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Establishment of Cacao

Nursery
and Management
ROMULO L. CENA

USMARC Director
Director and
and Plant
Plant Breeder
Breeder
USMARC
USM, Kabacan,
Kabacan, Cotabato
Cotabato
USM,
E-mail address:
address: romulo55cena@yahoo.com
romulo55cena@yahoo.com
E-mail
Contact No.
No. 09207338887
09207338887
Contact

Nursery
Is a specially established area where
plants are nursed and raised for later
planting
A nursery operator can make money
once grafted rootstock seedling are sold
to interested cacao grower.
To ensure success in cocoa farming, we
must plants healthy grafted seedling on
the right age, right time and right place

NURSERY PLANNING
AND SELECTION

Site selection criteria


1. Minimum area for plant production should be 600

square meters, i.e. 30m x 20m or similar.


This can accommodate about 24,000 plants.
A good bag density is about 40 plants per square
meter of nursery floor.
Additional area (about 5%) for potting mix
preparation, bag filling, and grafting operations and
so on is required.
2. The site must be easily accessed by road or canal.
3. The site must have a good supply of fresh water,
not salty at any time.

ESTABLISHING AND
MANAGING
NURSERIES

Mark out positions


install nursery poles

and

Install shade cloth, side to


side and roof.
Use
moveable wire frame or
similar structure.

Igloo style, steel framed nursery (long term)

Simple backyard style


steel poles (short term)

nursery,

NURSERY MATERIALS

Using bamboo poles as framework, with wire

4m

2m

Small Nursery

Bamboo Post as Frame with Wire


Distance of post: 2x4m
Height of post : 2.5m (0.5 bury)
Total area :
760sq m
Capacity :
37,000

Net (shade 60-75%)

Using concrete posts and


wire as framework

Using galvanized pipes as


framework

Nursery layout
Install an effective drainage

Example of well planned, designed and constructed


nursery

8 bags per nursery bed, with 40cm gap


between beds.

Access pathway through


center of nursery with
access between nursery
beds.

Simple construction, well


designed for easy access
and operations.

30
cm
Polybag Spacing
Gap between row: 30 cm
Distance of pathway: 70 cm

5 bags/line

70
cm

WATER SUPPLY
Water needs to be readily available
of sufficient quantity and good
quality. The standard amount of
water moisture to be maintained in
the seedlings potting mix is 5% of
the seedlings bags volume.

RECORDING AND DATA COLLECTION


Observe and record performance,
monitor problems and progress.
An important benefit of record
keeping is good management, better
organization and efficient planning.

PLANTING MEDIA

Artificial Potting Mixes


Components of artificial potting mix 20% fibre, 20%
rice husk, 20% burnt husk, 10% sand, 20% soil, 10
dried manure and about 3 kg limestone per cubic
meter of mix.

Soil based mix-80% red earth, 10%


manure, 10% rice husk

Bag filling with potting mixture.

Potting of soil media

Potting mixture covered with


plastic sheeting for
solarization

Used potting mix in bags being


solarized under clear plastic sheeting
for use. Not a recommended practice
however.

Types of Bags
Black plastic bags of thin wall thickness
are preferred.
Do not use clear plastic bags as this
promotes algae growth.
Use the smaller bag for short nursery
periods of less than fiver months.
Use the bigger bag if you expect plant will
be in the nursery for five months or
longer.

ESTABLISHM
ENT OF
BUDWOOD
GARDEN

4. Maintenance of
Budwood/Scion Grove
Budwood Garden/Scion Grove can be
utilized for longer period of time (10-15
years) when it is properly maintained.
Periodic pruning is needed to remove
unwanted branches especially those that
are weak and small which are not good
materials for propagation.
Removal of fruits that develop from the
main stem and branches is also
necessary
for
proper
growth
and
development of the plant.

BUDWOOD/SCION GROVE

BUDWOOD COLLECTION

BUDWOOD PRESERVATION

SEED PROPAGATION

Nursery
a) Use of big seeds variety as seed stock such
as UIT 1, UF 18, S5 & 246-A.
b) Use of 6 x10, 8 x10 polyethylene bag.
c) Loam to sandy loam top soil as potting
medium.
d) Combination of several potting materials.

The main steps in


seed preparation are:
Select pods that are

ripe and healthy.

Examples of pods not


suitable to collect seeds
from. (Left to right: green
pods, dead pods, black
pods, deformed pods.

Open

the
pods
using a wooden
mallet. Do not use a
knife as you may cut
the seed.
Remove the seed
from
pods
and
separate seeds from
placenta and pulp.
Discard any flat
seed,
damaged
seed or very small

Defective seeds inside a


diseased pod.

A range of seeds
suitable for planting.

Remove the seed in saw dust or coconut fiber to remove the


pulp from outside of the seeds.

