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KITAB AL-FILAHA

(BOOK ON AGRICULTURE) COMPLETE VERSION

IBN MOHAMMED IBN AHMED IBN AL AWAM, SEVILLANO. A Translation Project By : WAQF FUND
IBN MOHAMMED IBN AHMED
IBN AL AWAM, SEVILLANO.
A Translation Project By :
WAQF FUND INDONESIA, FOUNDATION
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

TABLE&OF&CONTENTS&

&2&

AUTHOR’S&PROLOGUE&

&8&

CHAPTER&I& &23&
CHAPTER&I&
&23&
Knowledge&of&the&species&of&good&land&for&plantations&&or&lower&medium&and&fie lds&
through&certain&signs&of&these&things.&Mention&those&that&are&not&good&for&these&effects,&
so L called&vacant.&What&trees&or&vegetables&feel&good&in&every&kind&of&land&according&to&
what&Ibn L Hajaj&wrote&about&the&advantageous&quality&or&vile&of&the&land. &
&23 !
CHAPTER&II&
&55&
Of&manure&and&useful&species,&preparation,&method&of&use&or&apply.&&Referring&to&
trees&and&vegetables,&suffering,&or&not,&&all&manure&from&the&book&of&Ibn L Hajaj,&&that&under&
the&name&of&si rjin&is&about&manure. &
&55 !
CHAPTER&III&
&76&
Water&species&with&trees&and&vegetables&are&irrigated;&&and&which&corresponds&to&
each&of&these&species.&&In&what&way&have&opened&the&wells&(or&wells)&in&the&gardens ,&&and&
atraillar&(or&match)&the&earth&so&that&water&can&run&and&watering&all.&&Refer&signs&where&it&
is&known&if&the&water&is&near&or&far&&from&the&surface&of&the&earth,&and&everything&else&on&
this&matter. &
&76 !
CHAPTER&IV &
&87&
About&the&Orchards&and&the&disposition&or&order&&of&the&plantations&of&trees&on&
them,&according&to&the&book&&where&Ibn L Hajáj&works&this&subject. &
&87 !
CHAPTER&V &
&89&
Of&the&plantation&of&tree s&in&drought&conditions,&and&watering&the&gardens.&&Refer&
that&there&are&trees&whom&the&gardener&shall&not&water&if&he&plans&to&partake&a&direct&
benefit&from&them. &
&89 !

CHAPTER&VI&

&112&

Of&the&plantation&of&fr uit&trees&and&vegetables,&according&to&reciprocal& convenience&in&some&common&maxims,&with&the&explanation&that&need&to&be&illustrated.& The&way&of&benefit&and&cultivate&the&land&before&make&in&her&a&plantation,&and&pull&out&the& noxious&plants.&Of&the&capaci ty&of&the&holes&for&seedlings&and&torn.&Of&the&plantation&of&

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seeds&and&their&transplantation.&Of&the&distance&between&the&trees.&Of&the&choice&and& transplantation&of&the&same.&Of&the&airs&that&are&appropriate&for&the&plantations,&graft&and& sows.&About&the& irrigation,&manure&and&cleaning,&and&the&best&moment&to&do&all&of&the& mentioned&operations;&on&whose&subject&was&treated&up;&to&know&that&it&is&better&to&plant& the&fruit&trees&in&autumn,&according&to&the&Ibn L Hajáj&book.&Of&the&way&to&do&the& plantations.&Of & the&capacity&of&the&holes&to&each&tree.&Of&the&preparation&of&the&land&to&

this&effect,&and&the&distance&that&must&be&between&the&trees.& &112 !
this&effect,&and&the&distance&that&must&be&between&the&trees.&
&112 !
CHAPTER&VII&
&127&
About&the&trees&that&are&usually&planted&on&the&S pain&provinces.&Aptitude&of&each&
specie&and&description&of&some&of&them.&About&the&planting&of&each&tree,&and&specie&of&
ground&appropriate.&His&irrigation&and&praise,&what&is&the&manure,&with&everything&else&
that&is&required&for&each&one&in&his&respective&regimen. &
&127 !
CHAPTER&VIII&
&228&
About&the&graft&of&some&trees&in&others,&&reciprocally&analogs&in&many&useful&
qualities&&and&way&of&execute&on&them&this&operation,&&according&their&particular&
differences. &
&228 !
CHAPTER&IX&
&277&
The&cut&and&cleaning&of&the&trees&and&the&time&to&execute⁢&and&the&felling&or&
pruning&of&the&vines,&according&the&Ibn L Hajáj&book. &
&277 !
CHAPTER&X&
&283&
Of&the&work&relating&to&the&payment&of&the&land&of&trees&and&its&trees,&&and&the&best&
time&to&execute&the&manure&of&the&earth.&&&Designates&are&the&trees&to&which&could&suit,&or&
not,&much&crop.&&Of&the&mode&to&extend&the&branches&in&the&empty&pl aces.&&And&the&quality&
of&the&laborers&for&working&in&agriculture. &
&283 !
CHAPTER&XI&
&296&
The&application&of&manure&for&trees,&planting&grounds&and&calm&soil.&&The&kind&of&
manure&that&best&suits&each&one.&& The&benefits&it&gives&to&the&brackish&soils.&&How&much&
time&and&quantity&must&be&given&to&this&task,&&according&to&Nabathea&agriculture.&
&296 !

CHAPTER&XII&

&302&

The&watering&of&the&tress&and&time&that&this&oper ation&should&be&done:&&those&that&

benefit&from&lots&of&water,&according&to&the&books&&of&Ibn L Jajáj,&Ab L Abdalab,&Ibn L elFasél,&

Háj,&Abu L el L Fair&&and&other&authors. &

&302 !

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CHAPTER&XIII&

&318&

The&way&to&fertilize&th e&trees&so&that&by&Allah,&&give&the&tasty,&sweet&and&very&juicy& fruit,&&and&in&greater&abundance:&&and&which&of&them&have&mutual&love&or&aversion. & &318 !

CHAPTER&XIV &

&322&

About&the&healing&of&the&trees&and&some & vegetables,&or&how&are&them&removed& and&retire&the&weakness&and&damage&that&they&use&to&be&undertaken&according&to&the& book&of&Ibn L Hajáj. &

&322 ! CHAPTER&XV & &351&
&322 !
CHAPTER&XV &
&351&
Some&rare&and&ingenious&skills&executed&in&some&trees&and&&vegetables&as&
introduced&into&fruit&trees&at&the&time&&of&fixing&their&branches&or&small&bone&and&seeds&of&
its&fruit&sowing,&&and&the&same&in&the&seedlings,&aromatic&and&sweet&things&&and&laxatives &
remedies,&making&its&fruits&come&from&those&&or&other&similar&qualities,&according&to&the&
book&of&&Haj&Granadino&and&others. &
&351 !
CHAPTER&XVI&
&365&
The&mode&of&keep&fresh&dry&fruits,&&grains,&seeds,&legumes&a nd&flour,&&and&to&
preserve&some&vegetables. &
&365 !
CHAPTER&XVII&
&380&
The&method,&time,&advantages&and&benefits&&of&the&turn&works,&and&the&fertilizing&
of&the&earth&to&plant&in&it &
&380 !
CHAPTER&XVIII&
&387&
The&beans&or&vegetables&that&improve&the&soils&and&makes&them&baggy.&&The&
election&of&these&and&the&seeds&for&the&planting,&and&the&knowledge&&of&the&best&here&are.&
Method&of&doing&this&test&making&them&bloom&&to&kn ow&the&ones&that&are&healthy&and&
robust&compared&to&the&ones&&that&acquired&some&kind&of&damage.&The&air&that’s&
convenient&for&&the&seedling&pots;&and&the&knowledge&of&the&genre&of&the&earth&suited&&to&
each&species&of&beans&and&vegetables,&by&the&book&of&Ibn&Hajáj. &
&387 !
CHAPTER&XIX&
&398&

The&planting&and&the&time&it&must&be&done.&What&must&be&seen&in&the&wheat,& barley&and&einkorn&what;&and&what&number&of&these&should&be&planted&early,&and&what& number&late,&and& the&quantity&corresponding&the&dispositions&of&the&earth&they’re&to&be&

planted&in,&according&to&the&book&of&Ibn&Hajáj &

&398 !

CHAPTER&XX&

&411&

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The&planting&of&the&mentioned&beans&in&watering&and&dryness,&&and&max ims&about& its&cultivation&and&recollection:&&to&say&some,&the&rice,&millet,&corn,&lentils&and&the&peas&&

(one&of&its&species),&the&string&beans&and&the&sesame &

&411 !

&428&

CHAPTER&XXI&

The&planting&in&wet&earth&and&dry&earth&of&the&vegetables&&like&the&bread&beans,&

peas,&white&lupins,&ervils,&&fenugreek,&safflower&and&similar & &428 !
peas,&white&lupins,&ervils,&&fenugreek,&safflower&and&similar &
&428 !
CHAPTER&XXII&
&440&
The&method&to&plant&the&cotton,&flax,&hemp ,&onion,&&glastum,&common&privet&and&
the&opium&poppy&&in&wet&and&dry&earth &
&440 !
CHAPTER&XXIII&
&458&
The&planting&of&the&vegetables&in&the&orchards,&&its&cultivation&and&assistances,&and&
the&remedies&for&its&di seases.&&The&earth&that&you&should&pick&for&them,&&and&the&species&
that&each&one&of&them&properly&requires &
&458 !
CHAPTER&XXIV &
&483&
The&method&to&plant&the&vegetables&of&roots,&&like&the&turnips,&radishes,&carr
onions,&garlics,&&leeks,&black&pepper,&daffodils&and&the&parsnips &
ots,&
&483 !
CHAPTER&XXV &
&505&
The&method&to&plant&the&vegetables&with&flowers,&&and&similar;&this&is,&the&
cucumbers,&melons,&pickles,&&mandrakes,&pumpkins&and&eggplants;&from&which&&some&are&
planted&in&wet&earth,&another&ones&in&dry&earth,&&according&to&our&on L going&explanation,&
throug h&Allah &
&505 !
CHAPTER&XXVI&
&527&
The&method&to&plant&the&plants&from&whose&&seed&is&used&in&stews&and&some&
medicines,&as&the&cumin,&&caraway,&fennel&flowers,&mandrakes,&and&anise&and&similar & &527 !
CHAPTER&XXVII&
&536&
The&method&to&plant&the&smelly&plants,&as&the&wallflowers,&&Madonna&lilies,&water&
lilies,&daffodils,&white&buttons,&&chrysanths,&paeonia&broteri&(Chinese&rose),&the&basils&and&

similar &

CHAPTER&XXVIII&

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&536 !

&557&

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The&planting&of&the&plants&that&are&usually&placed&in&the&gardens&and&that&offer&

various&aspects&to&the&sight,&like&the&yellow&horned&poppy,&parsley,&oregano,&asparagus&

from&orchar ds,&caper,&and&other&that&(through&Allah)&will&be&talked&about &

&557 !

CHAPTER&XXIX&

&575&

The&time&of&mowed&the&grain,&and&choice&of&places&eras&&and&the&albories&for&keep& the&grain.&Of&the&prior&knowledge&&of&his&seed&who&you&can&wait&to&breeding&& advantageously&each&year.&Refer&to&something,& & give&mention&&the&Basitbas&in&them&books,& like&take&advantageous&&for&the&tree&and&plants,&remove&all&calamity&(through&Allah),&& called&some&talisman,&and&others&properties & another's;&&which&one&are&of&opinion&the&same&

is&talisman&what&property.&&Mentioned&some&things&which&means&keep&away&of&everything&&
is&work&has&food&to&the&life&of&the&man,&and&the&way&of&living&in&the&tree,&&the&wild&beasts,&
the&harmful&animals,&the&ins ects,&the&fly,&&the&francolin,&the&worm&and&the&birds.&How&is&
have&to&mix&&and&do&ferment&the&bread&of&wheat,&and&get&better&some&fruit &
&575
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and&his&pip&of&the&wild&tree,&and&his&seed&and&root&of&some&vegetable&&wild&too&for&
do&ever ything&edible,and&do&of&this&usual&&bread&in&the&calamity&times&were& & the&resources&
are&missing. &
&575
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CHAPTER&XXX&
&608&
In&what&places&have&to&be&build&the&building.&&Of&the&cut&of&the&wood&for&them,&for&
the&o il&mill&of&oil&and&alike,&&of&the&way&that&don’t&eat&holes&in.&In&what&year&produce&the&
plants&&more&fruit,&thought&Allah.&Of&the&way&distill&the&pink&water,&&and&do&the&vinegar&and&
the&grape&syrup,&the&mustard&and&alike.&&Set&the&mouth&of&the&year&and&the& operation&of&
agriculture&&that&is&good&to&do&in&each&one&of&them.&Voiced&the&set&indicate&the&rain,&&
serenity,&cold&and&wind,&and&them&influence.&Of&the&structure&&of&the&almojarred&[trail&or&
instrument]&for&equal&the&plowed&&field&and&removed&the&grass&a nd&others&plants&that&with&&
the&plow&stay&sudden&start;&for&which&subject&and&others&&alike&in&this&general&chapter.&. &608 !
CHAPTER&XXXI.&
&646&
About&the&animals&about&the&agriculture,&is&good&to&know,&&of&the&b ovine&cattle,&the&
rams&and&sheep's,&the&males&and&females&of&goats;&&about&the&choice&of&the&best&of&this&
[cattle];&with&the&time&of&the&joining&&of&male&and&female,&and&the&time&that&those&are&

pregnant;&&of&the&grass&and&water&that&is&convenient;&about&th e&medicaments&&for&some&of& their&accidents&and&illness;&of&its&regimen,&and&also&convenient&&to&their&heal&and&

replenishment . &

&646 !

CHAPTER&XXXII.&

&655&

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About&the&breeding&of&the&horses,&mules,&donkeys,&and&cam els&&for&caste,&for&ride,& and&for&the&use&for&them&in&the&works&and&other&things.&&About&the&choice&of&the&best.&

About&the&time&of&their&join&to&&the&females,&and&about&what&they&use&to&live.&Which&grass& and&waters&&are&good&for&keep&them&healty.&The&way&o f&make&them&fat&and&gives&&them& fodder,&and&tame&them&and&correct&the&&bad&habits,&&such&as&been&tough&&and&others& similar.&About&the&way&of&shoe&them&&with&the&corresponding&horseshoe,&and&other&things&

relative&to&this&business. & &655 ! CHAPTER&XXXIII.& &704&
relative&to&this&business. &
&655 !
CHAPTER&XXXIII.&
&704&
How&some&beasts&are&cured&of&the&diseases&that&affect&them&from&&head&to&their&
hoofs&with&easy&early&drug&composition,&&and&through&nothing&difficult&manual&operation&
using&&iron&as&bleeding&or&rupture&of&the & veins&in&the&neck,&arm,&&breast,&rump,&and&its&top&
inside&part&and&some&cauteries&of&fire.&&Mentioned&the&signs&indicating&those&accidents,&
and&&medicines&sent&to&them:&whose&art&is&known&by&the&name&&of&Albeitería&(veterinary&
medicine) &
&704 !
CHAPTER&XXXIV.&
&776&
Farming&of&birds&that&are&taken&into&the&houses,&&the&gardens,&and&the&lands&for&
utility&and&bea uty;&&as&pigeons,&ducks&[and&geese],&peacocks,&chickens,&and&bees.&&
Knowledge&and&choice&of&these&animals,&their&regime,&&disposal,&and&respective&pastures;&
the&healing&&of&their&diseases&and&the&like,&
&776 !
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AUTHOR’S PROLOGUE

In the name of the merciful and compassionate Allah, in whom I put my trust.
In the name of the merciful and compassionate Allah, in whom I put my trust.
Excelent Doctor, Abu-Zacharia, Iahia, Ibn-Mohammad, Ibn Ahmed, Ibn Al
Awám, Praise Allah, lord of all creatures
Having read the books of agriculture that have come to my notice from muslims
in Spain and from other authors that have treat the art of break the land, understanding
of the economy (or ways) of make the sowings and plantings, and the books that they
wrote about the part of agriculture respective to animals, and having contemplated and
seen with reflexion the doctrine contained in them, I have translated from them to this
work what they show, and contains their maximum, chapters and articles.
Who wants to dedicate to this kind of art will find from this, with Allah’s favor,
what is necessary in life. With the help of the agriculture it will ensure the right food to
them, their children and family. In her they’ll find what they need and what they will
desire. The agriculture it must be consider as one of the main aid to the present life
needs, and also to assure us the happiness of the other with the help of the lord, by
whose favor, throught the sowings and plantings, they multiply food. Whereby it’s said
that Mohammad gave this advice: look for the sustention picking fruits that the land
produce.

The excellent Doctor wise and eloquent Abu-Omar, Ahmed-Ibn-Mohamad, Ibn- Hajaj says at the end of his agriculture book, named the Enough, talking about the warnings that must be consider in this art: “In present to you, my uterine brother, I have concluded and perfected this, my work. With her I have keep my word according to the intent that I set. With her I give you enough help, through which you could guide the ignorant people, which lacks of science and values, however their exercise and practice is continued and from long time. Leaving aside their opinions, I present to you the verdict of the biggest wises and other people of wit and insight. Such are the examples that I follow in this work; and out of them there is none that can model proposed by imitation. Do not answer to the weak such as the common people, or don’t you care

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about what the ignorant and rustic people feel, leaning on what they claim wrongly; because from their instruction you won’t bring forth useful. These can only contribute to your happiness, if you serve them to the material culture; because in order to knowledge, it is diverted away from right principles in which it is founded.”

ARTICLE I. One of the things that must incite us to the agriculture and what
ARTICLE I.
One of the things that must incite us to the agriculture and what makes us
delectable and appealing the job or occupation of planting trees and sow the land, at the
same time that the necessity of this science persuade us since the beginning till the last
consequences, it is a tradition that we have from Mohammad, talking about the price
promised to the peasants. It is counted “Anyone who plants or planting something, and
fruit from their trees or semen waxes men eat thereof, birds and beasts, all this is
deemed (as if he had actually given) alms." This says, that Allah gives riches in prize
proportion of his labor, which will produce the fruits of the earth. By tradition of Abu-
Harírat we also have said the same: The building buildings or plant trees, but not
oppress anyone or fail to justice, it shall receive a generous prize from the merciful
Creator. It is also have said, that when Allah wants to fecundate the crops, pour his
blessing on the rods and pins, and gives the commission an angel to guard all grains.
This way, when you sow something say: O Allah! Pour out your blessing on this, as a
result of your compassion and mercy. In order to respect this very many said theirs;
which if you do preferring use in such cases, you'll start with hope enough reason (of a
good harvest).

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ARTICLE II.

In the book untitled: Notices to lead a peasant is said to Abu-Harírat, (or be asked this question): What is the true honor? And he answers: in the fear of Allah, and the willingness of possessions. Cais Ibn-Ossam told his sons: Try to take care of your possessions. This is what gives renowned fame to the noble, and what produce solid profits to meet him, rather than idleness unworthy of praise. It refers to this famous saying of Atabáh Ibn Abi Sofian to his servant when he entrusted the administration of their possessions: "Watch carefully and watch my little possession to be made large, and don't have idle when big, so it does not come little." And to this end many more similar. One of which is that the farmer himself must visit frequently her inheritance, and not be absent from it, particularly in time of the work, such as digging for it is satisfied the care and monitoring of day laborers, and know them enough and just reward the activity that work as they deserve. Another proverb of the same type is as follows: the inheritance says his owner: let me see your shadow, sow.

