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Reymar S. Ungab

ASCHEM3

ABSTRACT:

February 9, 2016

CHEM72A

Heat of Neutralization

This activity is an experiment on the determination of the heat capacity of a calorimeter and determination of heat of neutralization reaction of a strong acid-strong base and weak acid- strong base. In this experiment the calorimeter used was made out of Styrofoam coffee cups and it was assumed that there was no loss of heat. The activity as the title implies was aiming to get the heat of neutralization through the utilization of Styrofoam calorimeters and the specific heat also the calorimeter. Though the calorimeter was not a perfect one but it was assumed that there was no heat lost to the environment.

Introduction

Matter and its basic component, the atoms are materials that served as “banks of energy”. In everything that exists consist of energy that is somewhat hidden until they are observed especially when an object undergoes a certain change. Whenever matter changes, whether chemically or physically, the energy content of the matter also changes 1 . Every chemical change is accompanied by change in chemical energy, mostly observed in a form of heat.

Energy changes always accompany chemical reactions. If energy, in the form of heat, is liberated the reaction is exothermic and if energy is absorbed the reaction is endothermic. Thermochemistry is concerned with the measurement of the amount of heat evolved or absorbed. The heat (or enthalpy) of neutralization (∆H) is the heat evolved

when an acid and a base react to form a salt plus water.

Reymar S. Ungab ASCHEM3 ABSTRACT: February 9, 2016 CHEM72A Heat of Neutralization This activity is an

Q in the above equation is -∆H and is expressed in kJ/mol of water. Neutralization reactions are generally exothermic and thus ∆H is negative.

Heat measurements are performed by carrying out the reaction in a special container called a calorimeter. The heat (Q) given off by the neutralization reaction is absorbed by the reaction solution and the calorimeter. Both the solution and calorimeter increase in temperature due to the absorbed heat and this increase can be measured with a thermometer. ∆H is negative if heat is evolved and positive if heat is absorbed.

Reymar S. Ungab ASCHEM3 ABSTRACT: February 9, 2016 CHEM72A Heat of Neutralization This activity is an

To evaluate the calorimeter constant (also known as its heat capacity) in J/ o C or can be expressed also in J/K, one adds a known mass of hot water to a known mass of cold water which is in the calorimeter. Heat (Q) is lost by the hot water and is absorbed by the cold water and the calorimeter. Thus the heat absorbed by the calorimeter is the heat lost by the hot water minus the heat gained by the cold water.

To evaluate the calorimeter constant (also known as its heat capacity) in J/ C or can

The experiment mainly focused on the heat of neutralization of acids and bases,

particularly NaOH as the base and HCl and CH 3 COOH as the acids used. Thus, the experiment was done with the following objectives: (1) to measure the heat of neutralization of a particular neutralization

reaction; (2) to appreciate the

concept

behind the exothermic nature of neutralization reaction; (3) to determine the enthalpy change undergone by the

neutralization

of acid and base to form a

certain amount of water; (4) to distinguish the enthalpy of neutralization when a weak

acid or a strong acid is used; and

(5) to

 

calibrate

a

simple calorimeter. In this

experiment, the overall significance is to verify the amount of heat released as

a

neutralization process occurs to form a mole

of water

and appreciate its concept in

relation with

daily life and additional

understanding towards the behavior of

matter and its changes.

Methodology

Materials

The experiment was performed using the following apparatuses, materials and reagents: apparatuses involved the thermometer, iron ring, iron stand, wire gauze, alcohol lamp, thermometer holder, volumetric flask, pipette and aspirator, and graduated cylinder. Materials involved are:

polystyrene (styrofoam) cup (2 pieces) polystyrene board (for calorimeter lid), plastic ring, wooden stick, and cutter. Chemicals involved 1.0 M HCl, 1.0 M NaOH, 1.0 M CH 3 COOH, and distilled water.

Heat Capacity of Calorimeter

The experiment was started by making a simple calorimeter out of polystyrene cups widely known as Styrofoam coffee cup. Two polystyrene cups were fused together to form a one double layered cup that is intended to maximize the insulation and isolation of heat. A lid cover was made of polystyrene board. A circular canal was made on the board in order for the mouth of the cup to fit in. One hole was made on the board intended for the thermometer that served also as the stirrer as there was no stirrer available. Before the heat of neutralization experiment was performed, the constructed simple calorimeter was calibrated first, to determine its heat capacity. Fifty milliliters of water, with the certain temperature in °C, almost same with the room temperature was placed in the calorimeter. Another 50 mL of water

up temperature of the cooler water. Both temperatures were noted and the hot water was poured into the calorimeter, noting the temperature of the mixture every 15 seconds

was

heated

to

around

twice

the

for 3 minutes. The temperatures were recorded and were used to calculate the C cal ,

the

heat

capacity

of

the

calorimeter.