7. Wash the seeds in


water and drain.
8. Soak the seed in a
fungicide
solution
(Benlate or Dithane)
for about one minute.
9. Drain the seeds, and
place on to a tray or
burlap sack in a
shaded
and
cool
area, protected from
wind and rain.

Properly cleaned beansready


for
pregermination.

Seed Germination and Pre-Germination


1. Place the seeds in a single layer on clean jute
bags out of the wind, sun and rain. Cover with
another jute bag. For a small quantity use a
plastic tray with plastic cover.

Pre-germination of seeds

Sowing the pre-germinated


seeds

Acceptable seeds with short radicles (button stage)

Example of seeds not suitable for planting. The radicle


is too long, it may cause twisted roots or snap off. If
planted into the bag.

Sow the pre-germinated seeds not more than 1 cm


deep in the prepared polybags. It is important to
plant the germinated seeds soon when the germs are
1 cm long.

Healthy
and
properly
prepared seedling, emerging
from potting mix, about 1014 days after seed sowing
into the bag.

Good, uniform germination


and seedling emergence,
resulting from proper seed
preparation
and
planting
practice.

Seedlings 1 week after sowing

1 month old seedlings

3-month old
seedlings ready for grafting

Cacao seedlings at 3 months old ready for grafting

Vegetative Propagation
refers to the techniques we use to produce a
cloned plant. A cloned plant is identical to the
plant from which it is derived.

ROOTSTOCK

SCION

CACAO SEEDLING

PROPAGATED
GRAFTED CACAO

1. Variable and not uniform 1. Uniform in terms of


in terms of growth,
growth, and flowering
flowering and production.
and production.
2. Produce jorquette

2. Produce more branches


which can be pruned by
formative pruning.

3. Grow faster and taller

3. Shorter plants and


spreading

4. Good as rootstock for


propagation

4. Used by many plantation


to maximize yield
5. Need to establish
budwood garden

GRAFTING TOOLS

Methods of Vegetative
Propagation in Cacao
Patch Budding, Community nodal
grafting,
Side grafting,
Conventional cleft grafting,
Somatic embryogenesis

Patch budding
Seedlings are ready for patch budding when these have
attained pencil size or have attained a girth of 6 to 7 mm.
Bud only seedlings that are in flush. The bark should
snap-off easily.
Before budding, tag each row indicating the clone to be
budded. Use five clones per block to minimize pollen
scarcity and clonal incompatibility.
Cut across polypropylene or polyethylene bags into
strips as wrapping materials. A bag measuring 12 x 16
inches usually generates 12 to 14 pieces of tapes.

Select green or greenish brown


budwood that is actively growing
to ensure the separation of the
bark. Budwood with a week-old
flush is most suitable for this
purpose . Select branches which
are disease-free, then, cut the
leaves 2 to 3 mm to protect the
bud-eye from damage during
wrapping.
Prepare patch window, 2 to 3 cm
long. Do not open the patch
window as it may dry up be
contaminated
with
fungal
diseases. Prepare the bud-eye
at least 1 mm smaller than the
patch window.

Insert the bud-eye to the patch


window as quickly as possible to
minimize drying and disease
contamination.
Then wrap the bud-eye with
budding tape thoroughly and
gently. See to it that cuts below
and above the bud-eye are
sealed to minimize drying and
water entry. In budding, it is
important that fingernails of the
propagator are clean to minimize
contamination.
Likewise, the
knife used for budding should be
sharp and clean.

Community Nodal Grafting


Gather the seedstocks/seedlings that produced three
pairs of leaves.
Get scions of recommened cacao varieties from
accredited budwood gardens.
Make a cut at the middle of the stem 2 cm above the
node of the stock (seedling) leaving 1 pair of leaves.
Make a wedge cut on the tip of the scion and insert it on
the stock. Be sure that the cambium of the scion and
stock has good contact.
Tighten the connection of scion and stock using 0.003
polyethylene strips or paper clip or any material that will
hold the scion and stock while callus formation shall be
obtained.
Place a stick on the middle of the transparent
polyethylene bag and tie with a plastic twine up to the
beam of the nursery.
At the time the scion had produced new shoots,
gradually open the polyethylene sheet.
Arrange the seedlings in the nursery.
Follow the recommended practices on the care of
seedlings in the nursery until they are ready for planting.

