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Chemistry Unit 3

This scheme of work suggests possible teaching and learning activities for each section of the specification. There are far more activities suggested than
it would be possible to teach. It is intended that teachers should select activities appropriate to their candidates and the curriculum time available. The
first two columns summarise the specification references, whilst the Learning Outcomes indicate what most candidates should be able to achieve after the
work is completed. The Resources column indicates resources commonly available to schools, and other references that may be helpful. Higher Tier material
is indicated by a bold HT only comment. The timings are only suggested *, as are the Possible Teaching and Learning activities, which include references to
experimental work and How Science Works opportunities. Resources are only given in brief and risk assessments should be carried out.
*The suggested timings relate to the learning outcomes rather than to the activities.

Throughout this unit candidates will be expected to write word equations for reactions specified. Higher Tier candidates will also be expected to write and
balance symbol equations for reactions specified throughout the unit.

Learning Outcomes
What most candidates should
be able to do

Suggested
timing (lessons)

Reference

Summary of the
Specification
Content

Possible teaching and Learning


Activities
Homework

Resource

Examination
hints and tips
Candidates should:

C3.1 The periodic table. The modern periodic table has been developed from work begun by Newlands and Mendeleev. There are trends in chemical properties
within the periodic table linked to how easily the element gains or loses electrons.
C3.1.1 The early periodic table
a

Newlands, and then


Mendeleev, attempted
to classify the
elements by arranging
them in order of their
atomic weights. The

Evaluate the work of Newlands


and Mendeleev in terms of
their contributions to the
development of the modern
periodic table.

Discuss: What is the periodic table?


or the five Ws (Why, What, Where,
When and Who). Limit answers to just
a list of elements in a funny shape.
Activity: Periodic table card game

Periodic table cards. These


should be of elements 153,
excluding the noble gases
and 32. Group 1 cards
should be one colour, Group
2 a second colour, Group 5 a

Be able to
remember that the
periodic table is
arranged in groups
according to the
properties of the

Learning Outcomes
What most candidates should
be able to do

list can be arranged in


a table so that
elements with similar
properties are in
columns, known as
Groups. The table is
called a periodic table
because similar
properties occur at
regular intervals.
b

The early periodic


tables were incomplete
and some elements
were placed in
inappropriate groups if
the strict order of
atomic weights was
followed. Mendeleev
overcame some of the
problems by leaving
gaps for elements that
he thought had not
been discovered.

Explain why scientists


regarded a periodic table of the
elements first as a curiosity,
then as a useful tool and finally
as an important summary of
the structure of atoms.

Suggested
timing (lessons)

Reference

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Examination
hints and tips
Candidates should:

The object of the game is to see the


problems and solutions found by both
Newlands and Mendeleev using only
the information they had in 1860s.
Each group has 47 cards of elements
known by Newlands and Mendeleev,
and each card has information on it
that they knew.

third colour, Group 6 a fourth


colour and Group 7 a fifth
colour. Each card should
only have atomic mass,
symbol and name.

elements and in
increasing atomic
number which
reflects the
electronic structure.

Round 1
Working in pairs and not using the
periodic table sort the cards into a
logical order, eg alphabetically, or
numerically. Place on table. is it a
sensible order, does it tell you anything
about the elements and their
properties?
Round 2 (Newlands)
Draw attention to the cards that are
coloured. Remind them about Groups,
refer back to Group 1 reactions from
Unit 1. Sort according to mass, then
place in rows of 8. Note that at first,
you get a regular pattern, After
element with mass 40, the pattern
breaks down. This is where Newlands
failed to gain recognition.
Round 3 (Mendeleev)
Take Newlands order and adjust it.
Show that if H is kept separate, and
the third row is elongated, that the
pattern re establishes itself, up to Ga.
Show pattern re-establishes under P.

Note: Candidates
do not need to
remember the
arrangements.
VLE / Interactive software,
the periodic table.
Exampro Extra Online
Chemistry Activity: The
development of the periodic
table.

Learning Outcomes
What most candidates should
be able to do

Suggested
timing (lessons)

Reference

Summary of the
Specification
Content

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Activities
Homework

Resource

Examination
hints and tips
Candidates should:

Mendeleev decided that he didnt


know everything and so he left a gap
for an undiscovered element.
Complete final row, and show that on
Mendeleevs method, I comes before
TE.
Task: Candidates make notes on
Newlands method, and why it didnt
gain acceptance. Mendeleevs method,
including the key ideas of leaving gaps
for undiscovered elements and also
small adjustments to fit known
properties of the elements.
C3.1.2 The modern periodic table
a

When electrons,
protons and neutrons
were discovered early
in the 20th century, the
periodic table was
arranged in order of
atomic (proton)
numbers. When this
was done, all elements
were placed in
appropriate groups.

Discuss: modern periodic table in


terms of addition of noble gases. Noble
gases were discovered at the end of
the nineteenth Century, and together
with the subsequent discovery of
protons, neutrons, and electrons, led to
the modern Periodic Table, which still
relies on Mendeleevs and
Newlands work. It can now be seen as
a reflection of the electronic structure
of the elements. Candidates write
three key features of the modern
periodic table.

The modern periodic


table can be seen as

Homework Research what Mendeleev


predicted about his missing element

Note: Candidates
are not expected to
know detailed
electronic
configurations for
elements beyond
calcium, but should
understand that the
number of electrons
in the highest
occupied energy
level (outer shell)
for elements in the
main groups is
equal to the group
number.

Learning Outcomes
What most candidates should
be able to do

Suggested
timing (lessons)

Reference

Summary of the
Specification
Content

an arrangement of the
elements in terms of
their electronic
structures. Elements in
the same group have
the same number of
electrons in their
highest occupied
energy level (outer
shell).

Possible teaching and Learning


Activities
Homework

Resource

(Ge), and what was discovered.


Mendeleev also suggested other
missing elements, which ones were
they? and when was the last one
discovered?

