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Caraga State University

College of Engineering and Information Technology


Ampayon, Butuan City 8600

Theory of Errors and


Adjustments
Lecture 5

Broddett B. Abatayo, GE, REA


Lecturer

TRIANGULATION
ADJUSTMENT
CHAIN OF TRIANGLES
Step 1: STATION
ADJUSTMENT
a. The sum of the angles about each station is equals to 360.
Step 2: FIGURE ADJUSTMENT

b. The sum of the interior angles of each triangle equals to 180

TRIANGULATION
ADJUSTMENT
1. Adjust
the angles by station
adjustment
method.
2. Adjust
the angles
by figure adjustment
method.

T2

T5

T4

K
J

F
T3

B
A
T1

Figure
Measured
Station
Angle
Adjustme
Value
Adjustment
nt
A 3120024"
B
475940"
C 1371029"
D
570242"
E
1004025"
F
650620"
G 2410513"
H
665330"
I
521020"
J
2890030"
K
705930"
L
2804358"
M
271812"
N
515753"

TRIANGULATION
ADJUSTMENT
1. Adjust
the angles by station
adjustment
method.
2. Adjust
the angles
by figure adjustment
method.

T2

T5

T4

K
J

F
T3

B
A
T1

Figure
Measured
Station
Angle
Adjustme
Value
Adjustment
nt
A
3120024" 3120022"
B
475940" 475938"
C
1371029" 1371030"
D
570242" 570243"
E
1004025" 1004026"
F
650620" 650621"
G 2410513" 2410212"
H
665330" 665029"
I
521020" 520719"
J
2890030" 2890030"
K
705930" 705930"
L
2804358" 2804357"
M
271812" 271811"
N
515753" 515752"

TRIANGULATION
ADJUSTMENT
1. Adjust
the angles by station
adjustment
method.
2. Adjust
the angles
by figure adjustment
method.

T2

T5

T4

K
J

F
T3

B
A
T1

Station
Figure
Measured
Angle
Adjustmen Adjustmen
Value
t
t
A
3120024" 3120022"
480048.67
B
475940" 475938"
"
C
1371029" 1371030"
570241.33
D
570242" 570243"
"
1003827.3
E
1004025" 1004026"
3"
650731.67
F
650620" 650621"
"
G 2410513" 2410212"
665139.67
H
665330" 665029"
"
520520.33
I
521020" 520719"
"

TRIANGULATION
ADJUSTMENT
CHAIN OF QUADRILATERAL
A: ANGLE CONDITION
Step 1: STATION
a. Sum of angles about each station is equal to 360.
ADJUSTMENT
Step 2: FIGURE ADJUSTMENT

B:

a. Sum of interior angles equals to 360.


b. Opposite angles at the intersection of diagonals should be
equal.
SIDE CONDITION
a. The sine of each angle should be proportional to the
length of the opposite side of that triangle.

TRIANGULATION
ADJUSTMENT
1. Adjust the angles by simple
adjustment method.
H

D
F

Angle
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H

Value
423836"
645228"
403257"
315607"
620046"
452958"
333132"
385740"

D
F

Angle

Value

A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H

423836"
645228"
403257"
315607"
620046"
452958"
333132"
385740"

ANGLE CONDITION
Figure Adjustment Figure Adjustment
(Step 2 a)
(Step 2 b)

SIDE CONDITION

D
F

Angle

Value

A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H

423836"
645228"
403257"
315607"
620046"
452958"
333132"
385740"

ANGLE CONDITION
Figure Adjustment Figure Adjustment
(Step 2 a)
(Step 2 b)
423835.5"
645227.5"
403256.5"
315606.5"
620045.5"
452957.5"
333131.5"
385739.5"

SIDE CONDITION

D
F

Angle

Value

A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H

423836"
645228"
403257"
315607"
620046"
452958"
333132"
385740"

ANGLE CONDITION
Figure Adjustment Figure Adjustment
(Step 2 a)
(Step 2 b)
423835.5"
423830.5"
645227.5"
645222.5"
403256.5"
403258.5"
315606.5"
315608.5"
620045.5"
620050.5"
452957.5"
453002.5"
333131.5"
333129.5"
385739.5"
385737.5"

SIDE CONDITION

D
F

Angle

Value

A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H

423836"
645228"
403257"
315607"
620046"
452958"
333132"
385740"

ANGLE CONDITION
Figure Adjustment Figure Adjustment
(Step 2 a)
(Step 2 b)
423835.5"
423830.5"
645227.5"
645222.5"
403256.5"
403258.5"
315606.5"
315608.5"
620045.5"
620050.5"
452957.5"
453002.5"
333131.5"
333129.5"
385739.5"
385737.5"

SIDE CONDITION
423830.45"
645222.55"
403258.45"
315608.55"
620050.45"
453002.55"
333129.45"
385737.55"

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