Side grafting
using tube or
tents

Conventional Cleft Grafting Method

CUTTING OF ROOTSTOCK

TAPE PREPARATION

INCISION OF ROOTSTOCK

WEDGING OF SCION

CLEFT GRAFTING

TAPING

COVERING

Grafting of seedlings

ocoa Nursery of Quality Planting Mate

1-week old grafted seedlings

Grafted seedlings
ready for planting

Top Grafting
Price /scion: P 2.00
Grafting/alive: P 2.00

Seedling Losses, Culling, Rejection


and Diseases
On average, we expect about 20% of the seed

that we plant as rootstock or as hybrid seed to be


of inferior quality, and we remove these from the
nursery. If we allow them to stay then we may
have problems such as:
Bent and twisted roots or stem collars
Slow growing or unhealthy plants
Plants with white or very pale yellow leaves
indicating unproductive genetic mutants
Plants with weak root systems

Growth
deformity
of graft

Grafting Disease/
Rejection
Grafting a
dormant bud
Insected damaged
graft

2. Common seedling disease


problems
Seed rot

Seedling rots

Seedling blight

Seedling blight

Grafted seedlings ready for disposal

Recent work in Indonesia


Somatic
embryogenesis
70 million seedlings

Seedlings
mortality

No. of
seedlings
alive

A 1000
seedlings
nursery

Germination rate (95%)

1,000

19,000

950

Culling (10- 20%)

2,850

16,150

800

Grafting(80% success
rate)
Expect to loss about
6%
Total seedlings loss

3,230

12,920

640

775

12,145

600

A 20,000 seedlings
Nursery

7,855

400

SMALL NURSERY
28 m long x 15m wide
Items
(capacity:20,000)
1. Nursery Establishment
and Management
a. Site Preparation
Clearing/slashing/
cleaning
b. Construction of Shade
Bamboo poles
Wire
Garden Net
Labor
c. Water Supply
Tank, pump, main
Irrigation facilities
line for distribution
Labor for installation
of pipes, hose, etc.
2. Preparation of Soil
Media
Cost of polybags
Garden soil
Coco fiber
Bagging of soil
Cost of labor
Hauling & piling polybags
Cost of labor

Total
Cost

Number
required

1,000

2x200x5

1,500
1,700
16,800
2,000

25 @ P60
20 kls @ P85
2 rolls @ P8,400
3x 200 x 5days

35,000 1 set
8,000
8,400
3,750
1,650
6,400
2,000

P42/100pcs
3.12 load@1,200
55
sacks @ P30
0.35/bag
2x200 x 5days

3. Seed Planting

4.Seedling
Propagation

5. Pest & Disease


Control
Spraying for insect
Spraying for fungus

Cost of seeds
Labor for planting

14,250
1,600

95 kls @ P150
2x200x4days

Cost for scion


Cost for top grafting
Cellophane (grafting)

32,300
25,840
605

16,150@ P 2.00
12,920 @ P 2.00
27 pack @ P18 +
17 pack @ P7

Karate, Parapest,
Vindex,
Kocide, Dithane

1,300

2load/spraying=
60ml(2xwk)2li.
2load/spraying
120ml= 2kls

1,500

6. Fertilization Mgt.
16-20-0, 14-14-14,
MPQ, organic fert.
Application of fertilizer
Spraying foliar

1,380
750

200gx3load
12klsP15/kl,
2pinch/plt=1sack
75ml/load x3=225ml
at 2x/month= 500ml
500mlseedling stage
500ml after grafting

7. Selection & Hauling


Seedlings

Cost of labor

1,600

2 x 200 x 4days

Cost of labor

1,600

8x200

Cost of labor

18,000

Emergency labor
200 x 15x 6 mos.

Electricity

2,940

2hrs/dayx1.4kwx
P10= 28x15x7mo

8. Disposal of Seedlings
Loading of seedlings
9. Nursery Maintenance
Replanting, weeding,
spraying fertilization,
culling, selection, etc.
10. Other cost

shovel,sprayer,
wheel barrow, etc.
11. Miscellaneous (5% of
total cost)

6,000
9,893

Cost and Return Analysis of Establishing 20,000 Cacao Seedlings Nursery.


ITEM
1. Labor cost
1.Site preparation
2. Construction of shade
3. Water facilities installation
4. Bagging of soil
5. Hauling & piling polybags
6. Seed planting
7. Top grafting
8. Selection & transfer of seedling
9. Loading of seedling
10. Maintenance
Sub total
II. Material Cost
1. Bamboo poles
2. Wire
3. Garden net

Total Cost
1,000
2,000
8,000
6,400
2,000
1,600
25,840
1,600
1,600
18,000
68,040
1,500
1,700
16,800

4. Polybags
5. Garden soil
6. Coco choir
7. Cacao seeds
8. Scion
9. Cellophane for
grafting
Sub-total
III. Agricultural Cost
1. Insecticide
2. Fungicide
3. Fertilizer
Sub-total
IV. Capital Outlay
1 set of pressure pump

8,400
3,600
1,650
14,250
32,300
605
80,805
1,450
1,500
2,130
5,080
35,000

V. Other Cost
VI. Miscellaneous (5%)

8,940
9,893

Grand Total

Php 207,758

For a 20,000 seedlings and sale of


(12,145 grafted seedlings @ P25)