C3.1.3 Trends with the periodic table


a

The elements in Group


1 of the periodic table
(known as the alkali
metals):

are metals with


low density (the
first three
elements in the
Group are less
dense than water).
react with nonmetals to form
ionic compounds
in which the metal
ion carries a
charge of +1. The
compounds are
white solids that

Describe the reactions of


Group 1 metals with water, air
and chlorine.
Know that Group 1 metals form
1+ ions.
Know that they form
hydroxides that dissolve in
water to give alkaline solutions.

Review metals in the periodic table.


Demo: Place sodium in water, to
obtain ideas of density in water,
release hydrogen and form hydroxides
(revision from Unit 1).
Burn sodium in chlorine gas, show
formation of compound, and charges
on both Group 1 metal and also Group
7 non-metal.

Know that transition metals


typically:
form coloured compounds
are used as catalysts
are harder and denser than
Group 1 metals.
are less reactive with water

Task: Candidates draw diagrams of


the reaction of Na with Cl.
Look at transition metals and their
compounds.

Demo: See Unit 1 for


requirements.
Sealed samples of every
transition metal compound in
the chemical store that is
coloured (avoid zinc
compounds). Each sample to
be labelled and given its
formula.
Samples of five transition
metals:
Zn
Fe
Ni
Cu
Ag

Examination
hints and tips
Candidates should:

dissolve in water
to form colourless
solutions
react with water,
releasing
hydrogen
form hydroxides
that dissolve in
water to give
alkaline solutions.

The elements in Group


7 of the periodic table
(known as the
halogens) react with
metals to form ionic
compounds in which
the halide ion carries a
charge of .1.

Many transition
elements have ions
with different charges,
form coloured
compounds and are
useful as catalysts.

Compared with the


elements in Group 1,
transition elements:
have higher melting
points (except for

Learning Outcomes
What most candidates should
be able to do

Suggested
timing (lessons)

Reference

Summary of the
Specification
Content

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Activities
Homework

Resource

5x 250cm3 beakers of water.

and oxygen.
Circus of 15 stages with samples of
compounds in sealed bottles, and
samples of transition metals, with a
beaker of water.
Task: Candidates record each base on
a results chart. For compounds they
use this chart:
name of
compound

formula

description

For metals they use this chart:


name
of
metal

can it
be
bent?

can it
float on
water?

description

Discuss: elicit ideas of coloured


compounds, different properties and
use of transition metals as catalysts(
they have already met MnO2 as a
catalyst in Unit 2).

VLE / Interactive software eg


transition metals.

Examination
hints and tips
Candidates should:

Learning Outcomes
What most candidates should
be able to do

Suggested
timing (lessons)

Reference

Summary of the
Specification
Content

The elements in Group


7 of the periodic table
(known as the
halogens) react with
metals to form ionic
compounds in which
the halide ion carries a
charge of .1.
In Group 7, the further
down the group an
element is:

Homework: DART sheet on melting


points of transition metals and Group
1, to show differences in property and
hence uses.

Know that the further down the


group:
the less reactive the element
is
the higher its melting point
and boiling point.
Know that a more reactive
halogen can displace a less
reactive halogen from an
aqueous solution of its salt.

Revise Na +Cl2 reaction to get halogen


as elements that form 1- charged ions.
Demo: Candidates make list of
halogens, their colours and their state
at room temperature. Remind
candidates of colour of chlorine (seen
with NaCl reaction). Show samples of
other halogens if possible, if not use
halogen waters from the class
experiment to show their colour when
dissolved in water.

the less reactive the


element
the higher its melting
point and boiling
point.
g

A more reactive
halogen can displace a
less reactive halogen

Resource

Task: Candidates make notes of


outcomes of transition metals in
comparison to Group 1.

mercury) and higher


densities
are stronger and
harder
are much less
reactive and so do
not react as
vigorously with
water or oxygen.

Possible teaching and Learning


Activities
Homework

Activity: Displacement reactions


Candidates add chlorine water to each
of the three compounds and observe

Samples of chlorine, bromine


and iodine in sealed
containers.

Aqueous solutions of
chlorine, and bromine, and
iodine solution (iodine in
potassium iodide). Pipettes,
test tubes, test tube racks,
solutions of sodium chloride,
sodium iodide, and sodium
bromide (alternatively these
could be potassium
compounds).

Examination
hints and tips
Candidates should:

Learning Outcomes
What most candidates should
be able to do

from an aqueous
solution of its salt.
h

HT only
The trends in
reactivity within
groups in the
periodic table can be
explained because
the higher the energy
level of the outer
electrons:
the more easily
electrons are lost
the less easily
electrons are
gained.

HT only
Explain the reactivity trends
within both Group 1 and
Group 7 in terms of the
distance of the outer
electron from the central,
positively charged nucleus,
and the attraction of the
nucleus to those outer
electrons.

Suggested
timing (lessons)

Reference

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Resource

Examination
hints and tips
Candidates should:

results. Add bromine water to fresh


samples of the compounds and
observe results. Add iodine solution to
fresh samples of the compounds and
observe results.
Discuss: findings from results chart.
Conclude that Halogens higher in the
Group displace halogens that are
lower from their compounds.
HT only
Task: Write symbol equations and
balance for one reaction. All
reactions standard.
Discussion on reactivity in Group 7
and Group 1. This should be in
terms of ease of losing/gaining
outer electrons.
Metals easier to lose from outside
as less attracted to nucleus further
down the group.
Non-metals easier to gain up the
group due to stronger attraction
from nucleus as less electron
shells.

HT only
Be able to write
and balance
symbol equations.

Learning Outcomes
What most candidates should
be able to do

Suggested
timing (lessons)

Reference

Summary of the
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Examination
hints and tips
Candidates should:

C3.2 Water The water we drink is not pure water because it contains dissolved substances. It should be safe to drink water that has been treated. This means that
the water does not contain anything that could cause us harm. Some of the dissolved substances are beneficial to our health but some cause hard water.
C3.2.1 Hard and soft water
b

Hard water contains


dissolved compounds,
usually of calcium or
magnesium. The
compounds are
dissolved when water
comes into contact
with rocks.
Soft water readily
forms lather with soap.
Hard water reacts with
soap to form scum and
so more soap is
needed to form lather.
Soapless detergents
do not form scum.

