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KyeAlexanderPhillips

BenjaminCraig
FRINQ

DevelopmentandAcceptanceofSexualityBasedonConceptofSelfandFaith

Theconstructionofonesselfisestablished,andreestablishedoverthecourseofan
individualslifetime.Thedevelopmentandunderstandingofonessexualityisdeterminedby
theirabilitytoconceptualizetheiridentityintheworldaroundthem.Socialaspectssuchasfaith
andspiritualitywhichshouldbe,fortheindividual,understoodinternally,cancontrolanddictate
thedegreetowhichoneacceptstheirownsexuality.Formanypeople,intheiradolescencestage,
whichIwillattempttoexploreinthispaper,struggletoconceptualizetheirsexualityintermsof
theirfaithdevelopment.Ibelievethroughthefundraisingofacharityballforeducationsystems,
largecorporations,andsuccessfulentrepreneurswecanbringawarenesstopeoplewiththe
authoritytoprovokeandestablishchange,wecanraisemoneytofundmorecharityballsand
pilotaSexualityAwarenessCommission(SAC)thatwilltraveltoeducationsystems,andlarge
corporationstorewritepoliciesandbringawarenessofhowsexualityimpactsusonasocial
enviornmentallevel,asapreventativetosexualbully.Iwillalsoberesearchingtheeffectiveness
ofacharityball.

TheDialogicalSelf.
Thedevelopmentalprocessofunderstandingonessexualitywiththe
influenceoffaithbeginswiththesolidarityoftheideaofself.Theconfidenceapersonhasin
whotheyarecanbequestionedbyexternalstimulithroughrelationshipswithothers,new
situations,socialstandards,etc.Theabilitytoconverseinternallyallowstheindividualto

understandthemselvesandlearntheiridentity.Thisabilityforidentityreinforcementallows
thepersontoconceptualizethemselvesintheworldaroundthem
TheDialogicalSelf:MeaningasMovement
,fromwhichthedefinitionofthe
conversationalselfistakenforthispaper,wasfirstexploredduetosocietiespushtoward
individualismandrationalism.Howdoesonemaintainaconsistentideaoftheselfconcept
whentheexternalworldispullingtheminmultipledirections?Oneofthemajorassumptions
oftheconceptofdialogicalselfistheexistenceofarelationshipbetweenselfandotherall
evidencesuggeststhatsomedifferentiationispresentfrombirthon.(Hermans,&Kempen62)
Frominfancy,itisestablishedwithinusthatinapositionalsense,thebodyinwhichweoccupy
isdifferentfromthatwhichtheotherpersondoes.InourgrowthprocesswhichPiagettheorizes
agreatdealon,webegintoconceptualizeatanearlyagethatevenourinnerbeingisdifferent.
Forexample,childrenatanearlyagewillstarttodifferentiatebetweenboyandgirl.
Aswegetolderwethenlearnthatourdesiresandimpulsesforthingsarenotgoingtobe
thesamedesiresandimpulsesthatthoseincloseproximitytousshare.Peoplecollecttheir
assumptionsaboutlifeintoabehavioralspacethatseparatestheindividualfromwhatisout
there.Theselfboundarystructurecanbeunderstoodasascreen,whichpeoplecarrywiththem
atalltimes,andcanatanytimeinterposebetweenthemselvesandtheoutersituation.(Hermans
,&Kempen65)Thisselfboundary,althoughaseeminglystrongprotectivemechanismforthe
individualdoesnotalwayspreventtheemotionalinfluencesocietycandeliver.
HubertJ.M.HermansandHarryJ.G.Kempen,theorizedthattherearefouressential
developmentalprerequisitesfordialogicalselfthatthechildcognitivelydevelops.Theyare(1)
act,(2)memory,(3)imagination,and(4)language.Theseapplytothedevelopmentalaspectsin