ARTICLE III. It is said that the first plowed and sowed the earth was Adam,
ARTICLE III.
It is said that the first plowed and sowed the earth was Adam, inspired by Allah,
and teached by some inner instinct necessary for this science; later his son Seth and
Edris (or Enoch). After the flood, the ark came to nothing else but proposed to farm
with the direction that Noé gave them.
ARTICLE IV.

Refer this panish Ibn-Hazem said: "Know that the peace and stillness, delight, good health (or robustness of the body), the true honor and the prize, together all these congratulations are in the peasant, when somehow only to them the land is tax.”

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Till the land yields a sure gain. Two are general species of land: dryland and irrigated land. The species of the latter is the best and most significant

On either one can understand the benefit of irrigation, carrying water sources or rivers (according to their respective situation). Irrigation with river water is very laborious, requiring for this machine, well’s instruments or wheel that must be moved in rotation by camels, donkeys or mules; whose machines are most exposed to frequent failures. It is not convenient to use this mode of irrigation, but when this involves the need to; that is, when it cannot be acquired for other chance necessary for life; and in this case one should take care of this by itself; otherwise it would be the increased cost and low utility. Sometimes it made the spending bill that cause animals and machines), and it has been found or is very close, or exceeds the value of the entire product. Furthermore should know, that have small holdings together is better, more advantageous and useful than having them large, separated (or distant from each other); because for many possessions together just one operator (or foreman), and they must separate each his own.

ARTICLE V.
ARTICLE V.

Agriculture is nothing other than the fixed preparation (and fertilizers) of land, planting trees in it, grafts thereof as convenience to the respective species, planting beans served the custom of each country, the provision and measure them proportionate to the value and goodness of the fruit that should produce. In this is the right disposition of seeds, course Allah apart from them the damage or corruption itself may have. Agriculture is also the knowledge of the land; that is, which ones are good, which middle, and the inferior ones. This fundamental principle is absolutely necessary. (In addition to knowing) what trees, seeds and vegetables planted and sown correspond in each field, and choosing the best species. (It is also necessary to know the proper time to each kind of seed, which should be the air, and the same applies to the plantations. It should also be known what quality of work they ask seeds, which the plantations. Knowledge of the difference of water is also necessary; that is, what quality of water corresponding to each species of plants or crops and how much; also knowledge of manure and their preparation; which one suits every kind of trees, vegetables, crops and

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land; what and how they are to be manufactured in the cultivation of land ben precede the sowing and after planting: manure mode and match the land, or arrange it so that water can penetrate her after all irrigated; the extent or amount of seeds (according to their kinds) that supports or may suffer the land, the regime in growing vegetables and trees, and how to cure them or preserve them from all harm or illness that may befall; all this regime repeat necessary ) with continued assistance as appropriate to their preservation, until they come to bear fruit; which will not fail to be multiplied and filling, by Allah. Lately lock mode and keep the grains and fruits; to do useful and beneficial fruits, and other relevant to this matter.

ARTICLE VI. After playing my business under the proposal, I will add to this the
ARTICLE VI.
After playing my business under the proposal, I will add to this the treaty of
animals that necessarily use in the cultivation of land is made; and some birds that breed
in the fields and garden (by the utility that can produce) giving a description with the
distinguished names of the best of these living, the way to increase their breeding, the
system or method of caring, and while some cures for diseases often suffer, and
everything else relative and annexed to this matter.
ARTICLE VII.
Know you (Allah direct us to me and to you) that divided this work in thirty-five
chapters. Each has its particular art (or science of Agriculture) issue, according to see
the favor of Allah (in whose aid I put my trust). In this my Work adopted and still they
include in his wise Doctor, (guide or leader in this area) Abu-Omar Ibn-Hajaj entitled:

Almokna, or enough), and the same year he composed 466 (of the Hegira) on the authority or statements of the finest farmers and Philosophers. In this regard the major such work or judgments, citing their respective owners. Thirty are they served, (ancient and modern). The old ones are June, Varro, Lecacio, Yucansos, Tarado, Betodun, Bariayo oPaladio ) Democritus Greek, Casiano, Tharur-Athikos, Leo the black or

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African ) wise Burkastos Greece, Sadgimos (or Sadihames) Somano, Sarao, Antulio ed Anatole ), Solon, Sidagós the SeyIbnse Monharis, Marguthis (or Mauricio) Marsinal the Athenian, Anon, Barur-Anthos, and later to them; such are the Rasis, Isahac-Ibn- Soliman, Ibn Corat Tabet, Abu-Hanifa Al-Deenoori, and others whose names left to express.

In addition to this work, I also avail myself of the doctrine (as the judge
In addition to this work, I also avail myself of the doctrine (as the judge
convenient) contained in the aforementioned books. And also, out of them, I also serve
on the work entitled: Agriculture Nabathea (or Caldea) Kutsámi authored, that worked
on what they had said the most excellent scientists, and others whose names are
mentioned.

Such are Adam, Sagrit, Iam-buchad, Ahnuhd (or Enoch), Masio, Duna, Demetrio and others. In my work I often summarize the title of this book when I mention it, and instead put this symbol . I also serve on the Work of Dr. Abu-Abdallah Ibrahim Mahomed Ibn Ibn the Spanish Fasel, based on experiences. When offered cite this work use the symbol #, this note when I quote the work of the doctor and scholar Abu-el-Jair Seville, founded in the views of many scholars, some farmers, and the same experience. Just use this mode signal Ω to cite the work of El-Haj Granada. I also worth book-Ibn Abi-the-Igsawad, Garib Ibn-Saad and others. Also transfer or refer to my work I have found few attributed to some scholars, of whom I mention after the abovesaid. Such are Dimuát, noticed by this figure µ, quoted by Galen this α, African Anatole by ø, Persian for this £, Kastos by this ¡, Casio * for this &, this ¥ Aristotle and finally this Σ Maxrario or Greek Maccario. Refer some wise in his annals, the latter author was Alexandrino and one of those who have lived a long time, having counted eight hundred years old. Produce for the authority according to these authors, who poured in their works without presenting altered the sincerity of his expressions. Also I refer to this sum the sayings of other Muslims, without stating their names, using to cite (as stated above and to meet shortly) only in this expression: according to another author, or another author he says. No sentence establish in my work that I have not tested by experience repeated times.

I divide this work in two books (or parts). The first contains the knowledge (which must have a Labrador) on the choice of the land, manure, water, planting mode and the way of planting trees, and all annex, belonging and therefore this matter. The second book will understand what belonging to sowings (and bouquet) of agriculture

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respective to animals. Allah gives me this performance corresponding with his welcome address sufficiency and assistance. I propose in the first place the opinions that the scholar Al-Khatib Abu-Omar Ibn-Hajaj states in his book, taken from the ancient authors cited in it; which put as fundamental principles, because of the fame and celebrity (which they were acquired) in the sciences. Although these authors were from distant regions of ours, not that I depart from them, or omit their proven by experience in our provinces doctrine. Lately perfected the intent that I have proposed, referring to my work experiences or observations on this subject, learned from books Farmers of Spain, when these and everything else in that suit his statements with judgments of old, test well in our regions, alleged the will of Allah we trust. Lately perfected the intent that I have proposed, referring to my work experiences or observations on this subject, learned from books Farmers of Spain, when these and everything else in that suit his statements with judgments of old, test well in our regions, alleged the will of Allah we trust.

Kutsámi warns early in his Agriculture Nabathea (explaining the word Cadaman that she has to
Kutsámi warns early in his Agriculture Nabathea (explaining the word Cadaman
that she has to use the depth setting should have holes for the plants and the like), this
word Cadaman (meaning two feet), equivalent to elbow just over span, and sometimes
cubit and full span: this nabach word (meaning escava), a term used in its construction,
and denoting some kind of work to use in growing trees ago plays or is the same as
finding these to the roots as usual: that thamar (foundation, is nothing but action to
replenish the earth in the excavated sites: that elmochak (mean slit) is the digs light: that
tadioid is almost the same as logging, the-kamah (restrain) is pruning, and such like,
that by-kaf (or fist handful, when its extent is not expressed, it means the sum of ten
grains. Abu-Abdallah Ibnel-Fasel says that when his work uses the diction el-kafat
(crate), it means almost half a kafiz (or Cahiz) Cordoba: when el-haud (pool or table)
says, limited to twelve cubits understand (or rods) long and four wide.

The object of this work is already indicated in general. The explanation of all proposed or private affairs of its chapters, is what we will now see (in the following index) with the help of Allah. The first chapter is the way to know the good, medium and lower land, saying this with reasons and authorities. Whether it's the nature of the land, and which are suitable for crops and plantations are identified, addressed all species; and what is appropriate and should be done for this knowledge. Similarly, the

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way to know the species of land that are not good for crops or crops, this calls for vacant (or free grazing).

Chapter II deals with the manure, its species, so that should be prepared. Of its profits to land, trees and other plants. Use. What kind of manure corresponds to each caste land, plantations and crops. Tick the trees, vegetables, and quality of land where manure feel good. Species of land, trees and vegetables that do not support or suffer manure, or it contributes to preserve (or improve them) are also highlighted.

Chapter III about water species to be used for irrigation of trees or vegetables, and
Chapter III about water species to be used for irrigation of trees or vegetables,
and what sort of agrees to them each caste of land. Mode is also open wells for watering
gardens. The time when this should be done. The way to find water, and make usual
under the doctrine established in the Work of Filemon and other author; and everything
else pertaining to this matter. It also seeks tamping mode (or smooth) the orchards so
that the water can penetrate everything watered.
Chapter IV deals with the orchards or gardens, the best way to have trees that
they shall have been planted, and elections, (or array of practices) that this is observed.
Chapter V is the choice of trees, and fruit species with regard to dryland or
irrigated, and everything else, the knowledge may be useful and interesting to you were
to plant trees. Knowledge of the times should be planted and how this should be done,
either by planting the grain of the fruit, planting a bouquet torn, stake or buds of this,
and transplanting the bouquet out of the squad with its root, called alnawámi; and what
to do when ground cover.
The mehtod for back and sink strains. How is the operation which the Arabs call
astasláf, and others similar to those mentioned above and other than (that mention is
also made) until the strains arrive to repair or improve. Depth and width must have
holes of plants, and the distance to which must be these together.

Chapter VI is the way of planting fruit trees and vegetables, summing up this doctrine in these compendiums on this matter. This chapter also cover certain experiences (or observations) on the planting of some trees, its regime or government, and the choice of times that should be planted them, and planted vegetables. Cleaning. Of the branches to be cut to pick grafts. Short wood, and the like.

Chapter VII is about usually planted trees in most of the provinces of Spain. Of their classes and attributes species (or property) of each. How should be planted each

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tree species, and which convenient for every land. Irrigation, manure, and other provisions or individual operations) with respect to each particular tree. Whether first trees that grow up in the mountains, after growing up in the valleys or cultivated fields), and lately those in plains. These are olive, laurel, oak, pear, alhócigo (or alfónsigo), Cherry, carob, Arraijan, the madroñero, or the masdrufat, chestnut, medlar, hawthorn (or Majuelas ), pomegranate, wild pomegranate, almond, pine, spruce, cypress, juniper, juniper tree, fig, cabrahigo, moral (or mulberry), walnut, rose, jasmine, jaiziran, sumac, citron, orange trees, the zamboa (or grapefruit) , lemon, serval, the dadi, the cacti, oilpalm, Indian Almond (or quince), apple, hackberry, the azadirahto (or acedaraque ), white and black poplar, poplar Roman or black, willow, apple of Armenia (apricot), peach, plum Zaragoza (or Damascus), palm, grapes, hazelnuts, cane sugar, muza, cane arrows, ash , banana, oleander, the bush, the wild rose, the Rhamno or cambrón.

Chapter VIII deals with the knowledge, manner and time of grafting trees together have some
Chapter VIII deals with the knowledge, manner and time of grafting trees
together have some sort of friendship or sympathy and convenience able to provided
mutually utility. How bouquets, feathers or spikes for the graft should be cut, and how
they should be stored. What should be chosen for the graft, and how they have to have,
debugging for graft them. The practice of Nabatheos in the operation of the grafts,
which is what is to slit the top of the tree, at the foot of it and its roots. From the
Romans (or Latinos) who did the graft between the bark and wood in those places the
tree. From the Persians that tube grafted on top of the tree, and in its roots. Tube graft of
fruit trees.

In the practice of the Greeks they grafted gusset along the way to figure arraihan leaf, square, and circle. Grafting drilling mode one tree into another, so that still produce the customary fruit, carrying also one of which tree was grafted, or that being one its root produce various fruit. Of the mode also grafted by drill in the tree's foot, either below or on the ground, and in the branches. Blind graft and the like. The same happy success have some seeds and grains eaten in some species of plants, such as pumpkin in the wild onion (or flanking), the cucumber in the bugloss (or ox tongue called borage); the melon in pixacantha Lycio, in licorice, mulberry tree, fig trees and the like. It refers what has been said about these operations, with everything else, the knowledge can be useful and helpful in the matter. Lately it is in this chapter of age or length of the trees.

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Chapter IX is the mode and time of felling trees. Which suffer the felling trees, and which not. The pruning of vines. The vines clean before pruning. The way to grow and increase its respective crop trees, alleged the will of Allah.

Chapter X is about the cultivation of the land of trees with respect to their quality and to plants that have in them. The proper time for this, or provision has to be the land at the time of the work. What suits much crop trees, to which not, and to what an average crop. And the choice of day laborers in agriculture.

Chapter XI is the way to fertilize trees, planting land, and calm land. Which manure
Chapter XI is the way to fertilize trees, planting land, and calm land. Which
manure corresponding to each species. On the mehtod for benefit the brackish land (or
salty). The respective amount of manure. In which time and how it should be manure,
considering the arrangement of trees and earth in which they are planted.
Chapter XII is the watering trees, and vegetables; at what time should be given
and how much, that is, to what trees sit well much watering, and which do not.
Chapter XIII treat of the trees that are going to be mentioned, and are the wild
fig, early palm, fig, peach, pomegranate, plum, pear, cherry, almond, walnut, alfónsigo,
the Armenian apple (or apricot), olive, apple, chestnut, rose, common palm, citron, the
orange, the black plum. As these trees have grown for its fruits are large, palatable, very
sweet and abundant, with Allah's favor. Also about the trees that have mutual love (or
sympathy), and instead have together some sort of antipathy (or aversion). The way to
do the latter useful, planting them at provided distances.
Chapter XIV is the way to remove trees and vegetables that there's mention the
damage or disease, as the apple, Damascus plum, orange, citron, lemon, zamboa, vine,
fig, mulberry, olive, pomegranate, peach, quince, almond and walnut. Medicine
cabbages and vegetables, and how trees weakness (or detriment), shock and delay
repaired; and tafria (or illness) which does detach * sheet. On the mehtod for chase
away the ants and protect them from harm; and they come from grass and bad air. And
how very old rose bush or whatever flimsy for repair.

Chapter XV is some care or funny thing is done in some trees and vegetables. Which comprises introducing into the plants certain smells, sweetness and flavor as treacle, and unite in fruit sweetness with the quality of purgative remedy and the entire tree by a sort of grafting, or in any of its branches; and so on vegetables, so that the fruit is noticed and the same smell and virtue of the which it will ingest appears. What should

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be done to come out yellow roses, or saffron and blue color. How have to dispose roses to throw roses out of time and so out of respect for the apple fruit. What should be the provisions to make apples appear as sort of inscriptions, and even other images or figures; and the same in the quinces, buts, melons and cucumbers, to print on these fruits the figure wishes.

What should be done to come out long grapes and their so tight clusters or
What should be done to come out long grapes and their so tight clusters or
segments, which look like a single grain, and grapes they have different colors. What
should be done when they are planted vines so that the grapes do not have small grains;
and figs to appear in the branches of various colors figs, so that in the same plant this
variety is discovered. How should the wallflower arranged to come out his flower
disciplined with the variety of black and white. How are planted around the pools
orange trees, myrtles and other similar trees. Moreover, what should be done for, born
and rise from the same root a set of lettuce, chard and other kinds of vegetables. Lately
how to be arranged turnips and radishes to occur higher than is commonly known. And
how can you have dill and coriander unseeded their grain or seed.
Chapter XVI is about the mode of lock (or save) seeds and fresh and dried fruits,
and so figs. How they have to keep apples, pears, quinces, citrons, pomegranates,
damsons called black and raisin, cherries, grapes, acorns, chestnuts, pistachios, wheat,
barley, lentils, beans, flour, and the seeds of the vegetables that are to be planted, dry
roses, and distilled water them. Finally how to save or preserve some green things,
throwing them in vinegar to eat them out of their recent time.
Chapter XVII which is the first of the second part of this work, is the manner,
time, advantage and benefit from the work they call earth moving, and the convenient
arrangement that is given to her after tired.

Chapter XVIII is about grains and legumes that make idle land, and the benefit when it is planted. Election of the seeds or way of knowing which are good through birth and to distinguish them which are healthy who have contracted for some calamity or corruption. The convenient air to the crops and species corresponding to sow seed in each kind of terrain.

Chapter XIX is the time and manner of making the sowing especially wheat, common barley, pearl barley or cappadocia, whose grain judge be the one called by Nabatheos (or Chaldeans) cali and ascaliat which is the Greek condros and also I judge

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that is called in Nabatheo huchakt and tharmir, in the same language which I think is also called thormaki. It is also in this chapter of the seeds are sown for early or late. Measurement or proportion of seeds with respect to the disposition of the land where they are supplied planting.

Chapter XX is the mode and time of planting rice, millet, lentils, peas, the Turkish Jewish of irrigation and dryland; and the land quality that correspond to each kind of seed.

Chapter XXI is about planting in irrigated and dryland legumes, such as beans, chickpeas, lupins,
Chapter XXI is about planting in irrigated and dryland legumes, such as beans,
chickpeas, lupins, fenugreek, the bitter vetch and safflower. Planting time and
knowledge of suitable land for these seeds.
Chapter XXII about planting flax, hemp and cotton, onion saffron, henna, blond
dyers, the saturé (or odorous reed), alfalfa, grass or plant called spina quail, and white
poppies. How should this be planted rainfed and irrigation, and land that suits it.
Chapter XXIII comes to vegetables and land corresponding to them, and how to
plant them. Which should be transplanted; and how long they have to stay on the
ground until having reached (competent) seasoning be rooted out; explaining this
doctrine with common observations (to all), and individuals (or respective to each one).
In whose care it is lettuce, endive (or escarole), purslane, pigweed, the orache (or St.
John's herb), spinach, cabbage, sea kale and chard. Time to plant these vegetables, and
quality of land which belongs to each species.
Chapter XXIV about planting root vegetables (or strain) and the like, such as
turnips, carrots, radishes, onions, garlic, leeks, cariotas (or wild carrots), parsnips and
black pepper.
Chapter XXV about planting cucumber, melon, watermelon, small melon,
cucumber, squash, eggplant, the colocynth (wild pumpkin) calls jíor plants. The time
that should be planted, and knowledge of the land which corresponds to each one.

Chapter XXV about planting cucumber, melon, watermelon, small melon, cucumber, squash, eggplant, the colocynth (wild pumpkin), called of flower. The time that should be planted, and knowledge of the land which corresponds to each one.

