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ISSN 0013-5380

1999

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13 1880

1999

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CONTENTS

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( 100-
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...........................................................................................
9
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23
..........................................................................................
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33
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39
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45
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49

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59

Yu.S. VasiPyev, A nniversary of One M ajor ElectricalTechnical Schools of Russia (to M ark the
100th
Anniversary of S t.P S T U ) ....................................................
A.V. Bulychev and V.K. Vanin, Im provement in the Gen
eratorTransformer Unit Earth-Fault Protection. . .
G.N. Aleksandrov, On Calculating aDevice
for Limiting
Short-Circuit Currents in Electrical Network
G.M. Pavlov, A.G. M erkuryev and Yu.M. Shargin, Automatic
Frequency Loab Shedding in Power Systems . . . .
V.N. Zaboin, Methodology of the Optimizing the Param eters
of Electrical Machine Brush Contact Systems . . .
G.S. Kuchinskii and L.N. Galakhova, Choice of Allowable
Operating Strengths in Power Capacitors Impregnated
with Ecology Safe D ie le c tr i c ..................................
33
A.M. Andreyev, V A. Kaniskin and YuA. Polonskii, Investi
gation of Ageing of Electrical Insulating M aterials of
Power Cables and C a p a c ito rs ............................. ....
N.V. MarPyanov, V.V. Popov and N.V. Sokolova, Information
Technologies for Insuring the Reliability of Electrical
M a c h in e s .....................................................................................
N.V. Korovkin and Ye.Ye. Selina, Analysis of Wave Processes
in Systems with Distributed Param eters by the M ethod
of Synthetic S h e m e s .............................................................

2
9
17
23
28

39
45
49

From the HISTORY of ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING


Yu.M. Pyatin, Debate about N ature of Electrical Current

59

CHRONICLE
Stanislav Vyacheslavovich Khvatov (to Mark the 60th
A n n iv e rs a ry )..............................................................................

61

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)............................................................................
61

, 1999


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Ways fo r increasing the effectiveness o f the gen


eratortransformer unit single-phase earth-fault
protections are considered. Methods are proposed which
make it possible not only to check the insulance o f
a network with insulated neutral when equipment is
on operation but also to determine the character o f
the insulation deterioration processe and to detect
domage location. methods are based on an analysis
o f signals form ed with the help o f a high-voltage
switchgear. Shemes o f devices which realize the methods
proposed and recommendations on their use are given.
K e y w o r d s : networks, generatortransformer
unit, earth-fault protection



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device is proposed fo r limiting short-circuit currents


in electrical networks with the use o f high-speed con
trolled shunting reactor. Characteristics o f the device
proposed are analysed. It is shown that by using such
devices it is possible to significally reduce short-circuit
currents without limitation o f the network transfer
capability under normal operating conditions.
K e y w o r d s ; electrical networks, limitation o f
short-circuit currents, control shunting reactor





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.

____________ __________________


1. ..
.
N 2
, 1998, 4.
.
2. ., .


. , 1997, 1.

[25.06.98]
:


,
1953 .
,
1967 .
.



. 1991 . -
.
.


.
.
:
^, 2 , d i 2 , :

www.booksite.ru



.., .., ..

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.


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:
, ,
,

The paper considers principles o f under frequency


load shedding o f power systems. A new m ethod fo r
calculating the reduction in frequency under the deficit
o f generation and the action o f under frequency load
shedding is presented. The choice o f frequency load
shedding settings in accordance with the new method
makes it possible to tune automation to the minimum
frequency deviation under emergency conditions.
K e y w o r d s : power systems, load, automatic
under frequency load shedding, simulation



,
:

[2]. . 1


. .


,

().


,
.
. 2
.
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(P jf).

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. 1. : I

fo

. 2. :
;


www.booksite.ru

24

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26

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www.booksite.ru

1 /9 9

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Mathcad Mathlab.

,
.

___________

_________________

1. ..
. .: , 1980.
2. ., .
. .: , 1988.
3. ..
.
, 1995, 2.
4. Pavlov G.M. U nder-Frequency load shedding in Power

27

System. Proceedings, Curitiba, Copel. CJGRE: Brasil,


1994.
5. Pavlov G.M. U nder-Frequency load shedding in Power
System. Textbook. St. Petersburg: Technical University, 1997.
6. .., ..
. . .: .
, 1998.
[24.09.98]

:

()
1949 . 1966 .

.

-
().

1984 . .
-
.

1974 .
1978 .

.

, ,
,
!


, , ,
, ,
,
,
,
. -
. : 103012 , 12,
. ., 2/10 101000 , , 648.
: 924-24-80, 928-88-69.


www.booksite.ru



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> .





.
:
, , ,
, , , .

The paper describers methodology fo r optimizing


the energetic, dimensional and durability parameters
/ multibrush contact systems o f electrical machines.
The methodology is based on using multifactor
multiplicative mathematical models o f electrical and
mechanical characteristics o f a sliding electrical contact.
Principles fo r constructing an algorithm o f the vector
optimization o f the number o f brushes in a system
and efforts o f pressing on them are considered proceed
from conditions o f insuring the given m inim um difference
o f allowable and calculation values o f total losses
in a system and its durability.
K e y w o r d s : electrical machine, brush contact
system, losses, durability, optimization, mathematical
model

()
(),

,


,

[1].
100150 ,
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5 0 0 0 8000 ,
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www.booksite.ru

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www.booksite.ru

1 /9 9

31




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www.booksite.ru

32

..

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. 1.
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Ah,
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.