infancybutwiththediscoveryofonessexuality,theirunderstandingandacceptanceofitbrings
themintoanewrealizationofthemselvesasiftheyhadtodeconstructallpreviousviewsof
themselves.Ibelievetheseprerequisitesattheadolescencestageofsexualrealizationcanbe
applied.
Theactstagesuggeststhatbiologicalimpulsescandevelopintomeaningfulbehavior.
Repeatedmovementsoractionsdevelopintomemoryandthencanpromoteimagination.When
anindividualperformsinacertainway,thatbehaviorcanbeinternalizedandthentheymay
becomethatandcuriositycanthenbenourishedinandresultintotheexplorationofnewroles,
henceimagination.Forlanguage,HermansandKempenstatethattheuseofitmeansas
enormousstepintheprocessofmaturation,sinceitenablesthe[individual]toexchangethe
thingsrememberedandtheproductsofimaginationandtosharethemwithotherhumanbeings.
(Hermans,&Kempen,72)Theindividualbeginstoidentifythemselvesinacertainwayand
fromthatunderstanding,theythenlearntoorganizeandprocessinformationabouttheworldin
thatcontext.
Inmanycountries,thesocialimpactofacommunityweighsheavilyonthepersonal
growthanddevelopmentofanindividual.Howtheircommunityviewsthepersoncanchange
howtheyseethemselves.Theinfluenceofrelationshipsandsocietalfiguresandlawsset
standardsforhowapersonshouldbeandshouldact.Ifwedefinetheselfasamultiplicity
of
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positions,thecommunityisnotonlyabletoaddressthechildinavarietyofsocialpositions,
butalsotoletthechildknowhowthesepositions,andthewaythechildfunctionsinthem,are
approved.(Hermans,&Kempen73)Manychildrenandadolescentyouthenterstagesofbeing
obsessedwithparticularpeopleorstyles.Highschoolersandnow,inthisgeneration,middle

schooltweens,areconstantlychangingtheirpositions(interests)inmediaproducedimages.
Thisfighttobeyourselfandtobeanindividual,ismaskedbythechildstranscendenceinto
conformity.Becausechildrenareincreasinglyabletotaketheroleoftheother,theyaddress
themselvesastheyareaddressedbyothersandorganize,atleasttosomedegree,thepossible
arrayofpositionsaccordingly.(Hermans,&Kempen73)
Theparadoxcomesintoplaywhenthepositionthatthechildmaywanttotake,isseen
asanegativeoneincongruencewiththesocietalstandard.Althoughthechildmaywanttotake
theopposingposition,thesignificancesocietyandtherolesparticularpeopleplayintheirlives,
maycausethemtobeunabletodoso.Therefore,societyandfaithcanbothplayarolein
determininghowanindividualmaychoosetoacceptorrejecttheirneedtoexpresstheir
sexuality.
SocialConstructionofSexuality.
Societalstandardstowardssexualitycanmotivateorprevent
thepersonsneedtonotonlyexpresstheirsexuality,butalsoacceptitaspartoftheirbasic
nature.Thevariancesbetweenhumanbeingsmaycauseconfusiononthismattersincethesexual
needsordesiresofonepersonmaynotbesimilarforanother.Forthispaper,sexualityistobe
understoodasanindividualsroleorcuriosityinthingssexual(i.e.latebloomers,theorientation
oftheindividual,varioustranscases,adultery,sexualurges,masturbation,etc.),allofwhich
societyhaslaidclaimtowhatisnormal.
InAmericansocietytoday,thereisastrongpresstowardreconstructingthestandardsfor
whatallthingssexualfallunderinanethical,moral,andhistoricallyreligiousunderstanding.
However,ChristineE.Gudorf,authorofTheSocialConstructionofSexuality:
Implicationsfor
theChurches
raisesthepointthatthesepluralityofvoicesbroughtonthesaleandenslavement

ofAfricanAmericansinthiscountry,andmanymultitudinousformsofexclusionand
discriminationbasedonsex.(Gudorf43)Shestatesthatthenewvoicesformapostmodern
chorusinsistingthatanycallforsharedstandardsisacalltoimposenormsontheweakbythe
powerful.(Gudorf43)Theneedforapluralisticsocietygoverningthesestandardsiswidely
inferred.
Historically,therehasnotbeenapositivestanceontheexpressionorexplorationof
sexuality.Gudorfdiscussesthatinsomesocialcriseshumangroupsandsocietiesarestrained
andduringthesetrials,theremaybemoreofawillingnesstosettleforlessthanjusticeinorder
toobtainabreathingspaceandsomesemblanceofnormality.(Gudorf44)Thiswillingness,she
explains,toarriveatacompromiseforjusticebyallowingpeaceisamoraldefectsincethose
governingsocietysimplywantcompliance.Moreover,Isuspectthatthatthehumanattraction
toorderisonebasisformuchoftherejectionofpostmodernistargumentsthathumandiversity
precludesanycapacityofhumanrationalitytoprocuresubstantiveagreementamongindividuals
orgroups.(Gudorf44)Societiesneedforcontrollinggroups,cloudsitsabilitytoseethe
changingneedsoftheindividualsinthem.
Dependingonwhereyoulive,certainfreedomsarelimited.Insomeplaces,peopleare
responsibleforthesexualchoices,however,thecostofhavingthisfreedom,showsthatitis
relative.AncientGreeksandRomansbelievedthatsexualexpressionandpatternswerevery
muchapartofbeingaman.ItwascommonforGreekmentohaverelationshipswithmale
adolescentyouth.Theroleoftheoldermanwastoactasamentor.SexualOrientationwasnot
seenasasocialissueintheirculture,rathertherolethattheindividualassumedinthe
relationship(i.e.toporbottom)determinedtheirquality.Inmanysocietiestodayshapedby

