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EDCURSEC700: Investigating School A and B Communities

Onehunga

The origins of Onehunga’s name remain mysterious. The common belief is that its name was derived from an original Māori titling for the area of ‘One-Unga’ – meaning ‘landing beach – in recognition of the important role that the Onehunga Harbour played in facilitating the communication between northern and southern Māori. Others suggest the name is derived from another Māori titling of ‘Onehunga’, referring to the friable loose soil created from the area’s volcanic geography (Borchard, 1993, p. 3).

A History of Settlement in the Onehunga Area

Onehunga’s first human thoroughfare came with the arrival of the Tainui Canoe (amongst the ‘Great Fleet’) which portaged through Manukau Harbour en route to settlement in the Waikato (Mogford, 1989, p. 9). While ignored for some years following, the area was eventually settled by Ngati Awa, who established pa at Maungakiekie and Owairaka, and overhauled both as defensive settlements (Ashton, 1988, p. 1). The United Tribes of Wai-O-Hua inherited the area, and in 1820 they permitted its first European sighting, by paddling Reverend Samuel Marsden out to the Manukau Heads (Mitchell, 1993, p. 4). The tentative trading practices between early European settlers and Māori that commenced shortly after (Mogford, 1989, p. 11), were quickly decimated when Hongi Hika’s musket- armed Ngapuhi invaded the area, annihilating the majority of its population (Ashton, 1988, p. 1), forcing survivors to flee to the Waikato (Pritchard, 1925, p. 4).

As such, the area was virtually wild and uninhabited when it was almost simultaneously re-settled by Wai-O-Hua (Mogford, 1989, p. 11) and the first European settler to the area, Thomas Mitchell (a timber merchant from Sydney) in 1835 (Mogford, 1977, p. 14). Mitchell purchased several thousand acres from Wai-O-Hua, and built New Zealand’s first sawmill in Mill Bay (Mogford, 1977, p. 14). Following his death in 1837, the land was sold to Captain William Cornwallis, who established the Cornwallis settlement (in that area still known by the same name), which housed the first settlers to area arriving upon The Brilliant in 1841 (Mogford, 1977, p. 14). While the settlement proved unsuccessful (due to construction issues pertaining to settler accommodation), in the years following, the majority of settlers arriving to New Zealand settled in the Onehunga, or the Auckland City, areas (New Zealand Government, 2016, p. 29).

Much of Onehunga’s development is attributable to unrest. In 1846, under threat of invasion from the Waikato, Governor George Grey recruited Imperial Troops from Great Britain to form a force of ‘Royal New Zealand Fencibles’ (Stumbles, 1993, p. 88) in Howick, Panmure, Otahuhu and Onehunga (Auckland Libraries, 2016) to protect Auckland and comprise a permanently settled population (Onehunga Business Association Incorporated, 2016). The threat of invasion additionally drove

Settlers from the Waikato to the north (Mogford, 1989, p. 24). When the Land Wars commenced in 1860, the use of the Onehunga Port as a main route for troops and supplies lead to an influx of wealth which permitted the commercial expansion of the area (Mogford, 1977, p. 19).

The dissolution of conflict did not suppress the area’s economic growth. The significant freshwater supply of the area rendered it highly suitable for industrial development (Onehunga Business Association Incorporated, 2016), which attracted first ironworks, then shipbuilding industries (Mogford, 1977, p. 95). In 1878, Onehunga became more accessible to visitors by the linking of Onehunga Wharf to Auckland via Railway (Onehunga Date Line, 2016), and in 1893, a tourist attraction, when travellers flocked to witness with incredulity the activities of the elected first Woman Mayor of the British Empire – Elizabeth Yates (Williams, 1993, p. 8 and 12).

The provision of electric tramways permitted significant dispersal of Central Auckland populations as the commute to the city grew shorter (Onehunga Date Line, 2016). As such, the population continued to expand, marked by the building of Te Papa School (1913) and Manukau Intermediate School (1943) to relieve overcrowding at Onehunga District School (Mogford, 1989, p. 115). The area’s first non-European immigrants were Chinese, arriving in the windows of 1918-1920 and 1939-1941 (Archives New Zealand, 2016), and a slow trickle of immigrants from India commenced in 1920 (Swarbrick, 2012).

From the 1960s onward, Onehunga’s industrial capacities saw its continual development. By the 1960s, the population had increased to 15,000 (Onehunga Business Association Incorporated, 2016) and a 20 year reclamation project of swamp areas was implemented to make way for new development (Mogford, 1989, p. 132). In 1967, a section of Onehunga’s Queen Street was converted into a pedestrian shopping mall (Mogford, 1989, p. 74), and in 1986 it was significantly upgraded to account for increased commercial pressures in the area (Mogford, 1989, p. 126). In 1987, the Immigration Act shifted selection criteria for immigrants from race-based criteria (that preferred immigrants with British heritage) to personal merit, permitting a gradual diversification of the community (Beaglehole, 2012).

The present state of Onehunga’s community is attended to in the ensuing section.

Onehunga’s Present State: A Survey of its Demographic

Based on available statistical information, it is impossible to break down the precise demographic of the Onehunga School ‘Zone’ – its official ‘community’. Existing statistical information is broken into electorate areas (and smaller ‘places’) none of which accord with the boundaries set out by Onehunga High School (see Appendix One). The ensuing analysis will thus utilise information regarding the

Maungakiekie electorate area (of which the Onehunga School Zone is a part) as a proxy to understanding its demographic. 1

Population Summary

The Maungakiekie population is growing at a rate faster than average – increasing by 7% compared to the national level of 5% from 2006-2013 (Parliamentary Library, 2015a, p. 8). It is a predominantly middle-aged population (see Graph One) – the youth population is marginally lower than the national level (26.4% of the population compared to 27.4%) and the population of persons 50 or over is significantly lower than the national level (25.9% compared to 33%).

Graph One: Age Groups of Maungakiekie Population

35 30 25 20 15 10 Percentage of Population In Age Group 5 0 Maungakiekie National
35
30
25
20
15
10
Percentage of Population In Age Group
5
0
Maungakiekie
National
Years
0-4 5-14
Years
15-19
Years
20-29
Years
30-49
Years Years and Over
50-64
Age
65
Years

(Parliamentary Library, 2015a, p. 9) The area houses a large immigrant population – 36% of the population were born overseas, compared to the national proportion of 23.6% (see Graph Two). The significant majority of those persons originate from the Pacific Islands (29.1% of the overseas-born population compared to the national level of 15.1%) (see Graph Three).

1 Note that a significant proportion of students attending Onehunga High School derive from communities outside this area (in particular, the Mangere area). However, since these communities do not comprise the immediate local community around the school (and they are too numerous to consider in this space), they will not be considered in this essay.

Graph Two: Proportion of Population in Maungakiekie and Across New Zealand Born Overseas 23.6 36 Proportion
Graph Two: Proportion of Population in Maungakiekie and Across New Zealand Born Overseas
23.6
36
Proportion of Persons Overseas Born in Location
New Zealand
70.3
56.1
Ma u n g a ki e ki e
Na ti o n a l

(Parliamentary Library, 2015a, p. 11)

Graph Three: Birth Locations of Those Persons in Maungakiekie and Across New Zealand Born Overseas

14.2 17.4 15.1 Percentage of overseas-born persons born in Geographic area North-East Asia Pacific Islands UK
14.2
17.4
15.1
Percentage of overseas-born persons born in Geographic area
North-East Asia
Pacific Islands
UK and Ireland
29.1
26.5
11
Ma u n g a kie ki e

(Parliamentary Library, 2015a, p. 11)

The ethnic demographic of the area is highly diverse. Only 50.9% of the Maungakiekie population identifies as European (compared to the national level of 74.0%) (see Table One). Pasifika, Asian and

Middle Eastern/Latin American/African populations are much larger in the area than at the national level – in particular, the Pasifika population is concentrated at three times the national level.

