediction, 1987 PVP Conference
Tutorial on Assessment of Material Degradation in Service, 1989 PVP Conference
Tutorial on Life Extension and Remaining Life Assessment, 1995 PVP Conference
Engineering Registration
Dr. Jaske is a Registered Professional Engineer in the States of Ohio and Alaska.
Relevant Experience
Integrity of Oil and Gas Pipelines. Performed numerous projects on evaluating the integrity of
oil and gas pipelines, including failure analyses. The CorLAS computer program was
developed to predict the failure of pipelines with local defects, including crack-like flaws. An
independent evaluation of available models for assessing SCC flaws showed that CorLAS
gave the most accurate predictions of fourteen actual Canadian pipeline failures. Other projects
include evaluation of stresses during hot tapping, assessment of dents and gouges, and
predictions of remaining fatigue life.
Fatigue Strength Reduction Factors for Welds. Completed an interpretative review of fatigue
strength reduction and stress concentration factors for welds in pressure vessels and piping for
the Welding Research Council (Bulletin 432, June 1998). Available procedures for evaluating
the fatigue strength of welded structures were reviewed and evaluated. Guidelines for
developing weld-joint fatigue strength reduction factors were developed.
Aging of Nuclear Power Plant Components. Participated in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory
Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program to help develop methodology for
residual-life assessment of key safety-related nuclear-plant components, including evaluation of
the thermal embrittlement of cast stainless steels.

Resume: Carl E. Jaske, Ph.D., P.E.


Page 3
Relevant Experience (Continued)
Remaining Life Assessment. Conducted numerous projects to assess the remaining life of
operating equipment in industrial plants. This work included testing and examination of material
samples and analytical calculations. Examples of equipment that have been evaluated include
steam-turbine rotors, steam pipes, reformer furnace tubes, headers, superheater and reheater
tubes, and pressure vessels.
Creep-Fatigue Crack Growth. Developed a fracture-mechanics model and life-assessment
approach for creep-fatigue crack growth interaction effects and performed creep, low-cycle
fatigue, and creep-fatigue crack propagation experiments on Type 316 Stainless Steel.
Creep Fracture and Creep-Fatigue Life of Welded Steam Lines. Developed personal
computer codes to help assess the remaining creep and creep-fatigue life and the potential for
unstable fracture of 2-1/4Cr-1Mo and 1-1/4Cr-1/2Mo welded steam pipes, including seamwelded hot reheat steam lines.
Failure Analyses. Performed failure analyses of various components used in industrial
equipment, including the failure of a large motor shaft, the failure of a generator rotor, the failure
of a mold used for casting bronze alloys, steam pipe failures, and failures of fired furnace tubes.
Long-Life Corrosion Fatigue Evaluation for the Development of Alloys Used in PaperMaking Equipment. Performed long-life (107 to 109 cycles to failure) corrosion-fatigue studies
of cast alloys--bronze, martensitic stainless steel, austenitic stainless steel, and duplex stainless
steel--in white water (low pH, chloride, sulfate, thiosulfate) environments; to realistically simulate
expected service conditions, tests have been performed at low stresses for periods of several
months to more than one year.
Selected Publications
1.

C. E. Jaske and H. Mindlin, Elevated-Temperature Low-Cycle Fatigue Behavior of 21/4Cr-1Mo and 1Cr-1Mo-1/4V Steels, 2-1/4 Chrome 1 Molybdenum Steel in Pressure
Vessels and Piping, ASME, New York (1971), pp. 137-210.

2.

C. E. Jaske, et al., Combined Low-Cycle Fatigue and Stress-Relaxation Behavior of


Alloy 800 and Type 304 Stainless Steel at Elevated Temperature, Fatigue at Elevated
Temperatures, STP 520, ASTM, Philadelphia (1973), pp. 365-376.

3.

C. E. Jaske, et al., Development of Elevated-Temperature Fatigue Design Information


for Type 316 Stainless Steel, Paper C163/73, International conference on Creep and
Fatigue in Elevated-Temperature Applications, Conference Publication 13, I. Mech. E.,
London (1973), pp. 163.1-163.7.

4.