Calibration was done for six trials and the mean was taken as the heat capacity of the calorimeter.

Heat of Neutralization of HCl-NaOH

As the heat capacity was already obtained, the heat of neutralization was performed. Using the volumetric flask, pipette and aspirator and distilled water, 1000 mL each 1.0 M of NaOH, 1.0 M of HCl and 1.0 M of CH 3 COOH were prepared. These chemicals were then used for the experiment. First done was the neutralization between HCl and NaOH. Noting that all the chemicals must have equal temperature or in thermal equilibrium with the surroundings, the experiment was performed. Fifty milliliters of NaOH was placed on the clean dry calorimeter. After few minutes, the temperature was measured and served as the initial temperature. A 50 mL of the prepared 0.1 M HCl was poured into the calorimeter and the calorimeter was covered and stirred with the thermometer and the temperature was obtained every 15 seconds for three minutes. The temperature of the mixture was then obtained and was recorded. Another setup was performed. But the difference was that the HCL was replaced with acetic acid, a weak acid and the procedures were followed as it was in the HCl-NaOH neutralization.

Results & Discussion

The basic principle that governs the experiment is the conservation of energy on which the heat lost by the system will always be equal to the heat gained by the surrounding or another system. Another one is that the neutralization of an acid and a base produces water and its side product as heat. Thus upon formation water in the neutralization, heat is also released. These concepts led to the objective of this experiment to experimentally measure the heat of neutralization of a particular neutralization reaction and compare it to the theoretical values established by the literatures.

Prior the determination of the heat of neutralization was the determination of the heat capacity or heat constant of the calorimeter made out of the polystyrene cups. In this part of the activity six trial were done and mean was taken as the heat capacity in order to establish accuracy. The cooler water used have temperatures near the room temperature and the warmer water have twice the temperature of the cooler water. They were mixed in such a way to get the temperature in which they are in thermal equilibrium in the environment. After getting the water to equilibrate with the surroundings, heat loss of the warm water in calories can now be determined as well as the heat gained by the cool water and the loss towards the calorimeter. With the data gathered from the lost and gained temperatures, the heat capacity of the

polystyrene cup calorimeter was obtained by dividing the heat loss to the calorimeter by the temperature increase by the cooler water. For further presentation of data, its recorded in tabular form as the table 1 shows below.

one was a pair of weak acid and a strong base. The strong base used was NaOH (1.0 M) and the strong acid used was HCl (1.0 M). The weak acid used on the second setup was CH 3 COOH (1.0 M). The experiment started with the heat of neutralization of NaOH-HCl neutralization reaction.

Table 1 Heat Capacity of Calorimeter

Paramete

1

2

3

4

5

6

rs

temp. cool water, o C

  • 21 24

24

24

27

24

temp. warm water, o c

  • 45 44

 

36

42

42

40

temp. after mixed, o C

  • 35 34

 

32

34

34

34

∆t, o C

10

10

4

8

8

6

Heat

loss

 
  • 50 300

500

20

40

40

 

by

warm

0

0

0

0

water, cal

Heat

70

500

40

50

35

500

gained

by

0

0

0

0

cool water,

cal

Heat loss

20

0

20

10

-

200

to calorimete r, cal/ o C

0

0

0

50

Heat

14.

0

25

10

-

20

capacity

28

7.1

of calorimete r, cal/ o C

4

 

The

heat

of neutralization

experiment was performed using a pair of a strong acid and a strong base and the other

The

results

presented

in

table

2

showed the information needed to

experimentally determine and calculate the

heat of neutralization of the particular

exothermic reaction, that is the amount of heat released when an acid and a base reacts

to form water.

Stoichiometrically determined, the

amount of water produced in the reaction of 50 mL each of HCl and NaOH is found to be 0.05 moles. Thus the heat calculated was

divided with 0.05 moles and obtained the

enthalpy of reaction per mole of water

formed. For the neutralization reaction of HCl and NaOH, according to literature

should be -57.1 KJ. For the acetic acid and

NaOH should be -55.9 KJ. Thus the errors for the two reactions are 1.94% and a4.45%

respectively. The data for neutralization

reaction between HCl and NaOH and

between acetic acid and sodium hydroxide are shown in the table 2 and 3 below.