Chapter XXVI is about sowing plants whose seed use is made for seasoning meats and for some remedies, such as cumin, caraway, Nigella, cress, anise, coriander,

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lawn fennel and wild, mustard, wild anise, the caraway and Greek ervatu. The time when each of these things has to be planted, the knowledge of the land corresponding to each species, and which should be planted in irrigated or rainfed.

Chapter XXVII is the way to sow ocymo (or basil) and other fragrant plants like the wallflower, lily, the nimphea (or canopy lily), the leading grass (or porthole), white daffodil, yellow, and Macedonian, chrysanthemum (or feverfew), the dog rose, violet, lemon balm, good grass, the marjoram, maro, clary, sage or horehound, basil, wild mallow (or marshmallow), the rosebush motif, common mallow, Cordoba and Sicilian, acacia and lavender. The time that these plants should be, and which land suits them.

Chapter XXVIII is the position of some plants that are usually put in the gardens,
Chapter XXVIII is the position of some plants that are usually put in the
gardens, placing them so that the view to offer a varied prospect. Such are (for example)
the celandine, cinara (or thistle), the rue,* the lawn celery (or parsley), woad (or pastel
dye), oregano, wing, savory (or persian oregano) to the absinthe (or wormwood), wild
rue, lawn asparagus, capers, sumac, dill, moth, the lavender, plantain, guava, the ivy, the
nabkat (or ivy bell), lily, snakeroot (or St María ivy) the tree of the same name,
chamomile and sweet clover (or crown of King) .
Chapter XXIX treat the arrangement (or preparation) of the seeds. Of the way of
know which will go well * in that year, by Allah. The time of harvest. The site should
be noted for the era. Threshing. Of the crops, and how to preserve and store fruits and
grains.

Chapter XXX which is like a general chapter, contains many selected experiences. Knowledge of where the building should be built. In what the weather will be cut wood for it and the mill (or oil mill). Mode of dry bushes and other noxious plants to the land. How to be fences that are made for vineyards and orchards without walls. The way to transplant the countryside bushes and trees to orchards (or gardens). The mojarred (drag or harrow) to match the earth. Also about trees and plants mentioned in the chapter of the grafts of the same work. Some desirable characteristics to the fields, trees and vegetables, touching his improvement. How they have to scare the beasts, and other small animals or noxious reptiles. Birds and hunting. Of the means of knowing if the apple tree, the vine and the olive fruit take long before discovered.

How is kneading, fermenting by yeast or other thing, and bake wheat bread, How is kneading, fermenting by yeast or other thing, and bake bread wheat, so it leaves

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better and more convenient food. The way of preparing the fruits of some trees, wild vegetables and roots of some plants, and soften the seeds (kernels or ossicles) of those, so you can make bread, to serve food in times of scarcity, when lacking the necessary provisions, until the merciful Allah offers other more cheerful by their fertility *.

Utility or damage of floods. The rain, the sun, serenity, and winds to plants. Signals to be observed know in advance if the winter is rainy, calm and cold or (putting the will of Allah) and other patents and visible signs, as noted in this area. Of seasons of the year; and what labors should be given to the land in each month. For which reason it is called this general chapter. In which I conclude that proposed in the present work on what is (own and rigorously) Agriculture attempt.

Chapter XXXI is the first in which it is raising animals; that is cattle, of
Chapter XXXI is the first in which it is raising animals; that is cattle, of rams
and sheep, goats. From choosing the best of these animals. The time of his rages. How
long are pregnant females. Time that these animals often live. What pasture and water
suit them. Some medicines for their illnesses and accidents. Of his regime, and other
things suitable to them.
Chapter XXXII is the breeding of horses, mules, donkeys and camels, both
males and females, and so respective to breed, and the use made of these animals for the
cavalry, and so used to the work , and for the convenience of its aid any trip in less time,
such as the legal pilgrimage, and other similar utilities. From choosing the best of these
beasts. Riding time. Until what age these animals are under to generate, as noted. What
grass should be given, and in what amount; and what time has to be given to drink;
Time to fatten the mares, and give forage to their horses after parents and prepare them
for the rides. How they have to exercise or tame colts and remedy the defects that often
noted in some kind of bad, like not receive the brake and others. I lately cavalry art (or
genet).

Chapter XXXIII deals with the veterinary art, or of the remedies for some diseases of animals, manuals and easy. In some mechanical operations through iron tools, easy, nothing annoying and very obvious, such as bleeding from the cervical vein of chest, sides, back on the inside of the outer thigh , the haunch at the top, and sum of bloodletting in general, and some of the cautery fire. The obvious signs indicating diseases beasts. Remedies, whose gender composition should after becoming aware of them kept in memory. This branch of the art of Agriculture, is what is called a veterinarian.

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Chapter XXXIV is about the birds that are in the garden, in orchards and fields. In the best of these animals, such as pigeons, geese (or ducks), real ducks, chickens and bees. Knowledge and choice of these animals. Its regime and government. Their pastures. And some way to cure their diseases.

Knowledge and choice of these animals. Its regime and government. Their pastures. And some way to

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CHAPTER I

Knowledge of the species of good land for plantations or lower medium and fields through certain signs of these things. Mention those that are not good for these effects, so-called vacant. What trees or vegetables feel good in every kind of land according to what Ibn-Hajaj wrote about the advantageous quality or vile of the land.

According to this author, the first level of the science of Agriculture, is the knowledge
According to this author, the first level of the science of Agriculture, is the
knowledge of the land, and to distinguish what is good, and what inferior. Who does not
know how this has gone mad and deserves the name of ignorant.
According to Al Razy in his work entitled Physical Auscultation, the stone is to
become muddy field in the speech of a century by the action of sun and rain; For having
in that virtue to dry and dissolve the parts (as does the fire), the rain that comes after,
loosens the already softened, so that corroded and altered in that space of time, they
become mud. It is therefore evident, says Ibn-Hajaj citing this author, whom the sun is
warming the earth disintegrated parts; for which reason the surface of it is better than
other direct heat and softness; and thus we see that the soil from a deep place, as it is
removed from the wells and caverns, the first year is sterile until sunburned soften and
warm parts. Thus, it is constant that the land does not produce as preceding the sun's
heat. Being cold and dry by nature, if it does not communicates heat, humidity and rain,
nothing occurs vegetable in it. Although the land in general is by nature of the afore
mentioned properties, are all a wetter or colder than others.

The warmer earth, say industrious and diligent farmers, is black, and then the red: the colder is the white, and then yellow. On the way, that the white ground will be more or less cold proportion to the share of whiteness that enters the temper; and so out of respect to yellow and other colors. With regard to the damp earth Degree, which in color or form was similar to the old rotten manure. You find it flabby be without it many muds do not harden so that its grounds are very hard, caked, dry and similar to the hardness of the stone; or cracking or dry; nor is little moisture; or that are disjointed parts such as sand, which is like a stone that has low humidity, being in fact a kind of

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gravel often. Such land as is best for the humidity, and are well few so found; and so absolutely, positively sure that regardless of the similar quality.

After this land is good, and that is for that reason that the mentions in his work Dinurita Abu-Hanifa, Author head on plantations. Which he says that the lands that may be plain, warm, soft and powder-like sand (but not to give them this name) are those in which plants vegetate; which they are preserved to excavate around and then replenish the earth. And this, because getting for their softness the rain water or irrigation, conserving it penetrates to the roots of the plants; which as you are happy about the extension taken, and because the long-term risks such plant remains. The opposite is true, adds the same author, when the ground is firm and hard, as it runs through the water without decline, nor are get wet; and what it is not wet, not occur. Is one hard and barren land in the center, not sit on it the water, do not acquire the roots expansion.

Another author believes that dry land is two species, one is dry sand degree not
Another author believes that dry land is two species, one is dry sand degree not
be more than a set of small stones, and therefore similar in dryness in the stones
themselves; in which very little nutritional juice feed plants. The second kind is the
muddy, although too dry, it is much more humid than the sand, and they say that name
is given in view of the hardness of their clods; in which being similar to the hardness of
the stone, no sponge or softens as already mentioned. But if you mix soft earth like unto
the very fine sand, the benefits and features that can expand the roots of plants, and it
absorbs water. This kind of land is much in Mesopotamia *, whose land is the other
advantageous quality to cause the silt that is there, and because the avenues lead,
girdling the surface of other lands, brushwood and manure that softens much and
moistens; although usually it happens that some fine sand mixing with it too softens and
weakens.

About dryness and moisture, this is known by patent signals. Which are similar to the rotted manure few years land it is fluffy and humid degree. The land which has slime mixture of very fine sand like Mesopotamia*, if it be dry in highdegree, is rough that just bind or its parts come together; and one that has no sandy loam mix the wet, or where contract therefore sufficient softness; and the same is the rubble of the houses, similar to lime*. The muddy and dry land, although it is much more humid than the sand (for their clods harden when it comes to dry, as seen in the narrow colligation and hardness of them), such as land for its strength and texture is like a stone. But if you

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have a powder mixture resembles sand in her little substance, plants may take root in it deeply. And these are the maximum that should follow a rule or principle sure.

If we examine carefully the land, says Sidagós, we see the need they have to be moist, rich and fluffy, rather than hot; by the sun and the air can heat them and benefit them as well; so we need rather fleshy and softness so they can take extension roots of plants, and easily torn. But if the land happens to attend the same time the two qualities of hot and humid, the better. Nothing more true than the opinion of Sidagós on this subject, says Ibn-Hajaj; which referring to the treaty of distinctive knowledge of land June Review *,Casiano or Casio**, Democritus, and Kastos *** (lead authors of agriculture) says citing the authority of the first, the best land is black, which felt much fear and old for the reason that suffers rain; and it follows as the violet. According to Ibn-Hajaj, this violet is the same as that of the red-sea tie brown land we call Indian. Such color is the tip or amount of the goodness of the earth, if spongy at the same time; and trees prosper on it. Returning to the view in June, he says (which is also one of the best land) which bathe the water in a river, so called silt.

According to Democritus, the land which drunk all the rainwater without cracking, or that at
According to Democritus, the land which drunk all the rainwater without
cracking, or that at the time of rainfall does not get slippery, it is of good quality, and so
it is that one that won’t cracks in very hot weather.

On this matter it is advisable, says Ibn-Hajaj, (or prevents) that won't be muddy or hard land. **** Some as the wise Democritus and others added, they told me I should not be brittle. But we see it is much the limits of the city of Carmona, from which however are removed more abundant wheat crops elsewhere. So, in my opinion, you do not have such kind for disposable ground. But if bow down to a better, provided the conditions stated above. And also, because this is not exclusively the brittle ground of total excellence because it is generous, especially wheat in it gets; when many seeds and common plants do not come good in it, as in fact was not anything special breeding, out of wheat, but in the black earth, spongy and similar to the old manure all breeds advantageous is sowing or planting, because of the ease it has; and so it is good quality Degree. However, we are not attributed as other advantageous own * productions, but only certain sowings and plantings; and this after loose or left to grow: which obviously becomes multiplied as he sows, by Allah's favor.

According Kastos, the best land is which drinks much rain, and the lush and tall grasses that grow up, and even that produces small and weak. June says that the land is

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intended for vegetables must not be white, too rough, or too brittle in the summer. And the reason is, that the land of that color is easily pressed into the winter, and drained in the summer; which causes the sun to dry all the plants that are in it, or that are kept weak and little progressed. Just as suitable for gardens as it is not after working a lot, and mix the same amount of manure. Which cracks in summer is not good for the same, or very rough; since neither they raise good plants, or acquire the corresponding force until the water saturates *. The little rough and sandstone is good for vegetables; and this is what contains much silt can feed him the roots of these plants. In this you will know what lands the suit easy mind. If taking a little land in water thou shalt find it is silt washed most of it, you know it's good to raise vegetables. But if thou shalt find it more sand, you'll understand that is not provided for that purpose; and the same thing if the knead your clay with his hands found it, wax-like, or very sticky: the maximum is June's.

According Casiano has to be sought for the strong and abundant vegetable land that is
According Casiano has to be sought for the strong and abundant vegetable land
that is not rough, or white, or viscous, or it breaks in the heat. According Ibn-Hajaj,
farmers have for disposable ground muddy and rough, which are the vilest for
vegetables; which itself still wet, and subtle the juice is squeezed from them, compared
with big trees juice not breed good but plentiful, moist and spongy land; and so (when
offered) are pulled easily. But in the muddy, slimy earth or engage in much nutritional
juice, or as we said deepen its roots. However the harsh lands are suitable for trees some
vegetables.
The sandy soil, say some farmers perceived hotter in summer and colder in the
winter; so that both the stones and the surface of it, warming and cooling in the
respective times and then damage to the plants that were there. And such is the maxim
of June which adds just the opposite happen deep in the earth.

According to Galen in his book of Greeks simple remedies, it qualify rough land of thick mud and so soft on the deck and in the center: opposite and fleshy quality without giving the name of hard; which it is only good for pottery works: and says that in the kind of soft distinguish the soft wet; and the squalid arid sandstone. The same author says that farmers think, that the fertile land, far from the nature of the stone, and who fail the arid sandstone surface and not be good for anything. It also says that the seed lands are of different properties; because some are stout and black, and other soft without thick and white; two species which are opposite each other. That they have

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some other means including, for approaching more or less to respectively one of the two. He also says, the best land to plant is thick.

Ibn-Hajaj trying in his book the way of knowing the nature of the high and low lands: Know, says, that the mountains are colder and drier than the plains: the drained land is this quality to be stony, or because their dust is hard and like a stone, the cold is such or by winds or by Nieves who is very exposed, according Tabet Enb-Korah. The land of the slopes is very inferior, so exhausted for the Rains with the lack of toast part, or attenuated particles (or smoothed) by the sun, which overwhelmed and rushed the same rains. In the plains it is the opposite: so the fields and meadows where there remains the water as long as I could, they are of very good quality and a just intonation by the blackness of the dust that comes from the fermentation caused by the water; (because everything has already conceived rotten heat). But when water rushed down to these sites is great, that cold and wet their land overly; and we know that the cold water is contrary to the heat of fermentation.

Solon said that the meadows or valleys are cold (although not much) by the abundance
Solon said that the meadows or valleys are cold (although not much) by the
abundance of water that flows and is lost in them; and if the cold becomes more than the
heat from the earth, knew the same for two reasons, regarding some of this comes from
the fermentation came into the land of water in it together; but these places compared
with the mountains, they are much warmer and humid. And here the maxim of Solon.
With regard to the other low spots that hide higher and raised, and to the shady gullies;
the land of such sites is extremely cold for not bathe the sun; and so that the plants that
are therein are not fed, it being by nature of the aforesaid quality and very wet. The best
sites for more sheltered and are the foothills of the mountains, which are preferred, and
more temperate and equal temperament. Then follow the meadows, and then the
mountains; whose peaks (or summits) are better than the slopes so that said water take
away their good quality (or substance). The land is the most despicable of low gray
sites, since only produces something useful out of any consideration plants that mention
in the course of this work.

Solon said that if he were asked about the nature of the terrain that part was flat and low and high and lifted part, and say what is the most excellent, you choose the lowest over the high; the reason for whose preference is for lowering the water first and bringing in its current coating of the high places, that becomes perpetually site more moisture and softness: as this instead of always heavy and hard pieces, and similar to

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the mountains; which is the most common. Sometimes the highest part of the land or place is better condition than the low; and indeed we find fields or very sandy plains and low places, where the terrain that dominates more moisture; while the opposite is common.

One of the reasons that confirm to be the low places best than the highs is that those whose tops are red in color, in low color strip of land to black; and the land, whose high places are whitish, in the lower is red or black, which is common. Wetlands or where water is often stagnant, but otherwise are very fertile, should be disregarded because the dominant moisture in them will turn off the heat.

Such land can only serve to sow what is usually just before heat such as
Such land can only serve to sow what is usually just before heat such as
cucumbers, pumpkins, corn and the like. Trees do not prevail in them; before they lost,
out of black and white poplars, the Arabs and the like salt, useful trees for timber.
Ibn-Hajáj in his treatise examining the land says that to know nature or generally
available thou must examine early winter, about the smell and taste, others to the eye
and touch, and some by the plant gender they produce. But better examination by the
sight and touch, because having land calm, this test is to miss them. One of the authors
who treat the eye exam is June (Moderato Columella), which says that good quality land
known sight when not crack too much with the drying air and the water in its center,
especially after a heavy rain is formed with a soft mud; but land at last come to imbibe
all the rain water without the cold weather in their consumption and appears similar to
the mud surface.
After this adds said June, that some ancient also discovered another kind of test
that falls under the sense of sight. This is when on earth trees and plants of great
magnitude are kept and retained (or linked) to each other, is clear indication of its
fecundity. If wild plants produced are medium in both its magnitude and its branches
link, this proves to be her medium quality; and if the plants are thin branches that
quickly dry; also cuts the grass; such land is weak. This makes use of the test to taste
(for knowledge of the land), is unwilling to prefer brackish to sweet.

June says that the earth excavated at a certain depth of this dust is taken and put into a glass, pouring it also freshwater then try to taste. It is the view of the ancient land that owners notice to be brackish, must be discarded; which, they say, it is good for nothing if not for palms, that it prevail and are more productive. According to Ibn-Hajaj,

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it is the opinion of many farmers, which also prevails in the same advantage as cabbage, and is also said to breed good and sweet cucumbers.

Those who usually smell the earth to meet their quality, they prefer to examine by the scent if corrupted and unpleasant, or otherwise. Farmers agree that it is not a land of kindness smelly, and one of those who refer this is Democritus; the same is to say in substance, that the sign of good land to plant, is, that by digging them up to the depth of two cubits, is taken from the depths of the site excavated some land that putting in glass where rainwater has driven or river, good, sweet and fragrant, cover she let him sit and clarify water; which if proven to whatever taste and smell good, the land will be too; if it is brackish, of equal quality; and if smelly, the earth will be corrupted, to share the taste and smell of the water.

Kastos says the fetid brackish land and must be discarded; although the latter is good
Kastos says the fetid brackish land and must be discarded; although the latter is
good for palms. According to June in the consideration of the use of the test to the
palate and smell of the earth who wishes to sowing and it is quite appropriate to dig into
it as to the depth of one foot; where it is destined for plantations vines up to three feet
and up to four in which they will try to plant trees. The odor says, that must run entirely
by not being good for absolutely nothing.
Sidagós says that when thou inquire about two different species of land, which
one more wet with salt; take a glass, filled with powder and one of them put it on the
weighing plate and then run the same with the other land, and that this is only consumed
without moisture states.

According to Ibn-Hajaj, some are guided to know the goodness or baseness of land by weeds raised therein; by whose signal barely runs. Such is the kaichar mo, which is called cardal in exotic language (or thistle), and odor of wild fennel stalk called bistnaga; whose two breeds of plants commonly and most do not grow in places but the most remarkable quality. In the land of inferior quality, wild zaatar or axedrea known to us by donkey or oregano grows. Also the anrutin called in barbarous tongue Mostal, thistles, the Hieracio which tends on the ground, and wild wheat, called among us as partridge; whose plants are found only in lands of inferior quality. It is not like other plants, of which we bred some indifferently land advantaged in containable: for which reason they should not serve in government. Such is the wild onion (or albarrana), harsh vegetables and various other plants.

