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EDCURSEC700: Investigating School A and B Communities

Onehunga
The origins of Onehungas name remain mysterious. The common belief is that its name was derived
from an original Mori titling for the area of One-Unga meaning landing beach in recognition
of the important role that the Onehunga Harbour played in facilitating the communication between
northern and southern Mori. Others suggest the name is derived from another Mori titling of
Onehunga, referring to the friable loose soil created from the areas volcanic geography (Borchard,
1993, p. 3).
A History of Settlement in the Onehunga Area
Onehungas first human thoroughfare came with the arrival of the Tainui Canoe (amongst the Great
Fleet) which portaged through Manukau Harbour en route to settlement in the Waikato (Mogford,
1989, p. 9). While ignored for some years following, the area was eventually settled by Ngati Awa,
who established pa at Maungakiekie and Owairaka, and overhauled both as defensive settlements
(Ashton, 1988, p. 1). The United Tribes of Wai-O-Hua inherited the area, and in 1820 they permitted
its first European sighting, by paddling Reverend Samuel Marsden out to the Manukau Heads
(Mitchell, 1993, p. 4). The tentative trading practices between early European settlers and Mori that
commenced shortly after (Mogford, 1989, p. 11), were quickly decimated when Hongi Hikas musketarmed Ngapuhi invaded the area, annihilating the majority of its population (Ashton, 1988, p. 1),
forcing survivors to flee to the Waikato (Pritchard, 1925, p. 4).
As such, the area was virtually wild and uninhabited when it was almost simultaneously re-settled by
Wai-O-Hua (Mogford, 1989, p. 11) and the first European settler to the area, Thomas Mitchell (a
timber merchant from Sydney) in 1835 (Mogford, 1977, p. 14). Mitchell purchased several thousand
acres from Wai-O-Hua, and built New Zealands first sawmill in Mill Bay (Mogford, 1977, p. 14).
Following his death in 1837, the land was sold to Captain William Cornwallis, who established the
Cornwallis settlement (in that area still known by the same name), which housed the first settlers to
area arriving upon The Brilliant in 1841 (Mogford, 1977, p. 14). While the settlement proved
unsuccessful (due to construction issues pertaining to settler accommodation), in the years following,
the majority of settlers arriving to New Zealand settled in the Onehunga, or the Auckland City, areas
(New Zealand Government, 2016, p. 29).
Much of Onehungas development is attributable to unrest. In 1846, under threat of invasion from the
Waikato, Governor George Grey recruited Imperial Troops from Great Britain to form a force of
Royal New Zealand Fencibles (Stumbles, 1993, p. 88) in Howick, Panmure, Otahuhu and Onehunga
(Auckland Libraries, 2016) to protect Auckland and comprise a permanently settled population
(Onehunga Business Association Incorporated, 2016). The threat of invasion additionally drove

Settlers from the Waikato to the north (Mogford, 1989, p. 24). When the Land Wars commenced in
1860, the use of the Onehunga Port as a main route for troops and supplies lead to an influx of wealth
which permitted the commercial expansion of the area (Mogford, 1977, p. 19).
The dissolution of conflict did not suppress the areas economic growth. The significant freshwater
supply of the area rendered it highly suitable for industrial development (Onehunga Business
Association Incorporated, 2016), which attracted first ironworks, then shipbuilding industries
(Mogford, 1977, p. 95). In 1878, Onehunga became more accessible to visitors by the linking of
Onehunga Wharf to Auckland via Railway (Onehunga Date Line, 2016), and in 1893, a tourist
attraction, when travellers flocked to witness with incredulity the activities of the elected first Woman
Mayor of the British Empire Elizabeth Yates (Williams, 1993, p. 8 and 12).
The provision of electric tramways permitted significant dispersal of Central Auckland populations as
the commute to the city grew shorter (Onehunga Date Line, 2016). As such, the population continued
to expand, marked by the building of Te Papa School (1913) and Manukau Intermediate School
(1943) to relieve overcrowding at Onehunga District School (Mogford, 1989, p. 115). The areas first
non-European immigrants were Chinese, arriving in the windows of 1918-1920 and 1939-1941
(Archives New Zealand, 2016), and a slow trickle of immigrants from India commenced in 1920
(Swarbrick, 2012).
From the 1960s onward, Onehungas industrial capacities saw its continual development. By the
1960s, the population had increased to 15,000 (Onehunga Business Association Incorporated, 2016)
and a 20 year reclamation project of swamp areas was implemented to make way for new
development (Mogford, 1989, p. 132). In 1967, a section of Onehungas Queen Street was converted
into a pedestrian shopping mall (Mogford, 1989, p. 74), and in 1986 it was significantly upgraded to
account for increased commercial pressures in the area (Mogford, 1989, p. 126). In 1987, the
Immigration Act shifted selection criteria for immigrants from race-based criteria (that preferred
immigrants with British heritage) to personal merit, permitting a gradual diversification of the
community (Beaglehole, 2012).
The present state of Onehungas community is attended to in the ensuing section.
Onehungas Present State: A Survey of its Demographic
Based on available statistical information, it is impossible to break down the precise demographic of
the Onehunga School Zone its official community. Existing statistical information is broken into
electorate areas (and smaller places) none of which accord with the boundaries set out by Onehunga
High School (see Appendix One). The ensuing analysis will thus utilise information regarding the

Maungakiekie electorate area (of which the Onehunga School Zone is a part) as a proxy to
understanding its demographic.1
Population Summary
The Maungakiekie population is growing at a rate faster than average increasing by 7% compared to
the national level of 5% from 2006-2013 (Parliamentary Library, 2015a, p. 8). It is a predominantly
middle-aged population (see Graph One) the youth population is marginally lower than the
national level (26.4% of the population compared to 27.4%) and the population of persons 50 or over
is significantly lower than the national level (25.9% compared to 33%).
Graph One: Age Groups of Maungakiekie Population
35
30
25
20
15
10

Percentage of Population In Age Group

5
O
ve
r

rs
rs

an

Ye
a

rs

Ye
a

Ag
e

65

50

-6
4

Ye
a

rs
30

-4
9

Ye
a

rs
20

-2
9

Ye
a

rs
Ye
a

-1
9
15

514

04

Ye
a

rs

Maungakiekie

National

(Parliamentary Library, 2015a, p. 9)


The area houses a large immigrant population 36% of the population were born overseas, compared
to the national proportion of 23.6% (see Graph Two). The significant majority of those persons
originate from the Pacific Islands (29.1% of the overseas-born population compared to the national
level of 15.1%) (see Graph Three).

1 Note that a significant proportion of students attending Onehunga High School derive from
communities outside this area (in particular, the Mangere area). However, since these communities do
not comprise the immediate local community around the school (and they are too numerous to
consider in this space), they will not be considered in this essay.

Graph Two: Proportion of Population in Maungakiekie and Across New Zealand Born Overseas

23.6
36

Proportion of PersonsOverseas
Born in Location

New Zealand
70.3
56.1

Ma u n g a kie kie

Na tio n a l

(Parliamentary Library, 2015a, p. 11)


Graph Three: Birth Locations of Those Persons in Maungakiekie and Across New Zealand Born
Overseas

17.4

14.2

15.1
Percentage
North-East
of overseas-born
Asia
personsPacific
born inIslands
Geographic area UK and Ireland
29.1

26.5
11
Ma u n g a kie ki e

(Parliamentary Library, 2015a, p. 11)


The ethnic demographic of the area is highly diverse. Only 50.9% of the Maungakiekie population
identifies as European (compared to the national level of 74.0%) (see Table One). Pasifika, Asian and

Middle Eastern/Latin American/African populations are much larger in the area than at the national
level in particular, the Pasifika population is concentrated at three times the national level.
Table One: Ethnic Groups of Usually Resident Maungakiekie and New Zealand Population
Ethnicity
Proportion of Persons in the Population Affiliating to the
Ethnicity
Maungakiekie
New Zealand
European
50.9%
74.0%
Mori
12.0%
14.9%
Pasifika
22.1%
7.4%
Asian
24.7%
11.8%
Middle Eastern/Latin
1.8%
1.2%
American/African
Other
1.2%
1.7%
(Parliamentary Library, 2015a, p. 10)
* Table sections highlighted in blue indicate higher proportion of the population than the national level.