Table One: Ethnic Groups of Usually Resident Maungakiekie and New Zealand Population

Ethnicity

Proportion of Persons in the Population Affiliating to the Ethnicity

 

Maungakiekie

New Zealand

European

50.9%

74.0%

Māori

12.0%

14.9%

Pasifika

22.1%

7.4%

Asian

24.7%

11.8%

Middle Eastern/Latin American/African

1.8%

1.2%

Other

1.2%

1.7%

(Parliamentary Library, 2015a, p. 10)

* Table sections highlighted in

  • indicate higher proportion of the population than the national level.

Correspondingly, the area is significantly more linguistically diverse than broader New Zealand. Notably, the area is not mono-lingual; 15.3% of its population do not report proficiency in English (see Table Two). Nonetheless, English remains the most commonly-spoken language in the area, followed by ‘Other’ languages, and Samoan. More residents speak no language at all than speak Māori.

Table Two: Languages Spoken By Usually Resident Maungakiekie and New Zealand Population

Language

Proportion of Persons in the Population Reporting Day-To-

Day Fluency in the Language

 

Maungakiekie

New Zealand

English

84.7%

90.1%

Māori

2.3%

3.5%

NZ Sign Language

0.4%

0.5%

Samoan

4.5%

2.0%

Other

27.4%

13.9%

None

2.4%

1.6%

(Parliamentary Library, 2015a, p. 12)

* Table sections highlighted in

  • indicate higher proportion of the population than the national level.

Diversity is also evident in the religious beliefs of the area (see Graph Four). While the majority of the population report a Christian affiliation, there are significant populations of Buddhist, Hindu and Islam affiliates (all of which exist in far more significant concentrations than the national level (Parliamentary Library, 2015a, p. 16).

Graph Four: Diversity of Religious Belief in Maungakiekie Area Buddhist; 3% No Religion; 34% Other Religions;
Graph Four: Diversity of Religious Belief in Maungakiekie Area
Buddhist; 3%
No Religion; 34%
Other Religions; 1%
Spiritualism and New Age Religions; 0%
Christian; 52%
Maori Christian; 1%
Judaism; 0%
Hindu; 5%
Islam; 2%

(Parliamentary Library, 2015a, p. 16)

The educational-level of the area’s residents is higher than the national level. The proportion of residents with no qualifications is lower than the national level, and the proportion of residents with Bachelor, Honours, Postgraduate, Masters and Doctoral Degrees is significantly higher than the national level (24.1% to 17.9%) (see Graph Five).

Graph Five: Educational Qualifications of the Population in Maungakiekie and New Zealand

40 35 30 25 20 15 Percentage of Residents with Qualification 10 5 0 Maungakiekie National
40
35
30
25
20
15
Percentage of Residents with Qualification
10
5
0
Maungakiekie
National
No Qualification
Bachelors Degree
Doctoral Degree

(Parliamentary Library, 2015a, p. 13)

Political Behaviour

The political affiliations in the area are mixed. The largest affiliation is to the National Party, however there is a strong leftist contingent (with 45% of the vote directed towards left-leaning Labour and Green parties) (see Graph Six).

ACT; 3% Conservative; 1% Internet Mana; Maori 1% Party; 1% Other; 0% New Zealand First; 7%
ACT; 3% Conservative; 1% Internet Mana;
Maori 1%
Party; 1% Other; 0%
New Zealand First; 7%
National; 42%
Green; 10%
Labour; 35%
Graph Six:
Proportion of Population Voting for Political Parties in the 2014 General Election in
Maungakiekie

(Parliamentary Library, 2015a, p. 6)

Voter enrolment and turnout in the area are lower than the national level, suggesting the population has a lower than average political engagement (see Table Three).

Table Three: Frequency of Voting Behaviours in Maungakiekie Area and New Zealand

Voter Behaviour

Percentage of Voting Age Population Performing Behaviour

 

Maungakiekie

National

Enrolment

88%

92%

Turnout

77%

79%

(Parliamentary Library, 2015a, p. 7)

Households

Several parts of the area are marked by significant socio-economic deprivation (see Image One). The contrast within the Maungakiekie is extremely high, with a full range of deprivation from 1 (least deprived) to 10 (most deprived) across the area. This is indicative of highly diverse standards of living across the area.

Image One: Map of Socio-Economic Deprivation in Maungakiekie

Image One: Map of Socio-Economic Deprivation in Maungakiekie (Parliamentary Library, 2015a, p. 25) The majority of

(Parliamentary Library, 2015a, p. 25)

The majority of households in the area contain one family only. However, there are a larger proportion of households which house two or more families than the national level (5.5% to 3.3%) (see Graph Seven).

Graph Seven: Household Composition of Private Dwellings in Maungakiekie and New Zealand 66.5 61.9 22.9 21.7
Graph Seven: Household Composition of Private Dwellings in Maungakiekie and New Zealand
66.5
61.9
22.9
21.7
proportion of households of composition type
Maungakiekie
National
7.1
5
4.7
3.1
0.5
0.2
T h re O e n o e r O Fa
Mo
o n i l ie
H o s u s e h o ld
n e m re Pe i ly Fa r s m

(Parliamentary Library, 2015a, p. 20) Access to telecommunications in Maungakiekie is marginally lower than the national level (see Graph Eight). This may be an indication of personal choices of the area’s residents, or of their low socio-economic status.

Graph Eight: Percentage of Households with Access to Telecommunications in Maungakiekie and New Zealand

81.8 79.4 76.8 76.8 72.4 72.8 Proportion of households Maungakiekie with access to telecommunicationsNational Ho m
81.8
79.4
76.8
76.8
72.4
72.8
Proportion of households
Maungakiekie
with access to telecommunicationsNational
Ho m e P h o n e
In te rn e t

(Parliamentary Library, 2015a, p. 20) Rates of home ownership are low in the area. The significant majority of the population (44%) are paying rent for unowned properties (at a level significantly higher than the national level of 29.2%). A significantly lower proportion of the population than the national level owns a house without a mortgage (12.7% to 19.9%) (see Graph Nine). The majority of the population thus do not enjoy accommodation security.

Graph Nine: Types of Household Tenure in Maungakiekie and New Zealand 44.1 29.2 25.7 22.4 19.9
Graph Nine: Types of Household Tenure in Maungakiekie and New Zealand
44.1
29.2
25.7
22.4
19.9
12.7
7
5.3
6
3.5
3.8
2.3
Maungakiekie
National
O w n e O d w - n Mo
e
r
tg
a
g
e
d r - t tg N No O a o w g t e n Mo
No
e d
-
Pa
yin
O
w
n
e
d
-
n
t
ld N g Fa o i t n Re m Pa Fa i n l yi y t m n Tr i g ly u Re
He
ld
In
s
t
-
Mo
t - r N ta o g e M o r tg a g e
He
Tr u s

For the renting population, the financial cost of the activity is significant. In comparison to national rates, the area is costly; 46% of the area’s population pays $350 or above for weekly rent, in comparison to 32% of the national population. However, a larger proportion of the population pays rent of $100 or less per week (14% to 9%) indicating a diversity of housing quality across the area (Graphs Ten and Eleven).

Graph Ten: Weekly Rent of Households in Maungakiekie Under $100; 13% $100-149; 7% $150-199; 3% $350
Graph Ten: Weekly Rent of Households in Maungakiekie
Under $100; 13%
$100-149; 7%
$150-199; 3%
$350 and Over; 46%
$200-249; 6%
$250-299; 10%
$300-349; 14%

Graph Eleven: Weekly Rent of Households of Across New Zealand

Under $100; 9% $100-149; 8% $350 and Over; 32% $150-199; 9% $200-249; 12% $300-349; 15% $250-299;
Under $100; 9%
$100-149; 8%
$350 and Over; 32%
$150-199; 9%
$200-249; 12%
$300-349; 15%
$250-299; 15%
(Parliamentary Library, 2015a, p. 22)

Work

Personal income levels reflect the spread of socio-economic deprivation across the area. The proportions of persons earning $10,000 and below, and $40,001 and above are higher than the national level, indicating a significant spread and inconsistency of wealth across the area.