religiousbeliefs,thisconductisdeemedperverseandmorallyreprehensible.Therefore,
expressedsexualfreedomscandeterminehowyouwillbeacceptedbycertaingroupsof
people,aswellascertainfamilystructures.
Howdoesthisunderstandingoftheoppressionofsocialfreedomsaccountforthemany
outlyingsocialgroupscomprisedofpeopleclaimingtohaveastrongsenseofbeingindividuals?
Developmentally,Gudorfexplainsthatitistheunderlyingorderinhumansocietythatallows
theworldofthehumaninfanttobeintelligiblethatintelligibilityiswhatallowsthechildto
learnindependence.(Gudorf44)Theabilitytopracticeopenandsharedcommunication
(impliedbyintelligibility),promotesuniquenessintheindividualandinmostcircumstances
wherethisispromoted,allowsforthepersonstofeelnotopicorissueisnotofflimitstoexplore.
Intheirresearchonchildhoodsexualbehavior,J.M.BaileyandK.Zuckerfoundthatpersons
withhomosexualorientationasadultsweresignificantlymorelikelytohavedemonstrated
nonconformistgenderpatternsaschildren.(Gudorf49)Theydidnotethatnonconformitywas
notexpressedinallthosewithhomosexualorientation,andinrelationsomechildrenthat
expressedgendernonconformityexpressedheterosexualorientationasadults.
Theabilitytoexpressandcommunicateyourselfwithsomeoneyoutrustisimportantin
allhumanrelationships.Thedegreetowhichoneisabletoexpresswhotheybelievethemselves
tobecanbeaffectedbytheirunderstandingofself,andhowsocietywillreceiveit.Gudorf
writes:humansnotonlyrequirerelationshiptobecomecapableofhumanbehavior(from
speechtocapacityfornurture),butthathumanselfunderstandingandconsequentbehaviorhave
changedwithhistoricalcultureshifts,astheconceptoftheindividualandtheconsequent
conceptofindividualrightsillustrates.(Gudorf46)Supportgroupsareaprimeexampleof

humanrelationshipsthathavechangedwithculturalshifts.Thereisanunderstandingthatthere
areothersoutintheworldthatshareacommonexperienceandcommuninginsuchaway
offerstheindividualsecurity,andassexualthoughts,behaviorsandidentitiesarebeingexplored
moreandmoreintodayssociety,peopleareseekingassuranceintheirpositionsthrough
grouping.
Overthepastseveraldecades,therehasbeenamovetounderstandthatthereisarole
biologyplaysinthedevelopmentofonessexuality.Whilesomefactors,suchasbiology,
influencesexuality,inallhumancommunities,thedegreeanddirectionofinfluencewillvary
withindividualdifferencesinsex,inhormonelevels,ingeneticallyfoundeddifferencesinthe
brain,ingeneralhealth,aswellaswithcultureandindividualchoice.(Gudorf,47)Gudorf
arguesherethatdespitebiologysinfluenceonsexuality,cultureandthechoiceoftheindividual
tomakesexualityadefinitiveanswerinidentifyingtheselfconcept,playsanequalrole.Inthe
defenseofsocialinfluence,shestatesthatifgenetics
determined
sexualorientation,then
all
the
identicaltwinsofhomosexualpersonwouldhavehomosexualorientationaswell,whichisnot
thecase.(Gudorf48)
Lookingatcultureasaninfluenceonsexuality,itissafetoconcludethatsincemuchof
societiesviewsonsexualexpressiondealswithitonalevelofmoralityandethicsmanyhinder
theirsexualexplorationsbecausetheyseethemasimmoral.In1986,theCatholicChurchstated
thatalthoughtheparticularinclinationofthehomosexualpersonisnotasin,itismoreorless
strongtendencyorderedtowardanintrinsicmoralevilandthusintheinclinationitselfmustbe
seenasanobjectivemoraldisorder.(Gudorf,Grammick49)Withthiskindofthinkingand
ideologies,isitanywonderthatpeopleareconfusedintryingtounderstandthemselves?Asa