Correspondingly, the area is significantly more linguistically diverse than broader New Zealand.
Notably, the area is not mono-lingual; 15.3% of its population do not report proficiency in English
(see Table Two). Nonetheless, English remains the most commonly-spoken language in the area,
followed by Other languages, and Samoan. More residents speak no language at all than speak
Mori.
Table Two: Languages Spoken By Usually Resident Maungakiekie and New Zealand Population
Language
Proportion of Persons in the Population Reporting Day-ToDay Fluency in the Language
Maungakiekie
New Zealand
English
84.7%
90.1%
Mori
2.3%
3.5%
NZ Sign Language
0.4%
0.5%
Samoan
4.5%
2.0%
Other
27.4%
13.9%
None
2.4%
1.6%
(Parliamentary Library, 2015a, p. 12)
* Table sections highlighted in blue indicate higher proportion of the population than the national level.

Diversity is also evident in the religious beliefs of the area (see Graph Four). While the majority of
the population report a Christian affiliation, there are significant populations of Buddhist, Hindu and
Islam affiliates (all of which exist in far more significant concentrations than the national level
(Parliamentary Library, 2015a, p. 16).

Graph Four: Diversity of Religious Belief in Maungakiekie Area

Buddhist; 3%
No Religion; 34%
Other Religions; 1%
Spiritualism and New Age Religions;Christian;
0%
52%
Maori Christian; 1%
Judaism; 0%
Hindu; 5%
Islam; 2%

(Parliamentary Library, 2015a, p. 16)


The educational-level of the areas residents is higher than the national level. The proportion of
residents with no qualifications is lower than the national level, and the proportion of residents with
Bachelor, Honours, Postgraduate, Masters and Doctoral Degrees is significantly higher than the
national level (24.1% to 17.9%) (see Graph Five).
Graph Five: Educational Qualifications of the Population in Maungakiekie and New Zealand

40
35
30
25
20
15

Percentage of Residents with Qualification

10
5

Maungakiekie

re
e
lD
eg
to

ra

s
lo
r
he

D
oc

Ba
c

Q
ua

lifi
ca

D
eg

tio

re
e

National

(Parliamentary Library, 2015a, p. 13)


Political Behaviour
The political affiliations in the area are mixed. The largest affiliation is to the National Party, however
there is a strong leftist contingent (with 45% of the vote directed towards left-leaning Labour and
Green parties) (see Graph Six).

Maori1%
Party; 1% Other; 0%
ACT; 3% Conservative; 1% Internet Mana;
New Zealand First; 7%
National; 42%

Green; 10%

Labour; 35%

Graph Six:
Proportion of Population Voting for Political Parties in the 2014 General Election in
Maungakiekie
(Parliamentary Library, 2015a, p. 6)
Voter enrolment and turnout in the area are lower than the national level, suggesting the population
has a lower than average political engagement (see Table Three).
Table Three: Frequency of Voting Behaviours in Maungakiekie Area and New Zealand
Voter Behaviour
Percentage of Voting Age Population Performing Behaviour
Maungakiekie
National
Enrolment
88%
92%
Turnout
77%
79%
(Parliamentary Library, 2015a, p. 7)
Households
Several parts of the area are marked by significant socio-economic deprivation (see Image One). The
contrast within the Maungakiekie is extremely high, with a full range of deprivation from 1 (least
deprived) to 10 (most deprived) across the area. This is indicative of highly diverse standards of living
across the area.

Image One: Map of Socio-Economic Deprivation in Maungakiekie

(Parliamentary Library, 2015a, p. 25)


The majority of households in the area contain one family only. However, there are a larger proportion
of households which house two or more families than the national level (5.5% to 3.3%) (see Graph
Seven).

Graph Seven: Household Composition of Private Dwellings in Maungakiekie and New Zealand
66.5
61.9

22.9
21.7

National

53.1

7.1
4.7

ld
o
e
u
o
H

e
n
O

re

rs

re

Fa

Fa

il

ie

il

0.5
0.2

proportion of households
Maungakiekie
of composition type

(Parliamentary Library, 2015a, p. 20)


Access to telecommunications in Maungakiekie is marginally lower than the national level (see
Graph Eight). This may be an indication of personal choices of the areas residents, or of their low
socio-economic status.
Graph Eight: Percentage of Households with Access to Telecommunications in Maungakiekie and
New Zealand

81.8
79.4
76.8 76.8

72.8
72.4

In

te

rn

Maungakiekie
National
Proportion of households
with access to telecommunications

(Parliamentary Library, 2015a, p. 20)


Rates of home ownership are low in the area. The significant majority of the population (44%) are
paying rent for unowned properties (at a level significantly higher than the national level of 29.2%). A
significantly lower proportion of the population than the national level owns a house without a
mortgage (12.7% to 19.9%) (see Graph Nine). The majority of the population thus do not enjoy
accommodation security.
Graph Nine: Types of Household Tenure in Maungakiekie and New Zealand
44.1

29.2

25.7
22.4

19.9
12.7
5.3 6

rt

rt

R
g

M
s

y
a
P

s
u
Tr
y
il
m
Fa

In

ld

in

ld

t
o
N

Tr

Fa

il

e
n
w
O
t
o
N

t
o

d
e
n
w
O

(Parliamentary Library, 2015a, p. 21)

3.8

National

in

g
in
y
a
P

d
e

t
e
R

rt
o
M
o

rt

Maungakiekie

n
w
O

e
g

2.3 3.5

For the renting population, the financial cost of the activity is significant. In comparison to national
rates, the area is costly; 46% of the areas population pays $350 or above for weekly rent, in
comparison to 32% of the national population. However, a larger proportion of the population pays
rent of $100 or less per week (14% to 9%) indicating a diversity of housing quality across the area
(Graphs Ten and Eleven).

Graph Ten: Weekly Rent of Households in Maungakiekie

Under $100; 13%


$100-149; 7%
$350 and Over; 46%

$150-199; 3%
$200-249; 6%
$250-299; 10%

$300-349; 14%

Graph Eleven: Weekly Rent of Households of Across New Zealand

Under $100; 9%
$350 and Over; 32%

$100-149; 8%
$150-199; 9%

$200-249; 12%
$300-349; 15%
$250-299; 15%

(Parliamentary Library, 2015a, p. 22)


Work
Personal income levels reflect the spread of socio-economic deprivation across the area. The
proportions of persons earning $10,000 and below, and $40,001 and above are higher than the
national level, indicating a significant spread and inconsistency of wealth across the area.