Know key features of hard and


soft water.
Know how to identify hard and
soft waters.

Demo: Show inside of a furred-up


kettle, or similar demonstration / talking
point to show water is different in
different parts of the country.
Explain: that the amount of soap
need to form a lather varies across the
country according to the water.
Activity: Investigating the amount of
soap needed to form a permanent
lather. Using pipettes, and soap
solution, test water samples as listed
to find amount of soap needed.
Candidates record results in chart:
water
source

compound
in water

drops of soap
solution needed to
form lather

Discuss: some waters are hard to


lather and produce scum (hard water)
some are easy (soft waters).
Candidates use results to determine
what metal ions make water hard.
Activity: Write definitions of hard
water, scum and soft water. Show

Furred-up kettle,
pipettes,
test tubes
100cm3 beakers
soap solution and
water solutions labelled as
follows, containing these
compounds:
Cheshire (NaCl)
Yorkshire ( MgCl2)
Somerset (Ca(HCO3)2)
Peak district (Ca(NO3)2)
Malvern (Mg(NO3)2)
Guildford (CaCl2)
Cornwall ( NaCl)
Map of hard water areas can
be found at
www.eddy.uk.com/hardwater-regions.htm
Exampro Extra Online
Practical guide: Investigating
hard water.

Note: Scum should


be highlighted to
assist in the recall
of hard and soft
waters.

Learning Outcomes
What most candidates should
be able to do

Suggested
timing (lessons)

Reference

Summary of the
Specification
Content

Possible teaching and Learning


Activities
Homework

Resource

map of hard water areas. It should be


noted that soapless detergents
(washing up liquids and washing
powders) do not form scum.

There are two types of


hard water. Permanent
hard water remains
hard when it is boiled.
Temporary hard water
is softened by boiling.

HT only
Temporary hard
water contains
hydrogencarbonate
ions (HCO3-.) that
decompose on
heating to produce
carbonate ions which
react with calcium
and magnesium ions
to form precipitates.

Distinguish between temporary


hard water and permanent
hard water.

How Science Works: Refer back to


the kettle; why does this happen?
Develop and investigate the
hypothesis that heating the water
produces the furring. Does it occur with
all hard waters?

Furred-up kettle,
pipettes, test tubes, 100cm3
beakers,soap solution and
water solutions labelled as
follows, containing these
compounds:

Candidates plan and carry out an


investigation.

Somerset (Ca(HCO3)2)
Peak district (Ca(NO3)2)
Guildford (CaCl2)

Use known hard water samples from


last lesson, and re-test after boiling.
Candidates record results, and identify
calcium hydrogencarbonate as culprit.
Class discussion on permanent and
temporary hard water based on
findings. Mention this also happens
with magnesium hydrogencarbonate.
Candidates describe the effect of
boiling on hydrogencarbonates, with
symbol equation.

Using hard water can

Know how sodium carbonate

Activity: Which water softener works

Solution of CaCl2, soap

Examination
hints and tips
Candidates should:

Learning Outcomes

increase costs
because more soap is
needed. When
temporary hard water
is heated it can
produce scale that
reduces the efficiency
of heating systems
and kettles.

softens water.

Hard water has some


benefits because
calcium compounds
are good for the
development and
maintenance of bones
and teeth and also
help to reduce heart
disease.
Hard water can be
made soft by removing
the dissolved calcium
and magnesium ions.
This can be done by:

carbonate, which
reacts with the
calcium and
magnesium ions to
form a precipitate of
calcium carbonate
and magnesium

What most candidates should


be able to do

Plan and carry out an


experiment.
Know industrial methods of
reducing hardness, including
how ion exchange columns
replace Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions
with H+ ions or Na+ ions.
Candidates should understand
the principles of how ion
exchange resins work but do
not need detailed knowledge
of the structure or chemical
nature of specific resins.

Suggested
timing (lessons)

Reference
f

Summary of the
Specification
Content

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Activities
Homework

Resource

best? Compare effect of sodium


carbonate with commercially available
water softeners (if you cant get hold of
several, you could try the effect of
different dishwasher tablets, all of
which claim to have added water
softeners).

solution, burette/pipettes etc,


100cm3 beakers and test
tubes / conical flasks.

How Science Works: Use soap


solution method. On this occasion you
could use burette instead of drops to
improve resolution of the
measurement.
Video: Watch an advert for CALGON
or similar.
Task: Mini-project to find benefits and
drawbacks of hard water (specification
points e & f), and how hard water
can be made soft (specification points
g). They should research the question
- Do we need to use it at home?
Or
DART sheet covering these points.

Commercials for Calgon can


be found on their website at
www.calgon.co.uk

Examination
hints and tips
Candidates should:

Learning Outcomes
What most candidates should
be able to do

Suggested
timing (lessons)

Reference

Summary of the
Specification
Content

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Homework

Resource

Examination
hints and tips
Candidates should:

Discuss: clean water (PMI).

Simple distillation equipment


of salt water.

Note: Clean water


is usually referring
to tapwater or water
safe to drink. It
contains other
chemicals that are
not toxic, so that
water can be safely
drunk.

carbonate
using commercial
water softeners such
as ion exchange
columns containing
hydrogen ions or
sodium ions, which
replace the calcium
and magnesium ions
when hard water
passes through the
column.
C3.2.2 Purifying water
a

Water of the correct


quality is essential for
life. For humans,
drinking water should
have sufficiently low
levels of dissolved
salts and microbes.
Pure water can be
produced by
distillation.
Water filters containing
carbon, silver and ion
exchange resins can
remove some
dissolved substances
from tap water to

Be aware of the large amount


of energy needed for distillation
and, as a consequence, of the
high costs involved.
Be aware of the arguments for
and against the addition of
fluoride to drinking water.