Graph Twelve: Personal Income in Maungakiekie and New Zealand 10 9 8 7 6 5 4
Graph Twelve: Personal Income in Maungakiekie and New Zealand
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
Percentage of Persons at Income Level
3
2
1
0
Maungakiekie
National
Nil $15,001-20,000
or Loss $35,001-40,000
$70,001-100,000

(Parliamentary Library, 2015a, p. 26) The occupations of those employed in the area are diverse, with the most significant proportions of the population employed in manufacturing, and professional, scientific and technical fields (see Table Four). The unemployment rate is higher than the national level, at 5.3% (to 4.5%) (Parliamentary Library, 2015a, p. 27).

Table Four: Occupations of Population in Maungakiekie and National

Occupation

Percentage of persons employed in Occupation

 

Maungakiekie

National

Agriculture, forestry and fishing

0.4

6.5

Mining

0.1

0.3

Manufacturing

10.0

9.4

Electricity, gas, water and waste services

0.6

0.7

Construction

6.0

7.6

Wholesale trade

7.9

4.8

Retail trade

8.7

9.4

Accommodation

5.1

5.6

Transport, postal and warehousing

4.9

4.1

Information media and telecommunications

2.7

1.8

Financial and insurance services

5.0

3.4

Rental, hiring and real estate services

2.5

2.5

Professional, scientific and technical services

11.2

8.4

Administrative and support services

4.3

3.3

Public administration and safety

3.4

4.9

Education and training

7.7

8.0

Health care and social assistance

9.5

9.6

Arts and recreation services

1.7

1.8

Other Services

3.7

3.9

Not Elsewhere Included

4.6

4.0

(Parliamentary Library, 2015a, p. 31)

* Table sections highlighted in

blue
blue

indicate higher proportion of the population than the national level.

The proportions of the population engaged in unpaid work in the area are lower than nationally. This may be an indication of high incidences of wealth in some parts of the area, which provide for the hiring of household assistance.

Table Five: Unpaid Activities of Populations of Maungakiekie and New Zealand

Unpaid Activity

Percentage of Persons Carrying Out Unpaid Activity

 

Maungakiekie

National

Household Work for Own Household

  • 73.6 76.7

Looking After Child from Own Household

  • 26.0 27.4

Looking After Disabled/Ill Household Member

6.3

6.6

Looking After Child not from Own Household

10.7

13.7

Helping Disabled/Ill non- Household Member

6.0

7.9

Other Helping or Voluntary Work

10.9

13.9

No Unpaid Activities

11.2

10.3

(Parliamentary Library, 2015a, p. 32)

Profile of Onehunga High School

History

Onehunga High School (hereafter ‘OHS’) was established in 1957 to provide for Onehunga’s expanding population (Mogford, 1989, p. 115), and opened for students on 4 February 1959, despite the non-completion of its buildings (Nickolls, 2009, p. 12). Its initial educational provision was decidedly academic (in the provision of ‘core subjects’ such as English, Mathematics, Sciences, Social Sciences and Economics), and gendered ‘technical options’ for males and ‘homecraft subjects’ for females (Nickolls, 2009, p. 14).

Present Day Identity

The present-day identity of OHS is as a multicultural and diverse community, in which all students are respected and accepted for who they are, and encouraged on the passage of their own ‘personal learning journey’ – a voyage that is symbolised in the prominence of OHS’ on-site Marae “Te Haerenga” (the Journey) at the entrance to its grounds (Onehunga High School, 2016d). The school’s respect for students is made prominent in the fact its school song was lyrically and musically composed by its own Year 13 students (Onehunga High School, 2016j).

The cultural demographic of the school is highly mixed (see Table Six):

Table Six: Percentage of Students at Onehunga High School Reporting Membership to a Certain

Ethnic Group

Ethnic Group

Percentage of students at OHS reporting membership to that ethnic group

Maori

19%

Pakeha

14%

Tongan

19%

Samoan

18%

Niue

8%

Cook Island Maori

6%

Indian

5%

Chinese

2%

Fijian

2%

South East Asian

2%

Other Asian

2%

Other

3%

(Education Review Office, 2016a).

46% of the school’s students arrive from the In Zone area discussed above, while 54% are derived from out of zone (Dorothy Fenandez, KAMAR Data, personal communication 5 May 2016). The majority of these students arrive from the Mangere area (Auckland Transport, 2011; Dorothy Fernandez, personal communication 5 May 2016).

The schools’ mission statement is to provide “excellence in teaching and learning, for all” (Onehunga High School, 2016e, p. 2). To this end, it seeks to offer students the opportunity to “achieve at the highest level, develop and pursue personal goals and to engage in the process of lifelong learning” (Onehunga High School, 2016e, p. 2).

OHS’ Achievement Targets are:

70% of the Year 9 and 10 cohort will meet the expected curriculum level for literacy and

numeracy by the end of 2016; 70% of the Year 11 Cohort will achieve NCEA Level One;

70% of the Year 12 Cohort will achieve NCEA Level Two;

70% of the Year 13 Cohort will achieve NCEA Level Three;

15% of the students that attain NCEA Level One, Two or Three will do so with Excellence (Onehunga High School, 2016e, p. 3).

The Nature of the Curriculum Available to Students

OHS’ Curriculum Design seeks to provide for, and respect, the diverse learning journeys that students might seek to embark upon. The full Curriculum is below at Table Seven. The full co-curricular programme is attached at Appendix Two.

Year

English

Mathematics

Science

Social Sciences

Technology

9

English

Mathematics

Science

Social Studies

Technology an

ESOL

   

Digital Media

Design

 

 

10

English

Mathematics

Science

Social Studies

Automotive

ESOL

   

Film and Media

Robotics

 

Studies

Metal Technol

 

Wood Technol

Design and Vi

Communicatio

Technology an

Design

NCEA Level

English

Core

Foundation

Classical Studies

Digital Techno

One

Scholarship

Mathematics

Science

Geography

Automotive

English

Mathematics

General Science

History

Design and Vi

English Literacy

Foundation

Specialist Science

Social Studies

Communicatio

 

Mathematics

Health Science

Media Studies

Elementary

   

Social Sciences

Woodwork

 

Robotics

Technology an

Design

 

NCEA Level

English Academic

Core

Biology

Classical Studies

Two

English with a

Mathematics

Chemistry

Geography

Visual Focus

Mathematics

Physics

History

English with a

with Calculus

Sustainability

Law

Writing Focus

Mathematics

 

Media Studies

English with a

with Statistics

Social Sciences

Literacy Focus

Foundation

 

English

Mathematics

Scholarship

 

ESOL

NCEA Level

English Academic

Mathematics

Biology

Classical Studies

Three

English with a

with Calculus

Chemistry

Geography

Visual Focus

Mathematics

Physics

History

English with a

with Statistics

Sustainability

Internally Assessed

Writing Focus

Core

 

Geography

English with a

Mathematics

Law

Literacy Focus

 

Media Studies

English

Social Sciences

Scholarship

 

ESOL

Services English

(Nickolls, 2009, pp. 38-39; Onehunga High School, 2016f)

Automotive

Design and Vi

Communicatio

Digital

Technologies

Elementary

Woodwork

Technology an

Design

Design and Vi

Communicatio

Digital

Technologies

Elementary

Woodwork

Technology an

Design

The Curriculum is broad, with student encouraged to study a range of subjects: from ‘traditional academic’ subjects (such as English, Mathematics, Science, Social Science and Languages) and ‘non- traditional’ subjects (in Visual Arts, Performing Arts, Technology, Business etc). In Junior Years, the Curriculum is tightly circumscribed to ensure students ‘get a taste’ of OHS’ range of subjects (Dorothy Fernandez, personal communication 5 May 2016); while ‘academic subjects’ (in red above) are compulsory, students are rotated through the various options for nine-week blocks in Year 9, and half-year blocks in Year 10 (Onehunga High School, 2016f).