In conduct of the experiment, unit of

heat is either

in calories or

in Joules. But

conventions suggest the utilization of the unit Joule in dealing with heat. The

experiment used

a

constant pressure

calorimeter which is simpler compared to

constant

volume

calorimeter.

Since

the

pressure in constant, thus the heat changes being measured would be equal to the enthalpy changes.

Table

2

Heat

of

Neutralization

of

HCl-

NaOH

Parameter

 

T 1

T 2

T 3

s

Temp. acid,

 

28

28

28

o C

Temp. base, o C

 

28

28

30

Temp. mixture, o C

 

34

34

34

∆t, o C

6

6

7

Heat gained by sol., cal

600

600

700

Heat gained

0

81.82

175

by

calor.,

 

cal

Total

cal

-600

-600.8

-805

released,

 

cal

Moles

HCl

0.05

0.05

0.05

in

50mL

 

1M

HCl,

mol

Moles

0.05

0.05

0.05

water

produced,

 

mol

Cal released

-12000

-13636

-16100

per

mole

 

water,

cal/mol

 

Expressed

 

-50.208

-57.055

-67.362

in KJ/mol

 

Average ∆H

 

58.208

Table

3

Heat

of

CH 3 COOH-NaOH

Neutralization

of

Parameter

T 1

T 2

T 3

s

Temp. acid,

28

27

31

o C

Temp.

28

27

30

base, o C

 

Temp. mixture, o C

32

33

36

∆t, o C

4

5

6

Heat gained by sol., cal

400

600

500

Heat gained

50

100

35.714

by

calor.,

cal

Total

cal

-450

-700

-535.7

released,

 

cal

Moles

HCl

0.05

0.05

0.05

in

50mL

1M

HCl,

mol

Moles

0.05

0.05

0.05

water

produced,

 

mol

Cal released

-9000

-14000

-10714

per

mole

water,

cal/mol

Expressed

-

-58.576

-44.829

in KJ/mol

37.656

Average ∆H

 

-

47.0200

Heat changes in the neutralization reaction vary mainly on the strength of the acids used. Earlier studies observed that all neutralization reactions between strong acids and strong bases, those that dissociate completely in water, had the same heat of reaction. No matter which strong acid and base reacted, and no matter which salt formed, Hº was about -56.2 kJ per mole of water formed. Arrhenius suggested that the heat of reaction was always the same because the actual reaction was always the same – a hydrogen ion and a hydroxide ion formed water:

H + (aq) + OH - (aq)

Heat changes in the neutralization reaction vary mainly on the strength of the acids used. Earlier

r Hº = -56.2 kJ/mol

H 2 O (l)

Eq. 4

Thus for any reaction that involves the presence of strong acids and bases would yield the same heat of reaction. On the other hand, when a weak acid or a weak base is involved, the heat of reaction is lower than in equation 4 this is because weak acids and bases do not dissociate fully on water, not giving its overall H + and/or OH - in the solution. Thus only fewer of these species react to form water. Some of the errors of the experiment were too visible and could be traced in many ways. First was the assumption that there was no heat loss from the calorimeter indicating the calorimeter as more or less a perfect one but the is not due to poor quality of materials used. General errors in the experiment could be traced as mistakes in thermometer readings due to the poor precision of the thermometer used.

Conclusion & Recommendation

The experiment on the determination of heat of neutralization on two setups of acid base reactions were the important tools towards the higher appreciation and understanding of the concepts of enthalpy changes in the systems as they would undergo some certain reactions. The experimental measurement of the heat of neutralization with lesser errors in the experiment gave way to appreciate that there really is a certain quantity of heat being produced in the neutralization reactions. The enthalpy differences between strong acid- strong base and weak acid-weak base reactions were not that appreciated because

of some certain errors but the concept behind them were well understood.

As the experiment is to be performed for the next time, it is recommended that the standardization of the solutions to be used is done and the thermometer to be used must be as precise as possible. The calorimeter might be improved by using an ultra-thick polystyrene cup to ensure that there should be no heat lost to the environment.

References

  • 1. SILBERBERG, M. 2006. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4 th ed. PDF New York, USA: McGraw-Hill.

2.

LAIDLER,

K.J.

and

J.H.

MEISER.1999. Physical Chemistry. 3rd ed. PDF United States of America: Houghton Mifflin Co.

3.

CHANG, R. 2007. Chemistry, 10 th ed. PDF New York, USA: McGraw- Hill.