Discuss: the need for clean water,


and what this means. Note: One
method of getting pure water is
distillation.
Demo: Demonstrate distillation of salt
water and remind candidates about
how it works. Economics in terms of
energy requirements and vast volumes
needed means it is not viable to
produce drinking eater from except in
extreme circumstances.
Evaporate the distilled water on a
watch glass to dryness to assess how
good the product is.

Watch glass and heating


equipment to evaporate
some of the distillate to
dryness.

A video on water purification


can be found on
www.teachersdomain.org/as
set/ess05_vid_h2otreatment

Note: Avoid
confusion with pure
water, which
contains only water
molecules.

improve the taste and


quality.
c

Chlorine may be
added to drinking
water to reduce
microbes and fluoride
may be added to
improve dental health.

Learning Outcomes
What most candidates should
be able to do

Suggested
timing (lessons)

Reference

Summary of the
Specification
Content

Possible teaching and Learning


Activities
Homework

Resource

Video: Watch video clip or a video on


water purification and candidates
complete a flowchart to explain
process.

Alternatively, there is a video


on Chemistry in Action (you
may have a copy lurking
somewhere).

Emphasise the need to remove some


dissolved, but not all, substances and
the need to add chlorine to kill
bacteria, and possibly (controversially)
fluoride compounds to improve dental
health.

Examination
hints and tips
Candidates should:

Learning Outcomes
What most candidates should
be able to do

Suggested
timing (lessons)

Reference

Summary of the
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Content

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Activities
Homework

Resource

Examination
hints and tips
Candidates Should:

C3.3 Calculating and explaining energy changes


Knowing the amount of energy involved in chemical reactions is useful so that resources are used efficiently and economically. It is possible to measure the amount
of energy experimentally or to calculate it.
C3.3.1 Energy from reactions
a

The relative amounts


of energy released
when substances burn
can be measured by
simple calorimetry, eg
by heating water in a
glass or metal
container. This method
can be used to
compare the amount
of energy produced by
fuels and foods.
Energy is normally
measured in joules (J).

Candidates should be able to


calculate and compare the
amount of energy released by
different fuels given the
equation:

Remind candidates that burning fuels


(as in distillation last lesson) releases
energy, how can we calculate the
energy released?
How Science Works: What do we
need to know? Candidates list likely
variables that will have impact
including:
mass/ volume of water
temperature rise
how much energy it takes to heat
the water by 10C
Discuss how these link into the
equation:
Q=mc T
Activity: Find the amount of energy
produced by different alcohols when
burned. Suggest alcohol is burnt for
five minutes, as a control. Two
practical groups could do each alcohol,
so they can compare their results for

Alcohol burners, 250 cm 3


beakers,
measuring cylinders,
thermometers, balances and
samples of alcohols for the
burners, eg methanol,
propanol, ethanol and
butanol.
Exampro Extra Online
Practical guide: Calculating
energy from burning fuels.

Note: For
comparison
purposes, energy
values could be
given in kJ or
calories for a given
mass or amount of
substance, eg
calories per gram,
kJ per mole or kJ
per gram. If
candidates are
required to convert
from calories to
joules, the
conversion factor
should be given in
questions.

Learning Outcomes
What most candidates should
be able to do

Suggested
timing (lessons)

Reference

Summary of the
Specification
Content

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Activities
Homework

Resource

Examination
hints and tips
Candidates Should:

reliability, and analyse errors.


Candidates describe their method and
results.
Candidates should then use their
results to do the calculation and then
compare their results with the other
group using the same alcohol.
Candidates should discuss causes of
error in their method, and understand
the importance of control variables.
They should jointly produce a list
saying how they could improve their
control of the variables they identify.

The amount of energy


produced by a
chemical reaction in
solution can be
calculated from the
measured temperature
change of the solution
when the reagents are
mixed in an insulated
container. This method
can be used for
reactions of solids with
water or for
neutralisation
reactions.

Activity: Measuring energy changes in


other reactions.

Discuss: Class discussion on how to


represent the result in the class
experiment graphically.

Be able to
understand simple
energy level
diagrams showing
the relative
energies of
reactants and
products, the
activation energy
and the overall
energy change,
with an arrow to
show the energy as
the reaction
proceeds.

Task: Draw energy level diagram for

Be able to calculate

Candidates do neutralisation reaction


in expanded polystyrene cup. Measure
temperature rise and calculate using:
Q=mc T
Remind candidates that energy
change is measured in joules.

Expanded polystyrene cup,


glass rod, measuring
cylinders, dilute acid and
alkali and a thermometer.
Exampro Extra Online
Chemistry Activity: Energy
level diagrams.

Learning Outcomes
What most candidates should
be able to do

Suggested
timing (lessons)

Reference

Summary of the
Specification
Content

Possible teaching and Learning


Activities
Homework

Resource

Candidates Should:

combustion.
d

the energy
transferred in
reactions, using
simple energy level
diagrams.

Task: Candidates draw their own


energy level diagram for their
neutralisation reaction.

Simple energy level


diagrams can be used
to show the relative
energies of reactants
and products, the
activation energy and
the overall energy
change of a reaction.

Examination
hints and tips

Homework: Candidates are given five


energy level diagrams, and they
calculate from the y-axis the energy
change. At least one should be an
endothermic reaction.

Remember to put
the units in
calculations where
possible.
Be able to calculate
the energy change
from an energy
level diagram.
Tip: Subtract the
value for the
reactant line from
the value for the
product line. If the
value is negative,
then the reaction is
exothermic, positive
and it is
endothermic.

Catalysts provide a
different pathway for a
chemical reaction that
has a lower activation
energy.

Represent the effect of a


catalyst on an energy level
diagram.

Activity: What happens when we use


a catalyst? Using a catalyst, eg MnO2
with H2O2, simply in terms of rate of
reaction.