Graph Twelve: Personal Income in Maungakiekie and New Zealand


10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3

Percentage of Persons at Income Level

2
1

Maungakiekie

National

0
00

00

0,

,0

110

140
$7

0,

00

00
5,
$3

$1

5,

00

N
il
o

120

,0

Lo
s

00

(Parliamentary Library, 2015a, p. 26)


The occupations of those employed in the area are diverse, with the most significant proportions of
the population employed in manufacturing, and professional, scientific and technical fields (see Table
Four). The unemployment rate is higher than the national level, at 5.3% (to 4.5%) (Parliamentary
Library, 2015a, p. 27).
Table Four: Occupations of Population in Maungakiekie and National
Occupation
Percentage of persons employed in Occupation
Maungakiekie
National
Agriculture, forestry and fishing
0.4
6.5
Mining
0.1
0.3
Manufacturing
10.0
9.4
Electricity, gas, water and waste services
0.6
0.7
Construction
6.0
7.6
Wholesale trade
7.9
4.8
Retail trade
8.7
9.4
Accommodation
5.1
5.6
Transport, postal and warehousing
4.9
4.1
Information media and telecommunications
2.7
1.8
Financial and insurance services
5.0
3.4
Rental, hiring and real estate services
2.5
2.5
Professional, scientific and technical services
11.2
8.4
Administrative and support services
4.3
3.3
Public administration and safety
3.4
4.9
Education and training
7.7
8.0
Health care and social assistance
9.5
9.6
Arts and recreation services
1.7
1.8
Other Services
3.7
3.9
Not Elsewhere Included
4.6
4.0
(Parliamentary Library, 2015a, p. 31)
* Table sections highlighted in blue indicate higher proportion of the population than the national level.

The proportions of the population engaged in unpaid work in the area are lower than nationally. This
may be an indication of high incidences of wealth in some parts of the area, which provide for the
hiring of household assistance.
Table Five: Unpaid Activities of Populations of Maungakiekie and New Zealand
Unpaid Activity
Percentage of Persons Carrying Out Unpaid Activity
Maungakiekie
National
Household Work for Own
73.6
76.7
Household
Looking After Child from Own
26.0
27.4
Household
Looking After Disabled/Ill
6.3
6.6
Household Member
Looking After Child not from
10.7
13.7
Own Household
Helping Disabled/Ill non6.0
7.9
Household Member

Other Helping or Voluntary


Work
No Unpaid Activities
(Parliamentary Library, 2015a, p. 32)

10.9

13.9

11.2

10.3

Profile of Onehunga High School


History
Onehunga High School (hereafter OHS) was established in 1957 to provide for Onehungas
expanding population (Mogford, 1989, p. 115), and opened for students on 4 February 1959, despite
the non-completion of its buildings (Nickolls, 2009, p. 12). Its initial educational provision was
decidedly academic (in the provision of core subjects such as English, Mathematics, Sciences,
Social Sciences and Economics), and gendered technical options for males and homecraft subjects
for females (Nickolls, 2009, p. 14).
Present Day Identity
The present-day identity of OHS is as a multicultural and diverse community, in which all students are
respected and accepted for who they are, and encouraged on the passage of their own personal
learning journey a voyage that is symbolised in the prominence of OHS on-site Marae Te
Haerenga (the Journey) at the entrance to its grounds (Onehunga High School, 2016d). The schools
respect for students is made prominent in the fact its school song was lyrically and musically
composed by its own Year 13 students (Onehunga High School, 2016j).
The cultural demographic of the school is highly mixed (see Table Six):

Table Six: Percentage of Students at Onehunga High School Reporting Membership to a Certain
Ethnic Group
Ethnic Group
Percentage of students at OHS reporting membership to
that ethnic group
Maori
19%
Pakeha
14%
Tongan
19%
Samoan
18%
Niue
8%
Cook Island Maori
6%
Indian
5%
Chinese
2%
Fijian
2%
South East Asian
2%
Other Asian
2%
Other
3%
(Education Review Office, 2016a).

46% of the schools students arrive from the In Zone area discussed above, while 54% are derived
from out of zone (Dorothy Fenandez, KAMAR Data, personal communication 5 May 2016). The
majority of these students arrive from the Mangere area (Auckland Transport, 2011; Dorothy
Fernandez, personal communication 5 May 2016).
The schools mission statement is to provide excellence in teaching and learning, for all (Onehunga
High School, 2016e, p. 2). To this end, it seeks to offer students the opportunity to achieve at the
highest level, develop and pursue personal goals and to engage in the process of lifelong learning
(Onehunga High School, 2016e, p. 2).
OHS Achievement Targets are:

70% of the Year 9 and 10 cohort will meet the expected curriculum level for literacy and

numeracy by the end of 2016;


70% of the Year 11 Cohort will achieve NCEA Level One;
70% of the Year 12 Cohort will achieve NCEA Level Two;
70% of the Year 13 Cohort will achieve NCEA Level Three;
15% of the students that attain NCEA Level One, Two or Three will do so with Excellence
(Onehunga High School, 2016e, p. 3).
The Nature of the Curriculum Available to Students

OHS Curriculum Design seeks to provide for, and respect, the diverse learning journeys that students
might seek to embark upon. The full Curriculum is below at Table Seven. The full co-curricular
programme is attached at Appendix Two.
Year

English

Mathematics

Science

Social Sciences

Technology

English
ESOL

Mathematics

Science

Social Studies
Digital Media

Technology an
Design

10

English
ESOL

Mathematics

Science

Social Studies
Film and Media
Studies

Automotive
Robotics
Metal Technol
Wood Technol
Design and Vis
Communicatio
Technology an
Design
Digital Techno
Automotive
Design and Vis
Communicatio
Elementary
Woodwork
Robotics
Technology an
Design

NCEA Level
One

English
Scholarship
English
English Literacy

Core
Mathematics
Mathematics
Foundation
Mathematics

Foundation
Science
General Science
Specialist Science
Health Science

Classical Studies
Geography
History
Social Studies
Media Studies
Social Sciences

NCEA Level
Two

NCEA Level
Three

English Academic
English with a
Visual Focus
English with a
Writing Focus
English with a
Literacy Focus
English
Scholarship
ESOL

English Academic
English with a
Visual Focus
English with a
Writing Focus
English with a
Literacy Focus
English
Scholarship
ESOL
Services English

Core
Mathematics
Mathematics
with Calculus
Mathematics
with Statistics
Foundation
Mathematics

Mathematics
with Calculus
Mathematics
with Statistics
Core
Mathematics

Biology
Chemistry
Physics
Sustainability

Classical Studies
Geography
History
Law
Media Studies
Social Sciences

(Nickolls, 2009, pp. 38-39; Onehunga High School, 2016f)

Biology
Chemistry
Physics
Sustainability

Classical Studies
Geography
History
Internally Assessed
Geography
Law
Media Studies
Social Sciences

Automotive
Design and Vis
Communicatio
Digital
Technologies
Elementary
Woodwork
Technology an
Design

Design and Vis


Communicatio
Digital
Technologies
Elementary
Woodwork
Technology an
Design

The Curriculum is broad, with student encouraged to study a range of subjects: from traditional
academic subjects (such as English, Mathematics, Science, Social Science and Languages) and nontraditional subjects (in Visual Arts, Performing Arts, Technology, Business etc). In Junior Years, the
Curriculum is tightly circumscribed to ensure students get a taste of OHS range of subjects
(Dorothy Fernandez, personal communication 5 May 2016); while academic subjects (in red above)
are compulsory, students are rotated through the various options for nine-week blocks in Year 9, and
half-year blocks in Year 10 (Onehunga High School, 2016f).
In recognition of students diverse needs, priorities and learning styles, students are permitted the
option of studying in academic or specialised vocational programmes (Nickolls, 2009, p. 32).
Students with a strong interest in pursuing a career in construction, the armed forces, catering and
hospitality, health sciences or business are permitted to engage in a Pathways Programme, in which
their subject options are tailored to their specific focus, and they are provided with relevant extracurricular opportunities (Onehunga High School, 2016i). For instance, the Construction School
frames academic subjects to align with students interests:

Physical Education classes focus on improvement of physical fitness for construction;

Mathematics classes focus on building-related problems (for instance, utilising equations to


price jobs, or sine and cosine to calculate roof pitches);

English classes focus on building-related literacy (for instance, students learn to put written
cases to building inspectors) (Nickolls, 2009, p. 32).