Set-up 1:
Gross Income
Total Expenses
Profit
Profit/Seedlings
ROI

Set-up 2:
Gross Income
Total Expenses (less:72,000)
Profit
Profit/seedling
ROI

Gross Income ,
Profit and ROI
for 20,000
seedlings

Gross Income
Total cost,
profit, ROI for
1,000
seedlings

P 303,625

P 15,000

P 207,758

P 10,400

P 95,867

P 4,600

P7.85

P 7.65

46.14%

44.23%

P 303,625
P 135,758
P 167,867
P 13.80
123.65%

P 15,000
P 6,788
P 8,212
P 13.65
120.97%

Steps in
Nursery
Accreditatio
n

LETTER OF INTENT

PAZ J. BENAVIDEZ II
Assistant Secretary for Planning and Project
Development &
OIC, Director
Bureau of Plant Industry
692 San Andres St., Malate, Manila

Thru : DANTE V. FIDEL


OIC, Assistant Director for Operations, Admin, & Regulatory &
Chief, Crop Research and Production Support Division
Dear Madam,
I would like to signify my intention to renew my application as an
accredited Plant Nursery Operator under the Plant Nursery Accreditation
Program in this bureau since my accreditation will expire on ____________. Rest
assured that all the criteria and requirements stipulated in A.O. No. 25 series of
2013 will be complied and will abide the accreditation guidelines when granted.
Thank you and hoping for your favorable action.
Sincerely yours,
______________________________
Owner/Operator (Name of Nursery
Date:____________________

CPD
PNA- Form # 1

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Bureau of Plant Industry
Manila
APPLICATION FOR ACCREDITATION OF PLANT NURSERY
New

Renewal

Crop/s Applied (kind)


_________________________________________
Name of Applicant _________________________________________
Address / Region
_________________________________________
Contact No./E-mail Address_________________________________________
Date Established
_________________________________________
Location of the Nursery _________________________________________
Area of Nursery (sq. m. ) _________________________________________
Status of Land Ownership
_________________________________________
I hereby certify that I will abide and follow the guidelines/instructions of the Bureau
of Plant Industry for proper nursery management.
___________________________
Applicant
EVALUATED / INSPECTED BY:
___________________________
Designated Inspector/Evaluator
____________________________
Office
Copy Distributed (2 copies))
1. Regional Office, DA
2. Provincial Office
Date of Application: _____________________________

Sample Signage
Signage Size : 1.5 m x 2 m
Font Size:
Name of Nursery
300 Copper Black
Other Data 250 Arial Rounded MT Bold

HIGHLAND PLANT NURSERY


Romeo P. Ayos
Owner
Contact No. 524-0889
Location of Nursery : 692 San Andres St., Malate Manila
BPI Accreditation No.
: 1234-15
Date Issued
: October 31, 2015
Expiry Date
: November 1, 2018
Accredited Crops : Mango, Cacao
For further information:
Please contact:
BPI Crop Research and Production Support Division
Tel. nos. (02) 525- 7313, 524-0889
Telefax no. (02) 524 0837
E mail address: bpi_cpd@yahoo.com

Acknowledgement
ACDI-VOCA

(Nursery Manual)

CIDAMI
USM

Cacao Breeding and


Nursery Project
WCF
MARS, Inc
INGENIC of Asia Pacific
NSIC, BPI, DA

-Thank
you-

Computation Cacao
Cacao Nursery
Nursery
Computation
Computation:
Computation:
37,000 polybags
polybags -raise
-raise seedlings
seedlings
37,000
Load of
of soil=
soil= 37,000/6,400
37,000/6,400 polybag
polybag per
per load=
load= 66 loads
loads (( 66 wheeler
wheeler dump
dump
Load
truck)
truck)
Sack of
of coco
coco choir=
choir= 37,000/365
37,000/365 polybag
polybag per
per sack
sack xx (1.1)=
(1.1)= 110
110 sack,
sack, feed
feed
Sack
size
size
(10% allowance)
allowance)
(10%
Amt of
of water/day=
water/day=
1L (37,000)
(37,000) (1.3)
(1.3)
Amt
1L
Assuming 1L/day/bag
1L/day/bag
37,000 LL (1.3)
(1.3)
Assuming
== 37,000
Used :: 0.5L:
0.5L: am
am
37,000 m3
m3 (1.3)
(1.3)
Used
== 37,000
0.5: pm
pm
48 m3/day
m3/day water
water
0.5:
== 48
ex. 10
10 cu
cu minimum
minimum (consume)
(consume) == P
P 175
175
ex.
175x 48/10=P
48/10=P 840
840 amount
amount of
of water
water consume
consume per
per day
day
175x