Test tubes, measuring


cylinders, MnO2 powder,
spatula and 20 vol H2O2
Or

Understand that
lowering the
activation energy
reduces costs in
industrial

Learning Outcomes
What most candidates should
be able to do

Suggested
timing (lessons)

Reference
i

Summary of the
Specification
Content

Possible teaching and Learning


Activities
Homework

processes.
CuSO4 powder, conical flask,
zinc granules and dilute
HCl(aq).

Discuss: the idea of activation energy


as a hurdle of energy that the reacting
particles have to overcome before
collisions become reactions (collision
theory link here).

hydrogen + oxygen

It can also be used in


fuel cells that produce
electricity to power
vehicles.

Examination
hints and tips
Candidates Should:

You could instead demonstrate adding


copper sulfate to already reacting zinc
granules and hydrochloric acid to see
rate increase.

Hydrogen can be
burned as a fuel in
combustion engines:

Resource

Note: Knowledge
of the details of the
reactions in fuel
cells is not
required.
Be able to compare
the advantages and
disadvantages of
the combustion of
hydrogen with the
use of hydrogen
fuel cells from
information that is
provided.

Activity: Represent the reaction as an


energy level diagram, showing the
uncatalysed reaction with high
activation energy (hurdle), and the
catalysed reaction having a lower
activation energy (hurdle) to pass.
Discuss: Class discussion about fuel
cells and burning hydrogen as fuels.
Task: Candidates produce chart
comparing the advantages and
disadvantages of using a fuel cell
instead of burning hydrogen.

HT only
In an exothermic
reaction, the energy
released from
forming new bonds
is greater than the
energy needed to

HT only
Calculate the energy
transferred in reactions
using supplied bond
energies.

HT only
Why do chemical reactions have
energy changes? Use Zinc reacting
with hydrochloric acid as example.
Make molymods to represent the
atoms and molecules in the
balanced equation (useful to get

Molymods
CuSO4 powder, conical flask,
zinc granules and dilute
HCl(aq)

Remember to count
every bond as the
first step in the
calculation.
Candidates should
also remember the
need to multiply

Learning Outcomes
What most candidates should
be able to do

Suggested
timing (lessons)

Reference
g

Summary of the
Specification
Content

Possible teaching and Learning


Activities
Homework

Resource

Examination
hints and tips
Candidates Should:

break existing
bonds.

candidates to give you the equation


first).

In an endothermic
reaction, the energy
needed to break
existing bonds is
greater than the
energy released from
forming new bonds.

Discuss: the need for energy to break


the bonds in hydrochloric acid. Draw
energy level diagram showing the
atoms separated, then ask if energy is
needed to break bonds and what is
produced when bonds form? Add
products to the energy level diagram to
show the reaction is exothermic.
Task: Candidates construct molymods
to show breaking bonds and re-forming
them, then draw energy level diagram.
Task: Candidates explain how they
think an endothermic reaction
happens, and make notes, and draw
energy level diagram.
Explain: that chemists know how
much energy is needed to break a
bond between two atoms. Represent
how to use these to work out the
energy transferred in one reaction, eg
2 H2 + O2 2H2O
Homework: For four examples or
more, candidates use bond energies to
calculate energy transfer, and if a
reaction is endothermic or exothermic
(give them the balanced equation).

bond energies by
the number of each
type of bond to get
the right answer.

Learning Outcomes
What most candidates should
be able to do

Suggested
timing (lessons)

Reference

Summary of the
Specification
Content

Possible teaching and Learning


Activities
Homework

Resource

Examination
hints and tips
Candidates Should:

Learning Outcomes
What most candidates should
be able to do

Suggested
timing (lessons)

Reference

Summary of the
Specification
Content

Possible teaching and Learning


Activities

Resource

Homework

Examination
hints and tips
Candidates Should:

C3.4 Further analysis and quantitative chemistry A range of chemical tests can be used for the detection and identification of elements and compounds.
Titrations can be used to find the amounts of acid or alkali in a solution.
C3.4.1 Analysing substances
a

Flame tests can be


used to identify metal
ions. Lithium, sodium,
potassium, calcium
and barium
compounds produce
distinctive colours in
flame tests:

Recognise the presence of


these ions by this test.

Discuss: Teacher led discussion


about forensic crime and the need for
analytical chemistry to determine what
chemicals are present in a variety of
situations.
Activity: Candidates carry out flame
tests on named metal ions to find out
the flame colouration. They then use
the technique to identify two unknown
compounds.

result in a crimson
flame

Spills or wires, solid samples


of compounds:
LiCl
NaCl
KCl
CaCl2
BaCl2
HCl(aq) (to clean wires in)
and matches and spills.

Task: Prepare results chart and


complete it.

compounds result in
a yellow flame

compounds result in
a lilac flame

compounds result in
a red flame

result in a green
flame.

Aluminium, calcium

Candidates should be able to

Discuss: Teacher-led discussion

Test tubes, NaOH (aq),

and magnesium ions


form white precipitates
with sodium hydroxide
solution but only the
aluminium hydroxide
precipitate dissolves in
excess sodium
hydroxide solution.
c

Learning Outcomes
What most candidates should
be able to do

Suggested
timing (lessons)

Reference

Summary of the
Specification
Content

recognise the presence of


these ions in water by this test.

Halide ions in solution


produce precipitates
with silver nitrate
solution in the

Resource

Homework

Activity: Adding sodium hydroxide


solution to solutions of metal ions.
Candidates should add small amounts
of sodium hydroxide and observe what
happens after each addition.
Candidates should be warned that
adding more to one solution will
produce a further change.

pipettes, solutions of:


CuSO4
AlCl3
FeSO4
FeCl3
NB FeSO4 must be freshly
produced.

Task: Candidates prepare and


complete results chart. Remind them
that each solid that appears is a
precipitate.

Recognise the presence of


these ions in water by this test.