C. E. Jaske, Thermal-Mechanical, Low-Cycle Fatigue of AISI 1010 Steel, Thermal


Fatigue of Materials and Components, STP 612, ASTM, Philadelphia (1976), pp. 170198.

5.

C. E. Jaske, Low-Cycle Fatigue of AISI 1010 Steel at Temperatures Up to 1200F


(649C), Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, Vol. 99, No. 3 (1977), pp. 423-443.

6.

C. E. Jaske and W. J. O'Donnell, Fatigue Design Criteria for Pressure Vessel Alloys,
Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, Vol. 99, No. 4 (1977), pp. 584-592.

Resume: Carl E. Jaske, Ph.D., P.E.


Page 4
Selected Publications (Continued)
7.

C. E. Jaske, Corrosion Fatigue of Structural Steels in Seawater and for Offshore


Applications, Corrosion-Fatigue Technology, STP 642, ASTM, Philadelphia (1978),
pp. 19-47.

8.

C. E. Jaske and J. A. Begley, An Approach to Assessing Creep/Fatigue Crack Growth,


Ductility and Toughness Considerations in Elevated Temperature Service, MPC-8,
ASME, New York (1978), pp. 391-409.

9.

C. E. Jaske and N. D. Frey, Long-Life of Type 316 Stainless Steel at Temperatures up


to 593C, Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology, Vol. 104, No. 2 (1982),
pp. 137-144.

10.

C. E. Jaske, et al., Predict Reformer Furnace Tube Life, Hydrocarbon Processing, Vol.
62, No. 1 (1983), pp. 63-68.

11.

C. E. Jaske, Creep-Fatigue-Crack Growth in Type 316 Stainless Steel, Advances in


Life Prediction Methods, ASME, New York (1983), pp. 93-103.

12.

With F. A. Simonen, A Computational Model for Predicting the Life of Tubes Used in
Petrochemical Heater Service, Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, Vol. 107, No. 3
(1985), pp. 239-246.

13.

C. E. Jaske, Long-Term Creep-Crack Growth Behavior of Type 316 Stainless Steel,


Fracture Mechanics: Eighteenth Symposium, STP 945, ASTM, Philadelphia (1988), pp.
867-877.

14.

C. E. Jaske and A. P. Castillo, Corrosion Fatigue of Cast Suction-Roll Alloys in


Simulated Paper-Making Environments, Materials Performance, Vol. 26, No. 4 (1987),
pp. 37-43.

15.

C. E. Jaske, Techniques for Examination and Metallurgical Damage Assessment of


Pressure Vessels, Performance and Evaluation of Light Water Reactor Pressure
Vessels, ASME, New York (1987), pp. 103-114.

16.

C. E. Jaske and R. W. Swindeman, Long-Term Creep and Creep-Crack-Growth


Behavior of 9Cr-1Mo-V-Nb Steel, Advances in Materials Technology for Fossil Power
Plants, ASM International, Metals Park, Ohio (1987), pp. 251-258.

17.

C. E. Jaske, Life Assessment of Hot Reheat Steam Pipe, Paper 2.9.2, Proc,
International Conference on Life Extension and Assessment, Volume II, The Hague,
Netherlands (June 13-15, 1988), pp. 185-193 [also in the Journal of Pressure Vessel
Technology, Vol. 112, No. 1 (1990), pp. 20-27.]

18.

C. E. Jaske, Fatigue Curve Needs for Higher Strength 2-1/4Cr-1Mo Steel for Petroleum
Process Vessels, Fatigue Initiation, Propagation, and Analysis for Code Construction,
MPC Vol. 29, ASME, New York (1988), pp. 181-195 [also in the Journal of Pressure
Vessel Technology, Vol. 112, No. 4 (1990), pp. 323-332.]

Resume: Carl E. Jaske, Ph.D., P.E.


Page 5
Selected Publications (Continued)
19.

C. E. Jaske and V. N. Shah, Life Assessment Procedure for LWR Cast Stainless Steel
Components, Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Environmental
Degradation of Materials in Nuclear Power Systems-Water Reactors, National
Association of Corrosion Engineers, Houston, Texas (1990), pp. 3-66 to 3-83.

20.

C. E. Jaske and V. N. Shah, Life Assessment Procedures for Major LWR Components:
Cast Stainless Steel Components, NUREG/CR-5314, EGG-2562, Vol. 3 (October,
1990).