socialgroupandastrongsourceformoralandfaithdevelopment,thechurchhasastrong
influenceonaperson.
ExternalandInternalInfluenceofFaithandSpirituality.
Continuingtheexplorationofsocial
developmentinregardstothatoffaithandspirituality,itisimportanttonotehowinfluentialthe
churchis.Likesciencejustifiesknowledgethroughresearchandtesting,Churchandreligion
reliesonscriptureforitsknowledge.Fromasocialstandpoint,theuseofscriptureinchurchesis
toprovideguidanceonhowapersonshouldbehave,sexuallyorotherwise.Thereisaconstant
movementinmodernsocietytounderstandthatGodsintentionsandpurposeforthepeoplein
theoldtestamentofthebiblechangedforthoseinthenewtestament,aswellasforthoseinthe
present.However,inthesamerespect,thereisapushtounderstandthatGodsprinciplesare
consistentandapplytothenewexperiencesofthispresentworld.
Onecommoninterpretationofscriptureisthatjustasscientificresearchisdevelopedand
interpretedbymen,muchofscriptureistoo.Astheworldevolved,theunderstandingand
interpretationofscripturemayhavetoo.Someseethisasmeanstotaketheliteralmeaningof
scripturelightly.Itisoftenassumedthatdiversityissogreatamonghumansthatthegulf
betweenonepersonsexperienceandanothersprecludesanyrationaldiscourseaimedat
discerningconcretecommonconditionsforhumanflourishing.(Gudorf51)Regardless,with
anynewinformationorknowledge,thedegreetowhichoneacceptsorrejectsitisduetotheir
predispositionofit.Formattersconcerningfaithandspirituality,thepredispositiononehasto
itstartsearlyintheirdevelopmentalprocessfrominfancy.
ThetheoryofGodConceptreadiness,developedbyRobertWilliams,fromPiagets
discoveriessuggeststhatfromtheearlyyears,artificialismdevelopsinthechild.Thisisthe

abilitytoconceptualizeallobjectsandeventsintheworldaroundusasbeingmadebyman.
(Williams62)SocialcausesthatPiagetidentifiesasstronginfluencersonartificialismare:(1)
thechildsmaterialdependenceuponhisparents,and(2)thenaturalimpulseofthechildtofeel
awe,respectandreverenceforhisparents.(Williams62)FourstagesPiagettheorizeson
regardingartificialismare:(1)diffuseartificialism,(2)mythologicalartificialism,(3)technical
artificialism,and(4)immanentaftificialism.Inthefirststage(age5or6),thechildbelieves
natureiscontrolledbymen,inthesecondstage(age67),thechildmovestounderstandingthat
Godcanalsoinfluencenature.Incrisis,thechildrecognizesthelimitsofhumanpowerwhich
ultimatelycauseshimtotransfertheideaofallpowerfulnessandallknowingnessfromhis
parentsandotheradultstosomethingelse.(Williams63)Beingsubordinatetoonesparents
influencesthedevelopmentofreligiousfeelings.
Inthethirdstage(age79or10)thechildcontinuestorecognizethelimitationsinman,
andtransfersthepowertoGod.Thechildceasestobelievethatlivingthingsare
manufactured.Inthefinalstage(age910andup)thechildiscapableofunderstandingthat
thingscanbeduetoreligiousinstruction.Piagetdiscussedthatwithreligiouseducationand
transferofknowledge,thechildwillattributetohisparentstheperfectionsandattributeswhich
hewilllatertransfertoGodifhisreligiouseducationgiveshimtheopportunity.(Williams65)
AchildsdefinitionofGodasafatherfigureisinitiallyinfluencedbyhisrelationshipwithhis
biologicalfather.Giventhechilddevelopsunderreligiousunderstanding,therecanbeastrong
relianceonusingfaithtodefinetheworld.
Conclusion.
BasedonDialogicalSelfstudies,ourrelationshiptoothersheavilyinfluencesthe
wayinwhichweseeourselves.Asargued,wearerelationalbeings.Theneedforrelationship