In recognition of students’ diverse needs, priorities and learning styles, students are permitted the option of studying in ‘academic’ or ‘specialised’ vocational programmes (Nickolls, 2009, p. 32). Students with a strong interest in pursuing a career in construction, the armed forces, catering and hospitality, health sciences or business are permitted to engage in a ‘Pathways Programme’, in which their subject options are tailored to their specific focus, and they are provided with relevant extra- curricular opportunities (Onehunga High School, 2016i). For instance, the Construction School frames ‘academic subjects’ to align with students interests:

Physical Education classes focus on improvement of physical fitness for construction;

Mathematics classes focus on building-related problems (for instance, utilising equations to price jobs, or sine and cosine to calculate roof pitches);

English classes focus on building-related literacy (for instance, students learn to put written cases to building inspectors) (Nickolls, 2009, p. 32).

The majority of these programmes are driven by the occupational preferences and shortages of the local and national community. Onehunga Construction School, for instance, originated as a consequence of a national labour shortage in the skilled trades (Nickolls, 2009, p. 29). The Health Sciences Academy, similarly, was developed in recognition of the local community’s occupational interest in that field (which is presumably mimicked in its youth) – ‘Healthcare and Social Services’ is the third-largest occupational field in the area (see Table Four; Dorothy Fernandez, personal communication 5 May 2016).

Subject provision is also influenced by the school’s internal community. Language options, for instance, are driven the ethnic demographics of the school. Te Reo Maori, Samoan and Tongan are

provided in recognition of the large populations of Maori, Samoan and Tongan students in the school, and their desire to feel connected to their culture (Table Six), and in recognition of the fact that these are the languages (besides English) most commonly spoken in the surrounding community, and are thus most useful for students to know (see Table Two; Dorothy Fernandez, personal communication 5 May 2016).

Students’ interests and abilities are also taken into account in differentiated class options in core subjects. English, for instance, permits students to opt-in 2 to streams of the subject suited to their academic ability (English Scholarship, English Academic and English Literacy) and streams suited to their interest in the subject (English with a Writing Focus and English with a Visual Focus). The structure of streamed options permits students with a strong interest in the subject to take more than one class (Bleasdale, 2013).

The Role of Onehunga High School in the Community

The relationship between OHS and the Community is conceptualised and implemented as one of reciprocation (Nickolls, 2009, p. 16). In response to any provision from the surrounding community, the school seeks to enhance community experience in the measure (or more) that it has gained.

The OHS Construction School, for instance, is funded in large part by Fletcher Construction and Hitachi. This investment is usually returned in the opportunity for partners to the programme to employ already-skilled apprentices upon the completion of their secondary education (Linda Everett, personal communication 3 August 2015). Further, students’ construction projects have been distributed for the community’s benefit, and include a 100m water slide at Moirs Point Camp, a sandpit for Onehunga Primary School, decks at Motatapu Education Camp, and a Horticulture Unit at Mt Roskill Grammar School (Nickolls, 2009, p. 32). Since 2013, students in the construction programme have built one four-bedroom house a year for Habitat for Humanity (Onehunga High School, 2016g).

Similarly, OHS Business School returned efforts in the establishment of its Business Programme in the popularisation of the Business subject nationally. When the Business Programme was first opened, students were taught by industry members, in partnership with Unitec. Utilising the success of its programme as an example, OHS lobbied the Government to introduce NCEA Achievement Standards, which were made available in 2010 (Nickolls, 2009, p. 29).

2 Pending the attainment of an appropriate grade in the previous year’s work.

OHS’ investment in the local community is also reciprocated. The school, for instance, provides a range of Adult and Community Education Courses (see Appendix Three), and hosts an English Language School for the service of International Students and non-English speaking community members (Onehunga High School, 2016h). Programmes are designed to appeal across generations and increase the participation of the adult community in education. The reverberations are felt within the young people entering the school, better prepared for education and to attain the high academic results to which the school aspires (Nickolls, 2009, p. 44).

Epsom

In comparison to its earlier-discussed counterpart, much of Epsom’s beginnings are highly mysterious - including the reason for its naming. The commonly understood history of its titling is that it was so named by Colonel Robert Wynyard – the first Superintendent of the Auckland Province – after the English Epsom in Surrey, in which Wynyard had ancestral holdings. However, the flaw of this account is that the name ‘Epsom’ is documented as in use as early as 1841, a full three years before Wynyard took up residence in the area (Bush, 2006, p. 15).

A History of Settlement in the Epsom Area

The history of Epsom’s original settlement is far more obscure than that of Onehunga. Evidence of Māori settlement on Maungawhau dates back as early as 1200 A.D. (Angelo, 1989, p. 8), and while it is likely Epsom Valley was utilised pre-colonially in some regard, there is no archaeological or oral Māori history to buttress this claim (Bush, 2006, p. 9). As such, Epsom’s ‘discovery’ is dated in 1827, when Dumont D’Urville ascended Maungawhau (Angelo, 1980, p. 11), sighted the Epsom Valley and noted that it was ‘deserted’ (Bush, 2006, p. 13).

The Epsom area was acquired for a settler colony from Ngati Whatua, in a purchase of 11,000 acres occurring in October 1840 and June 1841 (Bush, 2006, p. 17). Initially, the area was intended as a farming district to supply the needs of the developing Auckland City – land was plotted into farming settlements, and the first sales to settlers occurred on 19 and 20 April 1841 (Epsom Branch Library, 1972, p. 1). Anticipating prosperity, settlers quickly arrived to the area; by 1844, the population had increased four-fold (from 51 to 222 residents) (Bush, 2006, p. 21). During the 1850s, the farming community prospered from demands for flour and grain for those working in the Goldfields, and operations in the area expanded to include livestock (Bush, 2006, p. 24). In service to this demand, settlers and Māori worked alongside one another, with Māori workers developing a reputation as ‘cheerful and willing’ to work (Epsom Branch Library, 1972, p. 2).

By 1876, Epsom’s population sat at 500 residents – a sluggish growth compared to the surrounding areas of One Tree Hill, Mt Eden and Mt Roskill (which experienced growths of 70%, 280% and 438% respectively) (Bush, 2006, p. 41). Nonetheless, increasing demand for land in the area led to the

subdivision of larger farm plots into farmlets (Bush, 2006, p. 42), and calls for improved infrastructure in the area led to the provision of a post office (1877), an upgraded Manukau Road (1882), gas street lamps (1882) and a local school (1885) (Bush, 2006, p. 45).

The first diversification of the bi-cultural community came with the arrival of the first Chinese residents to the area – a pair of market gardeners who set up business on Manukau Road (Bush, 2006, p. 77). However, this introduction of one ‘new’ ethnic group was matched by the departure of another; the suburbanisation of the area in the 1920s 3 saw a decline in the Māori population – by 1926 only 15 Māori were recorded as living in the area by the Census (Bush, 2006, p. 67). By the late 1930s, a rapidly growing population had resulted in the complete suburbanisation of the area – Epsom’s farming history was definitely a thing of the past (Bush, 2006, p. 63).

The area’s proximity to the rapidly growing commercial centre of Newmarket attracted opportunistic, business-minded residents and, as such, the area’s demographic quickly turned to one of particular affluence (McClure, 2015). From the 1970s, 21% of the area reported membership in the Census’ highest income bracket (Bush, 2006, p. 89).

Up until the 1980s, the area was relatively ethnically homogenous – the Census recorded an ethnic profile of Europeans (90% of the population), Māori (3%), Polynesian (2%), Chinese (2%) and Indians (1%) (Bush, 2006, p. 87). Twenty years later (2001), the ethnic demographic was overhauled – 25% of the area’s population identified as ‘Asian’, while ‘Europeans’ only accounted for 66% of its demographic (Bush, 2006, p. 89).