Demo: Teacher-led demonstration of


effect on acid on carbonates, and
limewater test as a revision and
introduction to testing halide and
sulfate ions.
Activity: Test halide ions, and then
sulfate ions.
Task: Candidates prepare a results
chart and complete it:
name of

Examination
hints and tips
Candidates Should:

about another method of identifying


metal ions, this time using sodium
hydroxide.

Copper(II), iron(II) and


iron(III) ions form
coloured precipitates
with sodium hydroxide
solution. Copper forms
a blue precipitate,
iron(II) a green
precipitate and iron(III)
a brown precipitate.

Carbonates react with


dilute acids to form
carbon dioxide.
Carbon dioxide
produces a white
precipitate with
limewater. This turns
limewater cloudy.

Possible teaching and Learning


Activities

effect of adding

Test tubes and racks, silver


nitrate solution, dilute nitric
acid, dilute hydrochloric acid,
barium chloride, solution,
solutions of sodium, sulfate,
sodium chloride, sodium
bromide and sodium iodide.

Learning Outcomes
What most candidates should
be able to do

Suggested
timing (lessons)

Reference

Summary of the
Specification
Content

Sulfate ions in solution


produce a white
precipitate with barium
chloride solution in the
presence of dilute
hydrochloric acid.

The volumes of acid


and alkali solutions
that react with each
other can be
measured by titration
using a suitable
indicator.

Resource

Homework

compound

presence of dilute
nitric acid. Silver
chloride is white, silver
bromide is cream and
silver iodide is yellow.
f

Possible teaching and Learning


Activities

Examination
hints and tips
Candidates Should:

silver nitrate
and nitric
acid.

barium
chloride and
hydrochloric
acid

Establish reliable tests for each halide


ion and sulfates, using the results of
the experiment. Candidates make
notes in their books.
Homework: Write word, then symbol
equations for each reaction.

Carry out titrations using strong


acids and alkalis only (sulfuric,
hydrochloric and nitric acids
only).

Demo: How much is in the solution?


Teacher-led demonstration, followed
by class titration practical to establish
idea that the volumes of acid and alkali
can be measured using a suitable
indicator. Whilst universal indicator will
work, better to use phenolphthalein as
the indicator as it gives a definite end
point.
How Science Works: Titration should
be carried out three times to allow for
calculation of a mean.
Task: Candidates draw equipment and
record their results. Calculate the
mean for the titration and then
compare their results.

Burettes, burette funnels,


measuring cylinder / 25cm 3
pipette, conical flask, white
tile clamp and stand
solutions of 0.5mol dm-3,
hydrochloric acid, sodium
hydroxide, 250 cm 3 beakers
and phenolphthalein.

Note: It should be
highlighted that
averaging out
results can give
more reliable
results.

HT only
If the concentration
of one of the
reactants is known,
the results of a
titration can be used
to find the
concentration of the
other reactant.

Learning Outcomes
What most candidates should
be able to do

HT only
Calculate the chemical
quantities in titrations
involving concentrations (in
moles per dm3) and masses
(in grams per dm3).

Suggested
timing (lessons)

Reference

Summary of the
Specification
Content

Possible teaching and Learning


Activities
Homework

Resource

Examination
hints and tips
Candidates Should:

HT only
Remind candidates about relative
molecular mass (Mr) from Unit 2.
Remind them that the Mr in grams if
dissolved in water provides a
concentration unit that we can use
to compare different solutions.
Task: Candidates make brief notes on
molecules and how dissolving different
proportions of the Mr produces
solutions of different concentrations.
Explain: Using last times results,
show how to work out the
concentration of the sodium hydroxide
assuming 1 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid
was used.
Tell candidates they need the
balanced equation to work out reacting
amounts and to work out the unknown
using the equation:
Conc of acid x volume used
conc of alkali x volume used

=
no of acid molecules in equation
no of alkali molecules in equation

Learning Outcomes
What most candidates should
be able to do

Suggested
timing (lessons)

Reference

Summary of the
Specification
Content

Possible teaching and Learning


Activities
Homework

Give candidates three other examples


to calculate the answers for. One
should also involve using grams
instead of moles.

Resource

Examination
hints and tips
Candidates Should:

Learning Outcomes
What most candidates should
be able to do

Suggested
timing (lessons)

Reference

Summary of the
Specification
Content

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Activities

Resource

Homework

Examination
hints and tips
Candidates Should:

C3.5 The production of ammonia In industrial processes, energy requirements and emissions need to be considered both for economic reasons and for
sustainable development.
C3.5.1 Making ammonia
a

The raw materials for


the Haber process are
nitrogen and
hydrogen. Nitrogen is
obtained from the air,
and hydrogen may be
obtained from natural
gas or other sources.
The purified gases are
passed over a catalyst
of iron at a high
temperature (about
450C) and a high
pressure (about 200
atmospheres). Some
of the hydrogen and
nitrogen reacts to form
ammonia. The reaction
is reversible, so
ammonia breaks down
again into nitrogen and
hydrogen:

Evaluate the conditions used in


industrial processes in terms of
energy requirements.
Evaluate the conditions
necessary in an industrial
process to maximise yield and
minimise environmental
impact.

Activity: Draw chemical bonding of


ammonia on the board, write the
formula as well. Candidates should
use the five Ws technique for the
compound.
Discuss: ammonia as an important
chemical in terms of production of
fertilisers and explosives. How is it
made? You could go for a historical
perspective as well. Did you know:
the Navy has the legal right to enter
your bathroom (to collect nitrates
from urine)
explosives and fertilisers were
made from bird droppings from the
Pacific.
Explain: Use resources from Royal
Society of Chemistry (RSC) Alchemy
to explain and provide activities for
candidates to understand the basics of
the Haber process. Watch video clip.

nitrogen + hydrogen
ammonia

Task: Candidates complete flow charts


from RSC Alchemy ammonia to show

Further resources and a


video on ammonia can be
found on the RSC Alchemy
website at
www.rsc.org/Education/Teac
hers/Resources/Alchemy/ind
ex.htm

Tip: As a quick
revision draw a flow
chart of each
starting material,
where it comes
from and what it
becomes.