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Some say that the wet and soft ground, although some years pass without cultivation it doesn’t become a forest; but the land of inferior quality, thin, thick and hard soon become such, producing trees and tangles or squat, glastos, cypresses and others who are usually found in forests, and are not made in the thin lands.

We argued, says Ibn-Hajaj, the maximum on the quality of the land with respect to the usefulness of them can be expected; and perhaps someone will say, that these lands who fail the wise, found to be appropriate for certain species of plants that were growing up in them abundantly, they are both good quality. This is the sand where we see the tree called Egyptian breeding excellent, and so the plant called ahdj (or African gorse) and woad that grows in harsh lands. But answer to this: although it is true that in regard each land, some plant species are advantageously raised, that out of them lose many more; and that out of it are the wise opinion that the land is excellent in moisture seal with heat regardless dominant, or not wet only; respect to plants in general need these two provisions; and therefore disapprove the contrary quality: and also because the preference and praise that make land is in regard to their suitability for raise wheat, barley, beans and other legumes that men have most in need.

For the same reason they appreciate the land suitable for trees such as apple, pear
For the same reason they appreciate the land suitable for trees such as apple,
pear and plum; and have at it is advantageous for vegetables such as eggplant, garden
spinach, amaranth, coriander and the like.
According to Solon, in the damp earth, by the ease that is, almost everything
prospers, whether sowing or planting; by whose excellence is very significant, and does
not deserve to be here prefer the sand because lupins flourish here; as this should be a
derogation of their fertility: and if good land is planted thereof, also produces beautiful;
but not one who sows wheat on sandy be caught, as is constant to anyone: not because
pine is also convenient to the arena, it should be appreciated, when the tree itself is not
much appreciation; and not found, adds the same author, be it suitable for apples, pears
or plums. The land must be taken by superior, which prosper more plants, seeds and
other things that men have more urgent needs.

Ibn-Hajaj says that although some plants often grow up in sand, like apricot, pomegranate and quince; but the same thing happens in orchards without the aid of much manure and continuous irrigation, unlike those; which not being of good quality, are to get a new one fostering manure and moisture communicates the water, the juice

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retains much sponginess that is in them, and receive water more easily when irrigated, and consequently, are provided to more deepen the roots of plants.

But always by their first constitution they are vile and exhausted of any substance; unless it be that they are referred helper with fertilizers, and are mix lime or juicy land, as we said. Even should give them too many risks by not having them analogy (or correspondence) with water; and maybe even some ignorant in the science of Agriculture imagine that the sands do not get the juice, or what is therefore water, by the ease it is to moisten; and for this they are devoted to water them carefully; but is not that reason, but argument destructive as well as recommend by to be the cause of the dryness of the sand the same parts or little stones that are made, of which only serves to pass water without penetrate its center, as is evident. And here Ibn-Hajaj trying this matter in his book entitled Enough.

Nabathea Agriculture in the treaty on the same subject: know, Sagrit says, that the lands
Nabathea Agriculture in the treaty on the same subject: know, Sagrit says, that
the lands are several different even in the sense of the cold, dryness and humidity; all of
which they need to know the farmers, the land still really like the beginning of the
vegetation of every plant. Farmer known the nature of the land, must devote each to
whatever is convenient, and for planting trees, for sowings. In this is the summit of
Agriculture, and fair knowledge of this science. Sometimes it happens altered land,
contracting taste somewhat detrimental to plants, such as saline or others; what usually
comes from the sun burn a lot with the help of other causes; as a without vice and
healthy land is provided and suitable to all kinds of plantation. Adam of blessed
memory say, that good and healthy soil is the darker and well soaked when it rains, no
water to pass through it, or press to join the powder with water, so that construction is
between dense spongy, that is the quality of the most significant and best of all.

According Yambuchad, the most significant land is like violet, so that is why it is called purplish. As more is discovered this color after some time covered of freshwater reservoirs, with some sliminess from the water that makes it eternally sweet taste. According to the Nabathea Agriculture, if for rainwater in the lower parts of the land or in the fields bring to them the sums of the highlands, the surface of these contracts certain blackness as violet, to call the color ashen; which provided that it is discovered indicating that land be thick; whose quality, being excessive, it is not advantageous. It is contrary to it which makes it the arid land surface and dusty as

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almost always; which it is evident at the sight. I'm not the earth that hath mixture of coarse sand or large rocks.

Yambuchád says that the purplish land is in good quality, that the color being very powdery is fluffy and sweet the dust without mixture of other flavors: then comes the one that Adam of blessy memory calls hot and one of their cualitys is to be soft; such is that when spends a lot of cold or snow, remain unchanged in the extent of its surface! ; and whose lumps easily crack to shoot them down: then follows this kind of ground the strong call of a color inclining to low whitey or dusty, not pure white but middle between this color and powdery.

Such land is all but hard, yet easy or docile of plowed, and turning; which
Such land is all but hard, yet easy or docile of plowed, and turning; which is not
good for planting of fruit trees, and if it is to sow seeds, which it prevail. Sagrit is about
that of the contrary opinion; he states that in this land are better trees, grown more and
more fat fruit. The blonde land has nearly the water is good for all kinds of seeds and
trees, out of the palm and sweet fruits. But the other good qualities described lands are
suitable for all kinds of trees and plants.
The land called deep by the smarts (or crumb) is good too and suitable for all
kinds of off vegetables, which do not prevail in it. The author or Nabathear Agriculture
says that land of crumb have an average way between the fat and the dry surface, which
is what we call sdhalat, soft or docile. It also says that the earth shall appear on the
surface extended in winter,a color like white, shows this to be brackish and poor; or just
good for Palmas, barley, beans, spinach and the like.
The land of altered taste, not being of that breed that Adam calls hot, it is good
for planting vines, pumpkins, melons and other creeping plants ((or lying plants) on the
floor that do not rise above the trunk, and also to fruit trees. It is suitable for food grains,
and it is not for fragrant plants. Such are the distinguishing marks of the goodness of the
land, says Kutsami; and so much thereof as may from contrary qualities is corrupted,
and has need of fertilizers that improve.

ARTICLE I

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The signs of corruption or wholesomeness of the earth, according to the Nabathea Agriculture.

Goodness and wholesomeness of the land, saith (the author just mentioned), is known to the sight, and this is one that will not crack or crumble with rigorous much heat or the cold, or the so whatever strong dryness that do not fall rains autumn and early winter or where when it rained a lot then, a very viscous mud underfoot is sticking to the feet or hands to the touch; but that it will being drained the rainwater and whose surface, when it stops raining, not discovered a whitish color; as there are some on the surface, not being quite good, it appears to have rained day after, or two later, as a white flour in separate parts or joints, especially without the high and low fields discovered; which are not in any appreciation for this cause. One of the signs to be the land of good quality and substantial, is, if not the cold by shaking its surface appears like clay, which is not purely white. One test to see if the land is not of good quality or is this.

test to see if the land is not of good quality or is this. Take a

Take a piece of land the weight of two to three pounds, and put into a bowl and covering the mouth into this very well, bury in a pit four cubits deep or three at least, in which state leaving the space of fourteen days, which is half moon period, then remove it and register; and if the outside of the bowl is discovered slimey, open; But if result not be, returned to the pit cover it with good ground, and so letting himself for seven days, after which time, sticking and opening will be found to be in it worms or other insects that produces much the same corruption sites where no air vents. Examined the color of such insects, if they are black, celestial or green, the land is not good or worthy of apreciation; and if dyed, yellow, dusty, brown, light green or white; that land is good and valuable nature. The land contained in the vessel also smells, and if the smell is the same, or nearly the same as it had before, it is entirely good: but if there be found altered, see what smell is this alteration, if sour, bitter, brackish and this test will form the field trial; so if not exhale the odors mentioned will be there for good quality, and if you discover any, will be judged by that sour smell that either declines or the other that he be discovered. Lately try on that land to taste to the half hour removing it from the hole, and if it tastes like hot mud and reddish extracted from the wells after dry, that land is good and substantial; and if altered and seems brackish, bitter, nasty, too miserable to another corrupted or smell; judge by the smell that it is discovered.

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Another way know the earth in less time than the first; although not as demonstrative and secure.

See if the plants, or weeds, thorns and other plants that are raised in it are robust, and if soil is very linked up with each other; as this proves to be healthy and fertile land. More if they are small, insignificant and somewhat stunted *, it is not land free of damage.

Kutsami says; that some are content in examining the ground with attending to what it
Kutsami says; that some are content in examining the ground with attending to
what it grows, even a single species of plant, such as lilies, wolfberry, thorns, briars, and
crushing its branches and leaves from the middle collate their flavor with the other
raised in such land free of all vice and corruption, and thus lead the opposition or
convenience they had. He adds, also happens to be a guide to know if the land is good
quality or contrary, that species of plants that in itself produces.
The same author says, that men do not benefit nor have good brackish land nor
swampy, neither dock, neither too thick, neither styptic, sour and hot, neither too fluffy
or hard, neither too lumpy, or any other adverse to those of good quality, although they
thrive on his plants such as pennyroyal, wormwood, hyssop, the artemisia, wild endive,
hellebore (or black vedegambre) (the plant placed Nabatheos in the class of venomous),
the alcapara and red hawthorn *; because these and similar plants are cultivated on land
corrupted. Hot odor produces nothing. On nitrous called chai thistle grows, (which is
born at the foot of the palm and suffocates) and the low hardness docile marine
wormwood plant is born and that the Arabs call Kisum (or abrótano).

According Yambuchad, thick and hard packed earth usually produce lilies, daffodils, called bulb onion and similar plants that shed ingrained after the sheet which when discovered on land springs, streams and wetlands, it is known that such lands are good, or are close to those of this quality. In very hard ground that sort of caper small leaf grows, and sometimes that breed large onion latins call achktJa or Scylla, which is under suddenly kill mice, whose name is called by this cause, and is the same as the ansal or flanking.

Also often grow up this kind of onion and the like in the middle of a very hard and tough terrain and tight to plasterer by nature, which in respect of Cascajales they are closer to the quality of the land of arid mountains and high hills. Thorn trees are better

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raised in hard than soft ground, and among rocks in mountains, and more in dry places away from moisture. All other plants are grown and prevail well with this, and very few with the dry and arid as mentioned mouse onion. And wild vegetables are just born but good and free land of corruption every contingency except brackish, since in the jungles are grown abundantly.

To many vegetables is beneficial the mentioned salt land, and indeed it prevail; while growing
To many vegetables is beneficial the mentioned salt land, and indeed it prevail;
while growing weak and tasteless. The quality or state of the land by plants that produce
is also shown; and so when they usually grow up in saline land born elsewhere, they
indicate that there has come to dominate such quality. The same subtle, thin hawthorn,
as hdsah (or African gorse) is plant thorn hard, if born on good ground, indicating it
being tired and weakened by repeatedly have sown, or other similar cause.
ARTICLE II
What lands need proper cultivation and fertilizers, as Nabathea agriculture.
Such are the thick and heavy; whose two species have much resemblance to each
other. The dock is too thick, and juicy spring nature, and usually a color inclining to
black, and fluffy. Whose properties were touched when it came to the land purplish. The
fertilizer and cultivation of both is to flip them in the heat rigor with peak or similar
instrument twice each month, so come to roll six times (or seven is best) every three
months, crumbling earth with the butt and tip of the instruments that will be turned,
which makes this dust is very hot and sutilice, and dim * his fatness; to whose
consumption still attends the sun with its heat removing some heaviness and excessive
fatness.

It is not the attempt to remove entirely the work, but only part, and correct the excess: in a word wipe away and decrease the volume, not remove it entirely; which if it happened, we would see the need to replace the previous one. The greatest manure for that can be given to these lands is the referred to flip them and crumble in the rigorous heat. The thin soil also has need of fertilizers which will remove its thinness. This, according Yambuchad, is like a thick land, even over and so is the land that regardless

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slimey permanently; three species of land which are therefore of a reciprocal similarity. Some farmers are of opinion that the thinner the wellspring; but they are walking in this regard to the average re slimeing between the wellsprings and thin.

Indeed, the land very thin is corrupt and contrary to the thick; and such is that of a medium taste between sour and tasteless, and so weak that this quality is not capable of fertilizer. However it benefits in some way to turn it in the heat of the sun to make this the roasting something, and not excessively; which if it happens, it would become a productive nothing but sand rogue.

The same Nabathea agriculture author says that Yambuchad calls thin to the thick ground; what
The same Nabathea agriculture author says that Yambuchad calls thin to the
thick ground; what is funny thing; because between us these two species of land are
contrary to each other. Advised that at the vernal equinox the earth thin sometimes turn
to the plow, and is paid very well with any manure any, other than the bottlenose;
because it is their improvement and promotion in order to succeed in what she sows.
For what it's best this land is well-oiled to vines; then they breed her with much
freshness, of big branches, large root, juicy grapes and good wine. Also it agrees this
land for all sorts of similar nature to plant vines, either tree or small plant.
The same author says, knowing the land called thin, being weak and of little
strength, till it less; which if repeatedly execute, it would weaken more if fluffing.
Shoudl be sown barley especially after the end of tilling; and since then must be
irrigated more; as well abounds very prosperously said grain; and that the same will
happen, if before born it rained.

He adds that the brackish land of few salts is often called thin (what my life is very probable), and weak; and that this is one whose weakness is corrected itself with what is, namely, mixed with manure and another good land. It also improves it, if burning sebestén’s leaves and branches with its fruit, and pumpkins, with all this ash mixed with soil or compost is fertilize sometimes at different times. One of fertilizers for thin soil is to plant vegetables and other plants whose roots do not penetrate one lot on the floor, like ivy, rocket, cress and the like. ! ! The sandy soil (which is several colors according to what were mixed with the sand) should see and examine it a lot to know what else this mixture is; making it easy to discover. She is always soft by the fluffiness given for the sand, and so it comes across; While other small, thin and weak roots.

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It's really convenient for many species of vines; and such is the land, whose dust having sand mixture is free of harmful accidents together. Its subscription to prepare to the planting is according to what we said corresponding to such gender mixing, illustrating the point of the various qualities of land. It is necessary then to prosper what he would plant or sow, turn it and mix you a good portion of donkey dung, incorporated with other vegetables such straw, barley and wheat; thus you'd better arrange it by the autumn. Species of hard earth, a white ground so that it is in this radical color; and another having any mixture mentioned. The first or dominant whiteness is called yesera; and (last), or the less white solbat (or hard); in which absolutely prevails or palm or smelly plant, and grain legumes suffocate.

Elsewhere in the Nabathea Agriculture being said, there are also hard earth (though not as
Elsewhere in the Nabathea Agriculture being said, there are also hard earth
(though not as much as the antecedent), shooting a bit white together with dusty;
shooting a bit dusty white together with; to which is added there, we call stronger. The
hard ground is particularly good for wheat, millet, millet, chickpeas, lentils, and large
trees, such as walnut, hazelnut, olive and the like. The fertilizer can be increased to this
land it is to remove hardness turning it much with the plow; which is beginning to do
since early second tichrín, which is November, executing every ten days, and crumbling
clods well with all care and diligence to a powder.
It introduced the cattle and sheep that fertilize it, and not ignored that the pigs
come and go repeatedly until this dust is moisten and soften fine. It must also walk men
with the cattle; and if possible to come to crumble as well, is this better than the bovine
and human excrement together. Sheep manure spread for her, along with her powder,
also benefits. Stony ground (also called Thekla) is those very cold places of Babylon:
but according to the Nabathea Agriculture, the Thekla is one whose middle ground and
dust between the hardness of the stone and smooth or loose earth; stony and is harder
than it.

How to benefit the lands of similar quality is style them in hot weather with large and heavy peaks, turning the part that is necessary and in the appropriate way according to prescribed by the ancients; after continually watching crumble with mallets; respect to that if it is not by this work do not expect it any product. He has to cultivate such land at night since the beginning or from midnight until dawn, or even last two hours a day. This is the best; because cooling all kinds of land, starting with the night, both to it as hard should then give the necessary work to the fence that are given

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later. Which is then executed, and the juiciness we told you communicate the oxen, and that these do not work in the sun or sick warming up too much.

They have to join in groups of four in each plow to work, not in pairs, in response to the hardness and toughness of the earth; which will turn the second time with strong and long grille, whose work it may be the deeper the better, without being good or skip undo all lumps crumble entirely. And because the oxen fatigued when plow that land, agree that drivers must have a glass of water close to cleanse and moisten their faces, necks and head; with refreshments which they are relieved of the burden of work.

The reddish earth needs no fertilizer withdraw any bad quality, but must carve itself in
The reddish earth needs no fertilizer withdraw any bad quality, but must carve
itself in mid-autumn with small gate; whose work is not necessary to be deep. Ashy
land, who is shooting a dark or low white together with that color risen, is not said to be
corrupted, it produces about certain things and prevail in it many trees, palms and vines;
if not by the dryness that may have, or his distance from receiving moisture (as long as
it is planted palm trees or vines you require continuous watering for their very dry and
arid area) *. It is not some vegetable seed; except rice, as we said already exist between
the grain and land like some mutual convenience for water which has in it the foot. It is
because this is the most suitable land for rice and for wheat, barley and peas; but it is
not for millet, lentils, beans, chickpeas or beans.
In too much barbaric or robust black earth (or slightly less), but by no whiteness
of slimeing surface and tilling as tough as the ashy advantageously, it prevails in this,
and what should it; although is best for palms. With much watering is much improved,
and approaching the quality of cinderella is suitable for vines, and for all plant lying on
the floor like them, for all plant species and delicate tree, and particularly for all
vegetables more size as cabbage, spinach, chard, lettuce, cauliflower (soldanela or sea
kale), and cress; and it is for their peers small vegetables such as good mate, ocimo,
celery. Everything should be planted and sown in this land should be irrigate a lot, and
in no way left to dry anything that is in it sown.

If this strong ashy land stay in places that introducing, water remains in it a long time, it will be very good on that sow after moisture cucumber, cucumbers, melons and vines; all of which is left there and then transplanting seedlings to which is best. The clay is the surface swells in the summer, and is similar to that of the alfahars in consistency and color, (which usually throw like this to a little vermilion) should benefit

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from the work of profound give back, and shred with mallets to mix toast party with whom question is not ready to repeat this operation second and third time; in which state it spreads beans and barley straw, dung revolt.

The heleborian land, which issue a hellebore-like odor, is smelly and the most corrupt of the three expressed; and by heat as it breaks has sown in it, unless beans; for which it is itself good. Loose or soft, but average between source and slimeing, it is immaterial how to benefit them. At two intimate vice corrects them with ignite in the middle, to the sides or embankments, and in many different sites including a continuous fire of any wood that is, which withdraws the vice of water flow and slimeing. But is this risky choice for such lands, as they tend to move or slimeing springs that were exhausted and hard, so that what befalls is worse than damage which is withdrawn. For which reason and up a different mode l indicated benefit them. Such lands are good for some things, like collards, myrtle, soldanela or cauliflower and plants of equal status and quality.

The brackish earth is of various species, saline, one whose taste is sour mix, another
The brackish earth is of various species, saline, one whose taste is sour mix,
another bitter, another styptic, and one that is a bit brackish. The signal to be brackish
earth is whether certain whiteness appears on its surface; or that happens from start to
getting that quality. In this land called Sagrit layer (or crust) salt for being dimly cover
the surface salts. The land of vineyards, it is benefited by planting barley around and
near the foot of the vines to pick her salts. The land of vineyards, planting barley is to
benefit around and near the foot of the vines to pick her salts. There is a general remedy
for brackish ground, and another specific and relevant to each species of the same.
Sufficient general and which become the land of the genre (Whatever it is) is the palm,
which in all are raised well.

So it is plowing after the first rains, which are expected if coming in early October, plowing is delayed until after eight days thereof; and if you do not come until the end, this work is done on the last day. The pure salt land, or which has another flavor mixture is tilled in early November after the second or third day, but leave it for later, turning with small gate and throughout her after plowing spreads quite stems amount of the last year planted beans, clean, dry and as shredded as the chaff, then rolling it with water to all, or part of it if it be of much extension: and this is the best fertilizer for such land.

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Online quality continues to bean straw of barley, then the wheat, then crumbled chaff from brambles, and ultimately crushed leaves and dried marshmallow; whose operation cannot be omitted, being his easy. Of all these species of straw can be use, either mixed well with each other, which it is best, or each by itself, but the brambles; which are not used but any of those mixed with straw, which is the beans and barley best. In this state, this land is left without anything on it until the summer come by it is spread some manure moistened with water, which is help for improvement, it gives softness and sweetness. In the autumn of the second year to the first of October manures mixed with the same horse and donkey dung, no mule in any way and then planting barley, beans, lentils or chickpeas, scattering some flaxseed between these seeds; which is planted which is watered well, all of which must be raised abundant harvest of good quality land.

Used the opinion that to fertilize the land mentioned, using the branches, shoots and leaves
Used the opinion that to fertilize the land mentioned, using the branches, shoots
and leaves of every tree of oily fruits such as walnut, almond, olive, alfonsig, hazel,
warble fly (fig tree or do hell) and the like because these things corrupted fertilizer for
all earth, and have particularly excellent virtue and to improve whatever brackish.
The opinion that used to fertilize the land mentioned using the branches and
shoots, leaves and branches of every tree of oily fruits such as walnut, almond, olive,
alfonsig, hazel, warble fly (or infernal fig) and the like, for being this things fertilizer
for all kind of corrupted earth and have particularly excellent virtue and to improve the
one that is brackish. This operation is performed by said land spreading a lot of those
leaves and sticks thinner said after shaking trees and everything until it crumble as the
more subtle and chaff; after which plowing and giving a light spray of water is left in
this state. He adds that if this is done in all corrupt land, as fertilizer, less to that of
scathing flavor and pungent, which is fertilized in very different ways.

Are of the opinion, said the same, so the purely salt land as he hath another flavor mixture is paid by spraying the surface with vegetable water taken from those olives squeezed on that has not been thrown any salt; so that it is not brackish or have a different flavor than that of the olive only. This dew is given to the earth once before and two after flipped, and then spread through it pretty much dung, leaving it for a few days in this state, and then giving it to another small grid to work it back, shallow but at ground level, it is sown barley, fenugreek, chickpeas, spinach, pumpkins and marshmallow, and is planted with palm certain distances of separation. Sowing it with

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said seed, collect the salts that were there, which also removes continuous mixing manure and vegetable water. Dung having an average between fresh and stale is the best quality for this purpose.

Another fertilizer for brackish land

Give him a job back in early October that the rains would wash the salts
Give him a job back in early October that the rains would wash the salts that has;
and the same to the styptic and poor quality land. Which by nature was bitter in
dominant degree, being as it is the most altered (or worst of all) and that far more of the
healthy quality, is harmful to every seed of any kind whatsoever, before and not after
birth old.
But there is a choice to reduce it to be perfect quality or a little less, which is to
guide the water as comfortably as could be, starting to run from mid-April and not
before, or at the beginning of May, and handing the reservoir time that may be: and will
be very good to stay in this state all the months of summer to mid-September, not later.
If there is no water to irrigate dry gourds shattered all his flesh and pulp, bindweed and
dry branches are taken, all of which ground is mixed with fresh water in a skiff made of
leather, so that the land be sprayed after but slightly shallow plowing. Ten ajrabat (or
forty cahices)* of similar corrupt land are quite twenty water skiffs that those things
were mixed, whose operation is executed at the end of the night or early in the day until
after three hours of it, it's best ; and likewise it will be, if the dew be of more water.
* The cafiz, as the Arab called, is a land area of 129 cubits or 384 bushels of
seeding.

It's great to repeat the same operation on the ground sometimes, anyway after plowing and moistened. It also sprayed water mixed with fresh powder good land that does not have strange taste or smell; cava and once or twice each month, repeating the same operation it six times in the space of one or two summers: which benefited in this way is usually held by good quality, especially if that alteration or corruption was not in her dominant nor old.

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The same author says, that very brackish land and excessive elasticity outside term usually sow benefit of slimy things as cotton seed, fenugreek, beans, barley, beans, cress seed, lupine and the like. Likewise it benefits to stagnant water for a long time, or with the following remedy, namely, the occurrence of being clouded the sky forty days as it is in the climate warms and similar places on the bitter land, sour, stinking and others that also offer hope of improved corrupted; thus hiding from them the sun space of time referred to without in any way they discover, very good quality contract without requiring any corrective. In them after this fertilizer referrals and similar viscous grains are sown, which no doubt capture all the malice of bitterness in it left. Usually sufficient to sow once such things, and usually must sow the same repeatedly. Also grain sowing in that land of acedaraque, bitter almond, myrtle and laurel, take away all the bitterness that hath until it fully heals.

Our view, says Kutsámi, if the things mentioned in this land are planted together planting
Our view, says Kutsámi, if the things mentioned in this land are planted together
planting apricot branches and marshmallows, and the same in all corrupt land, fertilize it
collecting much of the corruption that has one. In sour soil, being source and slimeing,
which is thin, it tends to be emanating or permeation of this same taste, which manifests
itself proves that the taste, though she is pure or after putting in water. This benefits
until retiring and removing all the bitter, and be entirely good to fertilize repeatedly that
kind of manure identified as suitable for this purpose; and what is also removed entirely
sour, it is to fertilize with manure noted for source and slimeing land taken in its
generality; which it consists of ash pomegranate, human excrement and dung.

Know, he adds the same author, that to every corrupt land, either by what may be its corruption, brackish, hot, pungent, fetid, thin, heavy, sticky aspect, sour, for too styptic, fertilizes the murky water of the streams , impounded it sometime, much dust or silt that lets you; the more turbid water which it may the better for the earth, because that washing and cooling it (though he needed this drink), leaving it a different sweet land (for no other carries water but more subtle dust and better ), with this strengthens it if it were thin or weak, it has a place for her good manure. If it is salt cleans and loosens the salts with moisture, takes them with her sweetness, and her coldness off the heat. If it is hot, this is properly the best fertilizer of all to her about her coldness that will turn off the heat. If foul-smelling, corrects this vice sweet and turbid water is introduced, and good and soft ground that this lets and mixed with it; and that is to miss the whole, if these avenues are some years in a row ; Although you should give to the ground after

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deep plowing back, and fertilize with some soft and sweet manure. If it is source or slimeing, dust fertilizes it makes murky water; but it has to turn four times, once each month from early June to early September; as well as the sun and the earth that is mixed completely consume one or other kind of secretion.

According to the author he cited the general remedy for all land declined any good and regulate their temperament is light and gentle twenty-four hours continuous rain: at which follows fertilizing the gasal call or laundress, which is more abundant at twice; ; which improves brackish soil, bitter and sour when it comes to fall on them. The third fertilizer is the storm of the avenues if left in the same land that brings other ground; which fertilizer is also for every caste of land in general. Although, mediate Allah, be fertilizer for the land said two rains; but do not benefit fully, unless very often repeated, that is, having rained twenty-four hours, and stopped after rain, strong winds shake the earth for two or three days, then return to rain as much as before continuing this alternative sometimes.

ARTICLE III Of fertilizers according Nabathea Agriculture the soil mixed with stones, bricks, pots, plaster,
ARTICLE III
Of fertilizers according Nabathea Agriculture the soil mixed with stones, bricks,
pots, plaster, clay and debris that have pieces of cloth and various other things it
benefits, such as collecting in the house, of the ways in which small stones and gravel,
diverse and contrary to the taste of the powder substances such as salt, vitriol, different
cuesquecillos (or nuts) is contained; whose dust is very cold, very hot, or part very dry
and wet part to the extreme of getting an external manifest corruption and absolute:
and so it contains any other foreign substance powder as prosaws, chips cane, stone
fragments carved, plaster gravel, limestone and similar materials; whose amount lot of
things being in and forming a part of the earth, they make too corrupt.

Nothing prospers on such land out of the palm trees and large. The payment for which any flawed for some of these mixtures, is to bring to her land of good soil known for such; and the best that you can take is the viscous red that when touched by hand stick to it like glue *;which it is incorporated by throwing it over after donkey dung and manure mixing it all with that sort of corrupt land from your deck to the center as to

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deepen the mites; since the good land together with such manure is a fertilizer if it is incorporated it deeply.

After mixing is irrigated so back water that may stagnate even as a cubit high, and so leaving it for a few days until it drain, then returning it to mix the same things, it is sometimes irrigated, and then planting eggplant and all kinds of vegetables; among which if most regardless of good grass, it will be very advantageous fertilizer, except sea kale, cabbage, radish, turnip, carrot, leek Syriac and the like. It is good for vegetables and eggplant this land; but it is not planted in it any odorous plant, vegetables, and fruit trees. The land tainted by the crowd that contained human corpses, it is such an excessive degree; and the remedy for this corruption is the same as for sour and fetid earth, which should be invoiced in the fall as winter approached to come to receive the rains soon this improvement.

Know, fellow brothers and my friends, says Kutsámi, that all corrupt land, whether she or
Know, fellow brothers and my friends, says Kutsámi, that all corrupt land,
whether she or corruption of whatever kind, is improved fertilizers described qualities,
considered and in particular with respect to the benefit of certain plants and seeds , or as
generally in relation to the plant genus all together; except the sour odor and land
improvement never any fertilizer, unless it rains a lot and getting that water or another
such repeated years.
ARTICLE IV
The qualities of the porous land, dock, tough, tight, compressed * and other than
those mentioned above.
* ! These three castes of related land, but each slightly different, are called, in the
original motálazez, motálabed and aktánaz, or moktánezat.

The packed earth, says the author of Nabathea Agriculture, not on purpose for planting; whose quality is known to be doubtful doing in different parts of her three holes cubit and a half deep each; whose land kept apart respectively and carefully collected in earthen vessel, it brings another porous compact soil from which no doubt

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not be of such quality, and balancing it with the extracted from the pits to be equal in weight, is thrown into the thereof, and in them is stepped and board feet; which if left some, it is understood that the land where such holes are made is lumpy and very hard, and not provided for plantations; But if it is to grow vegetables and grains. But if the second land enters the site occupied by the first without her absolutely nothing left, it is good for planting of trees, such as the porous soil; and not the hard and lumpy, which is only purpose for sowings.

The ancient land distinguished dogged tight, because although they are almost equal status with each
The ancient land distinguished dogged tight, because although they are almost
equal status with each other; but the first is the most tucked into each other more tightly
locked to the second, and is closer to the hardness of the stone and the same lumpy.
Even little to differentiate themselves these three species of land, yet tight and lumpy
have some closeness and mutual brotherhood that has dogged for being something
different.
With regard to the soft and porous, is not the same as the other. The porous
approaches the fatuous, and the difference between the two is that the porous
pARTICLEs is discontinuous in composing, whose meaning considered is consumed
parts; well yes these are some well hidden or locked with other soft-absolute continuity
is what the constitution of its parts resembles the tough, having served softness of their
gender combination; in what clearly he is opposed to that. Already mentioned above
that all land is soft sandstone by the sponginess that communicates the sand; and the
thick substance is very soft due to their condition (or nature) or whatever wet spring.

The land has an average between very tenacious and porous is apropos to vines, the signal that is such is whether stops in the center with some of the water it receives, and evaporates after the speech of the stations. The land has an average between very tenacious and porous is apropos to vines, the signal that is such is whether stops in the center with some of the water it receives, and evaporates after the speech the stations. Such it is not a good land for vineyards. The land is particularly porous to the most convenient of all vines; and if I had together with this quality of being thin, it is best for them; which they are raised in it very robust and very good lineage. The land of very tough and tight texture to the hardness of gravel, whether that is by its very nature, implies the retention of water on its surface; which cannot imbibe much quantity or engage it at the center. It vines are lost; but it is ideal for vegetables and similar plants. The one who drinks all the water hiding in its center and depth, and it is dry on the

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surface, it is not good for vineyards and softly or muddy, such as it may be introduced into the center for some water and some remain on the surface.

ARTICLE V

Of the signals to see if the ground is wet, we will say something in
Of the signals to see if the ground is wet, we will say something in the third
chapter of this work, where it will be the properties of the land indicating its proximity
or distance from the water, whereby also known moisture or dryness the same.
We have explained fairly and competently, says Kutsámi, differences in species
of land, convenience or inconvenience of some for certain plants; which come near to
understanding which has already understood what the main plant science, respective to
their cultivation and conservation.
Sagrit appoint in the Nabathea Agriculture, cultivation and planting of trees and
other plants, and how to preserve them from the calamities is not equal in all regions,
but this varies according to the diversity thereof; and so on it is advantageously a
breeding what other fails equal prosperity. He adds that it comes in this book, as
appropriate to the climate of the Chaldean in particular also for the climates and regions
of similar temperament. For which reason I have copied of the work into the present
what has seemed to agree on the west side of Spain; and also that the Chaldean is in the
fourth climate, and it is said that part of Spain also it is; and also because attending to
what is said in that work on most dominating temperaments there, I have found that in
our region are equal with short difference. All this because I moved to transfer in this
book the content of the work.
ARTICLE VI

The signs of good or poor quality of the land according to others authors than the two aforementioned books of Ibn-Hajdj and Agriculture Nabathea.

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African Anatolian says that, is fertile ground in which there be large and tall plants with tender, thick and green leaves, linked together and thick roots; and this is also very good land that you see large wild trees that nobody has already planted, which though they be medium, it is also the land; and feeble, if you saw that the same are of a diseased vegetation, small, thin leaves and branches and thin roots that quickly dried. And also it is not good in which any thorns and wild joyos, whose trees were small.

According Kastos is a sign of good land if they take much increase their trees
According Kastos is a sign of good land if they take much increase their trees are
of the kind that may be; middle, if not grow much or have linked branches; and less if
they are thin and weak, according to the quoted Anatolian, the best land is that which is
not much rigor cracks in the heat, or the rain with the many slides or softness are made,
or where the water dries quickly, or does not stay long time on the surface. The same
author says, it is good land, and even better, the black who suffer the many rains and
waters it is not on purpose for vines. According Kastos is a sign of good soil if water
saturates the continuous rains and does not crack with the heat.
Jah said common Writers of Agriculture indicate the different species of land
described a white called, to other black, and to the other sandstone; and they say it is
thick as that of a viscous mud and wax forms, and dock the same thick mud which is not
of this viscosity. Discarded in much the white dock and sandstone; of which the first is
nevertheless better quality than the second. Other species must be more or less that or to
this approach, and others who have a perfect medium between the two. But this has
already been tried up with some timely extension.
Show yourself also the quality of the land by their smell and taste after pitch and
soaked in water; This is done by taking a handful of her surface if soil for sowing, or in
deeper until both cubits or something but when it is planting, and throwing in a wide
mouth glass or new glazed clay, it is covered with rain water or sweet, and bobs to
dilute it. Then allowed to sit that dust or dirt on the bottom of the glass, and if
registering it then floats in it by way of gross filth or murky, the land is good indeed;
and if not, is weak it can only be improved with the much manure.

Also, if testing it to taste and smell is found sweet, so is the earth; and it is said that if the water is soft and sweet, the land is pleasantly soft sweetness; bad, if it whatever bitter or brackish; and of equal quality and absolutely nothing good, if it be fetid. Kastos says, though it be salted land is fertile or liberal.

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According to Abu-el-Jair, if the smell of the water and dust shall please and soft, that land is very good because he signal his good temper; and bad, if be ungrateful odor. Also, the languor and corruption that are therein indicates to be corrupted and altered their smell. Flee entirely, they say, of dirt, sand and salt water; whose material having discussed above, there you can see these maxims; it would be redundant to repeat them here manifest. Also, if the mud of the earth mixed with the water is tough like wax, it is

a sign of being good thereof; and inferior, if it were not. They also say
a sign of being good thereof; and inferior, if it were not.
They also say that one of the means by which test whether the earth is thick and
dense, and if it differs from the thin and exhausted, is digging in which he wishes to
make this test a hole in one cubit deep, and after having cleared to return to him all that
excavated earth; which if something is left over after filling, such land is thick; if
anything, of average quality; poor and thin, if after entering all, would remain part of
the hole to be filled. But according Ibn-Hajaj is not sure this test, look for vegetables the
land that is thick, substantial and non-rough, and in no way the white, viscous or which
resquebrajare in summer. In another, the most suitable for them is not harsh or weak,
compared to the first does not suffer much water, and the brittle and weak softens in the
winter and dry in summer; which it causes it to wilt quickly (or narrowing) vegetables.
Abu-Abdallah Ibn-el-Fasel says that whatever good land on the surface and in
the center bad seed is sown; but if compels the need, it is only planted those trees extend
their roots at ground like peach, apple and the like; although these same sterilized and
lose, then that rooted in bad ground, and even the grass that she was born at the
beginning of the year and dry air becomes heated; unless to be preserved through
watering.
Digging the earth with all diligence and care or deep plowing, the bad comes to
the surface; some say that staying with her flawed and incapable of wetting, must
benefit rotted manure good: which is indispensable for him consist fertilizer such land.
It is said that good land should be used for seed, and inferior to plantations.

Doctors Abu-Abdallah Mahomed Ben-Ibrahim, Ibn- el-Fasel and the wise Abu- el-Jair trying knowledge of the nature of the land on beam with respect to their suitability for sowing or planting with fertilizer requires everything, and trees and vegetables that thrive in them, talking about white, says Abu-el-Jair, that this earth is naturally cold and dry, Abu-Abdallah, Enb-the-Fasel, who is petite the grass that grows

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on it even in the time of his greatest strength is when throw and preserves the flower; which produces in abundance, unless otherwise thick and fertile part.

That otherwise need this much land cultivation to be hard; that if you work and dig repeatedly and benefits with much manure (as required quality cold) trees that are therein will be high, robust, large, cup-shaped. If still level after shaped and benefited from manure is soweth, thrive on it any seed, which plants require lots of copy hot and muck, and much work; but that does not suffer much water back because of his coldness. In this same land thrives fig, olive, carob, pears, pomegranate, almond, quince, pistachios and grapes.

Almond grows particularly excellent, and so fig and carob; of which the fig and almond
Almond grows particularly excellent, and so fig and carob; of which the fig and
almond trees here have no need much work, or are of such magnitude as the other trees.
Although well bred fig and vine in other lands; but this grape is very sweet and juicy.
Also species of wild dill, woad, indigo and blonde dyers are advantageously raised in it.
For this kind of land is much fertilizer the palomina without thereby resulting to the
trees that are in it any harm, as says Abu-el-Jair.
This land is qualified with several qualifiers, according to another author; as it is
called from mount white earth, white bare of grass, white juicy, thick, strong, meaty,
sweet, salt and white; which it is not an advantage, and must be dampened after wiping
water; whose quality is known also by testing to taste.
This kind of land is another, according Jah, parts of slimeing, not thick, powdery
color, which is a mixed vermilion, white and black which again appears in it; which,
according to Abu-el-Jair, is amenable to cultivation. There are also thick and stubborn
fat as usually found in the plains and in the mountains; which it is better than white, nor
need much work. It prevails olive, pomegranate, oak, carob, alfonsigo, pear, loquat
aronio, common medlar, almond, vines, fig red long, hairy mixed * figs, and all black
fig tree species.

Also there montesina and flat, that being tough, strong and unruly to the work, before using it much toil and hardship has much growing need for attenuating toughness that has softened; which thus improved after once sown without preparation of manure, and suffers much water, which retains moisture long time. Far from it need a lot of manure, says Abu-Abdallah Ibnel-Fasel, we throw so little, attended his heat, which just is discovered, and so out of respect to the trees any. It is enough for a single work; well

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if any seeded repeatedly add some manure is irrigated before being it: the very same copy of the substance and weakens; and the opposite happens, they say, if it were little and beasts and two years rotten. If you remain uneducated, alone it produces that kind of grass that lacks greenery.

According to Abu-Abdallah Ibnel-Fasel prevails in this land fig, walnut, almond, Mulberry Tree, pine, juniper, cypress, citrus, carob, alfonsigo, the myrtle, the jujube, the aronio medlar, the serval, apple, plum and common porthole (or black), and rose; which here leaves a vivid flesh. It is maximum cited author, the reddish soil is good for planting and not for sowing; although it is said that this same color and stony tree is more convenient, as well as the too black. It also says that the reddish land is good for vegetables and in it the onion, garlic, eggplant, radish, carrot, turnip, mustard, cress, the axenuz, caraway, rue and similar plants prevails.

The land called the ris, which is reddish with little sand mixture, is weak and
The land called the ris, which is reddish with little sand mixture, is weak and
thin, and nothing in it prevails; It olive out if much is manured with pigeon excrement,
and its till sometimes. There is another kind of viscous reddish who does not drink
water fast, also known as the ris, and in it the olive, fig hairy, carob, oak, pear, serval,
the medlar aronio prevails, chestnut and the like. This requires the same work and
fertilizer than the last.

The black earth, say Abu-el-Jair, naturally hot and suck is a little bit docile cropping and plowing; and in which this (gender) does not prevail any cracks tree, unless after very tilled, irrigated and cultivated diligently.In the same from mountain tilled good, it prevails olive, carob, oak, chestnut, serval, pear, plum, cherry trees and the like; But the fig tree and the peach are here durable, and very fruitful. Here prevail the crops of beans, barley, lentils, millet, millet, cumin, caraway, black cumin and the like, and also cress, coriander and mustard. Another from mountain, hard blow that resists peak to break with her; another similar to the brown colored ash; and a wet. The too black, says Haj Granadino, it burns up its decline to just intonation lacking moisture coming he had, that the decline of the trees still. The payment for these and it is the old manure therefore ceased to be warm, keeping only moisture.

According Jah, which this kind of thick and viscous whatever is released quickly with water. And according to another view, which is cracking in the hot season the trees do not prevail; but wheat, some vegetables and many thorny bushes as alcarehofa, cambroneras * and the like; although it is of poor quality which will abound much

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alcarehofas. The lands of this kind that they be good, medium or vile known by signs listed above.

The lands of this kind that were good, medium or vile known by signs listed above. The almódanat earth (or oiled), so named for being along or near villages and that this has mixture of manure beasts and the like, even the bottom is good for this cause, and the color of its surface becomes very black . But if it is of good quality, damaged one this much manure to plants after the heats yesterday. If sandstone, white, Thekla sucked, rocky or rough, or of those species of land that benefits much manure, in this case a lot of them fail the copy.

The land contrary to it is called barániat (or countryside), and which is far from
The land contrary to it is called barániat (or countryside), and which is far from
the villages. The almódanat (or oiled) must be plowed repeatedly so that the top is
incorporated well with the lower and acquire a good temperament; in which the grains
and vegetables that were planted prevail; and vegetables being irrigated land. All trees,
that should and can suffer much manure prevail advantage in this kind of land. But
those who do not suffer as hazelnut and the like are not here long life, and so the peach,
which is not very fruitful.
The yellow earth, says Abu-Abdallah, is by nature such as cold and dry as the
white, The yellow earth, says Abu-Abdallah, is by nature such as cold white and dry,
although inferior, and it is compared to the mountain black; which she is most fertile. It
is therefore weak and soft, but not improved by dint of many tasks and very large copy
of ancient beasts and sheep on that one year has passed without which produces
absolutely nothing useful manure. They say that there is no goodness in it these species
namely the mocddanat which is similar to tanned leather, and moist; a tie to the white,
which is muddy and is called elbir, which cracks, and is softer; and the highly viscous,
which is not of good quality. Of these, according to Abu-Abdallah-Ibn-el-Fasel, it is
good only the first, in which there prevail trees root but robust, as theft algar, almond,
medlar aronio, oak, chestnut, walnut, palm, citrus, the Mulberry Tree and the like, and
this tilling and fertilizing too much.

The harsh land called mosdrmena and mohdyena says Abu-el-Jair, is by nature cold and dry, and is two species; one with a mixture of coarse sand, and other plaster or of little stones. Also there mountain and simple: the mountain that under its surface with a large amount of stones hath resists work together and not good quality. The flat, which hail person was at ground level, it has plowed repeated times to join it with the earth

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from the center; thereby it is improved. Making fruitful the work is necessary to cultivate and irrigate a lot, and enough fertilized copy of sheep manure and pigeon excrement; and so all mountain land. On rough earth prevails walnut, alfonsigo, the cabrahigo, the dikdl fig, rose, plum, grapes, (which is extremely robust breeding), apricot, almond, bay leaves, juniper, cypress , myrtle (Myrtle or arraihan Moorish), the Aromatario, common medlar and all the big and small trees that usually grow up in the mountains.

According to the Nabathea Agriculture, prevails in this land the red fig. Vegetables, pumpkins (planting
According to the Nabathea Agriculture, prevails in this land the red fig.
Vegetables, pumpkins (planting before the tasteless), eggplants, species pennyroyal,
rue, the lily, the Almoraduz, the maro (or Stachy) and the like. Legumes lentils, beans
and chickpeas, especially late planting these beans; whose plants were cultivated with
all diligence and care, because cultivation as it will shorten the product will be much
less; and they may also suffer from the difficult times and contrary winds. According to
Abu-Abdallah-Ibn-el-Fasel, if this molted to another moist earth, pumpkins are grown,
they are early and tasty achieved.
With regard to the sand, there are three species, according to Abu-el-Jair, a very
small, soft, another thick without consolidation that is not of good quality and nothing
occurs, and another petite with much soil mix, known as the land hartrat (or hot).
According to the Author of the Nabathea Agriculture and others, the wet sand
gets his weakness any alteration of the air, and so in cold weather cools, and in hot
weather warms. Otherwise it is cold; and likewise declines to such quality sandy soil
composed mostly of sand, even without altering much the air, they say; which, if it is
the best part, gets less cold, whose trees are quickly fading leaves and fruit, believes
Abu-Abdallah-Ibn-el-Fasel.

The best kind of this land, says the same author, is composed of equal parts, which benefited with lots of copy softens manure cultivation: does not suffer much water, and it is best to dry to give irrigation in this disposal. Since fast drinking water that is irrigated correspondingly on the surface is dry and moist in the center. It prevails palm, pine, tamarisk, cypress and other trees that breed in moist sand, and vegetables purslane. The harírat land is to margins of the great rivers, whose dominant color is powdery in fair proportion, has soft sand mixture without being this much of which is made up.

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The land of this kind as may be moist and tender is the best temperament, says Abu-el-Jair, the more docile to the work, and to give more anágola to plant, to all air and to all water. Does not suffer from much manure, and only fertilized in cold weather. It is convenient to the old and rotten, either pure sheep or human excrement in the same form, or mixed. Here prevail the various species of fruit, arraihanes, ocimos (or basil) and jasmine, all kinds of vegetables, dikál fig *, White Cordoba and open, hazel, apple, citrus (or toronjo), the orange , jujube and pomegranate.

Also it prevails in this land (and other) Lupin, and Mulberry Treeity, rose, walnut, jujube,
Also it prevails in this land (and other) Lupin, and Mulberry Treeity, rose,
walnut, jujube, medlar, peach, zerezo; Although this tree is not here long life ready to
reach an end, and because its branches being a little gnarled, surprises and cold damage,
while still tender. Also, the mature fig here late so that the rains to surprise him.Also it
prevails in this land onion, wild leek, linen, Henna, rice, indigo, cotton, beans, sesame,
millet, millet, saffron and all Lawn vegetables. In short all those genera and species of
vegetables and trees are planted and planted in orchards prevail on this earth.
The land called thick has, according to Abu-el-Jair and others, the white to
yellow, and is crass, strong, viscous, without moisture. The work is unruly, and cracks
in hot weather as deserts or barren land, although close to their slots when it rains. It is
hard and does not penetrate water by much grass and having viscosity. Copy suffers
much water, and there is no doubt that the manure that is appropriate oxen and sheep,
rotten.
The thick earth, says Abu-Abdallah-Ibn-el-Fasel, acquires ease with ash, dung
and crop to quibble and soften. Some say that this land is good (like all that cracking of
large cracks) to seed and not for planting, radishes, turnips, onions, garlic, caraway or
similar plants.
Kastos says that no tree is planted in healthy soil but without harshness or
stones, or the cracking of that; and the same is said of the fields that may be found to be
of the same species, and consumed at most.

ARTICLE VIII

Of land that are not good for sowings or plantings, and none of this prevails.

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Such, says Abu-Abdallah-Ibnel-Fasel and Abu-el-Jair, very yellow (or ocher) land that is used to color the wood and dyed cloth; the land of a vermilion ocher loaded call; three species of land of the same name called burka, which are a tight yellow to white, and exhaled an odor of alcribite; the gravel pit or stony, which is below containing white rough limestone (or Calinas) thick, rough and sand blinded torrents; the land of blue that mixed with colored clay pottery jars for oil and wine are made; yellow skin color similar to the wet stone of the same color; the brackish land, mineral orpiment, alcribite, copper, iron and the like; and so those kind of very viscous mud, like the soft, Armenian, Roman which is the main (or thinner) and the bricks are made; saluki land; the mud, the mud of the rivers and the like.

Some call this máhmalat land that is useless or insignificant. Attempts have been made because
Some call this máhmalat land that is useless or insignificant.
Attempts have been made because of the thick fertilizers lands, slimeing, source,
salt, sandstone and other species that together mention was made in the previous
ARTICLE, according to the doctrine of Nabathea Agriculture has been extracted;
maxims which you can see and join with the alleged above, taken from the books of the
two Doctors Abu-Abdullah, and Abu-el-Jair; in which you'll have far enough in this
area with the help of Allah, who is the convenience and utility commands with the
influx of secondary causes. He is the supreme Lord, whom alone adoration and worship
is due.

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CHAPTER II Of manure and useful species, preparation, method of use or apply. Referring to
CHAPTER II
Of manure and useful species, preparation, method of use or apply.
Referring to trees and vegetables, suffering, or not,
all manure from the book of Ibn-Hajaj,
that under the name of sirjin is about manure.
Dung says June makes the good land of better quality, and to the poor the
benefits a lot and strengthens. The quality does not need much manure, and a just
intonation unless she needs something, let the weak and thin. None of manure the earth
at once, it should do this gradually and at different times, as well as land not manured
remains cool, so it burns the receiving as much manure which it corresponds.
Whoever fertilize the plants should take manure to the foot of them, covering
them with earth first, and then the same manure. In doing so, plants do not burn with the
immediacy of manure; whose heat is gradually penetrating the roots behind the middle
ground and the other covering it, and preventing this heat evaporates, turns it down.

Says the same author, that the best manure manured the earth is all birds except the geese and other aquatiles; which corrupts by its humidity, not being mixed with other species of beneficial manure. The best, he says, is the pigeon droppings by its heat; it has the advantage of fortifying the weak earth, and her influence on vegetation and robustness of the fruit it produces, and also to kill the lobster (many insects that will abound). After the manure is taken for good quality human excrement to be similar in strength to the pigeon droppings, and have special virtue to kill some species of herbs.

Donkey dung is third in quality, and this because by its nature promotes and strengthens the fields, and is good for all kinds of plants. Goat manure is the fourth order for its excessive acidity. After the sheep that is thicker (or fat) than goats; and then

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the horse. The weakest and vilest of all is pure horse and mule, which if mixed with other species strong manure is however good and helpful.

Such is the specific graduation that June make of manure. Kastos says, the best bird manure is the pigeon droppings, which kills weeds with its heat: then the donkeys; and then the sheep; and ultimately the ox. The best ever for plants is the common horse called clumsy (or steam); and mixing manure is good for the olive more than any other. Cassian gives preference in an article of his work to horse manure, celebrates and care of their use to the farmers.

According Sidagós the Hisphahaniense, heat or moisture of manure is in proportion of animal’s temperament,
According Sidagós the Hisphahaniense, heat or moisture of manure is in
proportion of animal’s temperament, because if they are warm temperament, the same is
also their dung. For example, pigeon droppings is warm and dry, because this
temperament are animals that shed. And this rule will guide you to know the quality of
all other manures.
The usefulness of manure is that revives (or excite) the natural heat in plants and
widening (or open) with his pores of the earth to penetrate to the roots. So far Sidagós:
who then returns to send us to the view June, claiming to be convenient to all things
avoid the use of manure from a year, and this refrain the farmers for not being helpful at
all, and because together has produce damaging insects. But that is of very good quality
three or four years, because spending time for him, and ceasing to be recent, lost
(contracting new smell) all roughness had and softens. We said (adds) enough in the
matter. Till here the mentioned author.
The aged manure, says Solon, is soft and cold, and then (or in this provision) is
best for vegetables; and so from that manure should use for trees about which he spent a
year or less, as these and the weakness of those may suffer with respect to that of fresh
manure are many worms that occur, damaging to vegetables.

Also says this author in an article of his work that greatly influences pigeon droppings on fruits, and thus who claims that the tree could fructify should abundantly fertilize with her; it causes this effect by branches flowering good. And that intends the tree to take root, especially the weak and old, the dung with cattle manure and compost, as they have a special virtue to this effect.

Dung, says Kutsámi in Nabathea Agriculture, is applied in two ways, pure and mixed with something else, that is, a different manure, or soil provided. The most useful

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among the simple to the corrupt land ceased to be of good quality and lost its sweetness, is the cow dung; whither still goodness for the same effect or deer dung mountain goat, wild donkey goat, sheep, buffalo, horse and domestic donkey; and also pigeon droppings, which is among us all the best manure. Other poultry manure are disposable for being less virtue; although good quality are made by mixing other.

Human excrement is better temperament and warmer than the manure of pigeons and other birds;
Human excrement is better temperament and warmer than the manure of pigeons
and other birds; it softens or subtilizes all manures, and incorporating well with land,
encourages and takes its hardness * and much coldness and dryness. It is very helpful
for the palms, trees, vines, and many small plants; thus making them vegetate, the
redeemed of damage. The aged human excrement, mixed with tiny black earth is more
useful for some things than other manures; which they are for other than him: all of
which explain in their articles, by Allah.
These are the simple manures; and so it is the straw of some plants, leaves, stems
and fruit, all dry and ground. These are the simple manures; and so it is the straw of
some plants, leaves, stems and fruit, all and ground dry. The first and most useful is the
straw beans; after the barley and wheat, pumpkins, brambles, hollyhocks, roses,
wallflowers, violets, lily, marshmallows, turnip greens, carrots and lettuce, sticks and
leaves to any fig branches, common palm leaves and called walnut India, and the fruit
often called bolja or dates to mature.
To manure and straw continue the ashes; because of it, which straw is taken to
fertilize, burnt after dry ash is collected useful to benefit plants and fertilize the land.
And so every tree ash applied to benefit those whose species was. The same is said of
the vineyard, palm, legumes, vegetables, and sum of all large or small plant, to which
advantage and gives strength. These concepts are as the foundation and basis of this
chapter.

According Kutsámi is essential that maximum cultivation of all plants, whether small tree or plant, some of it is mixed in with manure that fertilized respectively. Also says that the ash of burnt bones from the fruit of the trees, the branches that bear no bone and other plants, makes prevail very well that tree species will fertilize her: and also heal plants and trees with their ash of their same parties together with the manure, as indeed is the vineyard medicine with ash of her branches, and the kernels or grape bones; and so the other trees and plants. All of which, in the absence of this ash, well rotten with convenient manure, also it serves as manure.

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It is a universal principle, .dice Kutsámi, which is helpful to use manure from all animal kind, and so the ash of every plant. But we have named these three simple basics is more virtue than the other; which, when mixed with them, are corrected and improved. Sagrit believes that the best manure is generally all the pigeons, and every bird, except the aquatics and the duck.

Says that in most Chaldean climate, mix pigeon dung, dove and wood pigeon advantageous for
Says that in most Chaldean climate, mix pigeon dung, dove and wood pigeon
advantageous for wheat, barley, millet, rice, millet, lentils and beans; and that with this
manure they sow the seed when they want to born and bear fruit quickly; especially if
the land is thin or weak, slimeing or source: and the same effect arises because poultry
manure on fruit trees. Bear in mind (adds) that kind of fertilizer for the land and all
kinds of plants, human excrement continues to poultry manure, as is constant from
experience.
It also has special virtue to is not born grass, thistles and other herbs contrary to
the vegetables, and even the other gender. Susado describes how to prepare human
excrement before applying. He says, to be dried his first moisture to be perfectly thin
and black; and then placed in a hole which will be discussed later, and spraying fresh
water twice to stir a lot, and mix until incorporated: after dry there will whisk ash
branches, and fertilize with him vines , being the thing that suits them.
If the same were used to fertilize other trees distinct of vines, vegetables or
plants, it mix part of the mentioned ashes of the same that you want to fertilize. He adds
that this is the best manure; and that if the farmer is offended by the smell, it break with
hot reddish earth dust of good odor mixed with bird excrement; which built with human
excrement, removes the bad smell that has, after many days remain dry.

Donkey dung follows this online of good quality fertilizer for trees and plants; although it is not suitable for vines and olive trees and so these trees should be avoided their use, with regard to whether they are cast forth below, they would be born at the foot of them within two or three days plants lousy quality that would hurt a lot. Such as manure must be mixed with another different if necessary to apply to those trees, with as much of human excrement, bird manure, soil, manure or with others. This follows the sheep manure; which it is especially useful for new trees and other fragrant plants, and vegetables that are transplanted from one place to another.

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Know (still the same author) sheep manure is the thickest of all, and therefore the largest fertilizer for, brackish, bitter, hot and sour, and to plants that are in such lands. Then follow the mule and horse manure. The common people prefer dung manure of goats and sheep, and placed after the donkey dung. Experience has made by pig manure and has found that burns a lot the roots of large trees, palms and all kinds of plants; so it is no advantage.

The best manure of all, says Susado, is the pigeon excrement; which continues to manure
The best manure of all, says Susado, is the pigeon excrement; which continues to
manure from other birds, except aquatics. Then he follows, and is the third human
excrement; the fourth is the goat dung; the fifth the sheep; the sixth the one of donkeys;
the seventh cow dung; the eighth horse manure and mule. The remaining following
these are regarded as of equal quality close together, while doubting his nature, or in
them no reason preference is discovered where they are gradually distinguished.
According Kutsámi, these manures are made (or prepare) with straws and ashes,
and rot until being as drug compounds that men use to medicate. With them the tree
heals, palm, vines and all kinds of plants from all calamities and harm; certain remedies
for plants with blood and urine are also provided, as blood has prodigious virtue to
revive (or return) some trees and plants.
ARTICLE I
The way to make manure

According to the Nabathea Agriculture, whoever wants to make profitable manure for trees and plants in general in the appropriate land, and what manure must use to preserve plants made calamities, do some deep ditches (which the more wide and deep they may be, the better it will be), and pouring on any manure it with human excrement, pigeon droppings or manure from other birds (except aquatic and ducks whose manure is unusual in some way), stir all well, by adding a few sheets of marine and branches cabbage, and also black and wet slime of some river or well, and scrambled all with a long stick, so that they are incorporated parts, sprinkle on it some lees and human urine , which it is the best manure especially for vines; and then stir it

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well every day, or three in three days until issued a foul odor, and then when it became black and then stir it well every day, or three in three days until issued a foul odor, and then when I was black, adding ashes of vines and branches, stir and continuously incorporate it every day in the manner stated (whose ashes as it were greater the amount will be much better); and then there is present all mixed, leaving it in the same place, then why is there every day urinate without intermission, till it came to smell very bad and blackened and does not distinguish at sight anything that is separately mixed; in which state I spread it on the ground, and the remainder in the same hole, so that everything is dry, exposed to yesterday; which verified, and reached the end of its perfection.

Such is the manure that fertilized the vines free of calamity; to which repairs, strengthens
Such is the manure that fertilized the vines free of calamity; to which repairs,
strengthens and reserve much damage, by Allah.
Manure for fruit such as pomegranate, hazel, apple, pear, loquat aronio, peach,
apricot, jujube, the sebestén (or serval) and similar trees, whose fruit regardless of cold
quality, is made the same ashes of them and any black mud below, lying above and
stirred well with her, incorporating a lot of dung of wood pigeon and home pigeon and
bat or swallow; which is incorporated with a long stick or wooden paddle until well
mixed, and is infused over camel urine, or men urinate there, stirring continuously until
it is black and rotten.
Then you mix a lot of ancient human excrement of the same color, incorporating
all with shovels, and urinating on it every day until more rotting, smelly contract. For
which purpose the camel urine is better than human; which if there is no hand-over
amount of the camel lie down, adding stems and leaves of radishes; which makes
quickly rot and stink everything involved with it.
After rotten, it stirs up and down continuously, and extends through the land to
be dry or remain with very little moisture; with whose manure covering after the feet of
those trees or similar, it is improved and restored.

Indian dung convenient to round melon and other species of the same figure, the dung is mixed donkey dung and thorn’s ash, often raised in uncultivated land; on whose mothers mixture infused wine, stirring everything so that moisture is incorporated with it, and so is left until it rots and black: in which arrangement will mix other distant land with petite soil, or rising dust from all dusty site; all of which built with shovels, it is

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then thrown into the bottom of the melon; to which plants are sure to benefit and strengthened.

Manure for fig, citrus, almond, alfonsigo, walnut, bitter almond and other trees like warm fruit, consists of dung, of what remains of wheat and barley after the harvest, the dry grass born from these same grains and the tare’s straws and other small plants all of which together is left well spread in the stables (or pens) where cattle is collected so that they wet and dirty it, and stepping on it, it crumble so that it looks like salt and incorporated with dung; and no doubt well and soon rots; whose layout and where it has been blackened, stir with iron shovels or wooden fort, incorporating red earth of good smell; whose whole mixture is left extended so that it remains wipe or very little moisture: and such is the manure with fertilize the above mentioned and similar trees.

Manure generally helpful for all small or large plant, consists of ash from the short
Manure generally helpful for all small or large plant, consists of ash from the
short straw with its roots in the stubble of wheat and barley, thorns, briars, sticks and fig
leaves, adding to this as much dung, and pigeon droppings part, bean’s straw, ! wheat,
and barley, and dry stalks pumpkins, all in the same species and unburned branches and
some sticks and roots of the vines, aquatic moss collected from rivers and the shores of
ponds and ditches, and small straws with its roots torn.
All this together in the trenches as above described, the rainwater it rots (in
which arrangement the peasant people also urinate there); so it will make this water
flow and go to stop in such places being known that such currents cleaned roads
manure, silt, mud, subtle and thick earthy substance, which coming to give in that
manure , there remains; and stagnant water which has been absorbed into the earth turns
what is contained in those trenches, and shaken with sticks to it well built, everything
rots perfectly. It already blackened, and dismissing him a rotten smell, with blade
moves continuously, stirring up a lot until remains incorporated their stay as a mass
party. And such is the useful manure to every tree and plant, and with it all manures,
except melons.

The same blend of old human excrement manure befits cucumbers, pumpkins, turnips, carrots, leeks (or Damascene) and similar plants bred underground, like the roots; Although cucumbers are also fertilized with cow dung, donkey manure and human excrement, all mixed with another portion so soft and good ground.

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Eggplants, the soldanela or sea kale, the common kale (or cabbage), kale, radishes, onions, garlic, and similar wing, fertilized with human excrement mixed donkey dung and ashes, whatever (although it is better willow), adding to this leaves some thin branches and roots of chestnut, and then put everything into the referrals moat, where it infuses and sprinkles fresh water to rot well, stir and pulls there after rotten, extending well spread as trite thing. And this is the manure to the aforementioned levels, which rise and prevail.

Manure for small vegetables such as peppermint, endive, the snakeroot, chard, Nabataean leeks or Chaldeans,
Manure for small vegetables such as peppermint, endive, the snakeroot, chard,
Nabataean leeks or Chaldeans, rocket, cress, taro (or actual basil), purslane, celery and
the like, comprises human excrement, pigeon droppings, donkey dung and cow dung, so
that human excrement is the majority, adding to all the other both good and petite
collected in such places dung and earth; all of which is put together in the trenches
mentioned and therefore any blood that is infused; although better human, the camels
and sheep.
It is also sprayed with fresh water mixing and turning it well so that it is
incorporated; and if any rain before, so and so much stir, corrupted and quickened, and
it incorporates each other to rot and black. After having done silt and dried, mixed with
any tiny dirt or dust it, and thus the mode referred vegetables are fertilized; putted
beside which sustains and makes greening.
Lettuce are fertilized with manure composed of human excrement, pigeon
droppings, chicken manure, lettuce leaves, some swallow manure, tamarisk’s ash,
acacalis and the like; so that one half is of human excrement, and the other of other
things, as a conjectural, not mathematics. All of which put in the mentioned ditch, and
infusing blood (whatever it is) and rain water, is left until blackened, rotten odor
contracted; in which arrangement moves the dry ditch and applies to lettuce manure
through their roots, sprinkling their branches together with the same in the way that
after say, by Allah.

Such are the modes of dung that rot enough to know in this area. Things that occur to rot ferment them is the chairdrek or swallow manure, urine and human blood, which causes things like manure effect on the yeast in the dough; thus benefiting them and increasing their heat strengthening or the rot and make good temperament.

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ARTICLE II

Goodness of manure over time.

According to the Nabathea Agriculture is very good two-year-rotted manure, better three and four that
According to the Nabathea Agriculture is very good two-year-rotted manure,
better three and four that lost its foul odor that smells nothing, is better than all these
manures short time. For this the custom, Kutsámi says that any kind of manure a year
earlier to avail themselves have built and rotten, about which if applied before going
through it a year, hurt; and even after last this time, there is not be perfect quality.
The oldest of three or four years is the most advantageous. The more time is not
used for lack of virtue, having lost force. The damage from that used before the year is
completed, produces bad bugs and worms of various sizes; and sometimes if it is
fertilized with much watering plants, spring water or land and eats feet (or stems)
thereof; so it should not apply until after one or two months, completed the first year.
The manure that came to the five, or that pass this time is not good for anything.
However, it takes place from that manure mixed with powder that brings water from
other land; although this is of better quality. Manure to seven years ago and pure
powder is held by good and substantial land as has been the open; But if any has been
under the same roof under the manure, since it retains its good quality until that time,
and does not become dust to last ten or twelve years.
ARTICLE III
In the way of manure trees and vegetables and manure dust to some of the latter.

All these trees that have been mentioned, says the author of Agriculture Nabathea, foot dug little or much in proportion to his size or smallness, were filled those excavations with any of these manures. But none are given powder; because while all respectively advantage to the trees and plants being at the bottom; but they are harmful

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to the end if they fall on the leaves and branches, particularly fruit and vines; of whose plants to suit any powder but is eggplant, cabbage, sea kale and vegetables generally large; to all of which should dusting lightly with manure out to be particularly small vegetables, and also fertilize the foot with some portion thereof.

In the Nabathea Agriculture it’s refer various opinions about the powder in vineyards; because some say that fill them with manure dust is for them a useful statement about Refer powder various opinions about the vineyards in Agriculture Nabathea; because some say there that fill them with manure dust is for them a useful statement about being this the same as other land bring different place, and thus dust fill them, and helps them fail to bear fruit. Others say that is very worthy dig the earth and put it together; others say that fill much manure dust, they cause extreme damage; others that wont give dust to the vines with manure but just those vegetables and small plants so that it be convenient, mixing before with petite land; which benefits them, and others say that before you must spray water so dust can settle on them.

Susado say, when you have to fertilize the tree’s foots or stem of the others
Susado say, when you have to fertilize the tree’s foots or stem of the others
small plants with these manures, specially warms, do not throw it inmediatly but
bringing and droping first extraño dust of another land to the foot, then you put above
the manure, in the way that it be between two layers of said dust; which follows the one
that mix with manure and in the ruins of deserts houses.

According Sagrit, the land that stops manures warm is brought it from of vacant sites and wilderness for being the most convenient and profitable for all kind of trees and palms, and for all small or corpulent palm. For this places that Sagrit calls wahchiat, understands the same, Abu-Bikara ben says, are the spacious fields where the winds blow a lot. Also says, (this author) that troeing the manure between the two dirt reserves the palms and trees of the damage it could cause surrounding them. Eggplants, cucumbers, cucumbers, melons, and all that we call big vegetables, need the dust and that fertilize in the roots. Adding, says the Nabathea Agriculture, to the big vegetables cabbage, sea kale, chard, lettuce, spinach and cress, first you throw the manure between the dirt before covering with dust, which must be from another good quality land and also the one that mis with the manure and ruins; further the one collected from the jungle and deserts, as Sagrit said. Also it is usual to throw the manure in the water that flow to the vegetables, to introduce it this way in these plant’s root, whose practice has the people as better.

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Many farmers want to make manure while pouring some water on the roots or the skin of trees, and that they are irrigated and manured later, as customary. Nabathea Agriculture says that if the manure retains its strength and roughness even when it dusted the leaves of large trees, are heated much more to give them the sun, which cause burning and chipping them, they loose with this, part of its robustness. ! So vegetables and whole slender plant as the root or foot of the large plants are to be covered jointly of livestock manure: this is befits small plants throw it in the roots and branches, and to the great only in the roots and not on branches or leaves; being this the media that the leaves and branches of large plants receive the utility of manure at the same moment.

ARTICLE IV Of the utility of the manure for the lands and the time that
ARTICLE IV
Of the utility of the manure for the lands and the time that must fertilize,
according to Nabathea Agriculture
The manure, whose quality and utility above mentioned, Sagrit says, are
profitable indifferently of the land where they had, and for the bare of any tree or plant;
because if it is throw in a bad land they abandon it, and if it is good, it make it of better
quality and robustness; and the same happens when to the plants and trees, having them
cover of the bad impression of damage airs, too cold or too hot, dryness and the
corruption of much irrigation. It is also profitable to the moderately good and the fetid
land, some strange accident reduce them to their good temperament. Ultimately, it is
necessary the manure in those kind of sick lands, called thin, source or slimey.
ARTICLE V

The above mentioned manures benefit generally to all corrupted land, and further this common utility has the particularly respective to trees and plant. The weak land of grove and other big or small plants must be fertilize to many times, and still

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must need continuous fertilize from autumn till early spring. Which consists, on that land plowed every two days, the third will take manure for ten, fifteen or twenty, according seem good about the degree to which corruption had come, decline of good quality; since if the amount of manure over usually be increased, this would corrupt both land plants, burning and weakening that and apply these to be necessary to remedy this corruption. Unlike moderate use corresponding amount will not burn in any way soil or plants: so if throwing much manure on a stretch of land so that everything he does seem otherwise, shrink so much strength and heat spoil to many plants to be required to repair such damage that land mix quite another copy quality that benefit, or freshwater irrigation, which produce the same effect, it remove the fortress. It should not need much manure for the earth; whose usefulness is to help the heat of the sun and air, and to oppose to cold or cold excess plants contract from land or water. Manure communicates its usefulness to all united under the tree, palm, vine and other large plants; thus warming the earth until his deep, thence the roots and foot (or stem) from the tree and the plants extends to branches according to the Nabathea Agriculture manure heats the surface of the earth in cold weather which clogging it comes from the air, and also a cold deep warming it in hot weather, causing damage to plants and trees.

According Sagrit, the land of perfect quality, as well continue, you should not need to
According Sagrit, the land of perfect quality, as well continue, you should not
need to fertilize; but and in full amount to his manure, the fetid, as the degree of decline
of good or bad quality. The land between good and bad must have continuous manure,
as we said needed to repair the thin soil of his weakness and be strengthened. Some
manures also have utility ward off insect crops.

Kutsámi says that if mixed with poultry or swallow manure, which is the mochairarek and dried blood, shredded or ground this, the seeds must sown together, mostly in thin soil, weak source or slimeing, is this benefit the same and to plants; whose vegetation and increased also ahead, and preserves them from harmful insects that eat them, such as mice, bugs, worms and other insects that corrupt the seed or take. Whose mixture falling into the ground and receiving slime from tainted water, and the same land that is incorporated, and the same land that is incorporated, and toes or stems of the plants, extending the soil surface and dismisses himself an unpleasant smell of all kinds of birds and to every other kind of bugs such as mice and various insects.

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ARTICLE VI

Of virtue and strength of manure

Some are warm, and other fresh, greasy and soft; and respective use of each species
Some are warm, and other fresh, greasy and soft; and respective use of each
species is done to medicate the earth or ground contrary quality; that is, warm with
whatever fresh or cold , the cold with warm, fat (or juicy) with consumed, and so do the
rest. According to the Nabathea Agriculture, with the warm manure it is composed of
human excrement, of so many parts of pigeon droppings, sheep dung, manure swallows,
turbid oil (so amurca or vegetable water), all mixed up rot and reared in it worms, and
drying after, it fertilize the vines to fought the cold and similar calamities. The soft
manure is he who has no mixture of human excrement or pigeon droppings; but the
compound of cow dung and manure of sheep along with the small dust of the dunghills.
When you need, says Kutsámi, aggressive and strong manure, mix them with
ashes of warm things, and so shrink too hot and such quality; as ash peppermint,
jasmine, canines roses of axedréa (or wild serpol) real basil and celery, which has
special and prodigious virtue for this effect. From whose ashes, or other similar warm
plants, it is used, mixing, rotten and incorporating them with the manure. And these are
the ones that must be applied to the affected plants from the cold and similar calamities.
The thick manure, also called sweet, consists of manure, straw vegetables, green leaves
and plants mucilaginous part of them.

Cold quality manure is made by mixing and rotting with him as much leaves, sticks and roots of two species of wild poppy and Hortense as could collect. It is also said that rotten it with human excrement, manure donkey and cow dung, is made of all this a profitable manure to every overwhelmed of calamity from strongly heat plant, or of that disease called hictericia or combustion usually happens to trees and vegetables by the burning of certain high winds; for which purpose it is, by Allah, in a useful and powerful virtue, as cold and juicy manure make up, you can see it in the ARTICLE of rice seed; and how hot manure in the sowing chard.

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ARTICLE VII

With these warm manures you won’t fertilize the vines because it burns their roots nor contract that disease that dries the fruit. For every tree or plant that don’t suffer the burning manure has to appeal to them instead of, rotten straws, edible grains and livelihood; of which the more convenient and useful to the vines is the beans, barley and wheat without them prove to be feared that the vines of scorching manure.

Abu-Abdullah-Mohamed-Ibn-Ibrahim-Ibn-el-Fasel and the wise Abu-el-Jair and others say, that animal manure that is made to
Abu-Abdullah-Mohamed-Ibn-Ibrahim-Ibn-el-Fasel and the wise Abu-el-Jair and
others say, that animal manure that is made to agricultural use, are seven species, which
offer testify later. The condition of manure in general is to be warm and juicy; in the old
stands latter quality rather than new, and in this most the first. That latter manure, not to
be good, no use is made until last a year or more; but if the necessity compels him to
make it ferment mix it with pigeon droppings or ash, which also has the virtue to cause
the same effect on him; whose manner of composition will be discussed onwards, by
Allah.
Manure from all species of pigeons and francolin are extremely hot and dry,
both old and new; with which cure the plants of the damage occurred from the cold.
Offended plants from the heat, are cured with human excrement. Manure moisten
parched ground, loose hard (or thick), warms the cold, in the exhausted thick, and does
best quality. Straws beans, barley and wheat together or by themselves or rotten, are soil
fertilizer.
ARTICLE VIII
Of the birds manure

These, according to Abu-el-Jair, are deadly poison for the plants, except pigeon droppings; which leads to all, and is by nature too hot and dry; While Abu-Abdallah- Ibnel-Fasel denied the quality of dry, attributing the excessively warm and very humid. ! According to Abu-el-Jair, manure from aquatics birds, chickens and geese is harmful to plants; and with the pigeon droppings it vegetate, grow quickly and the same rise, if the

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cold or ice has been delayed after the born; in which are repaired throwing it dissolved in the water with which it is irrigated. It is also suitable for every tree and vegetables, and is prodigious virtue for Alena and olives.

According to Abu-Abdallah-Ibn-el-Fasel, it is help for plants stunned by the force of cold, throwing it crumbled into the water with which it is irrigated. Which has only executed if necessary. It is said that also avails the flimsy ground, and by its very hot belongs to the second class of advantaged manure. Kastos says that all poultry manure, ducks, among others, avails every tree, lentil seed and fertilize it with him. But the most effective and removes to them and to the other plants the calamity which they have contracted, is the pigeon droppings by force of its heat. And this is where it says that Tasmid is the same that fertilize. Accodring to Nabathea Agriculture, the pigeon dung, turtle dove and wood pigeon birds are equal in quality.

It is made used of the human excrement from the sewer according to Abu-el- Jair,
It is made used of the human excrement from the sewer according to Abu-el-
Jair, dry and crumbled. It is warm, moist and fibrous nature; or moderately warm with
these two qualities, believes Abu-Abdallah-Ibn-el-Fasel. The rotten is said to be cold
and wet; whose ultimate quality is, according to Abu-el-Jair, rotten in the sewer. Abu-
Abdallah and others say, that human excrement is good for summer vegetables like
squash, eggplant, purslane, onions, soldanela, amaranth and henna; for whose plants
have special virtue and lettuce; and also it has unique and wonderful for the palms.
It dissolved in the pond water with the vegetables are irrigated in the hot season
is very convenient, useful, and nothing harmful to them; and applied equally to many
arid parched withered plants or heat, they quickly cause the beneficial effect they need .
They say that human excrement is better manured to fertilize the land, being the
warmest manure and that ends more harmful to the sowing plants. It is said that offends
olives; but it is very useful to the vineyards, and online advantage belongs to the third
class, or follows of the pigeon droppings.