Epsom’s Present State: A Survey of its Demographic

The boundaries of the Epsom Electorate Area record almost precisely with the boundaries of the Epsom School Zone (see Appendix Four). As such, the ensuing analysis reflects the exact demographic that contributes to the school’s (in-zone) population.

Population Summary

Epsom is an area growing at a faster than national rate, marking a 6% increase in population between 2006 and 2013 (Parliamentary Library, 2015b, p. 8). The population is predominantly middle-aged; the proportion of ‘youth’ (0-19 years) in the area is lower than the national level (25.9 to 27.4%), as is the population of those persons aged 50 and over (30.8% to 33%) (see Graph Thirteen).

3 Marked by the provision of paved concrete streets (1924), electricity reticulation (1926), a large street tree-planting programme (1927) and sewering of the area (1929) (Bush, 2006, p. 61).

Graph Thirteen: Age Groups of Epsom and National Population

30 25 20 15 10 Percentage Proportion of Population In Age Group 5 0 Epsom National
30
25
20
15
10
Percentage Proportion of Population In Age Group
5
0
Epsom
National
Years
0-4 15-19
Years
30-49
and Over
Age 65
Years Years

(Parliamentary Library, 2015b, p. 9)

The area houses a large immigrant population – 37.1% of the population were born overseas, compared to the national proportion of 23.6% (see Graph Fourteen). The significant majority of those persons originate from North-East Asia (36.5% of the overseas-born population compared to the national level of 14.2%) (see Graph Fifteen).

Graph Fourteen: Proportion of Population in Epsom and Across New Zealand Born Overseas

23.6 37.1 Proportion of Persons Born in Location Overseas New Zealand 70.3 57.2 E p s
23.6
37.1
Proportion of Persons Born in Location
Overseas
New Zealand
70.3
57.2
E p s o m
Na tio n a l
(Parliamentary Library, 2015b, p. 11)
Graph Fifteen: Birth Locations of Those Persons in Epsom and Across New Zealand Born Overseas 14.2
Graph Fifteen: Birth Locations of Those Persons in Epsom and Across New Zealand Born
Overseas
14.2
36.5
15.1
Percentage of overseas-born persons born in Geographic area
North-East Asia
Pacific Islands
UK and Ireland
4
26.5
17.6
E p s o m
Na tio n a l

(Parliamentary Library, 2015b, p. 11)

The ethnic demographic of the area is highly diverse (see Table Eight) below. Only 66.2% of the population identify as European (in comparison to 74.0% of the New Zealand population). The most significant ‘ethnic minority’ group is Asian – nearly a third of the population affiliates with that ethnic identity (30.2%).

Table Eight: Ethnic Groups of Usually Resident Epsom and New Zealand Population

Ethnicity

Proportion of Persons in the Population Affiliating to the Ethnicity

 

Epsom

New Zealand

European

66.2%

74.0%

Māori

4.3%

14.9%

Pasifika

2.7%

7.4%

Asian

30.2%

11.8%

Middle

1.6%

1.2%

Eastern/LatinAmerican/Africa

n

Other

1.3%

1.7%

(Parliamentary Library, 2015b, p. 10)

* Table sections highlighted in

  • indicate higher proportion of the population than the national level.

The linguistic diversity of the area corresponds to its diversity of ethnic composition. The area is not mono-lingual – only 89.2% of the population reports proficiency in English. ‘Other’ languages are spoken by 29.2% of the population (significantly higher than the 13.9% national level) – given the high ‘Asian’ population, this statistic is presumably informed by fluency in languages affiliated to the various ethnic identities that category contains.

Table Nine: Languages Spoken By Usually Resident Epsom and New Zealand Population

Language

Proportion of Persons in the Population Reporting Day-To-

Day Fluency in the Language

 

Epsom

New Zealand

English

89.2%

90.1%

Māori

0.8%

3.5%

NZ Sign Language

0.2%

0.5%

Samoan

0.5%

2.0%

Other

29.2%

13.9%

None

1.1%

1.6%

(Parliamentary Library, 2015b, p. 12)

* Table sections highlighted in

  • indicate higher proportion of the population than the national level.

There is a wide array of religious belief (and non-belief) in Epsom (see Graph Sixteen). The largest proportion of the population affiliates with the Christian belief system (although its prominence is lower than the national level). Although populations of Hindu, Buddhist, Islam and Jewish religion affiliates appear small in the area, they are proportionally larger than those populations nationally, 4 indicating the area is highly religiously diverse.

Graph Sixteen: Diversity of Religious Belief in Epsom Area

4 The Hindu population is 3.6% in Epsom, compared to a national level of 2.3%, the Buddhist population is 3.9% in Epsom compared to 1.5%, the Islam population is 1.3% to 1.2% and the Jewish population is 0.5% to 0.3% (Parliamentary Library, 2015b, p. 16).

Buddhist; 4% No Religion; 38% Christian; 42% Other Religions; 10% Spiritualism and New Age Religions; Maori
Buddhist; 4%
No Religion; 38%
Christian; 42%
Other Religions; 10%
Spiritualism and New Age Religions;
Maori Christian;
0%
Judaism;
0%
0%Islam; 1%Hindu; 3%
(Parliamentary Library, 2015b, p. 16)

The education-level of the area’s residents is significantly higher than the national level. The proportion of residents with no qualifications is substantially lower than the national level (6.8% to 18.6%). Further, the proportion of residents with Bachelors Degrees or higher is over double the national-level (39.6% to 17.9%).

Graph Seventeen: Educational Qualifications of the Population in Epsom and New Zealand

40 35 30 25 20 15 Percentage of Residents with Qualification 10 5 0 Epsom National
40
35
30
25
20
15
Percentage of Residents with Qualification
10
5
0
Epsom
National
No Qualification
Bachelors Degree
Doctoral Degree

(Parliamentary Library, 2015b, p. 13)

Political Behaviour

The political affiliations of the area are strongly right-wing. The National Party holds a clear party vote majority of 64%. Affiliations to the Labour and Green Parties comprise only 26% of the population.

Graph Eighteen: Proportion of Population Voting for Political Parties in the 2014 General Election in Epsom
Graph Eighteen: Proportion of Population Voting for Political Parties in the 2014 General
Election in Epsom
ACT; 3% Conservative; 2% Internet Mana; 1%Maori Party; 0%Other; 0%
New Zealand First; 3%
Green; 13%
Labour; 13%
National; 64%

(Parliamentary Library, 2015b, p. 6)

Voter behaviour in the area accords exactly with national behaviours, suggesting that the population is averagely-engaged politically.

Table Ten: Frequency of Voting Behaviours in Epsom Area and New Zealand

Voter Behaviour

Percentage of Voting Age Population Performing Behaviour

 

Epsom

National

Enrolment

92

92

Turnout

79

79

(Parliamentary Library, 2015b, p. 7)

Households

Very few areas in Epsom are marked by any significant socio-economic deprivation. The majority of the area is coded 1-2 in the deprivation index, indicating the lowest socio-economic deprivation in the nation (see Image Two). Notably, however, there are some areas of high deprivation (at levels 8 to 9) within the area, indicating that standard of living is highly variable across Epsom.

Image Two: Map of Socio-Economic Deprivation in Epsom

(Parliamentary Library, 2015b, p. 25) Epsom, unlike Maungakiekie-Tāmaki, is generally comprised of one-family households, which may

(Parliamentary Library, 2015b, p. 25)

Epsom, unlike Maungakiekie-Tāmaki, is generally comprised of one-family households, which may be an indicator of either lack of poverty or cultural practices in the area.