21.

With B. S. Majumdar and M. P. Manahan, Creep Crack Growth Characterization of


Type 316 Stainless Steel Using Miniature Specimens, International Journal of Fracture,
Vol. 47 (1991), pp. 127-144.

22.

C. E. Jaske and R. Viswanathan, Predict Remaining Life of Equipment for High


Temperature-Pressure Service, Paper Number 213, Corrosion 90, Las Vegas, Nevada
(April 23-27, 1990).

23.

C. E. Jaske and R. Viswanathan, Remaining-Life Prediction for Equipment in HighTemperature/Pressure Service, Materials Performance, Vol. 30, No. 4 (1991), pp. 6167.

24.

With A. P. Castillo and G. M. Michel, Sandusky Alloy 86, A New Suction Roll Shell
Material with Improved Corrosion-Fatigue Strength in Corrosive White Waters,
presented at the 24th EUCEPA Technical Conference, SPCI 90 International Exhibition,
Stockholm, Sweden (May 7-10, 1990).

25.

With B. S. Majumdar, Creep-Fatigue Crack Growth in 9Cr-1Mo-V-Nb Steel, presented


at the 1991 ASME Pressure Vessel and Piping Conference, San Diego, California (June
23 27, 1991).

26.

C. E. Jaske and F. A. Simonen, Creep-Rupture Properties For Use In The Life


Assessment Of Fired Heater Tubes, Proceedings of the First International Conference
On Heat-Resistant Materials, ASM International (1991), pp. 485-493.

27.

With G. H. Koch, Prediction of Remaining Life of Equipment Operating in Corrosive


Environments, NACE Conference on Life Prediction of Corrodible Structures,
Cambridge, UK (September 23-26, 1991) and Kauai, Hawaii (November 5-8, 1991).

28.

C. E. Jaske and G. H. Koch, Failure and Damage Mechanisms Embrittlement,


Corrosion, Fatigue, and Creep, Technology for the 90s, ASME, New York (July, 1993),
pp., 7-39.

29.

C. E. Jaske, Review of Materials Property Relationships for Use in Computerized Life


Assessment, Fourth International Symposium of the Computerization and Use of
Materials Property Data, ASTM, Gaithersburg, Maryland (October 6-8, 1993).

30.

C. E. Jaske, Life Prediction in High-Temperature Structural Materials, Fatigue and


Fracture of Aerospace Structural Materials, AD-Vol. 36, ASME, New York (1993),
pp. 59-71.

Resume: Carl E. Jaske, Ph.D., P.E.


Page 6
Selected Publications (Continued)
31.

C. E. Jaske, The Effects of High-Temperature Exposure on the Properties of HeatResistant Alloys, Paper No. 397, Corrosion 94, Baltimore (February 28-March 4, 1994).

32.

C. E. Jaske, Remaining Life Evaluation of Pressure Vessels and Piping General


Approach and Case Histories, 3rd International Conference & Exhibition on Improving
Reliability in Petroleum Refineries and Chemical Plants, Houston (November 15-18,
1994).

33.

C. E. Jaske, Review of Materials Property Relationships for Use in Computerized Life


Assessment, Computerization and Networking of Materials Databases, STP 1257,
ASTM, Philadelphia (1995), pp. 194-208.

34.

With B. A. Harle and J. A. Beavers, Mechanical and Metallurgical Effects on Low-pH


Stress Corrosion Cracking of Natural Gas Pipelines, Paper No. 646, Corrosion 95,
NACE International, Houston (1995).

35.

C. E. Jaske and R. Viswanathan, Properties of Cr-Mo Steels after Long-Term HighTemperature Service, Service Experience, Structural Integrity, Severe Accidents, and
Erosion in Nuclear and Fossil Plants, PVP-Vol. 303, ASME, New York (1995), pp.
235-245.

36.

C. E. Jaske, Remaining Life Assessment of High-Temperature Components, HeatResistant Materials II, Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on HeatResistant Materials, ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio (1995), pp. 405-412.

37.

C. E. Jaske, J. A. Beavers, and N. G. Thompson, Improving Plant Reliability Through


Corrosion Monitoring, Fourth International Conference on Process Plant Reliability, Gulf
Publishing Company, Houston (November 14-17, 1995).