____________

__________________

1. .., .., .. -

. -
, 1996, 2.
2. ..
. .: , 1983.
3. . . .: -
. - , 1961.
4. :., ..

. -
, 1997, 4.
[24.09.98]

:

1 9 6 7 .
1978 .


.

.


!

1 . .


(.
., 2/10, . 924-24-80).


www.booksite.ru




.., ..




.


.


.
:
, ,
, ,

On the basis an investigation o f main electrophysical


characteristics o f ecology safe liquid dielectrics the
m ost efficient liquids fo r impregnating power capacitors
are determined. On the basis the investigation o f charac
teristics o f partial discharges and service life tests the
allowable operating strengths are determined. The results
o f investigations have been used fo r designing home
power capacitors impregnated with ecology safe liquids.
K e y w o r d s : power capacitors, liquid dielect
rics, ecology safety, operating strengths, calculation

1980 .

-
, ,

.



.

:
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1000 (, / = 5 ,3 )
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. 245 /
* = 2,4%.

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(20 = 30 ), . . 1.

,
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300

" ,

250

')

200

150

100

10

20

30

40

50

d,

. 1.
, 2500 : 1
; 2 -
, 67% ; 3 (
)


www.booksite.ru

34

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. . , 1991, 439.


www.booksite.ru

1 /9 9

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www.booksite.ru

1 /9 9

37


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30 40 SO 70 w o d,MKM

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www.booksite.ru

38

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101
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1000.
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[24.09.98]

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1965 .

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1965 . 1996 .



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, .

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1.
2. ,
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www.booksite.ru



.., .., ..

,

.
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.
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,
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Results o f experimental investigations concerning


ageing o f electrical insulating materials in power cables
and capacitors are presented. The influence o f a liquid
phase contacting with a material on the ageing process
has been analysed.
K ey
words:
cable, capacitor, electrical
insulating, electrical field, ageing, investigation

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4. , ., . .

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5. , ..
. . .
, 1989, 12.
6. .., ..
. .; , 1992.
7. Yoshida Y., Nishimatsu . Power capacitors. IEEE
Transactions on Electrical Insulation, 1986, vol. E I-12, 6.
8. ..

. .: ,
1988.
9. .., .., .,
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, 1991, 439.
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A s the electrical machine industry develops problems


o f insuring the reliability o f generators are solved by
means o f various technical and organizational measures
which realized during the process o f creation and
exploitation o f generators. The technical level and the
effectiveness o f such measures are uninterruptedly
increased as acculated and information technical means
are improved. But untill the present time the composition
o f separate measures does not yet represent a completed
system grounded on the united methodological basis.
From our point o f view com puter technologies o f
designing,
manufacturing,
industrial tests
and
exploitation, which are uninterruptedly improved and
widely used in the m odem electrical machine industry,
can be used fo r developing the above mentioned
methodological basis.
K e y w o r d s : generators, reliability, designing,
manufacturing, tests, exploitation


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Methods are proposed fo r solving problems o f an


analysis o f processes in systems containing devices with
distributed parameters under the action o f an external
pulse electromagnetic field. Methods fo r constructing
mathematical models o f such system in the form o f
multisection equivalent circuits are considered. Various
approaches to the determination o f the parameters
o f this circuits, which make it possible to take into
account real frequency dependenses o f the devices
equivalent parameters. method o f synthetic shemes
has been used as a method fo r an analysis o f processes
in distributed systems. Shaping methods are proposed
and numerical features o f synthetic shemes are revialed.
Hieorems, which made it possible to significanty increase
the effectiveness o f an analysis o f pulse processes in
distributed systems are proved.
Key
w o r d s : electrical circuits, distributed
parameters, pulse electromagnetic fields, wave processes,
synthetic shemes, analysis



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58

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_______________ _________________
1.
/ .., ..,
. . . .
, 1982, 2.
2. ., ..
. , 1954, . XXIV,
. 1.
3. lanoz M.V., Rachidi F., Tkachenko S.V. Electromagnetic
field coupling to a line of finite length: theory and fast iterative
solution in frequency and time domains. IEEE Trans.
Electromagn. Compat., 1995, vol. 37, 4.
4. H.B., E.E.
.

..

1/99

- , 1992.
5. Finite length line model for the analysis of electromagnetic
processes with regard to a radiation / Vodopianov G.V.,
lanoz M.V., Korovkin N.V. . E M C 98 Roma, 1998,
vol. 2.
6. 4 y a .., .
. .: , 1980.
7. Korovkin N.V. The use of experimental frequency
responses for transients calculation in the EMC non-linear
problems. E M C 96 Roma, 1996, vol. 2.
8. Korovkin N.V., Minevich T.G., Selina E.E. Calculation
of transients in non-linear systems, consisting of elements
described by their frequency responses. EM C97, Zurich,
1997.
9. B.H., B.E., B.C.

. .: - , 1989.
[24.09.98]

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Dear readers!
We are pleased to inform you that beginning
from 1998 the journal Electrical Technology is
published and distributed by the Znack
Publishing House (Russia) under the title Electrical
Technology Russia (ISSN 10287957).
As before it is a quarterly edition of the same
size and volume. It appears in the form of four
annual issues in April, July, October and January.
The Eiectrical Technology Russia is an English
version of one of the oldest journals of Russian
Academy of Sciences Elektrichestvo (founded
in 1880).
Annual (1999) subscription rates: Europe and
CIS countries, US$ 985. All other countries, US$
1115. The two-year institutional rate is US$ 1872
and US$ 2118 respectively. The three-year
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respectively. Prices include postage and insurance.
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If you wish to receive the Electrical Technology
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The payment due should be sent to:
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