Graph Nineteen: Household Composition of Private Dwellings in Epsom and New Zealand

68.1 66.5 22.9 20.5 Epsom National 6.2 4.7 2.6 3.1 0.1 0.2 O n e Fa
68.1
66.5
22.9
20.5
Epsom
National
6.2
4.7
2.6
3.1
0.1
0.2
O n e Fa m i ly
Tw
m
s
o r i l ie
T h o re Fa
i l ie
e
Mo
re
Fa
m
s
s e r h s o o ld
- Fa
No n
m i l y
Ho u
n H o u s e h o ld
O n e
Pe

(Parliamentary Library, 2015b, p. 20)

The proportion of the population with access to telecommunications in the area is higher than the national level – an indicator of the high socio-economic status of the area’s residents. Interestingly, the Internet is the most popularly-accessed telecommunicative method (used by 86.1% of the population compared to 84.1% and 82.8%).

Graph Twenty: Percentage of Households with Access to Telecommunications in Epsom and New Zealand 86.1 84.1
Graph Twenty: Percentage of Households with Access to Telecommunications in Epsom and New
Zealand
86.1
84.1
82.8
81.8
79.4
72.8
Proportion of householdsEpsom
with access to telecommunications
National
Ho m e P h o n e
In te rn e t

The proportion of the population renting their accommodation in the area is significantly higher than the national level (36.4% to 32.7%), indicating that part of the population is a transient one. This contrasts with the notable proportion of the population that occupy homes held in trust (25.5% compared to the 13% national level) indicating a significant proportion of the population intends to remain in the area long-term.

Graph Twenty One: Types of Household Tenure in Epsom and New Zealand 33.6 29.2 25.7 19.9
Graph Twenty One: Types of Household Tenure in Epsom and New Zealand
33.6
29.2
25.7
19.9
Proportion of the population
Epsom with household tendure typeNational
16.1
14.3
13.7
11.8
7
6
3.5
2.8
O w n e d
-
Mo r tg a g e

(Parliamentary Library, 2015b, p. 21)

Rent rates are significantly higher in the area than across New Zealand: the proportion of the population paying $350 and over for weekly rent is 36% higher than the national level. This is likely indicative of the desirable ‘Grammar Zoning’ of the area, and the high socio-economic status of its members.

Graph Twenty Two: Weekly Rent of Households in Epsom

Under $100; 2% $100-149; 1% $150-199; 2% $200-249; 5% $250-299; 10% $300-349; 12% $350 and Over;
Under $100; 2% $100-149; 1% $150-199; 2% $200-249; 5%
$250-299; 10%
$300-349; 12%
$350 and Over; 68%
Graph Twenty Three: Weekly Rent of Households in New Zealand Under $100; 9% $100-149; 8% $350
Graph Twenty Three: Weekly Rent of Households in New Zealand
Under $100; 9%
$100-149; 8%
$350 and Over; 32%
$150-199; 9%
$200-249; 12%
$300-349; 15%
$250-299; 15%

(Parliamentary Library, 2015b, p. 22)

Work

The rates of personal income in the area accord with the lack of socio-economic deprivation in the area: the proportion of persons earning above $100,000 is 10.2% higher in Epsom than nationally. Notably, there is also a significant proportion of the population earning nil income or less – given the

lack of socio-economic deprivation in the area, this may be a consequence of the families’ financial security permitting various members not to work.

Graph Twenty Four: Personal Income in Epsom and New Zealand

18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Epsom National Nil or $5,001-10,000 Loss
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
Epsom
National
Nil or $5,001-10,000
Loss $15,001-20,000
$25,001-30,000
$35,001-40,000
$50,001-60,000
$70,001-100,000

(Parliamentary Library, 2015b, p. 26)

The occupations of those employed in the area are diverse, with a significant proportion of the population employed in professional, scientific and technical services, and healthcare and social assistance. The unemployment rate (3.8%) is lower than the national level (4.5%) (Parliamentary Library, 2015b, p. 27).

Table Eleven: Occupations of Population in Epsom and National

Occupation

Percentage of persons employed in Occupation

 

Epsom

National

Agriculture, forestry and fishing

0.6

6.5

Mining

0.0

0.3

Manufacturing

5.5

9.4

Electricity, gas, water and waste services

0.3

0.7

Construction

3.3

7.6

Wholesale trade

6.3

4.8

Retail trade

8.3

9.4

Accommodation

6.3

5.6

Transport, postal and warehousing

2.6

4.1

Information media and telecommunications

3.3

1.8

Financial and insurance services

7.0

3.4

Rental, hiring and real estate services

4.0

2.5

Professional, scientific and technical services

18.1

8.4

Administrative and support services

3.8

3.3

Public administration and safety

2.6

4.9

Education and training

8.6

8.0

Health care and social assistance

10.9

9.6

Arts and recreation services

1.9

1.8

Other Services

3.1

3.9

Not Elsewhere Included

3.4

4.0

(Parliamentary Library, 2015b, p. 31)

* Table sections highlighted in

blue
blue

indicate higher proportion of the population than the national level.

The proportions of persons engaged in unpaid work in the area are lower than nationally. This is likely an indication of the high incidences of wealth in some parts of the area, which provide for the provision of household assistance.

Table Twelve: Unpaid Activities of Populations of Epsom and New Zealand

Unpaid Activity

Percentage of Persons Carrying Out Unpaid Activity

 

Epsom

National

Household Work for Own Household

  • 76.6 76.7

Looking After Child from Own Household

  • 25.8 27.4

Looking After Disabled/Ill Household Member

4.7

6.6

Looking After Child not from Own Household

10.4

13.7

Helping Disabled/Ill non- Household Member

7.0

7.9

Other Helping or Voluntary Work

13.3

13.9

No Unpaid Activities

11.7

10.3

Profile of Epsom Girls Grammar School

History

Epsom Girls Grammar School (hereafter ‘EGGS’) was originally established as a temporary classroom and accommodation addition for AGS Junior Girls in February 1917, and was located in Silver Road (Bush, 2006, p. 225). It was the third of the Auckland Grammar Schools established in the area (EGGS, 2016a). Initially, the classes only provided for 3 rd and 4 th Forms, and expanded to higher levels as students aged (EGGS, 2016a).The initial subject provision was designed to be ‘academic’, yet suitable for the school’s female population, and featured: English, Mathematics, French, Latin, Roman History, Botany, Geography, History, Hygiene and Domestic Science (EGGS,

2016a).

Present Day Identity

EGGS is presently a single-sex secondary school, with a school roll of 2082 students (ERO, 2016b). Its current foci are:

The facilitation of students’ achievement across academic, cultural and sporting activities

(EGGS, 2016b); The development of students’ self-confidence, self-motivation, independence and leadership

skills, as well as their sense of agency – developed through their self-recognition of their strengths, their being proactive in addressing their needs and through their awareness of their language and culture (EGGS, 2017, p. 5); The fostering of students’ sense of local and global connectedness, and desire to actively contribute to those communities through service (EGGS, 2016b).

The school’s particular focus is academic success, with the Board of Trustees postulating as its pre- eminent goal the attainment of Level 2 by all school leavers, and a rate of Level 3 Excellence- endorsement and Scholarship passes which is higher than other Decile 9 girls’ schools (EGGS,

2016b).

EGGs is presently moving towards a BYOD model – all students are permitted to bring devices to school and Year 9 students are obliged to do so (EGGS, 2016c).

The ethnic demographic of the school is mixed, although it is more homogenous than OHS.

Table Thirteen: Percentage of Students at Epsom Girls Grammar School Reporting Membership to

a Certain Ethnic Group

Ethnic Group

Percentage of students at EGGS reporting membership to that ethnic group

Maori

6%

Pakeha

47%

Tongan

2%

Samoan

3%

Other Pacific

1%

Chinese

14%

Indian

5%

Korean

5%

United Kingdom

4%

European

4%

Other Asian

4%

Other

5%

(Education Review Office, 2016b). 81.81% of EGGS’ students inhabit the ‘school zone’ community, while 18.19% of its students are ‘out of zone’ (Mary Law, KAMAR DATA, personal communication 10 March 2016).