The majority of these programmes are driven by the occupational preferences and shortages of the
local and national community. Onehunga Construction School, for instance, originated as a
consequence of a national labour shortage in the skilled trades (Nickolls, 2009, p. 29). The Health
Sciences Academy, similarly, was developed in recognition of the local communitys occupational
interest in that field (which is presumably mimicked in its youth) Healthcare and Social Services is
the third-largest occupational field in the area (see Table Four; Dorothy Fernandez, personal
communication 5 May 2016).

Subject provision is also influenced by the schools internal community. Language options, for
instance, are driven the ethnic demographics of the school. Te Reo Maori, Samoan and Tongan are

provided in recognition of the large populations of Maori, Samoan and Tongan students in the school,
and their desire to feel connected to their culture (Table Six), and in recognition of the fact that these
are the languages (besides English) most commonly spoken in the surrounding community, and are
thus most useful for students to know (see Table Two; Dorothy Fernandez, personal communication 5
May 2016).

Students interests and abilities are also taken into account in differentiated class options in core
subjects. English, for instance, permits students to opt-in 2 to streams of the subject suited to their
academic ability (English Scholarship, English Academic and English Literacy) and streams suited to
their interest in the subject (English with a Writing Focus and English with a Visual Focus). The
structure of streamed options permits students with a strong interest in the subject to take more than
one class (Bleasdale, 2013).

The Role of Onehunga High School in the Community


The relationship between OHS and the Community is conceptualised and implemented as one of
reciprocation (Nickolls, 2009, p. 16). In response to any provision from the surrounding community,
the school seeks to enhance community experience in the measure (or more) that it has gained.
The OHS Construction School, for instance, is funded in large part by Fletcher Construction and
Hitachi. This investment is usually returned in the opportunity for partners to the programme to
employ already-skilled apprentices upon the completion of their secondary education (Linda Everett,
personal communication 3 August 2015). Further, students construction projects have been
distributed for the communitys benefit, and include a 100m water slide at Moirs Point Camp, a
sandpit for Onehunga Primary School, decks at Motatapu Education Camp, and a Horticulture Unit at
Mt Roskill Grammar School (Nickolls, 2009, p. 32). Since 2013, students in the construction
programme have built one four-bedroom house a year for Habitat for Humanity (Onehunga High
School, 2016g).
Similarly, OHS Business School returned efforts in the establishment of its Business Programme in
the popularisation of the Business subject nationally. When the Business Programme was first opened,
students were taught by industry members, in partnership with Unitec. Utilising the success of its
programme as an example, OHS lobbied the Government to introduce NCEA Achievement Standards,
which were made available in 2010 (Nickolls, 2009, p. 29).
2 Pending the attainment of an appropriate grade in the previous years work.

OHS investment in the local community is also reciprocated. The school, for instance, provides a
range of Adult and Community Education Courses (see Appendix Three), and hosts an English
Language School for the service of International Students and non-English speaking community
members (Onehunga High School, 2016h). Programmes are designed to appeal across generations and
increase the participation of the adult community in education. The reverberations are felt within the
young people entering the school, better prepared for education and to attain the high academic results
to which the school aspires (Nickolls, 2009, p. 44).

Epsom
In comparison to its earlier-discussed counterpart, much of Epsoms beginnings are highly mysterious
- including the reason for its naming. The commonly understood history of its titling is that it was so
named by Colonel Robert Wynyard the first Superintendent of the Auckland Province after the
English Epsom in Surrey, in which Wynyard had ancestral holdings. However, the flaw of this account
is that the name Epsom is documented as in use as early as 1841, a full three years before Wynyard
took up residence in the area (Bush, 2006, p. 15).
A History of Settlement in the Epsom Area
The history of Epsoms original settlement is far more obscure than that of Onehunga. Evidence of
Mori settlement on Maungawhau dates back as early as 1200 A.D. (Angelo, 1989, p. 8), and while it
is likely Epsom Valley was utilised pre-colonially in some regard, there is no archaeological or oral
Mori history to buttress this claim (Bush, 2006, p. 9). As such, Epsoms discovery is dated in 1827,
when Dumont DUrville ascended Maungawhau (Angelo, 1980, p. 11), sighted the Epsom Valley and
noted that it was deserted (Bush, 2006, p. 13).
The Epsom area was acquired for a settler colony from Ngati Whatua, in a purchase of 11,000 acres
occurring in October 1840 and June 1841 (Bush, 2006, p. 17). Initially, the area was intended as a
farming district to supply the needs of the developing Auckland City land was plotted into farming
settlements, and the first sales to settlers occurred on 19 and 20 April 1841 (Epsom Branch Library,
1972, p. 1). Anticipating prosperity, settlers quickly arrived to the area; by 1844, the population had
increased four-fold (from 51 to 222 residents) (Bush, 2006, p. 21). During the 1850s, the farming
community prospered from demands for flour and grain for those working in the Goldfields, and
operations in the area expanded to include livestock (Bush, 2006, p. 24). In service to this demand,
settlers and Mori worked alongside one another, with Mori workers developing a reputation as
cheerful and willing to work (Epsom Branch Library, 1972, p. 2).
By 1876, Epsoms population sat at 500 residents a sluggish growth compared to the surrounding
areas of One Tree Hill, Mt Eden and Mt Roskill (which experienced growths of 70%, 280% and 438%
respectively) (Bush, 2006, p. 41). Nonetheless, increasing demand for land in the area led to the

subdivision of larger farm plots into farmlets (Bush, 2006, p. 42), and calls for improved
infrastructure in the area led to the provision of a post office (1877), an upgraded Manukau Road
(1882), gas street lamps (1882) and a local school (1885) (Bush, 2006, p. 45).
The first diversification of the bi-cultural community came with the arrival of the first Chinese
residents to the area a pair of market gardeners who set up business on Manukau Road (Bush, 2006,
p. 77). However, this introduction of one new ethnic group was matched by the departure of another;
the suburbanisation of the area in the 1920s3 saw a decline in the Mori population by 1926 only 15
Mori were recorded as living in the area by the Census (Bush, 2006, p. 67). By the late 1930s, a
rapidly growing population had resulted in the complete suburbanisation of the area Epsoms
farming history was definitely a thing of the past (Bush, 2006, p. 63).
The areas proximity to the rapidly growing commercial centre of Newmarket attracted opportunistic,
business-minded residents and, as such, the areas demographic quickly turned to one of particular
affluence (McClure, 2015). From the 1970s, 21% of the area reported membership in the Census
highest income bracket (Bush, 2006, p. 89).
Up until the 1980s, the area was relatively ethnically homogenous the Census recorded an ethnic
profile of Europeans (90% of the population), Mori (3%), Polynesian (2%), Chinese (2%) and
Indians (1%) (Bush, 2006, p. 87). Twenty years later (2001), the ethnic demographic was overhauled
25% of the areas population identified as Asian, while Europeans only accounted for 66% of its
demographic (Bush, 2006, p. 89).
Epsoms Present State: A Survey of its Demographic
The boundaries of the Epsom Electorate Area record almost precisely with the boundaries of the
Epsom School Zone (see Appendix Four). As such, the ensuing analysis reflects the exact
demographic that contributes to the schools (in-zone) population.
Population Summary
Epsom is an area growing at a faster than national rate, marking a 6% increase in population between
2006 and 2013 (Parliamentary Library, 2015b, p. 8). The population is predominantly middle-aged;
the proportion of youth (0-19 years) in the area is lower than the national level (25.9 to 27.4%), as is
the population of those persons aged 50 and over (30.8% to 33%) (see Graph Thirteen).