38.

C. E. Jaske and J. A. Beavers Effect of Corrosion and Stress-Corrosion Cracking on


Pipe Integrity and Remaining Life, Proceedings of the Second International Symposium
on the Mechanical Integrity of Process Piping, MTI Publication No. 48, Materials
Technology Institute of the Chemical Process Industries, Inc., St. Louis (1996),
pp. 287-297.

39.

C. E. Jaske, J. A. Beavers, and B. A. Harle, Effect of Stress Corrosion Cracking on


Integrity and Remaining Life of Natural Gas Pipelines, Corrosion 96, Denver, Colorado,
March 1996, NACE Paper No. 255.

40.

C. E. Jaske and J. A. Beavers, Fitness-for-Service Evaluation of Pipelines in GroundWater Environments, PRCI / EPRG 11th Biennial Joint Technical Meeting on Line Pipe
Research; Arlington, Virginia; April 8 10, 1997; Paper No. 12.

41.

J. A. Beavers and C. E. Jaske, Near-Neutral pH SCC In Pipelines: Effects Of Pressure


Fluctuations On Crack Propagation, Corrosion NACExpo 98, NACE International, Paper
No. 98257, San Diego, California (March 1998).

42.

C. E. Jaske and J. A. Beavers, Review and Proposed Improvement of a Failure Model


for SCC of Pipelines, International Pipeline Conference Volume 1, ASME
International, New York, 1998, pp. 439-445.

Resume: Carl E. Jaske, Ph.D., P.E.


Page 7
Selected Publications (Continued)
43.

C. E. Jaske, Interpretive Review of Weld Fatigue-Strength-Reduction and StressConcentration Factors," Fatigue Strength Reduction and Stress Concentration Factors
for Welds in Pressure Vessels and Piping, WRC Bulletin 432, Welding Research
Council, Inc., New York, June, 1998.

44.

C. E. Jaske, Integrity and Remaining Life of High-Temperature Equipment, CIM


Symposium on Materials for Resource Recovery and Transport, Calgary, Alberta,
Canada, August 16 19, 1998.

45.

C. E. Jaske and J. A. Beavers, Predicting the Failure and Remaining Life of Gas
Pipelines Subject to Stress Corrosion Cracking, International Gas Research
Conference, San Diego, California; November 8 11, 1998; Paper TS0-13.

46.

J. A. Beavers and C. E. Jaske, SCC of Underground Pipelines: A History of The


Development of Test Techniques, Corrosion NACExpo 99, NACE International, Paper
No. 99142, San Antonio, Texas (April 1999).

47.

C. E. Jaske and J. A. Beavers, "Fitness-For-Service Evaluation of Pipelines with StressCorrosion Cracks or Local Corrosion," International Conference on Advances in Welding
Technology (ICAWT 99), Galveston, Texas USA, October 26-28, 1999.

48.

With M. P. H. Brongers, J. A. Beavers and B. S. Delanty, Influence of Line-Pipe Steel


Metallurgy on Ductile Tearing of Stress-Corrosion Cracks During Simulated Hydrostatic
Testing," 2000 International Pipeline Conference Volume 2, ASME International, New
York, 2000, pp. 743-756.

49.

With M. P. H. Brongers, J. A. Beavers and B. S. Delanty, Effect of Hydrostatic Testing


on Ductile Tearing of X-65 Linepipe Steel with Stress Corrosion Cracks," Corrosion, Vol.
56, No. 10, 2000, pp. 1050-1058.

50.

C. E. Jaske and J. A. Beavers, "Fitness-For-Service Assessment for Pipelines Subject to


SCC," Pipeline Pigging, Integrity Assessment, and Repair Conference, Houston, Texas,
February 1-2, 2000.

51.

M. P. Brongers and C. E. Jaske, "Creep-Rupture of Service-Exposed Base Metal and


Weldments of Alloy 800H," Aging Management, Component and Piping Analysis,
Nondestructive Engineering Monitoring and Diagnostics 2000, PVP-Vol. 409, ASME
International, New York, 2000, pp. 143-153.

52.