Understand why
the temperature
and pressure used
are the best
compromise.

Learning Outcomes
What most candidates should
be able to do

Suggested
timing (lessons)

Reference

Summary of the
Specification
Content

Possible teaching and Learning


Activities

Resource

Homework

Examination
hints and tips
Candidates Should:

process.
On cooling, the
ammonia liquefies and
is removed. The
remaining hydrogen
and nitrogen are
recycled.

HT only
When a reversible
reaction occurs in a
closed system,
equilibrium is
reached when the
reactions occur at
exactly the same rate
in each direction.
The relative amounts
of all the reacting
substances at
equilibrium depend
on the conditions of
the reaction.

Demo: Show effect of adding acid,


then alkali to bromine water to
demonstrate what we mean by an
equilibrium. Candidates to make notes
on equilibrium and the use of the
symbol to represent reversible
reactions.

HT only
Describe and evaluate the
effects of changing the
conditions of temperature
and pressure on a given
reaction or process.

Evaluate the conditions used


in industrial processes in
terms of energy
requirements.

Discuss: Brief discussion on the need


to minimise energy requirements and
release of pollutants, candidates to
make notes.

Exampro Extra Online


Practical guide:
demonstrating an equilibrium
reaction.

Discuss: how we can make the most


ammonia, as cheaply as possible, and
as environmentally friendly as
possible?

VLE / Interactive software


reversible reaction

Video: Show RSC ammonia video


again to refresh and revise process.
Discuss: How equilibrium is only
reached when the products are being
made as quickly as the reactants.
Demo: Model dynamic equilibrium with
two 25 cm3 measuring cylinders, each
with an open ended glass tube but with
different diameters. Put 25 cm 3 of
water into one cylinder. Transfer water

Exampro Extra Online


Chemistry Activity: conditions
for equilibrium reactions.

Note: Dynamic
equilibriums are
just like the latest
ride at a theme
park. Theres
always the same
number on the ride;
it is just that at the
end of each trip, the
people on board
change.

If the temperature is
raised, the yield from
the endothermic
reaction increases
and the yield from
the exothermic
reaction decreases.

HT only
If the temperature is
lowered, the yield
from the
endothermic reaction
decreases and the
yield from the
exothermic reaction
increases.
In gaseous reactions,
an increase in
pressure will favour
the reaction that
produces the least
number of molecules
as shown by the
symbol equation for
that reaction.
These factors,
together with
reaction rates, are
important when
determining the

Learning Outcomes
What most candidates should
be able to do

Suggested
timing (lessons)

Reference

Summary of the
Specification
Content

Possible teaching and Learning


Activities

Resource

Homework

from one cylinder to the other using a


finger over the end of each tube in turn
(keep the tubes in the same cylinder)
until the level in each cylinder does not
change any more.
This is true only under the same
conditions of temperature, and gas
pressure.
Use slides from a PowerPoint
presentation and or the RSC Alchemy
website to show how changing each
condition affects the equilibrium.
Task: Candidates make notes on
effect of changing temperature for
exothermic and endothermic reactions.
Task: Candidates make notes on the
effect of changing pressure for gas
reactions to show how gas production
is favoured or inhibited.
Homework: Candidates complete
worksheet from RSC Alchemy about
impact of conditions on proportions
made.

Examination
hints and tips
Candidates Should:

RSC Alchemy worksheet can


be found at
www.rsc.org/Education/Teac
hers/Resources/Alchemy/am/
question.doc

Learning Outcomes
What most candidates should
be able to do

Suggested
timing (lessons)

Reference

Summary of the
Specification
Content

Possible teaching and Learning


Activities

Resource

Homework

Examination
hints and tips
Candidates Should:

optimum conditions
in industrial
processes, including
the Haber process.
C3.6 Alcohols, carboxylic acids and esters Alcohols and carboxylic acids are important organic chemicals that have many uses. Alcohols react with carboxylic
acids to produce esters.
C3.6.1 Alcohols
a

Alcohols contain the


functional group OH.
Methanol, ethanol and
propanol are the first
three members of a
homologous series of
alcohols.

Represent the structures of


alcohols in the
following forms:
H
I
H -C
I
H

H
I
C-O-H
I
H

CH3CH2OH

Activity: Name these compounds:


Diagrams of CH4, C2H6, C3H8.
Produce a blank chart (like the one
below) only showing the headings for
each column (shown in bold).
Complete the first three columns with
candidates. Leave the alcohol name
column until the task listed below.
number of
carbon
atoms in
molecule

start
to
name

alkane
name

alcohol
name

meth

methane

2
3

eth
prop

ethane
propane

methano
l
ethanol
propanol

Use molymods to make structures of


each alkane.
Task: Candidates to draw structural

Molymods

Be able to
recognise alcohols
from their names or
formulae
Note: Candidates
do not need to
know the names of
individual alcohols,
other than
methanol, ethanol
and propanol.

Learning Outcomes
What most candidates should
be able to do

Suggested
timing (lessons)

Reference

Summary of the
Specification
Content

Possible teaching and Learning


Activities
Homework

formulae of methane, ethane and


propane in the left hand side of their
books. Candidates name the alcohols
(remember they have already used
them, in unit 1 and unit 2) and
complete the rest of the chart.
Explain: Show candidates molymods
of both methane and methanol.
Candidates should spot the differences
and then draw methanol structure
alongside methane, and write formula.
Task: Candidates should draw what
they think ethanol and propanol will
look like, and write their formulae,
again alongside the alkane.
Review using Molymods to check
answers.
Task: Draw out idea of homologous
series, by using models of all three
alcohols to show that the formulae only
changes by the addition of CH2 to each
successive molecule.
Homework: Predict formulae and
draw structures for alcohols with 5, 6, 7
and 8 carbon atoms (only show
straight chain molecules).