The Nature of the Curriculum Available to Students

EGGS’ Curriculum design seeks to meet several key objectives:

To “maintain the school’s traditions and values” in the provision of traditionally ‘academic’

subjects; and To provide students with a subject range which enriches their prospects in the workforce,

which includes non-traditional academic subjects (EGGS, 2016b).

Table Thirteen below sets out the full Curriculum available to students.

Table Thirteen: Full Curriculum Available at Epsom Girls Grammar School (2016)

Year

English

Mathematics

Science

Social Sciences

Technology

The Arts

Physical Education

Languages

Business

Other

 

and Health

 

9

English

Mathematics

Science

Social Studies

Digital Technology

Core Music

Physical Education

Chinese Second

Business Studies

 

ESOL

       

Core Art

Health

Language

 

Media Studies

Core Drama

 

French

 

Art

Japanese

 

Latin

Spanish

Te Reo Māori

English for

speakers of other

languages

10

English

Mathematics

Science

Social Studies

Interior Design

Art

 

Chinese Second

Business Studies

Textiles and

ESOL

 

Environmental

 

Product Design

Drama

Language

 

Design

Media Studies

Studies

Robotic Design

Food Technology

Music

French

Graphics

   

 

Japanese

 

Digital Technology

Latin

 

Spanish

Te Reo Māori

English for

speakers of other

languages

NCEA Level

English

Mathematics

Biology

History

Design Technology

Drama

Health Sociology

Chinese Second

Accounting

Textiles and

One

Foundation English

Core

Chemistry

Geography

Food Technology

Music

and Investigations

Language

Economics

Design

ESOL

Mathematics

Physics

 

Digital

Visual Art

Physical Health

French

 

Graphics

Writing for

Foundation

Investigations

Technologies

Photography

Programme

Japanese

 

Publication

Mathematics

Human Biology

   

Sports Science

Latin

   

Environmental

 

Spanish

 

Science

Te Reo Māori

 

English for

speakers of other

languages

NCEA Level

English

Mathematics

Biology

Classical Studies

Design Technology

Drama

Health Sociology

Chinese Second

Accounting

Textiles and

Two

Foundation English

Calculus

Chemistry

History

Food Technology

Performance

and Investigations

Language

Economics

Design

ESOL

Mathematics

Physics

Geography

Digital

Music

Physical Health

French

Business Studies

Graphics

Media Studies

Combined

Environmental

Legal Studies

Technologies

Music Studies

Programme

Japanese

 

Hospitality

 

Mathematics

Science

Travel and

 

Art Design

Sports Science

Latin

 

Statistics

 

Tourism

Painting

Child

Spanish

   

Printmaking

Development

Te Reo Māori

Sculpture

 

English for

Photography

speakers of other

Art History

languages

NCEA Level

English

Calculus

Biology

Classical Studies

Design Technology

Drama

Early Childhood

Chinese Second

Accounting

Textiles and

Three

Contemporary

Mathematics

Chemistry

History

Food Technology

Performance

Education

Language

Economics

Design

English

Statistics A

Physics

Geography

Digital

Music

Health Sociology

French

Business Studies

Graphics

Shakespeare

Statistics B

Environmental

Travel and

Technologies

Music Studies

and Investigation

Japanese

Business

 

English Film

 

Science

Tourism

 

Printmaking

Sports Science

Latin

Management

English

   

Sculpture

 

Spanish

Enterprise

Proficiency

Photography

Te Reo Māori

 

ESOL

Art History

English for

Media Studies

Modern

speakers of other

 

Art History

languages

Renaissance

 

(EGGS, 2016e; EGGS 2016f)

Both ‘traditionally academic’ subjects (such as English, Mathematics, the Sciences, Social Sciences, Economics and Foreign Languages), and ‘non-traditional’ subjects (which include Visual and Performance Arts, Business Studies, Design, Technology, and Physical Education and Health subjects) are available to students. 5 All subjects are provided on the basis that they might be perceived as ‘pathways’ to career areas, but are not offered as formalised ‘pathway programmes’ as at OHS (EGGS, 2016g).

In the early stages of Curriculum choice, students are generally provided with circumscribed freedoms regarding their subject choices. In order to meet its aim of broadening students’ knowledge, interests, skills and horizons across a balanced range of areas (EGGS, 2016c), EGGS compels junior students to partake in a range of subjects. In Year 9, for instance, students must take:

English, Mathematics, Physical Education and Health, Science, Social Studies, Technology,

Art, Drama, Music and one language (options are listed in Table Thirteen above); Either:

 

o

An additional language; or

o

Two courses from:

Art;

Business Studies;

Digital Technology;

Media Studies;

Music (EGGS, 2016e).

In Year 10, while greater freedom is offered, the school directs students to ensure they experience non-traditional subjects. In addition to core subjects (English, Mathematics, Physical Education and Health, Science, and Social Studies), students must take:

An ‘Arts’ subject (Art, Drama or Music); and

A ‘Technology’ subject (Interior Design, Product Design, and Robotic Design) (EGGS,

2016e).

From Year 11, students’ freedom expands and the only compulsory subjects are those ‘core subjects’ listed above. However, this freedom is not wholesale. Many of students’ option choices are restricted by requirements for a minimum level of performance in previous years prior to admission to the course (EGGS, 2016f). This is a reflection of the school’s desire to ensure that all school leavers pass Level Two NCEA; students are directed away from courses in which they are unlikely to attain credits (based on past performance).

The interests of the communities internal and external to the school shape its Curriculum.

5 Utilising that definition and list of ‘traditional academic subjects’ understood in current dialogues regarding the ‘disappearance’ of academic subjects from schools (Paton, 2009).

Notably, the majority of ‘non-academic’ subjects offered are associated with ‘professional’ occupations; offered technologies, for instance, are those associated with ‘professions’ (interior design, food monitoring, robotics, website design and so on) rather than ‘trade’ technologies (carpentry and mechanical work). This is a consequence of the occupational demographic of the area (which informs the profile of the school). Only a minor proportion of the area’s population is involved in manufacturing (5.5%) and construction (3.3%) occupations (compared to substantially higher national levels of 9.4% and 7.6% respectively [see Table Eleven]), indicating that employment opportunities in such areas are few, and that there is unlikely to be substantial demand for their provision from school parents employed in those fields (Mary Law, personal communication 10 March 2016).

Further, the significant population of overseas-born, non-English speaking inhabitants in the surrounding community informs subject provision (see Graph Fifteen; Mary Law, personal communication 10 March 2016). The school’s ESOL programme, for instance, is provided in grades:

ESL (for students from whom English is not a first language and report a basic level of proficiency) and ESA (for students for whom English is not a first language and report an intermediate level of proficiency) (EGGS, 2016h, p. 13). English Foundation classes are also provided for students that speak English as a first language and require additional assistance (EGGS, 2016i, p. 19). The Curriculum is also shaped by the school’s internal community: English is differentiated at Senior levels to account for student interest, in the provision of ENS (English with a Shakespeare Focus) and ENC (English with a Contemporary Focus) (EGGS, 2016i, p. 18).

The Curriculum is extended by an enormous range of co-curricular opportunities.