andacceptanceimpactsourgrowth,ourdevelopingselfidentityandcanimpactoursexuality
andacceptance.Whenfaithandreligiousteachingsaretakenintoconsiderationofachild
growingwithinasocietyofincreasinglychangingsexualidentitiesandvaluesthestruggleto
discoversexualidentityanditsacceptanceintensifies.Lifeexperiencesratherpositiveor
negativearisingfromthatsocietyoftenpushagainstreligious/spiritualhelddefinitionsof
normalcyandbeingright.
Itisimportanttounderstandthatwithmanyvariationsofthehumanexperienceand
humanbiology,manyteachingsinmoralitythrureligiouswritingsdonotdirectlyaddress
variationsinasexualnature(latebloomers,transgendercases,masturbation),causingman
himselftodefineforhimselfthenormalcyofthesevariations.Mostreligiouswritingsdo
referencehowever,theavoidanceofimmoralbehavior.Thiscallsintoquestion:Whatisthe
validityoftheinternalvoicethattellsapersontogoagainstsocietalandreligiousstandards
hold?Aspeopleworktocreateanddiscovertheiridentityofself,itishardforthemnotto
hindertheirgrowthwhentheyaremadetofeelthatcertainaspectsoftheirbehavior,believedto
bebroughtonbynature,isunacceptable.
Aconcernisthatifintheprocessofgrowth,anindividualisguidedtoperformata
particularleveloractinacertainwaywhentheverynatureofthepersonistoactanother,the
preventionoftheabilitytodevelopcognitivelybymeansofthelearnedselfconceptcouldresult
inotherdevelopmentalareastoevolvenegatively.Thepowerandsignificanceapersongivesto
anexternalinfluence(whetherhuman,experientialortheoretical)intheirdevelopmentcancause
thisnegativeevolutiontooccur.

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WhenorganizinganeventsuchasaCharityBallforthePilotoftheSexualAwarness
Commission(SAC)wemustkeepinmindtheobjective,despitetheeventhavingmusicand
dancingwithacateringcompany,therewillbeafewspeakerswhotalkabouttheirpersonal
adjustmentandmisfortunesintheirsexualitytobringanemotioneffect.Therewillbethe
introductionoftheSexualityAwarenessCommission(SAC)whowillpresentafewwaysthat
wecanprovideourselveshealthywaysofdealingwithoursexuality,andacounterspeachhow
wecanassistandcareforothersarounduswhoarebattlingwiththeirsexualitytobetterprovide
equaloppurtunitytoeveryindividual.
Thisresearchinvestigateshowthenatureofaproduct
andthemagnitudeofadonationtocharityinteracttodeterminetheeffectivenessthatacharity
incentivewillhaveinpromotingaproduct.Theresultssuggestthatsensitivitytomagnitudein
thecaseofcharityincentives(i.e.,thesizeofthecontributionmadeperpurchase)isnotasstrong
assensitivitytomagnitudeinthecaseofmonetaryincentives(i.e.,thepercentageoftheprice
beingdiscounted).Inaddition,itisfoundthatwithlargedonationmagnitudescompetingwith
largemonetaryincentives,charityincentiveswillbesignificantlymoreeffectiveinpromoting
productsperceivedas"frivolousluxuries"(e.g.,ahotfudgesundaeoraluxurycruise)thanin
promotingproductsperceivedas"practicalnecessities"(e.g.,arollofpapertowelsoranew
washingmachine).
JournalofConsumerPsychology,Vol.8,No.3,pp.215241,1999.
Wewill
behaveadrawingtowinacruizetothecarribeanasinsentivetodonateandbuymoretickets.

Intheconstructionofself,sexuality,andfaith,onehastolearntounderstandthemselves
notinonesense,butasawhole.Theearlyabilitytoconceptualizeself,allowsforthehealthy
explorationofsexuality,giventheindividualisconfidentenoughtostandaloneagainstsomeof

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societiesstandards.Faithcanplayasignificantandimportantroleinhumandevelopmentgiven
theindividualrecognizesthefrailtyofhumankind.AsGodConceptreadinessdevelopsthrough
adolescence,thereperhapsshouldbetheunderstanding:
IamwhoIambecauseofthisiswhoI
wascreatedtobe
.ThroughthecharityballofSexualityAwarenessIintendtousemarketing
researchtointroduceandhighlightaneffectivestrategytocreateequalopportunityfor
employment,socialstructures,andbreakdownconceptualizedidealizationofwhatsexuality
limitsusto.

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Grammick,J.,&Furey,P.(1988).Congregationforthedoctrineoffaith,"lettertothebishopsof
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Gudorf,C.E.(Ed.).(2000).
Godforbid
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Hermans,H.J.M.,&Kempen,H.J.G.(1993).
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Williams,R.(Ed.).(1971).
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Nussbaum,MarthaC.
Sexandsocialjustice
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Strahilevitz,MichalAnnandMyers,John,DonationstoCharityasPurchaseIncentives:How
WellTheyWorkMayDependonWhatYouareTryingtoSell(1998).Journalof
ConsumerResearch,Vol.24,No.4,p.434,1998.

JointCommission,andJointCommission."Advancingeffectivecommunication,cultural
competence,andpatientandfamilycenteredcareforthelesbian,gay,bisexual,and
transgender(LGBT)community:Afieldguide."
OakbrookTerrace,IL:TheJoint
Commission
(2011).

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