3 Marked by the provision of paved concrete streets (1924), electricity reticulation (1926), a large
street tree-planting programme (1927) and sewering of the area (1929) (Bush, 2006, p. 61).

Graph Thirteen: Age Groups of Epsom and National Population


30
25
20
15
10

Percentage Proportion of Population In Age Group

O
ve
r

rs
an

Ag
e

65

Ye
a

rs

30

-4
9

Ye
a

rs
Ye
a
-1
9

15

04

Ye
a

rs

Epsom

National

(Parliamentary Library, 2015b, p. 9)


The area houses a large immigrant population 37.1% of the population were born overseas,
compared to the national proportion of 23.6% (see Graph Fourteen). The significant majority of
those persons originate from North-East Asia (36.5% of the overseas-born population compared to the
national level of 14.2%) (see Graph Fifteen).
Graph Fourteen: Proportion of Population in Epsom and Across New Zealand Born Overseas

23.6
37.1

Proportion of PersonsOverseas
Born in Location

New Zealand
70.3
57.2

Eps om

Na tio na l

(Parliamentary Library, 2015b, p. 11)


Graph Fifteen: Birth Locations of Those Persons in Epsom and Across New Zealand Born
Overseas

14.2

36.5
15.1
North-East
Asia
Percentage
of overseas-born
persons Pacific
born inIslands
Geographic area UK and Ireland
4
26.5
17.6

Eps om

Na tio n a l

(Parliamentary Library, 2015b, p. 11)


The ethnic demographic of the area is highly diverse (see Table Eight) below. Only 66.2% of the
population identify as European (in comparison to 74.0% of the New Zealand population). The most
significant ethnic minority group is Asian nearly a third of the population affiliates with that ethnic
identity (30.2%).

Table Eight: Ethnic Groups of Usually Resident Epsom and New Zealand Population
Ethnicity
Proportion of Persons in the Population Affiliating to the
Ethnicity
Epsom
New Zealand
European
66.2%
74.0%
Mori
4.3%
14.9%
Pasifika
2.7%
7.4%
Asian
30.2%
11.8%
Middle
1.6%
1.2%
Eastern/LatinAmerican/Africa
n
Other
1.3%
1.7%
(Parliamentary Library, 2015b, p. 10)
* Table sections highlighted in blue indicate higher proportion of the population than the national level.

The linguistic diversity of the area corresponds to its diversity of ethnic composition. The area is not
mono-lingual only 89.2% of the population reports proficiency in English. Other languages are
spoken by 29.2% of the population (significantly higher than the 13.9% national level) given the
high Asian population, this statistic is presumably informed by fluency in languages affiliated to the
various ethnic identities that category contains.

Table Nine: Languages Spoken By Usually Resident Epsom and New Zealand Population
Language
Proportion of Persons in the Population Reporting Day-ToDay Fluency in the Language
Epsom
New Zealand
English
89.2%
90.1%
Mori
0.8%
3.5%
NZ Sign Language
0.2%
0.5%
Samoan
0.5%
2.0%
Other
29.2%
13.9%
None
1.1%
1.6%
(Parliamentary Library, 2015b, p. 12)
* Table sections highlighted in blue indicate higher proportion of the population than the national level.

There is a wide array of religious belief (and non-belief) in Epsom (see Graph Sixteen). The largest
proportion of the population affiliates with the Christian belief system (although its prominence is
lower than the national level). Although populations of Hindu, Buddhist, Islam and Jewish religion
affiliates appear small in the area, they are proportionally larger than those populations nationally, 4
indicating the area is highly religiously diverse.
Graph Sixteen: Diversity of Religious Belief in Epsom Area

4 The Hindu population is 3.6% in Epsom, compared to a national level of 2.3%, the Buddhist
population is 3.9% in Epsom compared to 1.5%, the Islam population is 1.3% to 1.2% and the Jewish
population is 0.5% to 0.3% (Parliamentary Library, 2015b, p. 16).

Buddhist; 4%

No Religion; 38%
Christian; 42%

Other Religions;
10% Age Religions;
Hindu; 3%
Spiritualism
and New
0%
Maori Christian;
Judaism;
0%
0%
Islam; 1%

(Parliamentary Library, 2015b, p. 16)


The education-level of the areas residents is significantly higher than the national level. The
proportion of residents with no qualifications is substantially lower than the national level (6.8% to
18.6%). Further, the proportion of residents with Bachelors Degrees or higher is over double the
national-level (39.6% to 17.9%).
Graph Seventeen: Educational Qualifications of the Population in Epsom and New Zealand
40
35
30
25
20
15

Percentage of Residents with Qualification

10
5

Epsom

National

(Parliamentary Library, 2015b, p. 13)


Political Behaviour

re
e
D
eg
ra
l
D
oc

to

s
lo
r
he
Ba
c

N
o

Q
ua

lifi
ca

D
eg

tio

re
e

The political affiliations of the area are strongly right-wing. The National Party holds a clear party
vote majority of 64%. Affiliations to the Labour and Green Parties comprise only 26% of the
population.

Graph Eighteen: Proportion of Population Voting for Political Parties in the 2014 General
Election in Epsom

ACT; 3% Conservative; 2% Internet Mana; 1%Maori Party; 0%Other; 0%


New Zealand First; 3%
Green; 13%

Labour; 13%

National; 64%

(Parliamentary Library, 2015b, p. 6)


Voter behaviour in the area accords exactly with national behaviours, suggesting that the population is
averagely-engaged politically.

Table Ten: Frequency of Voting Behaviours in Epsom Area and New Zealand
Voter Behaviour
Percentage of Voting Age Population Performing Behaviour
Epsom
National
Enrolment
92
92
Turnout
79
79
(Parliamentary Library, 2015b, p. 7)
Households
Very few areas in Epsom are marked by any significant socio-economic deprivation. The majority of
the area is coded 1-2 in the deprivation index, indicating the lowest socio-economic deprivation in the
nation (see Image Two). Notably, however, there are some areas of high deprivation (at levels 8 to 9)
within the area, indicating that standard of living is highly variable across Epsom.

Image Two: Map of Socio-Economic Deprivation in Epsom

(Parliamentary Library, 2015b, p. 25)


Epsom, unlike Maungakiekie-Tmaki, is generally comprised of one-family households, which may
be an indicator of either lack of poverty or cultural practices in the area.

Graph Nineteen: Household Composition of Private Dwellings in Epsom and New Zealand

68.1 66.5

20.5

Epsom

National
6.2

4.7

ld
h

h
e
s

o
H

e
n
O

-F

rs

il

M
r
o
e
re
h
T

ld

s
ie
o

Tw

re

Fa

Fa

il

il

ie

il
m
Fa
e
n

0.1 0.2

2.6 3.1

22.9

(Parliamentary Library, 2015b, p. 20)


The proportion of the population with access to telecommunications in the area is higher than the
national level an indicator of the high socio-economic status of the areas residents. Interestingly, the
Internet is the most popularly-accessed telecommunicative method (used by 86.1% of the population
compared to 84.1% and 82.8%).
Graph Twenty: Percentage of Households with Access to Telecommunications in Epsom and New
Zealand
84.1
82.8
81.8
79.4

86.1
72.8

(Parliamentary Library, 2015b, p. 20)

te
In

rn

Epsom
National
Proportion of households
with access to telecommunications

The proportion of the population renting their accommodation in the area is significantly higher than
the national level (36.4% to 32.7%), indicating that part of the population is a transient one. This
contrasts with the notable proportion of the population that occupy homes held in trust (25.5%
compared to the 13% national level) indicating a significant proportion of the population intends to
remain in the area long-term.
Graph Twenty One: Types of Household Tenure in Epsom and New Zealand

33.6
29.2
25.7

19.9

Epsom
Proportion of the population
with household tendure typeNational

16.1
14.3

13.7
11.8

3.5
2.8

O wne d - Mo r tga ge

(Parliamentary Library, 2015b, p. 21)


Rent rates are significantly higher in the area than across New Zealand: the proportion of the
population paying $350 and over for weekly rent is 36% higher than the national level. This is likely
indicative of the desirable Grammar Zoning of the area, and the high socio-economic status of its
members.

Graph Twenty Two: Weekly Rent of Households in Epsom

Under $100; 2% $100-149; 1% $150-199; 2%


$200-249; 5%
$250-299; 10%

$300-349; 12%

$350 and Over; 68%

Graph Twenty Three: Weekly Rent of Households in New Zealand

Under $100; 9%
$350 and Over; 32%

$100-149; 8%
$150-199; 9%

$200-249; 12%
$300-349; 15%
$250-299; 15%

(Parliamentary Library, 2015b, p. 22)


Work
The rates of personal income in the area accord with the lack of socio-economic deprivation in the
area: the proportion of persons earning above $100,000 is 10.2% higher in Epsom than nationally.
Notably, there is also a significant proportion of the population earning nil income or less given the

lack of socio-economic deprivation in the area, this may be a consequence of the families financial
security permitting various members not to work.
Graph Twenty Four: Personal Income in Epsom and New Zealand
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2

Epsom

0
00

00
00
0,
$7

$5

0,

00

110

160

0,

,0

00
,0
140
5,

$3

$2

5,

00

00

130

,0

00

00
,0
120
00
5,

$1

$5

,0

01

il
o

-1
0

,0

Lo
s

00

National

(Parliamentary Library, 2015b, p. 26)


The occupations of those employed in the area are diverse, with a significant proportion of the
population employed in professional, scientific and technical services, and healthcare and social
assistance. The unemployment rate (3.8%) is lower than the national level (4.5%) (Parliamentary
Library, 2015b, p. 27).

Table Eleven: Occupations of Population in Epsom and National


Occupation
Percentage of persons employed in Occupation
Epsom
National
Agriculture, forestry and fishing
0.6
6.5
Mining
0.0
0.3
Manufacturing
5.5
9.4
Electricity, gas, water and waste services
0.3
0.7
Construction
3.3
7.6
Wholesale trade
6.3
4.8
Retail trade
8.3
9.4
Accommodation
6.3
5.6
Transport, postal and warehousing
2.6
4.1
Information media and telecommunications
3.3
1.8
Financial and insurance services
7.0
3.4
Rental, hiring and real estate services
4.0
2.5
Professional, scientific and technical services
18.1
8.4
Administrative and support services
3.8
3.3
Public administration and safety
2.6
4.9
Education and training
8.6
8.0
Health care and social assistance
10.9
9.6
Arts and recreation services
1.9
1.8
Other Services
3.1
3.9
Not Elsewhere Included
3.4
4.0
(Parliamentary Library, 2015b, p. 31)
* Table sections highlighted in blue indicate higher proportion of the population than the national level.

The proportions of persons engaged in unpaid work in the area are lower than nationally. This is likely
an indication of the high incidences of wealth in some parts of the area, which provide for the
provision of household assistance.
Table Twelve: Unpaid Activities of Populations of Epsom and New Zealand
Unpaid Activity
Percentage of Persons Carrying Out Unpaid Activity
Epsom
National
Household Work for Own
76.6
76.7
Household
Looking After Child from Own
25.8
27.4
Household
Looking After Disabled/Ill
4.7
6.6
Household Member
Looking After Child not from
10.4
13.7
Own Household
Helping Disabled/Ill non7.0
7.9
Household Member
Other Helping or Voluntary
13.3
13.9
Work
No Unpaid Activities
11.7
10.3
(Parliamentary Library, 2015b, p. 31)

Profile of Epsom Girls Grammar School


History
Epsom Girls Grammar School (hereafter EGGS) was originally established as a temporary
classroom and accommodation addition for AGS Junior Girls in February 1917, and was located in
Silver Road (Bush, 2006, p. 225). It was the third of the Auckland Grammar Schools established in
the area (EGGS, 2016a). Initially, the classes only provided for 3 rd and 4th Forms, and expanded to
higher levels as students aged (EGGS, 2016a).The initial subject provision was designed to be
academic, yet suitable for the schools female population, and featured: English, Mathematics,
French, Latin, Roman History, Botany, Geography, History, Hygiene and Domestic Science (EGGS,
2016a).
Present Day Identity
EGGS is presently a single-sex secondary school, with a school roll of 2082 students (ERO, 2016b).
Its current foci are:

The facilitation of students achievement across academic, cultural and sporting activities

(EGGS, 2016b);
The development of students self-confidence, self-motivation, independence and leadership
skills, as well as their sense of agency developed through their self-recognition of their
strengths, their being proactive in addressing their needs and through their awareness of their

language and culture (EGGS, 2017, p. 5);


The fostering of students sense of local and global connectedness, and desire to actively
contribute to those communities through service (EGGS, 2016b).

The schools particular focus is academic success, with the Board of Trustees postulating as its preeminent goal the attainment of Level 2 by all school leavers, and a rate of Level 3 Excellenceendorsement and Scholarship passes which is higher than other Decile 9 girls schools (EGGS,
2016b).
EGGs is presently moving towards a BYOD model all students are permitted to bring devices to
school and Year 9 students are obliged to do so (EGGS, 2016c).
The ethnic demographic of the school is mixed, although it is more homogenous than OHS.

Table Thirteen: Percentage of Students at Epsom Girls Grammar School Reporting Membership to
a Certain Ethnic Group
Ethnic Group
Percentage of students at EGGS reporting membership
to that ethnic group
Maori
6%
Pakeha
47%
Tongan
2%
Samoan
3%
Other Pacific
1%
Chinese
14%
Indian
5%
Korean
5%
United Kingdom
4%
European
4%
Other Asian
4%
Other
5%
(Education Review Office, 2016b).
81.81% of EGGS students inhabit the school zone community, while 18.19% of its students are out
of zone (Mary Law, KAMAR DATA, personal communication 10 March 2016).
The Nature of the Curriculum Available to Students
EGGS Curriculum design seeks to meet several key objectives:

To maintain the schools traditions and values in the provision of traditionally academic

subjects; and
To provide students with a subject range which enriches their prospects in the workforce,
which includes non-traditional academic subjects (EGGS, 2016b).

Table Thirteen below sets out the full Curriculum available to students.

Table Thirteen: Full Curriculum Available at Epsom Girls Grammar School (2016)
Year

English

Mathematics

Science

Social Sciences

Technology

The Arts

English
ESOL
Media Studies

Core Music
Core Art
Core Drama
Art

English
ESOL
Media Studies

English
Foundation English
ESOL
Writing for
Publication

English
Foundation English
ESOL
Media Studies

English
Contemporary
English
Shakespeare
English Film
English
Proficiency
ESOL
Media Studies

10

NCEA Level
One

NCEA Level
Two

NCEA Level
Three

Mathematics

Science

Social Studies

Science
Environmental
Studies

Mathematics
Core
Mathematics
Foundation
Mathematics

Biology
Chemistry
Physics
Investigations
Human Biology
Environmental
Science

Mathematics
Calculus
Mathematics
Combined
Mathematics
Statistics

Biology
Chemistry
Physics
Environmental
Science

Classical Studies
History
Geography
Legal Studies
Travel and
Tourism

Calculus
Mathematics
Statistics A
Statistics B

Biology
Chemistry
Physics
Environmental
Science

Classical Studies
History
Geography
Travel and
Tourism

Mathematics

Social Studies

History
Geography

Digital Technology

Interior Design
Product Design
Robotic Design
Food Technology
Digital Technology

Art
Drama
Music

Design Technology
Food Technology
Digital
Technologies

Drama
Music
Visual Art
Photography

Design Technology
Food Technology
Digital
Technologies

Drama
Performance
Music
Music Studies
Art Design
Painting
Printmaking
Sculpture
Photography
Art History
Drama
Performance
Music
Music Studies
Printmaking
Sculpture
Photography
Art History
Modern
Art History
Renaissance

Design Technology
Food Technology
Digital
Technologies

(EGGS, 2016e; EGGS 2016f)

Physical Education
and Health
Physical Education
Health

Languages

Business

Business Studies

Business Studies

Health Sociology
and Investigations
Physical Health
Programme
Sports Science

Health Sociology
and Investigations
Physical Health
Programme
Sports Science
Child
Development

Early Childhood
Education
Health Sociology
and Investigation
Sports Science

Chinese Second
Language
French
Japanese
Latin
Spanish
Te Reo Mori
English for
speakers of other
languages
Chinese Second
Language
French
Japanese
Latin
Spanish
Te Reo Mori
English for
speakers of other
languages
Chinese Second
Language
French
Japanese
Latin
Spanish
Te Reo Mori
English for
speakers of other
languages
Chinese Second
Language
French
Japanese
Latin
Spanish
Te Reo Mori
English for
speakers of other
languages
Chinese Second
Language
French
Japanese
Latin
Spanish
Te Reo Mori
English for
speakers of other
languages

Other

Accounting
Economics

Accounting
Economics
Business Studies

Accounting
Economics
Business Studies
Business
Management
Enterprise

Textiles and
Design
Graphics

Textiles and
Design
Graphics

Textiles and
Design
Graphics
Hospitality

Textiles and
Design
Graphics

Both traditionally academic subjects (such as English, Mathematics, the Sciences, Social Sciences,
Economics and Foreign Languages), and non-traditional subjects (which include Visual and
Performance Arts, Business Studies, Design, Technology, and Physical Education and Health
subjects) are available to students.5 All subjects are provided on the basis that they might be perceived
as pathways to career areas, but are not offered as formalised pathway programmes as at OHS
(EGGS, 2016g).
In the early stages of Curriculum choice, students are generally provided with circumscribed freedoms
regarding their subject choices. In order to meet its aim of broadening students knowledge, interests,
skills and horizons across a balanced range of areas (EGGS, 2016c), EGGS compels junior students to
partake in a range of subjects. In Year 9, for instance, students must take:

English, Mathematics, Physical Education and Health, Science, Social Studies, Technology,
Art, Drama, Music and one language (options are listed in Table Thirteen above);
Either:
o An additional language; or
o Two courses from:
Art;
Business Studies;
Digital Technology;
Media Studies;
Music (EGGS, 2016e).

In Year 10, while greater freedom is offered, the school directs students to ensure they experience
non-traditional subjects. In addition to core subjects (English, Mathematics, Physical Education and
Health, Science, and Social Studies), students must take:

An Arts subject (Art, Drama or Music); and


A Technology subject (Interior Design, Product Design, and Robotic Design) (EGGS,
2016e).

From Year 11, students freedom expands and the only compulsory subjects are those core subjects
listed above. However, this freedom is not wholesale. Many of students option choices are restricted
by requirements for a minimum level of performance in previous years prior to admission to the
course (EGGS, 2016f). This is a reflection of the schools desire to ensure that all school leavers pass
Level Two NCEA; students are directed away from courses in which they are unlikely to attain credits
(based on past performance).
The interests of the communities internal and external to the school shape its Curriculum.

5 Utilising that definition and list of traditional academic subjects understood in current dialogues
regarding the disappearance of academic subjects from schools (Paton, 2009).

Notably, the majority of non-academic subjects offered are associated with professional
occupations; offered technologies, for instance, are those associated with professions (interior
design, food monitoring, robotics, website design and so on) rather than trade technologies
(carpentry and mechanical work). This is a consequence of the occupational demographic of the area
(which informs the profile of the school). Only a minor proportion of the areas population is involved
in manufacturing (5.5%) and construction (3.3%) occupations (compared to substantially higher
national levels of 9.4% and 7.6% respectively [see Table Eleven]), indicating that employment
opportunities in such areas are few, and that there is unlikely to be substantial demand for their
provision from school parents employed in those fields (Mary Law, personal communication 10
March 2016).
Further, the significant population of overseas-born, non-English speaking inhabitants in the
surrounding community informs subject provision (see Graph Fifteen; Mary Law, personal
communication 10 March 2016). The schools ESOL programme, for instance, is provided in grades:
ESL (for students from whom English is not a first language and report a basic level of proficiency)
and ESA (for students for whom English is not a first language and report an intermediate level of
proficiency) (EGGS, 2016h, p. 13). English Foundation classes are also provided for students that
speak English as a first language and require additional assistance (EGGS, 2016i, p. 19). The
Curriculum is also shaped by the schools internal community: English is differentiated at Senior
levels to account for student interest, in the provision of ENS (English with a Shakespeare Focus) and
ENC (English with a Contemporary Focus) (EGGS, 2016i, p. 18).
The Curriculum is extended by an enormous range of co-curricular opportunities.

Table Fourteen: Co-curricular Activities Available at EGGS

Sport
Aerobics
Artistic
Gymnastics
Athletics
Badminton
Basketball
Cricket
Cross Country
Curling
Cycling
Diving
Dragon Boat
Racing
Equestrian
Fencing
Football
Golf
Hockey
I-Play
Kilikiti
Lacrosse
Lifesaving
Mountain Biking
Netball
Orienteering
Pilates
Rhythmic
Gymnastics
Rowing
Rugby
Skiing
Snowboarding
Softball
Squash
Swimming
Table Tennis
Tennis
Touch
Trampolining
Triathlon
Ultimate Frisbee
Underwater
Hockey
Volleyball
Waka Ama
Waterpolo
Yachting

Arts and Culture


Arts
AGS/EGGs
Production
Debating
Drama
Hip Hop
Literary
Committee
Sheilah Winn
Shakespeare
Stage Challenge
Student Run
Production
Theatresports
Visual Arts
Culture
African Group
Chinese Group
Cook Island
Group
Spanish Group
Gaelic Group
German Group
Indian Group
Japanese Group
Kapa Haka
Group
Nga Kotiro
Group
Korean Group
Malaysian Group
Middle Eastern
Group
Samoan Group
Sri Lankan
Group
Thai Group
Tongan Group

Cultural Groups
Band
Choir
Orchestra
Chamber Music
Contemporary
Music

Learning
Animal Rights
Group
Brain Bee
Careers Group
Challenge
Chess Club
Coding Club
CREST
Current Events
Club
Film Society
Green Group
Humanitarian
Group
IT Crowd
Language
Syhedrion
Library Group
Maths Club
Model United
Nations
Monetary Policy
Challenge
NZs Next Top
Engineering
Competition
Oeer Tutoring
Robotics
Science Group
Sustainability
Treasury Schools
Challenge
UN Youth
World Vision
Young Enterprise

Community
Body Image
Group
Duke of
Edinburgh
Epsom House
Kotahitanga
Media
Mash
Peer Support
Prism Break
SADD
Sisterhood of
Spirit
Student Council
The Rock

(EGGS, 2016d)
Notably, a wide range of cultural groups are provided in reflection of the significant cultural
diversity in the area (see Table Eight). In particular, there are a diverse range of cultural groups for
those of Asian ethnicities (Chinese, Indian, Japanese, Korean, Malaysian and so on), reflecting the
high incidence (30.3%) of Asian identities in the surrounding community.
The Role of EGGS in the Community
EGGS primarily aspires to assist its community in the generation of students that will commit to their
communities service during, and upon their departure from, the school environment (EGGS, 2016b).
The attainment of this aim was attested to most recently, in the excellent performance of unwitting
EGGS students in a social experiment conducted by New Zealand Police in Newmarket. A young
male actor (dressed to appear homeless) searched rubbish bins on the main drag for food. Three
Epsom girls were filmed stopping to speak with the boy, asking as to the whereabouts of his parents,
and offering him money for food (as over 500 individuals passed the scene by). The students
attributed their actions to the strong moral foundation provided in their schooling experience
(Gaffaney, 2016).
Further, EGGS aspires to extend its strong history of educational attainment beyond the boundaries of
its immediate community. Seeking to recognise its bicultural obligations under the Treaty of Waitangi,
EGGs houses 17 students from the InZone project (InZone, 2016a). That project seeks to provide
young Mori and Pacific Island students, who would otherwise be barred by zoning restrictions, the
opportunity to attend high-performing state schools, and thereby succeed academically, extracurricularly and as leaders (InZone, 2016b). The girls are integrated into the schools daily life, and
held to high academic and co-curricular standards of behaviour and attainment (InZone, 2016a).
EGGS regularly makes its extensive and high-quality facilities available for public and private
enjoyment. The Raye Freedman Arts Centre, for instance, regularly plays host to public shows,
performances and seminars (Raye Freedman Arts Centre, 2012). In addition, a disused kitchen block
on the EGGS campus is currently being refurbished for gifting to a low-decile school in Northland, in
order to permit the diversification of their Curriculum to Catering and Hospitality subjects.

Appendix One
See below the boundaries of the Onehunga School Zone as compared to the boundaries of the
Maungakiekie electorate.
Image Three: Onehunga School Zone

(Onehunga High School, 2016a)


Image Four: Maungakiekie Electorate Area
(Parliamentary Library, 2015a, p. 1)

Appendix Two
Sport

Athletics
Cricket
Golf
Kilikiti
Mountain Biking
Softball
Swimming
Table Tennis
Tennis
Touch Rugby
Volleyball
Waka Ama
Water Polo
Basektball
Badminton
Hockey
Netball
Archery
Cross Country
Dragon Boating
Gymnastics
Football
Rock Climbing

Entrepreneurship

Music,
Performing
and Visual Arts

Three Day
Business
Experience
Young Enterprise
Ignite
Competition
Apprentice
Competition
Market Day
Robotics
School Magazine
OHS TV

Barber Shop
Debating
Speech
Competition
Drama
Productions
Instruments
Lighting and
Sound
Rockband
Funkband
Jazz Band
Symphonic
Band
Shakespeare
Competition
Subway Stage
Challenge
Theatre Sports
Wearable Art
Choir
Composition
Group

Cultural
Groups

Cook Island
Indian
Kapa Haka
Niuean
Samoan
Tongan

Community
Activities

Amnesty
International
Christian
Group
Paper
Recycling
World Vision
40 Hour
Famine
E Recylcing

Speedball
Tag
Rugby
Skiing/Snowboardin
g
Soccer
Squash

Film Club
Anime Club
Spoken Word
Creative
Writing

(Onehunga High School, 2016b; Onehunga High School, 2016c)

Appendix Three
The list of night classes provided at OHS are as follows:

Accent Reduction;
Airbrushing Art;
Antique Collecting;
Art Portrait and Figure drawing;
Art To Draw and See;
Asian Cooking;
Autocad Computer Aided Drafting;
Badminton Beginners;
Ballroom Dancing;
Basic Baking;
Beginners Guide to Starting a Business;
Belly Dancing;
Bollywood Dance;
Bookkeeping and Taxation;
Building and Managing a Wireless Network;
Business English;
Cake Decorating;

Car Maintenance and Repairs;


Christmas Baking Traditions From Around the World;
Coaching Skills for Managers;
Confessions of a Funeral Director;
Creative Writing;
Design Secrets for a Standout Garden;
Digital Photography;
English Job Skills;
English NCEA Levels 1-3;
Facebook Business Pages for Page Admins;
First Aid;
French Stages 1-3;
Gems of Indian Kitchen;
German Stages 1-3;
English for Migrants;
Golf;
Guitar Advice;
How To Make More Money;
Illustrator CS6;
Improve Your Memory;
Indian Food Made Easy;
Italian Cakes, Biscuits, Sweet Tarts and Desserts;
Italian Stages 1 and 2;
Japanese Home Cooking;
Japanese Stages 1 and 2;
Landscape Painting With Acrylics;
Literacy;
Learn to Love Literature;
Malaysian Cooking;
Managing Projects In Businesses;
Mandarin Stages 1 and 2;
Meditation and Mindfulness Course;
Microsoft Powerpoint Course;
Microsoft Word Course;
Mosaics;
Microsoft Excel Course;
Accounting;
NZ Day Skipper;
Net Alert For Parents;
Nyonya Cooking;
NZSL Course;
Oriental Trail;
Outsourcing for Small Business;
Photoshop;
Pilates;
Play the Blues Guitar;
Power Poi;
Raranga (Mori Weaving);

Real Estate For Long-Term Investment;


Researching Family History on the Net;
Salsa;
Samoan Stages 1 and 2;
Sewing;
Sharemarkets for Beginners;
Simple Cooking for Beginners and Flatters;
Skills to Analyse and Interpret Accounts;
Skype for Small Business;
Small Business Cloud Storage;
Small Business Market Research With Survey Monkey;
Small Business Promotional Video Creation;
South Indian Food Made Easy;
Spanish for Beginners;
Spice It Up Indian Spice Primer;
Step Fit;
Strategies to Grow Your Wealth;
Sushi Making Continuation with Onigiri;
Tai Chi and Qigong;
Te Reo Mori Stages 1 and 2;
Tennis;
Thai Cuisine;
Tongan Language and Culture;
Treaty of Waitangi;
Tutor Training;
Ukulele;
Upholstery;
Vegetable Mains with Mediterranean Flair;
Walking the Waitakeres;
Website Design;
Welding and Metal Sculpture;
Working with Filo Pastry;
Writing Your Memoirs;
Yoga;
Yoga of Cooking;
Youtube Video Production and Editing.

(Onehunga High School, 2016k).

Appendix Four
Epsom Girls Grammar School Zone is set out in the image below:
Image Five: Epsom Girls Grammar School Zone

(EGGS,

2016j).

The Epsom Electorate Area is pictured below:


Image Six: Epsom Electorate Area

(Parliamentary Library, 2015a, p. 1).

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