Table Fourteen: Co-curricular Activities Available at EGGS

Sport Arts and Culture Cultural Groups Learning Community  Aerobics Arts AGS/EGGs Production Debating Drama Hip
Sport
Arts and Culture
Cultural Groups
Learning
Community
Aerobics
Arts
AGS/EGGs
Production
Debating
Drama
Hip Hop
Literary
Committee
Sheilah Winn
Shakespeare
Stage Challenge
Student Run
Production
Theatresports
Visual Arts
Band
Choir
Orchestra
 Chamber Music
 Contemporary
Music
Body Image
Artistic
Group
Gymnastics
Athletics
Badminton
Basketball
Cricket
Cross Country
Curling
Cycling
Diving
Dragon Boat
Racing
Equestrian
Fencing
Football
Golf
Hockey
I-Play
Kilikiti
Lacrosse
Lifesaving
Mountain Biking
Netball
Orienteering
Pilates
Rhythmic
Gymnastics
Rowing
Rugby
 Skiing
 Snowboarding
Duke of
Edinburgh
Epsom House
Kotahitanga
Animal Rights
Group
Brain Bee
Careers Group
Challenge
Chess Club
Coding Club
CREST
Current Events
Club
Film Society
Green Group
Humanitarian
Group
IT Crowd
Language
Syhedrion
Library Group
Maths Club
Model United
Nations
Monetary Policy
Challenge
NZ’s Next Top
Engineering
Competition
Oeer Tutoring
Robotics
Science Group
Sustainability
Treasury Schools
Challenge
UN Youth
World Vision
Young Enterprise
Media
Mash
Peer Support
Prism Break
SADD
Sisterhood of
Spirit
Student Council
The Rock
Softball
Squash
Swimming
Table Tennis
Tennis
Touch
Culture
African Group
Chinese Group
Cook Island
Group
Spanish Group
Gaelic Group
German Group
Indian Group
Japanese Group
Kapa Haka
Group
Nga Kotiro
Group
Korean Group
Malaysian Group
Middle Eastern
Group
Samoan Group
Sri Lankan
Group
Thai Group
Tongan Group
Trampolining
Triathlon
Ultimate Frisbee
Underwater
Hockey
Volleyball
Waka Ama
Waterpolo
Yachting

(EGGS, 2016d)

Notably, a wide range of cultural groups are provided – in reflection of the significant cultural diversity in the area (see Table Eight). In particular, there are a diverse range of cultural groups for those of ‘Asian’ ethnicities (Chinese, Indian, Japanese, Korean, Malaysian and so on), reflecting the high incidence (30.3%) of ‘Asian’ identities in the surrounding community.

The Role of EGGS in the Community

EGGS primarily aspires to assist its community in the generation of students that will commit to their communities’ service during, and upon their departure from, the school environment (EGGS, 2016b). The attainment of this aim was attested to most recently, in the excellent performance of unwitting EGGS students in a social experiment conducted by New Zealand Police in Newmarket. A young male actor (dressed to appear homeless) searched rubbish bins on the main drag for food. Three Epsom girls were filmed stopping to speak with the boy, asking as to the whereabouts of his parents, and offering him money for food (as over 500 individuals passed the scene by). The students attributed their actions to the strong moral foundation provided in their schooling experience (Gaffaney, 2016).

Further, EGGS aspires to extend its strong history of educational attainment beyond the boundaries of its immediate community. Seeking to recognise its bicultural obligations under the Treaty of Waitangi, EGGs houses 17 students from the InZone project (InZone, 2016a). That project seeks to provide young Māori and Pacific Island students, who would otherwise be barred by zoning restrictions, the opportunity to attend high-performing state schools, and thereby succeed academically, extra- curricularly and as leaders (InZone, 2016b). The girls are integrated into the school’s daily life, and held to high academic and co-curricular standards of behaviour and attainment (InZone, 2016a).

EGGS regularly makes its extensive and high-quality facilities available for public and private enjoyment. The Raye Freedman Arts Centre, for instance, regularly plays host to public shows, performances and seminars (Raye Freedman Arts Centre, 2012). In addition, a disused kitchen block on the EGGS campus is currently being refurbished for gifting to a low-decile school in Northland, in order to permit the diversification of their Curriculum to Catering and Hospitality subjects.

Appendix One

See below the boundaries of the Onehunga School Zone as compared to the boundaries of the Maungakiekie electorate.

Image Three: Onehunga School Zone

Appendix One See below the boundaries of the Onehunga School Zone as compared to the boundaries

(Onehunga High School, 2016a)

Image Four: Maungakiekie Electorate Area

(Parliamentary Library, 2015a, p. 1)

Appendix Two Sport Entrepreneurship Music, Cultural Community Performing Groups Activities and Visual Arts  Athletics 

Appendix Two

 

Sport

Entrepreneurship

 

Music,

 

Cultural

 

Community

 

Performing

Groups

Activities

and Visual Arts

   

Athletics

Three Day

Barber Shop

Cook Island

Amnesty

Cricket

Business

Debating

Indian

International

Golf

Experience

Speech

Kapa Haka

Christian

Kilikiti

Young Enterprise

Competition

Niuean

Group

Mountain Biking

Ignite

Drama

Samoan

Paper

Softball

Competition

Productions

Tongan

Recycling

Swimming

Apprentice

Instruments

 

World Vision

Table Tennis

Competition

Lighting and

40 Hour

Tennis

Market Day

Sound

Famine

Touch Rugby

Robotics

Rockband

E Recylcing

Volleyball

School Magazine

Funkband

 

Waka Ama

OHS TV

Jazz Band

Water Polo

 

Symphonic

Basektball

Band

Badminton

Shakespeare

Hockey

Competition

Netball

Subway Stage

Archery

Challenge

Cross Country

Theatre Sports

Dragon Boating

Wearable Art

Gymnastics

Choir

Football

Composition

Rock Climbing

Group

Speedball

 

Film Club

   

Tag

Anime Club

Rugby

Spoken Word

Skiing/Snowboardin

Creative

g

Writing

Soccer

 

Squash

(Onehunga High School, 2016b; Onehunga High School, 2016c)

Appendix Three

The list of night classes provided at OHS are as follows:

Accent Reduction;

Airbrushing Art;

Antique Collecting;

Art – Portrait and Figure drawing;

Art – To Draw and See;

Asian Cooking;

Autocad – Computer Aided Drafting;

Badminton Beginners;

Ballroom Dancing;

Basic Baking;

Beginner’s Guide to Starting a Business;

Belly Dancing;

Bollywood Dance;

Bookkeeping and Taxation;

Building and Managing a Wireless Network;

Business English;

Cake Decorating;

Car Maintenance and Repairs;

Christmas Baking Traditions From Around the World; Coaching Skills for Managers; Confessions of a Funeral Director; Creative Writing; Design Secrets for a Standout Garden; Digital Photography; English Job Skills; English NCEA Levels 1-3; Facebook Business Pages for Page Admins; First Aid; French Stages 1-3; Gems of Indian Kitchen; German Stages 1-3; English for Migrants; Golf; Guitar Advice; How To Make More Money; Illustrator CS6; Improve Your Memory; Indian Food Made Easy; Italian Cakes, Biscuits, Sweet Tarts and Desserts; Italian Stages 1 and 2; Japanese Home Cooking; Japanese Stages 1 and 2; Landscape Painting With Acrylics; Literacy; Learn to Love Literature; Malaysian Cooking; Managing Projects In Businesses; Mandarin Stages 1 and 2; Meditation and Mindfulness Course; Microsoft Powerpoint Course; Microsoft Word Course; Mosaics;

Microsoft Excel Course; Accounting;

NZ Day Skipper; Net Alert For Parents; Nyonya Cooking; NZSL Course; Oriental Trail; Outsourcing for Small Business; Photoshop; Pilates;

Play the Blues Guitar; Power Poi; Raranga (Māori Weaving);

Real Estate For Long-Term Investment;

Researching Family History on the Net;

Salsa;

Samoan Stages 1 and 2;

Sewing;

Sharemarkets for Beginners;

Simple Cooking for Beginners and Flatters;

Skills to Analyse and Interpret Accounts;

Skype for Small Business;

Small Business Cloud Storage;

Small Business Market Research With Survey Monkey;

Small Business Promotional Video Creation;

South Indian Food Made Easy;

Spanish for Beginners;

Spice It Up – Indian Spice Primer;

Step Fit;

Strategies to Grow Your Wealth;

Sushi Making Continuation with Onigiri;

Tai Chi and Qigong;

Te Reo Māori Stages 1 and 2;