C. E. Jaske, "Fatigue Strength Reduction Factors for Welds in Pressure Vessels and
Piping," Pressure Vessels and Piping Codes and Standards 2000, PVP-Vol. 407,
ASME International, New York, 2000, pp. 279-297.

53.

C. E. Jaske, "Fatigue Strength Reduction Factors for Welds in Pressure Vessels and
Piping," Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, Vol. 122, No. 3, 2000, pp. 297-304.

54.

C. E. Jaske and R. Viswanathan, "Use of Miniature Specimens for Creep-Crack-Growth


Testing," Understanding and Predicting Material Degradation, PVP-Vol. 413, ASME
International, New York, 2000, pp. 69-79.

Resume: Carl E. Jaske, Ph.D., P.E.


Page 8
Selected Publications (Continued)
55.

C. E. Jaske and R. Viswanathan, "Use of Miniature Specimens for Creep-Crack-Growth


Testing," Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology, Vol. 122, No. 3, 2000, pp.
327-332.

56.

C. E. Jaske and John A. Beavers, Evaluating the Remaining Strength and Life of
Pipelines Subject to Local Corrosion or Cracking. NACE Northern Area Premiere
Conference (Corrosion Prevention 2000), Toronto, Ontario, Canada, November 2000.

57.

P. H. Vieth, D. A. Soenjoto, and C. E. Jaske, Transverse Field Inspection (TFI) Program


Results, 52nd Annual Pipeline Conference, San Antonio, Texas USA, April 17-18, 2001.

58.

C. E. Jaske, Development of Miniature-Specimen Test Techniques For Measuring


Creep-Crack-Growth Behavior, The 7th International Conference on Creep and Fatigue
at Elevated Temperatures, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Japan,
June 3-8, 2001.

59.

M. P. Brongers, C. J. Maier, C. E. Jaske, P. H. Vieth, M. D. Wright, and R. J. Smyth,


Tests, Field Use Support Compression Sleeve for Seam-Weld Repair, Oil & Gas
Journal, Volume 99.24, pp. 60 66, June 11, 2001.

60.

M. P. Brongers, C. J. Maier, C. E. Jaske, P. H. Vieth, M. D. Wright, and R. J. Smyth,


Evaluation and Use of a Steel Compression Sleeve to Repair Longitudinal Seam-Weld
Defects, 52nd Annual Pipeline Conference, San Antonio, TX, April 17 18, 2001.

61.

B. E. Shannon and C. E. Jaske, A Practical Life Assessment Approach For Hydrogen


Reformer Tubes, Proceedings of NACE International Northern Area Conference,
Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, February 18-21, 2002.

62.

C. E. Jaske, P. H. Vieth, and J. A. Beavers, Assessment of Crack-Like Flaws in


Pipelines, Corrosion NACExpo 2002, NACE International, Paper No. 02089, Denver,
Colorado (April 2002).

Books and Software


C. E. Jaske, J. H. Payer and V. S. Balint, Corrosion Fatigue of Metals in Marine Environments,
Battelle Press, Columbus Ohio (1981).
C. E. Jaske, Coordinating Editor, Residual-Life Assessment, Nondestructive Examination, and
Nuclear Heat Exchanger Materials, PVP-Vol. 98-1, ASME, New York (1985).
C. E. Jaske, et al., Editors, Life Extension and Assessment: Nuclear and Fossil Power-Plant
Components, PVP-Vol. 138/NDE-Vol. 4, ASME, New York (1988).
With W. H. Bamford and R. C. Cipolla, Editors, Service Experience in Operating Plants 1991,
PVP-Vol. 221, ASME, New York (1991).
ReHeat12, pcTUBE, and CreepLife computer programs for life assessment of hightemperature steam pipes, furnace tubes, and pressure vessels.

Resume: Carl E. Jaske, Ph.D., P.E.


Page 9
Books and Software (Continued)
CorLAS computer program for evaluating the effects of corrosion and stress-corrosion cracking
on the structural integrity of pipes and vessels.