Resource

Examination
hints and tips
Candidates Should:

Methanol, ethanol and


propanol:
dissolve in water to
form a neutral
solution
react with sodium to
produce hydrogen
burn in air
are used as fuels
and solvents and
ethanol is the main
alcohol in alcoholic
drinks.

Learning Outcomes
What most candidates should
be able to do

Describe key reactions of


alcohols, and why alcohols are
useful.

Suggested
timing (lessons)

Reference

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Specification
Content

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Activities

Resource

Homework

Discuss: Why are alcohols useful to


us?
Activity: to show:
reactions of alcohols with water,
sodium or magnesium produce
hydrogen gas
that they burn in air
solvent effect on, eg on grass
stains.
Demo: Of 50:50 ethanol/water
mixtures burning without damaging
paper. Soak old book/notepad in 50:50
ethanol water, place in enamel tray,
and set it alight. Let it burn for two
minutes so the flames can be seen,
then put heat proof mat over the top to
extinguish fire. Retrieve book/notepad
and show it is damp, but undamaged.
Candidates report the experiment and
write symbol equation for combustion
of ethanol with air. Mention use of
ethanol as a drink. Mention it is mildly
poisonous and this is why it is
intoxicating, whilst others are highly
poisonous.
Prepare some ethanoic acid for next
lesson.
Homework: Write and balance

Examination
hints and tips
Candidates Should:

Exampro Extra Online


Practical Guide: Alcohols,
carboxylic acids and esters.

Note: Candidates
do not need to
write balanced
chemical equations
for the reactions of
alcohols other than
combustion
reactions.

Learning Outcomes
What most candidates should
be able to do

Suggested
timing (lessons)

Reference

Summary of the
Specification
Content

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Activities

Resource

Homework

Examination
hints and tips
Candidates Should:

equations for the burning of methanol


and propanol in air.

Ethanol can be
oxidised to ethanoic
acid, either by
chemical oxidising
agents or by microbial
action. Ethanoic acid is
the main acid in
vinegar.

Recognise carboxylic acids


from their names or formulae,
but the names of individual
carboxylic acids, other than
methanoic acid, ethanoic acid
and propanoic acid, are not
required.

Ethanoic acid is a
member of the
carboxylic acids, which
have the functional
group COOH.

Activity: Ask candidates safely smell


some ethanol, and then flask with
ethanoic acid in from last lesson. Ask
candidates what has happened, and to
tell you what has been made.
Discuss: the oxidation of ethanol to
ethanoic acid, and use molymods to
show what has happened to the
molecule of ethanol as it has been
oxidised.
Task: Candidates can now draw the
structure and formula of ethanoic acid.
Candidates name carbon-based
compounds, and then draw or make
methanoic acid and propanoic acid.
Candidates should explain why
brewing wine and beer need to ferment
without oxygen present.

C3.6.2 Carboxylic acids


b

Carboxylic acids:
dissolve in water to
produce acidic

Represent the structures of


carboxylic acids in the
following forms:

Demo: To show:
carboxylic acids dissolve in water to
form acidic solutions
sodium carbonate produces CO2

Test tubes, ethanoic acid,


pipettes, sodium
hydrogencarbonate, spatula,
indicator paper and
limewater.

Note: Candidates
do not need to
write balanced
chemical equations
for the reactions of
carboxylic acids.

solutions
react with
carbonates to
produce carbon
dioxide

Learning Outcomes
What most candidates should
be able to do

Suggested
timing (lessons)

Reference

Summary of the
Specification
Content

H
I
H C C = O
I
I
H OH

Carboxylic acids:
react with alcohols
in the presence of
an acid catalyst to
produce esters

HT only
Carboxylic acids:
do not ionise
completely when
dissolved in water
and so are weak
acids.
aqueous
solutions of weak
acids have a
higher pH value
than aqueous
solutions of
strong acids with
the same
concentration.

Homework

gas .
Candidates make notes on these
reactions, and use word equations
only.

CH3COOH

Possible teaching and Learning


Activities

Resource

Examination
hints and tips
Candidates Should:

Learning Outcomes
What most candidates should
be able to do

Suggested
timing (lessons)

Reference

Summary of the
Specification
Content

Possible teaching and Learning


Activities

Resource

Homework

Candidates Should:

C3.6.3 Esters
a

Ethyl ethanoate is the


ester produced from
ethanol and ethanoic
acid. Esters have the
functional group
COO .

They are volatile


compounds with
distinctive smells and
are used as
flavourings and
perfumes.

Recognise a compound as an
ester from its name or its
structural formula. They will
not be required to name any
ester other than ethyl
ethanoate.

Demo: Mix equal quantities of ethanol


and ethanoic acid in test tubes. Add
three drops of concentrated
H2SO4(aq). Leave to stand for 10
minutes, add spatula of sodium
hydrogen carbonate to neutralise the
acid, then ask candidates to safely
smell it. Pour mixture into a beaker of
water and ask candidates to smell it
again, to show water helps carry the
scent.
Whilst waiting, produce molymods of
ethanoic acid and ethanol. Tell
candidates that the two react together
to make one molecule of a compound
we call an ester, and a molecule of
water.
After smelling the mixture, candidates
make notes on uses of esters for
perfumes and flavourings. Explain to
candidates that milk goes slightly
fruity before it goes off because
esters are produced in the milk by
bacteria.

Examination
hints and tips

Test tubes, ethanoic acid,


ethanol, concentrated H2SO4,
pipettes, sodium
hydrogencarbonate, spatula
and indicator paper.
Limewater, beaker.

Learning Outcomes
What most candidates should
be able to do

Suggested
timing (lessons)

Reference

Summary of the
Specification
Content

Possible teaching and Learning


Activities

Resource

Homework

Explain properties of esters:


They are not fully ionised so only
make weak acids in water. You
may want to show them how the
molecule dissociates here to
produce H+ ions.
Their pH is higher (less acidic) than
other acids candidates may be
familiar with.

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Examination
hints and tips
Candidates Should: