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Teachers Considerations on Important Aspects in Planning a Lesson Based

on 2013 Curriculum
In Fulfillment of the requirement for EFL Methodology
Research Based Paper
Under the direction of Professor. Dr. Nenden Sri Lengkanawati, M.pd

NURFITRI HABIBI
1502959
Class A

SCHOOL OF POST GRADUATE STUDY


INDONESIA UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION
2015/2016

Research-based Paper Scoring Rubric


Students Name

: Nurfitri Habibi

Students Number

: 1502959

Topic

: How to Plan a Lesson (Teachers Consideration in Planning a Lesson


Based on 2013 Curriculum
ASPECTS

Abstract
Should not more
than 150 words

A. Introduction

B. Literature
Review

C. Research
Methodology

D. Findings and
Discussion

Citation and
Mechanic

CONTENTS

SCOR
E
1

Burning issues
Objectives

Methodology

Findings

Conclusion & recommendation

1
Sub Total

Burning issues
Objectives of the research
A brief theoretical foundation
Relevant previous research
Thesis statement
1. Statemment of the problems/research
questions
2. Significance of the study
Sub Total
Recent publication journal and book
1. Theories relevant to the objectives
2. Related previous research from journals
3. Synthesis or concluding remarks
Sub Total

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
7

1. Design
2. Data collection (sample, instrumentation,
procedure)
a. Sample
b. Instrumentation
c. Data collection procedure
3. Data analysis
Sub Total
1. Data presentation to answer research
questions
2. Interpretation to the findings
3. Conclusion
4. Recommendation
Sub Total
Appropriateness of quoting and mechanic

1
3

1
2
1
1
5

2
6
2
2
1
1
6
5

YOURS

Language

Grammar
Coherence
Sub Total
TOTAL SCORE

2
2
4
40

Research-based Paper Presentation Scoring Rubric


Students Name

: Nurfitri Habibi

Students Number

: 1502959

Topic

: How to Plan a Lesson (Teachers Consideration in Planning a Lesson


Based on 2013 Curriculum)
The Grading Criteria

Knowledge
about the topic
of the research
(content and
methodology)

Maintain and
develop solid
arguments
in
responding to
questions

20

10

Lang Use:
Pronunciation
and Grammar

Presentation: The
Effectiveness of
using the media
and
Communicativenes
s

Total

Teachers Considerations on important aspects in Planning a Lesson Based on 2013


Curriculum
Nurfitri Habibi
nurfitrihabibi@gmail.com
Indonesia University of Education
It is stated that many teachers in Indonesia tend to take for granted the process of lesson
planning by not considering many aspects, such as students diversity and situation, in
designing a lesson plan, especially the teachers residing and teaching in remote area.
Therefore, this study is conducted to investigate teachers consideration on important
aspectsknowing the students, goals/objective, content and material, and activities, in
planning a lesson plan and their attitude towards lesson plan based on 2013 curriculum.
Qualitative approach under descriptive qualitative design is employed in the study to
get in depth understanding of the investigated issue. In collecting the data, this study
uses semi-structured interview and document analysis. After all of necessary data are
collected, the data are coded and analyzed descriptively. The findings show that
teachers consider the students, goals/objective, content and material, and activities with
different perspectives. Moreover, teachers have different opinion and confusion
regarding to lesson planning of 2013 curriculum. It can be concluded that teachers
consider quite similar aspects in planning a lesson, yet still triggering some confusion
among them in designing a lesson plan. Consequently, some extensive and intensive
study on different point of view should be conducted by including more representative
sample and more critical analysis aimed at helping teachers in designing a lesson plan
and government in improving educational system.
Key words: Planning a Lesson, 2013 curriculum, and Lesson Plan
A. Introduction
Planning a lesson is a crucial aspect in instructional process. It is one of key factors of
effective instructional process (NCLRC, 2003-2007; Duncan & Met, 2010, Jasmi 2014).
However, lesson planning is believed as unnecessary action by some teachers (Harmer,
2007). Some teachers, especially in Indonesia, tend to ignore the process of lesson planning.
It seems some Indonesia teachers take for granted in lesson planning. For example, some of
them would rather copy a lesson plan from the internet instead of designing it with full of
considerations. It means, if they do plan a lesson, the lesson plan created does not consider
students conditions. Mardiah (2011; in Mardiah, et al., 2013) states that some research
conducted by PPMP in Muaro Jambi, Tanjung Jabung Barat, and Tanjung Jabung Timur finds
that the designs of lesson plan have not dealt with the students diversity and situation yet.
This situation proves that lesson planning is obviously complicated. It is not simple to
be done. If teachers did not consider many things in their lesson planning, the successful
instructions would not happen. Therefore, Robertson & Acklam (2000; McKay, 2010; Farrel,

in Richards & Renandya, 2002) suggest teachers to understand that lesson planning is a
systematic framework of a lesson, which is created as a result of teachers considerations and
idea. It helps them to ensure that classroom interaction are in line with the curriculum goals
and objectives and to make sure that the purposes are achieved; hence, encourage students to
learn a lot and demonstrate what they have learned successfully (Woodward, 2001; Duncan &
Met, 2010; and Robertson & Acklam, 2000). In respect with the reasons stated above, it
seems that it is important to figure out teachers consideration on important aspects in
planning a lesson plan as well as their perception of lesson plan in 2013 curriculum.
There are some studies conducted related to the topic being discussed, which is lesson
planning. The First study on the lesson planning is conducted by Jones (1998) showing that
lesson planning is effective features of teaching. The second one is conducted by Holmes &
Holmes (2011) investigating how preservice teachers uses Hierarchy for Effective Lesson
Planning (HELP) in accommodating students diversity, needs, and interest. Third study is
designed by Heidari, Azizifar, Gowhary, and Abbasi (2015) figuring out teachers attitudes
towards lesson planning based on the gender. The forth study is conducted by Cicek & Tok
(2013) comparing yearly and daily lesson plan in both U.S and Turkish Education. The fifth
study is conducted by Jasmi (2014) revealing teachers difficulties in designing Lesson plan
based on 2013 curriculum in Indonesia.All of aforementioned works have been dedicated to
the development of practices of lesson plan. However, works on revealing step by steps
teachers consideration or concept in planning lesson plan may have been very few, especially
in planning a lesson based on 2013 curriculum applied in Indonesia.
Based those reasons, the issues showing that many teachers do not considered many
aspects in planning a lesson plan and some previous studies dealing with lesson planning, this
study is conducted in order to answer the following questions:
1.
2.

What are teachers considerations in planning a lesson plan in 2013 curriculum?


How do teachers perceive lesson planning in 2013 curriculum?

Significance of the study


By answering the proposed research questions, this study is expected to give some
meaningful contribution to the development of practice and concept in planning a lesson plan
of 2013 curriculum. In terms of concept, this study will figure out many aspects should be
taken into account in planning a lesson systematically. In terms of practice, it can be used not
only as reference in planning a lesson in 2013 curriculum, but also as a portrait knowing how

well the 2013 curriculum implemented. Moreover, this study is expected to give more data
that are useful for other researchers who want to conduct study with similar topic.
Definition of Terms
There are two terms will be used repeatedly in this study:
1.

Lesson plan is a preparation for a unified set of activities that cover a period of
classroom time (Brown, 2001, p. 149), before teachers come to the classroom. It,
according to Brown (2001) and Reiser & Dick (1996), consist of goals, objectives,

2.

material, teaching media, activities, and evaluation.


2013 Curriculum is a current curriculum used by Indonesia government to run

3.

educational systems in Indonesia (Permendikbud, 2013).


Consideration in this study refers to careful thinking of teachers in deciding what
necessary aspects have to be put in planning a lesson based on 2013 curriculum.

B. Literature Reviews
This section refers to some theories underlining the study, some related research, and
synthesis and concluding remarks. Those elements will be elaborated in details below.
Important Elements of Lesson Plan
Every country, including Indonesia, has its own curriculum and format of lesson plan. Once a
curriculum is implemented and changed, it will influence the format of lesson. It means
curriculum and lesson plan are interrelated. However, although every country, including
Indonesia, has its own format of lesson plan, there are still five main components should be
put in every lesson plangoal, objectives, procedures, materials, and evaluation.
Goal
Goal is a general statement of what learners will be able to do due to instructional process
(Reiser & Dick, 1996). When teacher want to plan a lesson, they should know what students
would have done and achieved at the end of the learning process (Brown, 2001; and NCLRC,
2003-2007). Owing to its generalized notion, it serves as big picture of lesson leading to the
decision of the lesson topic.
There are four functions of instructional goal (Reiser & Dick, 1996), which are, first, it
is used as a focus for developing a curriculum, which means teachers should familiar and
understand the curriculum before deciding a certain goal or topic. Second, it can be used as a
media to inform public what a school is attempting to achieve. Third, it is used as a guideline
to set an evaluation tool to measure the accomplishment of goals established. Fourth, it

provides direction for activities conducted in the classroom. For the very reasons, goal,
according to Murray & Christison (2011), is the most first important element of lesson
planning that should be considered.
Objective
Objectives are specific statements stating explicitly what students will be able to pursue as a
result of a lesson they receive (Brown, 2001; and Reiser & Dick, 1996). This explicit
statement accommodate teacher to be sure teachers really know what they are going to gain,
maintain the unity of the lesson, and evaluate students success at the end of lesson. in
addition, Murray & Christison (2011) state that objectives can help teacher in deciding the
content should be taught in the classroom, the activities that accommodate students practice
the content, and material that best represent the content.
Because objective describes a variety type of behaviors (Reiser & Dick, 1996), it
should be feasible or observable (Brown, 2001). Therefore, Robert Gagne (in Reiser & Dick,
1996), developed a taxonomy that can be used to classify most objectives into one of four
domains of learning outcome. Those domains of learning consist of knowledge, intellectual
skills, motor skills, and attitudes. Meanwhile, Bloom proposed six domains of learning,
which are knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. Each
domain has its own key of vocabulary that can be used in stating objective.

These

vocabularies, Murray & Christison (2011) argue, should be in form of doing verbs, such as
analyzing, identifying, etc.
Brown (2001) further explains there are two types of lesson objectiveterminal and
enabling objectives. Terminal objective is a final outcome of learning that should be
measured and evaluated, while enabling objectives are temporary step bounded up together
leading to terminal objective. Meanwhile, 2013 curriculum provides three objectives
objectives of affective, skill, and knowledge.
In lesson plan of 2013 curriculum (permendikbud no. 65, 2013), objectives and goals
are two similar terms, in which the objectives, which is divided into three domains
affective, knowledge, and skills, are decided based on basic competence stated by using
observable action verb.
Material & equipments
It is important choosing materialeither authentic (newspaper, off- air recording) or text
material (textbook, worksheet, handout) (Mcgrath, p.7, 2002)and equipments going to be
used in the classroom. Good planning includes listing and knowing what are needed in the

classroom to help teacher delivering a lesson. Reiser & Dick (1996) argue equipments and
material chosen should be practical in use, appropriate for your students, and be good in
representing a particular activity.
Procedures
Procedure is instructional activities referring to the steps that take place when a lesson is
presented to the students (Reiser & Dick1996). It aims at giving students a practice time in
achieving the objective of the lesson (Murray & Christison, 2011). Brown (2001) claims that
there are three steps should be included in instructional activity or procedure: an opening
activity as a warm up; set of activities and techniques for (i) whole class work, (ii) smallgroup and pair work, (iii) teacher talk, and (iv) student talk; and closure.
Meanwhile, Reiser & Dick (1996) suggest that there are six types of instructional
activities including (i) motivating students, (ii) informing students of objectives, (iii) helping
students recall prerequisites,(iv) presenting information and examples, (v) providing practice
and feedback, and (vi) summarizing the lesson.
The 2013 curriculum (Permendikbud no. 81A, 2013) proposed three stages in
instructional processpre-activity; while-core activity consisting of five stages, which are
observing (reading, listening, and watching), questioning (asking several question related to
what has been being observed), experimenting (doing experiment, read other resources,
examining objects), associating (analyzing and interpreting information that have been
collected), and communicating (presenting what have been observed and concluding the
result of analysis, either orally or written); and post-activity.
Evaluation
Evaluation aims at knowing whether the objectives have been accomplished or not (Brown,
2001). It is not always done in every lesson because some of the evaluation may have to wait
for a couple of days depending on students abilities of the lesson taught. Besides, Reiser &
Dick (1996) and Jones (1998) state that, evaluation provides teachers with information
regarding the quality of the instructional process they have presented, as well as suggest how
the process of teaching and learning can help teacher to plan for improvement. In 2013
curriculum, the evaluation of instructional process uses authentic assessment.
Those five important elements are also stated in the format of lesson plan in 2013 curriculum,
in which the lesson plan, according to permendikbud no. 65 (2013), consists of identity of the
school, identity of subject, class, main topic, allocation time, goals or objectives, basic

competence and achievement indicator, material, teaching media, sources, procedures


(pre-,while-, post- activity), and evaluation
Principle of Designing Lesson Plan in 2013 Curriculum
Permendikbud No. 65 (2013) states that there are some principles should be considered in
planning a lesson based on 2013 curriculum. Those principles will be elaborated below in
details.
a. Individual differences
It means teachers should know who students are students ability, intellectual, aptitude,
potential, interest, learning motivation, interpersonal skill, emotional, learning styles,
cultural background, educational environment, etc. By knowing their students knowing
their level, learning style, needs, learning preference, and skill (Cicek & Tok, 2013; Harmer.
2007), an effective lesson plan can be designed. In addition, they could draw a conclusion
what are the needs, abilities, and interests of the students, and somehow their abilities, needs,
and preference are varied. Brown (2001) states that teacher can cope with students diversity
by paying attention to several aspects, which are:

The technique designed should be ranging from easy to complicated items.


Ask simple and easy question to students below standard, while for students above

standard, ask more challenging and complicated one.


Try to develop technique engaging all students actively
Use good and reasonable decision in order to choose member in small group, thus
each group has either heterogeneous range of ability or homogeneous range to

encourage equal participation.


Use small group and pair work to circulate and give extra attention to that bellow or
above the norm.

Reiser & Dick (1996) add that dealing with learners differences, especially in terms of
their overall ability in language; teacher should examine various instructional activities going
to be implemented. For low-average learners, teachers should (1) emphasize more on
motivation and make sure that learners have already had prerequisite knowledge; (2) use
large number of examples and give a lot of practice and feedback; (3) plan for remedial
activity. In contrast, dealing with above average learners, teachers should recognize the
abilities and knowledge that they bring to learning situation and not create inappropriate
instruction that bore them.

b. Students engagements
It means teachers should be able to involve students in learning activity. By involving
students in learning activity, it will accommodate students learn a lot what is being taught. In
order to engage students in the learning activity, teachers should carefully design the
procedure of instructional process.
c. Students-centered
Dealing with students-centered, it is considered as important aspect to encourage students
motivation, interest, creativity, initiative, innovation, and students independence. Therefore,
teachers should be able to select appropriate activities to create students-centered
environment. In selecting appropriate activities, the most important thing should be
considered is objective. It is because the purpose of classroom activity is to create some
practices that will help students in attaining lesson objectives (Murray & Christison, 2011).
Therefore, the selection of activities can be done when the lesson objectives have already
decided. Moreover, there are others aspects should be taken into account in designing
activities, which is suggested by Brown (2001) and Murray & Christison (2011) variety,
sequencing, pacing, transition, and timing.
First, it is very important using a number of different activities. It is believed that varied
activities will provide not only interesting and pleasant activities (Ur, 1996), but also
accommodate students diversity; therefore, it leads to a successful instruction
Second, the decision of activity sequencing can be influenced by several factors, which
are the difficulty of content, amount of self-disclosure required, or the difficulty of language
involved in the activity. Therefore, the sequence can be based on the level of task difficulty
and the level of control. In terms of task difficulty, the activity designed should be logical. It
should be started from the easiest to the most difficult tasks or activities. In terms of level of
control, teachers should range the activity gradually from much control to less control. It
means when students has enough skill and knowledge, students control will increase while
teacher control will decrease at the end of lesson.
Third, the whole pace of the lesson should be appropriate for the content and lesson. It
means the speed of delivering a lesson should not be too fast or slow. In deciding the
appropriate pace, teacher should be able to recognize students need. If the students behavior
signals they do not understand the material delivered, teachers should slow down their pace.
In contrast, if the students behavior signals boredoms, teacher should speed up their pace.

Fourth, teachers should consider the transition of the activity. It means the flow of the
various techniques used should be smooth, and the movement from one activity to another
activity should be good. Harmers (2007) further explains that teachers need to think carefully
in lesson planning about what stages of activity will go through and how they will get from
one activity to another.
Fifth, the allocated time in every activity should be adequate. In other words, teacher
should plan the time well, not allocating too much time or to short time for each activity
(Cicek & Tok, 2013). It is the most difficult aspect to be considered. Woodward (2001)
suggests that a new teacher should make blocks of time; hence, they could easily calculate
how much times needed in the beginning, middle, and end of lesson. Moreover, teachers also
should provide a balance between students talk time and teachers talk time. Harmer (2007)
claims that the best lesson is one where students talking time is maximized. In other words,
teachers are not allowed to dominate the learning process, they have to give students
opportunity to practice their own speaking.
d. Develop students interest in reading and writing
In order to develop students interest in reading and writing, teachers should be able to
choose appropriate content and materials. Content and materials deal with what the students
need to know and be able to do and what they do not know and are not able to do now
(Woodward, 2001). In choosing the most appropriate content and material, teacher should be
able to identify specific linguistic content (such as vocabulary, grammar, and language
use),topic, context, specific communication tasks (the focus of this task should be topical, not
grammatical), and specific learning strategies (NCLRC, 2003-2007; and Murray &
Christison, 2011). After considering those points, teacher may want to change some parts, by
deleting or adding, that seems most suitable to the students needs, interest, and ability
e. Feedbacks and follow up programs, such as enrichment, remedial, etc.
This activities help students to know how far they have learn, whether they have achieved
the objective or not. In addition, by giving feedbacks and follow up programs, it allows
students understand their weakness and strengths.
f. Emphasizing on interrelation of basic competence, material, procedures, assessment,
achievement indicators, learning sources, and experiences

To design a lesson plan which has interrelation between basic competence, material,
procedures, assessment, achievement indicators, learning sources, and experiences; teachers
should be familiar with the official curriculum applied by the government (Brown, 2001). In
2013 curriculum, each objectiveknowledge, skill, and affective, should be derived from
basic competence. By considering basic competence, they can create an instructional process,
which is in line with the applied curriculum. By referring to overall unit of work and
curriculum, according to Murray & Christison (2011), the interrelated between lesson plan
elements can be coined.
g. Implementing ICT in integrated and effective way, and systematically, which is,
correspond to situation and condition.
ICT is good media for help teachers in conducting instructional process nowadays. Suherdi
(2012) states that ICT plays important role in creating betterment in English teaching and
English Teacher Education since there are three important advantages of utilizing ICT in
teaching and learning activity. First, it helps teacher to plan and develop appropriate materials
for the students by surfing relevant resources. Second, it could be used in the learning process
to make students understand clearly the actual performance or in internalizing what they have
just leant with the actual situation. Third, ICT can be employed to discover relevant test to be
given to the students from the internet.
Related Research
As already mentioned in the beginning, issues of lesson planning is not new at all. There are
some studies have been conducted in regards to lesson plan. Although, all of the related
research presented here regards to lesson plan, the object being investigated is different.
First, In Indonesia context, Jasmi (2014) reports that teacher overall gets difficulty in
implementing of 2013 curriculum due to insufficient training. This condition generates
teacher confusion in designing assessment in the lesson plan based on 2013 curriculum
because there are many aspect should be examined, especially affective. Second, Jones
(1998) investigates how important the lesson planning is in teaching and learning activities.
the finding shows that lesson plan is a creative process leading to a purposeful and an
effective teaching. Third, Heidari, Azizifar, Gowhary & Abbasi (2015) reveal female
teachers tend to use more lesson plan than male teachers; therefore, seminar and workshop
should be organized to help teachers realizing the significance of lesson plan. Fourth, Cicek
& Tok (2013) report both in U.S and Turkish have five similar components should be put in

lesson plan, which are objectives/goals, allocated time, material &equipments, procedures,
and assessment.
Concluding Remark
In short, a lesson plan is a set of systematic planning of an instructional process. It is very
useful in the classroom, because teacher can guide learners efficiently to achieve certain
lesson goals. A good lesson plan leads not only to successful teachers instructions, but also to
well-classroom management. However, planning a lesson is not simple. There are four
aspects should be considered in planning a lessonknowing the students, goals and
objectives, contents and materials, and the activities going to be implemented. Those aspects
are in line with the principle of lesson planning in 2013 curriculum. However, some teachers
in Indonesia sometimes do not pay attention to those aspects. This condition becomes worse
due to the changing of curriculum in Indonesia; therefore, this study intends to investigate
teachers consideration on important aspects in designing lesson plan as well as their attitude
in planning a lesson based on 2013 curriculum which has just applied by Indonesian
government.
C. Research Methodology
This study is designed to investigate the phenomenon of designing a lesson plan based on
2013 curriculum. Therefore, the study employed descriptive qualitative approach as a tool to
answer the research question stated in the introduction. This approach is chosen based on two
reasons. First, It only focus on single phenomena or idea (Creswell, 2003), which is planning
a lesson plan of 2013 curriculum, to be investigated and comprehended. Second, it aims at
revealing in-depth understanding (Yin, 2011) of the teachers consideration and perception in
lesson planning based on 2013 curriculum.
Participant
The participants involved in the study are two teachersthe quality of the sample is more
concerned than number of sample in qualitative study (De Paulo, 2000) which is one from
vocational school, and one is from senior high school. Those samples are chosen purposively
due to some reasons. First, they have enough knowledge in the topic being investigated and
they still contribute in teaching and learning process (Sugiyono, 2013). In other words, those
teachers have enough knowledge in planning a lesson in 2013 curriculum since they have had
enough experience in teaching (more than five years) and have already had some training in
terms of the implementation of 2013 curriculum. Second, they are still active in teaching and

learning process, so they know the development of the implementation of 2013 curriculum
until now.
Instrumentation
In collecting the data, semi structured interview and document analysis are used. Semistructured interviewa list of open-ended questionsaims at revealing participant views and
opinion on the topic being discussed in depth. (Sugiyono, 2013; and Creswell, 2003), which
is teachers consideration in planning a lesson. The list of open-ended question are dealt with
teachers experiences in teaching, teachers decision on the aspects they take into account in
planning a lesson, and their attitude toward lesson planning based on 2013 curriculum.
Moreover, document analysis, which is lesson plan, is conducted in order to compare the
teachers answer and their lesson plan that has been created; hence the information collected
from interview (Sugiyono, 2013) can be validated.
Data Collection Procedure
There are several steps in collecting the data, which are: (1) create open-ended questions
related to planning a lesson; (2) interview two teachers, face-to-face, in different occasion,
place, and time, in which each interview takes about 15 to 20 minutes. In addition, all of the
interview processes are recorded. This technique is used because, according to Yin (2011), it
is considered as main technique in collecting qualitative data; (3) while interviewing teachers,
the researcher asks the lesson plan has already created by them as well in order to compare
participants answer with their existing and created lesson plan.
Data analysis
After all of information and data from the interview are collected, first, those data are
transcribed. Second, the data are coded based on the lesson plan aspect categorization and
consideration. Finally, those data are analyzed descriptively by using principle of lesson
planning frameworks adapted from Brown (2001), 2013 curriculum, Woodward (2001)
NCLRC (2003-2007); Duncan & Met (2010); and Murray & Christison (2011). The
framework is shown in Table 1.

No.

Aspects

Considerations

Checklist

1.
2.
3.

4.

5.

6.
7.

Format of Lesson Plan 2013 Curriculum


Knowing students
Students level, learning style, needs, learning
preference, and skill
Goals/ Objective
Curriculum
Basic competence
Domains of learning affective, knowledge, and skills
Stating used observable action verb
Others
Content Material
Objective
Specific linguistic features
Topic
Context
Specific communication task
Specific learning strategy
Others
Activities
Objective
Variety
Sequencing
Transition
Timing
Others
Equipment
Practicality
Material
ICT
Evaluation
Objective
Authentic assessment
Others
Table 1. Framework of checklist principle in planning a lesson

D. Findings and Discussion


Data presented will be in accordance with the research question, which are (1) what are
teachers considerations in planning a lesson plan in 2013 curriculum, and (2) how do
teachers perceive lesson planning in 2013 curriculum.
1.

Teachers consideration

The finding of the interview and document analysis show that many aspects are taken into
account by teachers in planning a lesson based on 2013 curriculum. First, teachers consider
the format of a lesson plan. Both teachers interviewed articulate that they follow the lesson
plan format of 2013 curriculum consisting of identity of the school, identity of subject, class,
main topic, allocation time, goals or objectives, basic competence and achievement indicator,
material, teaching media, sources, procedures (pre-,while-, post- activity), and evaluation.
From those elements, there are five points that are similar with US and Turkish lesson plan

(Cicek & Tok, 2013), which are objectives/goals, materials & equipments, procedures, and
evaluations. It proves that every lesson plan must have five important elementsgoals,
objectives, materials & equipments, procedures, and evaluation.
No.
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Elements of Lesson
Plan
Goal/ Objectives

Consideration aspects
Teacher A
Teacher B
Basic competence, one of
Core competence & basic
four skills, and observable competence, and the
action verb
significance of the lesson in
real life
Activities
Basic competence ,
Variety, sequencing, pace,
sequencing, variety, and
timing
pace
Material
Authentic material, basic
Context and it should be
competence, and
interesting
interesting
Equipment
Relevancy with the
ICT, material, practicality, and
material and activity, and
culture, students interest
practicality
Evaluation
Basic competence and
Objective
elements related to skills
Second, In respect of those elements, teacher considers other aspects in planning a

lesson, which is portrayed in Table 2.


Table 2. Consideration Aspects
In stating goals/ objective, both teacher A and B consider basic competence. It indicates that
both teachers have already known that every objective/ goals stated should derive from the
curriculum or basic competence. By knowing the stating objective should be in line with the
curriculum purposes, it will make teachers easier to jot down the activities that will help
students achieve the objectives (Brown, 2001; Murray & Christison, 2011). However, there
are some different views between teacher A and B in considering goals/ objectives. Teacher A
believes that one of four skills that need some treatments and observable action verbs should
be considered, while teachers B believes that the significance of the lesson in real life should
be taken into account. The most interesting point here is in terms of using observable action
verb in stating objectives. It can be concluded that Teacher A has already comprehended that
objectives represent the various observable or feasible behaviors (Reiser & Dick, 1996;
Brown, 2001) that will reflect students success or failure in achieving objectives, while
teacher B does not.

In terms of deciding activities and listing them down, teacher A and B have similar
answer of the aspects should be consideredvariety, sequencing, and pace. They are very
aware in order to cope with students diversity; they have to provide various activities, good
sequence, and appropriate pace. Different activities will increase pleasure in learning (Ur,
1996), and avoid boredoms. In addition, they also have already sequence the activities in a
good way, which means it moves from the easiest part to the most difficult part (Brown,
2001) and move gradually from teachers-centered to students centered (Murray & Christison,
2011), since they follow the stages suggested by the government in planning a lesson based
on 2013 curriculum. Moreover, they also have already adjusted their pace in delivering the
materials to suit the students conditions. As stated by Brown (2001), the speed of delivering
a lesson should not be too fast or slow. Teachers should be able to slow down the speed if
they find out that the students are confused, in contrast, teachers should increase their speed if
they know the students already understand the explanations or activities. However, both of
them do not consider the transition of each activity. It is better if teachers can consider
movement from one activity to another activity, since Harmers (2007) explains that teachers
will know what stages of activity will go through and how well they will get from one
activity to another. Nevertheless, teacher A is more aware in deciding what aspect should be
considered, since she puts objective as one of her consideration. This aspect is crucial, since,
according to Murray & Christison (2011), every activity conducted should reflect the
objectives.
In regards to material selection, both teachers believe it should be interesting, which
means unique and interactive, so it can give students extraordinary experience, and increase
students motivation in learning. Beside a pleasure side, Teacher B argues that material should
be based on Indonesia context. This is in line with one of principles of lesson plan proposed
by Permendikbud no. 65 (2013), in which teachers should consider cultural background. In
addition, although teacher B does not explicitly, unlike teacher A, mention that objective is
one of aspect should be considered in selecting materials, she still considers it. It is reflected
from the lesson plan that is created by Teacher B. It shows that both teachers know objective
is the core of content decision (Murray & Christison, 2011). In addition, both of them have
already taken into account language features, topic, context, and some expressions will be
given in the classroom represented in their lesson plans. It indicates, as stated by Woodward
(2001), they understand what the students need to know and be able to do and what they do
not know and are not able to do.

In deciding appropriate equipments, both teachers take some consideration in terms of


practicality and relevancy to the material and activity will be delivered. Reiser & Dick (1996)
argue equipments and material chosen should be practical in use, appropriate for the students,
and be good in representing a particular activity.However, Teachers B implies that she utilizes
technology to help her in delivering material explicitly by saying I sometimes use videos,
slides, electronics newspaper, while teacher A only write the use of technology in her
teaching aids on the lesson plan. This condition reflects that teachers have already followed
one of principle in planning a lesson proposed by Permendikbud No. 65 (2013).
Regarding to evaluation, both teachers consider objective and basic competence in
deciding the rubrics of assessment. In other words, whenever they design the assessment
rubrics, they will refer to objective and basic competence. It shows that both of them want to
know whether the objectives have been accomplished or not (Brown, 2001). However, they
do not mention what kind of assessment that is used by them. It should be clear that what
kind of assessment used, since in 2013 curriculum, teachers should provide and consider
authentic assessment (Permendikbud No. 65, 2013) in evaluating the learning process.
2.

Teachers Attitude

The interview data reveal that both teachers have their own opinion about lesson planning in
2013 curriculum. However, both of them state their confusion regarding to lesson planning in
their own perspective. Teacher A claims she still finds some difficulties in designing
interesting and interactive activities for the students; therefore, government should provide a
list of interesting and creative idea to create fun learning activity. Moreover, teacher A
comments government should make some revision in terms of basic competences since the
basic competence provided seems too general and in terms of syllabus as well since the final
goals of vocational and high school are different. Therefore, government should consider
need analysis and ESP vocational standards in designing syllabus.
On the other hand, Teacher B argues that first; she is confused in assessing affective
since there are a lot of aspects should be assessed while she is teaching in the classroom. She
believes that it is impossible for teachers to assess every student in the classroom at one time.
Teacher B confession is in respect with Jasmis (2014) study who reveals that most teachers
are difficult to assess students affective. Therefore, teacher B suggests government to find
alternative ways in assessing affective. Second, teacher B states that she is confused in
implementing learning modelsdiscovery approach, problem-based, and project-based due
to unclear and insufficient description and example of each models generating different

opinion or perception among teachers. That is the reason she does not implement one of
learning models, and uses her own belief in teachinggenre based approach.
The aforementioned teachers statements reveal that the implementation of lesson plan
based on 2013 curriculum is difficult. Although the purposes of implementing 2013
curriculum are excellent, it needs some intensive revisions to create betterment in Indonesia
education systems. Jasmi (2014) supports that government efforts in developing and revising
curriculum is needed to produce a good quality of educational output and system.
E. Conclusion and Recommendation
This study is conducted to reveals teachers consideration on important aspects in planning
lesson plan as well as their attitudes towards lesson planning in 2013 curriculum. the reason
of conducting the study is due to the fact, in which Indonesian teachers tend to take for
granted in designing a lesson plan. The findings show that teachers seem has decided the
important aspects in planning a lesson underpinning the principle of designing a lesson plan
in 2013 curriculum. Most of the considerations are quite similar, but some of them are
different. The differences are in terms of designing objectives, deciding material, the use of
ICT. Moreover, both teachers state their confusion regarding to lesson planning in 2013
curriculum, yet, their reason of their confusion is different. The first teacher states she is
confused in designing interesting activities, while the second teacher states she is confused in
assessing students affective. Therefore, based on the findings, it can be concluded that
lesson planning is challenging activities since many aspects should be considered in planning
a lesson plan. Teachers should be not only able to comprehend the establishing curriculum,
but also the important principle underlying the lesson planning design.
In addition, this present study serves some recommendation both for pedagogical
practice and for further studies. For pedagogical implication, it is a compulsory for teachers
to consider any possibilities and principles of designing a lesson plan in 2013 curriculum to
avoid unsuccessful instructional process. For the one who want to conduct further research
related to similar topic, the more extensive and intensive study should be conducted in order
to get clearer description of lesson planning discussion in Indonesia by including more
samples, more critical analysis, and more aspects to be investigated.
F. References
Brown, H. D. (2001). Teaching by Principle: An Interactive Approach to Language
Pedagogy 2nd Edition. New York: Longman.

Cicek, V., & Tok, H. (2013). Effective Use of Lesson Plans to Enhance Education in U.S. and
Turkish Kindergarten thru 12th Grade Public School System:. International Journal
of Teaching and Education, 10-20.
Creswell, J. W. (2003). RESEARCH DESIGN Qualitative, Quantitative, and mixed methods
approaches Second Edition. United States of America: Sage Publication .
DePaoulo, P. (2000). Sample size for qualitative research.
http://www.quirks.com/articles/a2000/20001202.aspx?
searchID=215035&sort=5&pg=1.

Retrieved

from

Duncan, G., & Met, M. (2010). Startalk: From Paper to Practice. National Foreign Language
Center at the University of Maryland.
Harmer, J. (2007). The Practice of English LanguageTeaching. England: Pearson Education
Limited.
Heidari, M., Azizifar, A., Gowhary, H., & Abbasi, Z. (2015). Iranian EFL Teachers' Attitude
Towards Lesson Planning based on Their Gender. Advances in Language and
Literary Studies, 80-83.
Holmes, K. P., & Holmes, S. V. (2011). Hierarchy for Effective Lesson Planning: A Guide to
Differentiate Instruction Through Material Selection. International Journal of
Humanities and Social Science.
Jasmi. (2014). English Teacher's Difficulties in Designing Lesson Plan Based on 2013. 61st
International TEFLIN Conference (pp. 189-191). Solo: Sebelas Maret University.
Jones, J. (1998). Lesson Planning: Towards Purposeful Learning. Encuentro. Revista de
Investigacin e Innovacin en la clase de idiomas, (pp. 89-98).
Mardiah, R., Haryadi, B., Winarmi, S., Jufrida, Ekawarna, & Ernawat, D. W. (2013).
Pemetaan Pencapaian Kompetensi Mata Pelajaran Ujian Nasional (UN) SMA di
Kabupaten Muora Jambi, Tanjung, Jabung Barat dan Jabung Timur, Provinsi Jambi.
Jurnal Pengabdian pada Masyarakat.
McGrath, I. (2002). Materials evaluation and design for language teaching. Edinburgh:
Edinburgh university press.
McKay, S. L. (2010). Improving classroom teaching. CAPE.
Murray, D. E., & Christison, M. A. (2011). What English Language Teacher Need to Know.
Volume II. New York: Routledge.
NCLRC. (2003-2007). Planning a Lesson From The Essentials of Language Teaching.
National Capital Language Resource Center.
Permendikbud. (2013). Implementasi Kurikulum 2013. Jakarta: Kemendikbud.

Reiser, R. A., & Dick, W. (1996). Instructional Planning A Guide for Teachers.
Massachusetts: Allyn & Bacon.
Richards, J. C. (2002). Methodology in Language Teaching: An Anthology of Current
Practice. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Robertson, C., & Acklam, R. (2000). Action plan for teachers: A Guide to Teaching English .
UK: British Broadcastion Corporation.
Sugiyono. (2013). Metode Penelitian Pendidikan: Pendekatan Kuantitatif, kualitatif, dan
R&D. Bandung: Alfabeta.
Suherdi, D. (2012). Toward 21st Century English Teacher Education: An Indonesian
perspective. Bandung: Celtics Press.
Ur, P. (1996). A course in language teaching: practice and theory. United Kingdom:
Cambridge university press.
Woodward, T. (2001). Planning Lessons and Courses: Designing Sequences of Work for
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Guilford Press.

Interview Transcript
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Goo afternoon maam.


Good afternoon
I would like to conduct a research related to lesson planning; therefore, to gain the data I have
to interview teachers. Thank you very much for being my participant in this research. Are you
ready for the interview?

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Yes. Sure
First question, how long do you teach vocational school?
10 years
What kind of curriculum is used in your school?
2013 curriculum
Before you come to the classroom, do you plan a lesson?
Yes I do.
When exactly do you plan a lesson?
Sometimes I plan it in the beginning of the semester but sometimes when new ideas come up
in my mind I change some parts in my lesson plan the night before.
How do you state objectives or goals of in your lesson plan? What aspect do you consider in
designing the objectives?
In designing objective or goals, I usually refer back to the basic competence, and in I will
consider one of the four skills that should get special treatments. Then, in stating objectives, I
usually use KKO (kata kerja operasional)/ active verbs taken from taxonomy blooms.
How do you plan your activities to be applied in the classroom? What aspects do you taken
into account in designing activities?

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Actually, the activities have been stated in the syllabus, but I usually develop them and I
create some activities which I develop from objectives.
How do you sequence your activities?
Activities I implemented are following the scientific approach since the government asks us
to apply it. The sequence may be started from observing. When students observe some
videos, pictures, slides, or many sources and even sometimes it is the part where the teachers
become a model, so students observe the teacher.
Some activities after observing could be questioning, experimenting, associating, and
communicating.
How do you cope with students diversity?
To cope with my students diversity, sometimes I provide some activities that will get along
well with their learning style, aptitude, and ability. Then, I will sequence the activities from
the easiest to hardest part.
How do you control your speed in delivering the material or guiding teacher in doing each
activity?
It depends on the class that I teach. I try to adapt to my students ability.
How do you perceive material in your teaching? How do you choose materials? What
consideration do you taken into account in deciding teaching materials
In deciding teaching material, sometimes I would like to choose an authentic one and an
interesting one, which are interactive and could give students extraordinary experience.
Again, I usually confirm the material chosen with the basic competence.
How do you choose teaching media? What kind of media do you usually implemented in
classroom?
I choose teaching media which is very relevant with my material and teaching activity, and It
should be practical.
How do you assess students knowledge, skills, and affective? Do assess them in every
meeting?
No, I do not assess it in every meeting. Usually I create some rubrics for assessing my
students performance. In creating rubrics, I consider basic competence and elements related
with the skill.
What are your difficulties in designing lesson plan based on curriculum 2013?
The difficulties is in creating a fun activities which can support students skill, attitude, and
cognitive.
What is your opinion about lesson planning in curriculum 2013?
In my opinion, government should also provide creative way and interesting idea to support
the teachers in creating fun learning activities. Concerning the basic competence it seems to
general. Then, since I teach vocational school, I guess they need different syllabus because
they have different goal after graduating from school. in this point, government should
consider need analysis and ESP vocational standards.
Good evening maam. Thank you very much for being my participant my study. My study is
about lesson planning based on 2013. Are you ready to be interviewed?
Yes I do
How long do you teach in senior high school?
Almost 4 years
What kind of curriculum is used in your school?
6 years
Before you come to the classroom, do you plan a lesson?

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Of course
When exactly do you plan a lesson?
At the beginning of the semester
Do you ever change you lesson plan at the night before you come to the classroom?
Never. I just make the lesson plan at the beginning of the semester I never change it until the
new semester begin.
What aspects do you put in lesson plan?
Those aspects should be put in 2013 curriculum
How do you state objectives or goals in your lesson plan? What aspect do you consider in
designing the objectives of skill, affective, and knowledge
I will refer to core competence and basic competence. And I will consider students need,
students characteristics, and stating objective of lesson that can be used in the real life by
students. However, it is quite difficult for me to decide objective of affective, because the
core competence and basic competence is to general.
In considering students need what, do you do? How do you know that students need this
material and do not need this material, for example?
I would see students performance
In stating objective, do use action verb taken from taxonomy bloom?
Honestly, I do not.
Why?
When I create a lesson plan, I do not know who my students are, especially freshman,
because it is designed at the beginning of the semester before they come to the classroom.
Therefore, I do not know their characteristics.
How do you plan activities to be applied in the classroom? What aspects will you take as
considerations?
I try to create interesting activities to avoid the boredom. I will consider to students learning
style, students needs, and students interests. To accommodate that, I will use various
activities.
How do you sequence your activities?
I will follow the steps provided by government in designing activities, which are observing,
questioning, experiment, association, and communication. By following those steps in order,
I believe the activities provided will move from the easiest to the most difficult part. Then, it
will flow from dependent to independent activity.
How do you cope with students diversity in creating activity in lesson plan?
I give various interesting activity
How many minutes do you provide in each activity?
It depends on the level of difficulty of each activity. it depends on students and situation. I
will provide more time If the activities are quite difficult and complicated and more time.
How do you control your speed in delivering the material or guiding teacher in doing each
activity?
It depends on the students that I teach.
How do you choose materials? What consideration do you taken into account in deciding
teaching materials?
Since the government has given the topics, I just pick the material from the syllabus and from
the textbook provided by government. I will consider traditional context or Indonesian
culture in choosing material. Ill try interesting material, which means something that make
them want to study , unique, and different, and something that students havent met before.
How do you choose teaching media? What kind of media do you usually implemented in
classroom?
It depends on the teaching materials; sometimes puppets, videos, slides, e-newspaper, the

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student itself. I will consider students interest., and practicality


How do you assess students knowledge, skills, and affective? Do assess them in every
meeting?
I use different rubrics. If it is affective, I usually adopt affective rubrics proposed by
government, but if it is knowledge and skill, I adopt the rubrics from different sources, such
as internet. No, I dont assess in every meeting. In several steps, such as observing and
questioning, I never assess them directly; however, when it comes to associating and
communicating stages, I will assess students performance and result. In adopting the rubrics,
I will consider the objective that my students should achieve.
What are your difficulties in designing lesson plan based on curriculum 2013?
I still dont understand about learning modelsdiscovery learning, problem based, and
project based, provided by government. Because of my confusion, I always refer back to my
belief in teaching, using other models that suitable for delivering the materials, which is genre
based approach.
Second problem that I encounter is in assessing students affective. It is stated in the
curriculum, teachers should assess students affective when they are teaching in the
classroom. In fact, I couldnt do that. It is difficult for me to assess my students affective
when I am teaching in the classroom, because feeling a long checklist for every students is
complicated. I do not know how to manage the time to do two different things at the same
time.
Alternatively, I try to be close or to know more their characteristics outside the classroom.
What is your opinion about lesson planning in curriculum 2013?
I think the description of the instruction, example, how to use various models of learning are
not clear. we need a good model to implement those models in the lesson