6141 Avery Road, Dublin, OH 43016-8761 USA


TEL 614-761-1214
FAX 614-761-1633

PATRICK H. VIETH
Mr. Vieth is Vice President of CC Technologies Services, Inc., (CC Technologies). Mr. Vieth is a
Mechanical Engineer and has fifteen years of experience in the field of pressure vessel fracture
behavior and defect assessment methods for transmission pipeline systems. Prior to joining
CC Technologies, Mr. Vieth held positions with Battelle and Kiefner & Associates, Inc.
Mr. Vieths expertise is primarily directed toward assisting the operators of transmission pipeline
systems with the development and implementation of short-term and long-term pipeline integrity
management programs. Specifically, he works with operators to develop programs to reduce the
likelihood of failures through in-line inspection, hydrostatic testing, defect assessment, risk
assessment, and fitness-for-purpose assessment.
Mr. Vieth has been active in research and the development of innovative solutions within the
pipeline industry. He was a key-contributor in the validation and implementation of the RSTRENG
corrosion assessment method. RSTRENG is recognized within the Federal Code of Federal
regulations for transmission pipeline systems as a method for assessing the remaining pressurecarrying capacity of pipe which has sustained wall loss due to corrosion.
Mr. Vieth was also a team member that developed a Transverse Field Inspection (TFI) program to
address a pipeline operators specific integrity concern. The TFI program utilized a new
technology to identify longitudinal seam weld defects that could pose an integrity concern to the
pipeline operations. Success in the development, validation, and implementation of this TFI
program resulted in the Department of Transportation (DOT) Office of Pipeline Safetys (OPS)
acceptance of this program in lieu of mandated hydrostatic testing to verify the integrity of the
pipeline system.
Mr. Vieth has conducted several full-scale testing programs to evaluate the fracture behavior of
defects in pressure vessels. These testing programs were conducted under the sponsorship of
the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to evaluate the fracture behavior of power plant piping
subjected to dynamic loading.
Additional full-scale testing programs have been conducted to evaluate the pressure-carrying
capacity of defects identified in transmission pipeline systems (natural gas and hazardous liquids)
and removed from services. These tests have been used to evaluate the pressure-carrying
capacity of pipe sections containing defects such as corrosion-caused metal loss and longitudinal
seam weld defects.
Education
B.S., Mechanical Engineering, The Ohio State University

Resume: Patrick H. Vieth


Page 2
Experience
Vice President

CC Technologies Services, Inc.

2001 present

Senior Group Leader

CC Technologies Services, Inc.

1999 2001

Manager, Integrity Solutions

Pipeline Integrity International

Senior Mechanical Engineer


Associate

Kiefner & Associates, Inc.


Worthington, OH

1991 1999

Principal Research Scientist

Battelle, Columbus, OH

1985 1991

1999

Professional Activities
National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE), Committee Chairman, T-10E-6 (Defect
Assessment)
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), #1271881, Past Chairman Central Ohio
Section of ASME, (1990).
Selected Publications
Risk Assessment
Kiefner, J. F., Vieth, P. H., Orban, J. E., and Feder, P. I., Methods for Prioritizing Pipeline
Maintenance and Rehabilitation, American Gas Association, Pipeline Research Committee,
Catalog No. L51631, September 28, 1990.
Corrosion Assessment
Kiefner, J. F., and Vieth, P. H., A Modified Criterion for Evaluating the Remaining Strength of
Corroded Pipe, American Gas Association, Pipeline Research Committee, Catalog No. L51609,
December 22, 1989.
Vieth, P. H., and Kiefner, J. F., Database of Corroded Pipe Tests, American Gas Association,
Pipeline Research Committee, Pipeline Research Committee, Catalog No. L51689, April 4, 1989.
Kiefner, J. F., and Vieth, P. H., Evaluating Pipe: New Method Corrects Criterion for Evaluating
Corroded Pipe, Oil and Gas Journal, August 6, 1990.
Kiefner, J. F., and Vieth, P. H., Evaluating Pipe: PC Program Speeds New Criterion for
Evaluating Corroded Pipe, Oil and Gas Journal, August 20, 1990.
Vieth, P. H., and Kiefner, J. F., RSTRENG Users Manual, American Gas Association, Pipeline
Research Committee, Catalog No. L51688, March 31, 1993.
Kiefner, J. F., and Vieth, P. H., The Remaining Strength of Corroded Pipe, American Gas
Association, Eighth Symposium on Line Pipe Research, Houston, Texas, September 1993.
Kiefner, J. F., Vieth, P. H., and Roytman, I., Continued Validation of RSTRENG, American Gas
Association, Catalog Number L51749, December 1996.

Resume: Patrick H. Vieth


Page 3
Selected Publications (continued)
Pipeline Failures
Vieth, P. H., Roytman, I., Mesloh, R. E., and Kiefner, J. F., Analysis of DOT Reportable Incidents
for Gas Transmission and Gathering Pipelines 1985 through 1994, American Gas Association,
Pipeline Research Committee.
Vieth, P. H., et al., DOT Incident Data Analysis, American Gas Association, PRC International,
th
9 Symposium on Line Pipe Research, Houston, Texas, September 1996.
Vieth, P. H., Maxey, W. A., Mesloh, R. E., Kiefner, J. F., and Williams, G. W., Investigation of the
Failure in GRIs Pipeline Simulation Facility Flow Loop, Gas Research Institute, March 15, 1996.
In-Line Inspection
Vieth, P. H., Ashworth, In-Line Inspection, International Pipeline Conference.
Vieth, P. H., Rust, S. W., Johnson, E. R., and Cox, M. J., In-Line Characterization and
th
Assessment, American Gas Association, PRC International, 9 Symposium on Line Pipe
Research, Houston, Texas, September 1996.
Rust, S. W., Vieth, P. H., Johnson, E. R., and Cox, M. J., Corrosion Pig Performance and Risk
Assessment, Pipes and Pipelines International, Pipeline Pigging Conference, Houston, Texas,
February 1996.
Vieth, P. H., Rust, S. W., Johnson, E. R., and Cox, M. J., Corrosion Pig Performance Evaluation,
th
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, American Petroleum Institute, 7 Annual Energy
Week Conference, Houston, Texas, January 1996.
Vieth, P. H., Rust, S. W., Johnson, E. R., and Cox, M. J., Corrosion Pig Performance Evaluation,
National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE), NACE/96, Denver, Colorado, March 1996.
Rust, S. W., Vieth, P. H., Johnson, E. R., and Cox, M. J., Quantitative Corrosion Risk
Assessment Based on Pig Data, National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE), NACE/96,
Denver, Colorado, March 1996.
Flaw Growth
Maxey, W. A., Vieth, P. H., and Kiefner, J. F., An Enhanced Model for Predicting Pipeline Retest
Intervals to Control Cyclic-Pressure-Induced Crack Growth, American Society of Mechanical
Engineers (ASME), Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering (OMAE) 1993, Proceedings of the
th
12 International Conference, Volume V (Pipeline Technology), 1993.
Full-Scale Testing
Scott, P., Kramer, G, Vieth, P., Francini, R., and Wilkowski, G., The Effects of Cyclic Loading
During Ductile Tearing on Circumferentially Cracked Pipe Experimental Results, ASME PVP
Volume 280, June 1994, pp 207-220.
Wilkowski, G., Vieth, P., Kramer, G., Marschall, C., and Landow, M., Results of Separate-Effects
Pipe Fracture Experiments, Post-SMiRT-11 Conference, August 1991, Paper 4.2.

PART II COST PROPOSAL


TP274-3553

UPDATED PIPELINE REPAIR MANUAL


PREPARED FOR

PRC INTERNATIONAL
Pipeline Materials Committee

PREPARED BY

CC TECHNOLOGIES LABORATORIES, INC.


CARL E. JASKE, PH.D., P.E.
AUGUST 05, 2002

CC Technologies
6141 AVERY ROAD
DUBLIN, OHIO 43016
614.761.1214 614.761.1633 fax
www.cctechnologies.com

Part II Cost Proposal

Updated Pipeline Repair Manual

PRCI / GAS TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE CONTRACT COST ESTIMATE (FOOTNOTE A)


Nam e ofO fferor

RFP No./Prp. No.

Page Num ber

Num ber ofPages

CC Technologies Laboratories Inc.


Hom e O ffice Address

Nam e ofProposed Project

6141 A very R oad,D ublin O hio 43016

U pdated Pipeline R epair M anual(M aterials Program 1)


ProposalN um ber: TP274-3553

Division(s) and Location(s) (w here w ork is to be perform ed)

TotalAm ount ofProposal

$75,000
Estim ated Cost
(dollars)

TotalEstim ated Cost Supporting Schedule


(dollars)
(Footnote B)

1. Direct M aterial
a. Purchased Parts

$0

b. InterdivisionalEffort

$0
$0

c. Equipm ent Rental

$200

d. O ther (Supplies and M aterials)

$200 Table 1b

TotalDirect M aterial
2. M aterialO verhead

Rate

10%

$200

x Base $

$20

3. Subcontracted Effort

Subcontractor Cofunding (Footnote D)

$0 Table 1b

Net Subcontracted Effort


4. Direct Labor - Specify

Est.Hours

Rate/Hour

Est.Cost

90

$45

$4,021

Project Engineer

360

$29

$10,494

Technologist

205

$25

$5,176

70

$15

$1,039

Senior G roup Leader

O ffice Staff

TotalDirect Labor

20,730

5. Labor O verhead - Specify

O .H.Rate

Labor O verhead (Fringes)


G eneralO verhead

X Base $

$20,730 Table 1b

Est.Cost

40%

$20,730

$8,292

132%

$29,022

$38,309

N on-Labor O verhead

$46,601

TotalLabor & GeneralO verhead


6. SpecialTesting

Table 1b

7. Purchased SpecialEquipm ent

Table 1b

8. Travel

$1,040 Table 1b

G&A on travel

9. Consultants (Identify - Purpose - Rate)

Est.Cost

$0 Table 1b

TotalConsultants

$390 Table 1b

10.O ther Direct Costs

$68,981

11.TotalDirect Cost and O verhead


12.Generaland Adm inistrative Expense
Rate

10%

x Base $

1,430 (Cost elem ent no(s).

3, 6, 7, 8,9,& 10)

(Cost elem ent no(s).

$143

13.Independent Research and Developm ent


Rate

x Base $

$0
$69,124

14.TotalEstim ated Cost (Footnote C)

$5,876

15.Fixed Fee

$75,000

16.TotalEstim ated Cost and Fee


17.Contractor/Third Party Cofunding (Footnote D)

$75,000

18.NetEstim ated Cost and Fee to GRI


This proposalreflects our best estim ate as of this date,in accordance w ith the instructions to offerors and the footnotes w hich follow .
Typed Nam e and Title
N eilG .Thom pson,CEO
FO O TNO TES:

Signature

Date
7/31/02

A. The subm ission ofthis form does not constitute an acceptable proposal. Required supporting inform ation m ust also be subm itted.
B. For each item ofcost, reference the schedule w hich contains the required supporting data.
C. This should be the totalcost ofthe research project. Any contractor cost sharing should be show n on the Line 17 as a reduction from totalcosts.
D. This line should contain (I) totalproposed fee,(ii) contractor cofunding,(3) third party cash cofunding,or (iv)be blank,depending on the contract type.
Fixed fee should be cofunded before any contractor in-kind cofunding is proposed.

____________________________________________________________________________________
CC Technologies Laboratories, Inc.
1

Part II Cost Proposal

Updated Pipeline Repair Manual

Table 1b. Cost Detail for Table 1a.


(1) LABOR COSTS

Staff
Sen Group Leader/Total
Project Engineer/Total
Technologist/Total
Office Staff/Total
TOTAL LABOR

Hours
Billed
90
360
205
70
725

Average
Rate x Infl
5.0%
$44.68
$29.15
$25.25
$14.84

Total
Labor
Charged
$4,021.20
$10,494.00
$5,176.25
$1,038.80
$20,730.25

(3) MATERIALS

Item
Misc
Total Materials

Unit
Cost
$200.00

Quantity
1

Total
Cost
$200.00
$200.00

(5) TRAVEL

Trip
Project Review
Total Travel

No. of
Persons

No. of
Trips
1

No. of
Days
1

Airfare
$600.00

Subsistence
/day
$170.00

Rental
Car/day
$50.00

Trip
Cost
$1,040.00
$1,040.00

(7) OTHER COSTS

Item
Misc/Postage
Total Other Costs

Unit
Cost
$390.00

Quantity
1

Total
Cost
$390.00
$390.00

____________________________________________________________________________________
CC Technologies Laboratories, Inc.
2