The manure of sheep, goats, camels, deer and dry rubbed down the block where livestock is gathered, they have each other (according to Abu-el-Jair) affinity. They are hot and humid and below pigeon droppings. ! Of them it does not use, unless rotten and after dead the grass seeds that had. because without being so, would these be harmful when they got to be born; and it will be more profitable and better for the earth benefit it with them before sowing of wheat and pulses. Also good benefit them brittle, loose and

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waste ground. They mixed with some other manure and rotten, they are good for them as it is fertilized, either vegetables or other species of plants.

According Kastos, the best of these manures is the white sheep and goats; then it is the cow dung. The camel is useful as is fertilized with him, mixed with ash. It is said that goat manure is hot in fourth grade; the sheep is less strong than him and then follows the cow dung.

Pig manure is, according to Abu-el-Jair, poor quality and a deadly poison for the plants.
Pig manure is, according to Abu-el-Jair, poor quality and a deadly poison for the
plants. It's bad, says another author, for every plant is fertilized with him, except the
bitter almonds, which in this way becomes sweet. Manure of animals such as horses,
donkeys and mules, says Abu-el-Jair, are of a kind, hot and humid nature. Although
significant, they are inferior in quality to those above mentioned and use them as they
become, before cleaning to straws, dry grass, stones, bones and the like that are mixed.
But according to Ibn Abu-Abuj Dalah-the-Faselalthough manure worthy of
appreciation, should not be applied but simple and after cleaning and rotten in the
winter, unmixed with other, tables or pictures of pumpkins, eggplants, cucumbers and
similar plants; and properly apply juicy (or recent) according to his natural disposition.
Kastos says that the best manure is the one of donkeys and then the mule and
horses. Others claim that the latter beast is best, as it simple and pure unmixed with
anything. But this author add be of good quality, if it mix warm manure. It also says that
the mixture of manure from cattle and sheep, camels and birds is the best with the olive
manures, and the same manure compound of garbage from homes; which although less
than that, is however, according to Abu-el-Jair, good for trees, vegetables and crops, as
it is rotten, loose and clean, and has been a year for him. It has special virtue for
purslane called farfán, for yarbúz (or amaranth) to the sarmak (or armuelles) to cabbage
or carnab, for halimo or similar plants.

The compound manure, says Abu-Abdallah Ibn-el-Fasel, is hot, humid, brackish and rubbery; and some of it is equal to much other. But it is not used until one year of its composition and after having cleaned; for otherwise produce weeds and pests noxious to the plants that were surrounding to these or to those. Even the best and the most profitable manure to the land are not much but after they passed one year. Who passes on this time is of regular virtue; and well over within two years. They say the three is the most adventageous of all. To rotten fast and benefit, say some, to be added as a third part of new sand; and others to sixth pigeon droppings ash. This is nothing

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more, according Abuel-Jair, than manure mixing with ash and debris from the rooms, which is brackish, dry and lacking in moisture, and applies only to give freedom to the thick earth, or expand their pores if it be of this quality or rough. It is not convenient for vegetables, neither use it alone is good, but passed it after a year or more, so that moistening the air becomes less brackish and warm. Before corrupt and rotten has special virtue to kill insects that are born on earth as the worms called tarthán, and others of a similar nature that corrupt the stems of plants.

According to Abu-Abdallah Ibn-el-Fasel, pigeons ash for being dry and brackish reserves the roots of
According to Abu-Abdallah Ibn-el-Fasel, pigeons ash for being dry and brackish
reserves the roots of the land the damage caused to them vermin that breed in gardens
and other places, like worms and insects, making her tables beds of the thickness of the
palm up and throwing manure after planting the seed in those tables; for seeing the
animals lying under ash plants, fleeing from it, which is like an intermediate fence
between them and plants.
Ash gives freely to the thick ground until soften; and it is said that it takes the
cold to hot to all that is fertilized with her. June quoted in the work of Ibn-Hajaj says
that the ash is better than all the manure for vegetables. And the reason is, because being
subtle and very warm by nature, feeding off them, also kills worms and other insects
that are born in the land of manure or other things. But Ibn-Hajaj feels that June’s
review wraps error (or wrong); because the ash being exceedingly dry lacks moisture,
and it is still hot; and so when spread over land to reach the point of exhaustion,
attenuated and lose some of their moisture, producing no other effect proper
consideration to kill the insects and worms; for which reason should throw it on the
ground, mixed juicy rotten manure to remove it dryness damage.
It is the opinion of Cassius, that the best thing that vegetables are fertilized is ash
because of the heat, and that kills the worms and herbs. Online after convenience pigeon
droppings follows, provided it is not in a large quantity; and so sheep manure; that
outside these manures use of others only when force you to dip into them the need and
in order that the manure cannot be wet about what produce insects and worms.

According to Nabathea Agriculture, sheep dung and cow dung are good for sows; the beat’s for trees, and human excrement for palms. The pigeon excrement is, according others books doctrin, profitable to all kind of trees; and if it is mixed with the seed, this is sown with it at the low moisture land, it is really helpful for the sown; as it is not good for the dry lands. Also it is used some manures; which are applied when you

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cannot find the common others: and Abu-Abdalah, Ibn-el-Fasél and Abu-el-Jair explain the way to do it.

They say that joining the chaff from the ground of lofts and dry grass, put all together in a pit proportionally to the quantity, mixing with it ash and also earth; as Abu-el-Jair say. And cover with some of this latter, spray it with hot water if it is possible, or with cold water till the rain season; and also if it could be, with human urine; and leaving it after it passes a year, then it cut and stir a few times, and clean of stones or other things that hath mixed, stirring much; which contributes to its early rotting and recollection, and to dismiss to bad vapors; whose manure used after the year is desirable, not only to the vegetables in all seasons, but also and more profitable for trees and olive trees. The manure is composed of more power than this, believes Abu- Abdallah Ibn-el-Fasel.

Other way of manure Put variety of mixed manure in a pit with ash above
Other way of manure
Put variety of mixed manure in a pit with ash above and drained all the sweet
water, stir sometimes till it rot; which is a really good olive and lavender manure. So it
is to the fields, if a load is added and incorporated it three earth.
Other way
Take, says Abu $ Abdalah $ Ibn $ el $ Fasél ,0 a0 freight0 of0 manure0 compound;0 or0 according0

another0 author0 says,0 any0 manure0 that0 is0 a0 load0 or0 m ore,0 and0 mix0 with0 three0 goals0 of 0 land, 0 and0 according0to0Abu $ el $ Jair,0a0part0of0ash0and0sand;0all0of0which0cut0and0 well0incorporated0in0this0way0 l et0 it0 go0 through0it0a0year, 0 and0 spray0it0 sometimes0with0hot0or0cold0water0if0any0rained;0as0well0as0 cutting0it0 sometimes0 bec omes0 a0 very0 kind0 and0 applicable0 to0 all0 land0manure0 or 0 plant0 that0 needs0 fertilizer. 0

Other

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Take, says Abu-Abdalah-Ibn-el-Fasél, a load of pigeon droppings and twenty of earth, according to Abu-el-Jair, another from olive pits, and mixed everything, cut it sometimes; and so all this will become a good manure and prodigious quality, helpful to trees and vegetables that fertilized with it, passed a year. I have had experience in manure, says Kasros, one thing that does not make mention of the Nabatheos or other is that having used the ash of burnt common manure, found to be the perfect quality and fertilizer for trees and vegetables. And it seems to me that pigeon’s ash that may have been burned manure will be of equal quality.

It is the opinion of some authors, according to Abu-Abdallah-Ibn-el-Fasel, that do not use the
It is the opinion of some authors, according to Abu-Abdallah-Ibn-el-Fasel, that
do not use the manure before it àssed a year. But whoever wants to use it before having
reached the time, collecting the appropriate amount of manure, spread equally in one
place, and doing among different shallow holes throw in each pigeon droppings of
which have a part to twenty or more manure, and covered pits with the same, leave it for
a month, and will be collected to the point of being like three years. I put together an
evening manure of cattle, garbage room, black earth soil of dung and ash compound and
spread throughout a large wattle of reeds on the ground, after having rained cut with
shovels while still retaining that humidity, wiping stones and other things that had
mixed.
Thus gathered in heaps, and stepped well, and a few days after having
scrambled, were found everything to break and crumble their piles in the same color and
constitution as the pigeon droppings, and exhaling that same smell. In this arrangement
I took to him an average small charge each of olives large trunk, and to the medium or
small, fewer, and I saw that it was this much advantage having thrown the fruit very
early and much abundance; whose operation having executed many consecutive years,
always found convenient, and that little of this was equivalent to a lot of manure simple.
ARTICLE IX

Manure time by the Arabic months

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In the Nabathea Agriculture, says that it is not convenient fertilize the sow, palm, tree or any small plant on the first day of the month or after until passed the full moon. And then fertilize the land and each plant, in the waning of the moon or since the tenth or sixth day of the lunar month till de last. But the vines say they have to fertilize in crescent moon in the early to mid-month; of whose practice, find it useful manifest and not hidden, like the night of the full moon appears in plants, both in strength and increase them as the most elegance and good view: which would not happen if this were done waning moon.

ARTICLE X Manure time by the solar year will be discussed later in their respective
ARTICLE X
Manure time by the solar year will be discussed later in their respective
ARTICLEs and the general chapter, insha Allah.
ARTICLE XI
As was said above, some trees and vegetables do not suffer manure and others
suffer. Trees and vegetables that do not suffer, nor need, nor prosper with him, are,
according to Nabathea Agriculture, walnut, hazel, acácalis, the Syriac carob, oak,
chestnut, laurel, cypress, wild olive trees, which gives the fruit very often, the rose and
similar plants, which in itself is much raised in the forests, and are rough and coarse
nature, and to which also appropriate thick and rough land. Such plants have no need for
manure; because although they fail you fertilize with manure any of the aforementioned,
but not for this it is necessary even if it is omitted and raising robust as agreeing to these
trees the warm earth, hard and whitish, have no need of frequent cultivation although
this does not stop benefit them, if they are applied.

Nor has need of manure, as Kutsámi, any oily tree, although the manure advantage it, and nothing will harm. And such are those who receive the insert of other trees that do not suffer manure as the root, jasmine, citrus, orange and muse. The trees that lose manure, and this is poison to them, are quince, cherry, apple, rose, laurel, pine, apricot and all four rubber trees (or aromatic). Fragrant plants, also losing manure, are

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the muse, Almoraduz, violet, peppermint, the arraihan and real basil; and vegetables, radishes, turnips and carrots. Trees suffering manure are olive, fig, almond, palm, pear, pomegranate, jujube, the alfonsigo and the like.

and carrots. Trees suffering manure are olive, fig, almond, palm, pear, pomegranate, jujube, the alfonsigo and

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CHAPTER III

Water species with trees and vegetables are irrigated; and which corresponds to each of these
Water
species
with
trees
and
vegetables
are
irrigated;
and
which
corresponds
to
each
of
these
species.
In
what
way
have
opened
the
wells
(or
wells)
in
the
gardens,
and atraillar (or match) the earth so that water can run and watering all.
Refer
signs
where
it
is
known
if
the
water
is
near
or
far
from the surface of the earth, and everything else on this matter.
Describes in Agriculture Nabalthea, held that drinking water is called sweet, and
in which no flavor whatsoever stands, and whose sweetness is certain blandness.
Crappy bitter water; then the salt, and lately in projecting the taste of any mineral.
According to Abu-el-Jair, six water species; of which the sweet is lighter and more
convenient to nurture men and plants. The rain water is a blessing, is good for irrigation
thin plants such as crops and legumes, vegetables and all that rises above a stem, and
whose root person was at ground level; and also for irrigation and to increase the
transplanted trees. According to Abu-Abdallah Ibn-Fasel, it is the most significant and
excellent water, and with it for its sweetness and humidity prevails every plant, and so
cabbage (or cabbage), the oraches, eggplants and the like.

The fresh and crystal clear water of the rivers, says Abu-el-Jair, water is good for all vegetables like squash, eggplant, garlic, onions, leeks and all kinds of vegetables Lawn, and for some field crops such as flax and every kind of fragrant seed and caraway, cress, and the like. For these vegetables it is much needed water from the rivers as has been manured them much; and also for many vegetables that have weak roots and earth flower; which they have need much water and manure back and more prevalent with river water to a different.

Says Abu-Abdallah Ibn-el-Fasel, the water of the rivers is of various nature on drying, moisture or roughness; and taking the soil moisture * need the flimsy vegetables, which they were watered with it, lots of copy manure as a result.

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* This seems repugnant to the nature of water. But it is not because she stop absolutely moisten the earth; but because leaving sandstone puts state after losing all or much of the moisture. Trying to this subject says Herrera: "Because the water destroys and dissipates much land, that the flower she wears, "Leaving only sand, earth and stiff and hard and hardened, so the land is irrigated has need much manure, and even remake of good land." Lib. 4 c. 4, p. 183.

The brackish and bitter, as he says, are good for some vegetable gardens as carfah
The brackish and bitter, as he says, are good for some vegetable gardens as
carfah or purslane (otherwise called) Rijlat or bákalat el-yemániat or yarbúz, for bakálat
el-dsahábiat, or spinach, to lettuce, endives, violets from invading the halimo (or
salgada) and similar plants. They are also good for watering flax, pumpkins, eggplants,
henna, basil species and ocimo, and the like.
The freshwater sources said Abu-el-Jair, is good for watering all planted in the
gardens; plants outside mentioned before. According to Abu-Abdallah Ibn-el-Fasel, this
water and wells are suitable for vegetables and large underground root, as long carrots
and turnips; whose plants are raised them only with perfect quality. Moisten or not such
land (plants) with rainwater; but the wells and fountains is in the rigor of the cold
shakes vegetables, if then regasen with it; which healthy breeding.
Vegetables as they have necessary spring water in three seasons of the year, (to
wit), in the winter, autumn and spring. In the winter vegetables such water shaking with
moisture and subtlety, the heated watering them also with her then. For which reason
the absence thereof must fertilize more copy of manure. It is also consistent advantage
received by watering them with such water vegetables in the fall and spring seasons.
Salt water, says Abu-el-Jair, which is that salt freezes, and seawater, are not
good for watering a plant; before losing all tree species and vegetables. I add, water
from iron ore, alcribite, copper and the like, are not suitable for plants; and so the best is
the sweet as aforesaid.

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ARTICLE I.

Signals where it is known if the water is near or far from the surface of the earth.

One of the signs, they say, to whoever wants to attend open the gun well
One of the signs, they say, to whoever wants to attend open the gun well is to
plant species that produces the earth; to the color, flavor and odor of the surface of this;
and the rest that were then say, by Allah. It is said in the Nabathea Agriculture
in the plains and foothills of the mountains where there is plenty of water near
the surface of the earth, a certain juiciness which clearly perceives the touch and sight
appear to way
slime or dew, especially the first and last hour of the day; and so when wilt make
sure that you take a little dust, with which, if dusting the surface of some stones of the
mountain and of the earth itself, and watching for water, thou shalt see that there has
been moistened, is this sign that the water in that hill is near the surface of the earth;
because according to the copy of it in him and his closeness to the surface, it will be the
lot
that dust moisture; which will be little or dimly wet, if the water is low at this
site, or far off. Keep this understanding, which is also known for water in the caves of
the mountains by the murmur is heard of it; and also it is shown by the same powder
quality the surface of the earth, smooth, rough or different disposition.

Also, as to the ordinary fat that shall appear on the surface of the earth, or the lack of this fat, which is the outer aridity know, that if the surface is watching sees be the fatness of the earth dark colored or very dusty on the site of exploration, the water is nearby, if it happens it; and also that this is a land of water, and contains much at its center and depth. But if being viscous, black, thick is found, amassing a little dust, this gummy be even much more water is contained therein; and if harsh, arid surface, be understood that the lack of water is much greatly.

Also, if you saw the lumps of the surface are loose each other, and very arid, and besides this the dark color of the surface is a tie for light colored straw, assumes,

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missing in the land the water entirely. If you see the color of the lumps that are in the arid land is so dry mud alfahareros, know that such land lacks water; and if the mud from their land regardless as mentioned, this is the safest short of moisture and water signal.

About know the immediacy or distance from this for the taste and smell of dust, dig a hole in the land of cubit deep, and taking from the depths of some and putting it to soak in fresh water in a clean glass, try on after and examine again and palate; whose taste, whether bitter strip indicates that such land lacks the water at all, and the same if pulled to a sharp brackish; but if this light that barely taste it may be perceived, it is not far from water, and the very close to the surface if there is no such flavor is; and the same area of the plain of the earth indicates the tie to off-flavor.

Dust that also smells; and if the water surface is far from the short side,
Dust that also smells; and if the water surface is far from the short side, there
was found to smell the same way that land has extracted streams and rivers where water
run continuously. Also, the smell like rotten eggs or thing shown to be near water. The
author Nabathea Agriculture, Abu-Abdallah Ibn-el-Fasel and Abu-el-Jair say in their
respective works, which is also shown to have water in the spring near land, cypress,
turpentine, or turpentine trees, brambles and small thorns in it give suck. Abu-Abdallah-
Ibn-el-Fasel said, the latter plant is called Halabi; and according to Agriculture
Nabathea, especially the small hawthorn is indicante water plant, regarding the big rises
in her troubled and distant land, and the small and thin in the damp earth that has a
shallow depth.

The tamarisk, the Papyro or junk India, zumanque, yellow dock, plantain breeding sites that are both wet and brackish, the reeds, the drunk, the pennyroyal, chamomile, marshmallow, maidenhair well called Tarchia -wichan, the rush, the program, the actual sweet clover or clover, the infernal fig, reed mats that are made, the malca, the clover or trefoil born in the meadows, the lowest knapweed, and small always-alive ; all these plants and the like, although breeding in damp places little water; but its robustness, plenty of leaves, branches and roots, and permanent green water back manifest in the interior of the earth where are born, and so its proximity to the surface; and vice versa. Also the reeds and grass are indicative of nearby freshwater; a copy in the center of the earth especially stations indicated in summer and autumn, according Kutsami the crowd and firmness of the roots that remain on this same land.

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According to Nabathea Agriculture and other books, one of the signals which shows and knows the area and taste of the water is, which made a hole about three cubits deep, especially in the land who produces the first mentioned plants, eaten a glass of copper or lead a way to accommodate large bowl of ten or nearly ten pounds which according to some is to be mud, and by way of a ball half, according to the Agriculture Nabathea, and twenty Fitted site and a pound of water, and taking a well-washed wool vellonde until absolutely remain taste of anything, lean and dry it is tied with wire in the middle of the vessel or to one side inside, without being able to touch the ground put the cup upside down; for which they say has to be smeared inside with melted tar, fat or butter, especially if mud; which admits of no doubt.

Then they say that since the sun, this glass is placed face down in the
Then they say that since the sun, this glass is placed face down in the depths of
that hole and be covered with fresh grass and earth like an cubit, or land only to be a full
hole; and that if I removed this morning before the sun rise, and recording the bare glass
wool, this wet he were soaked in water, it is a sign of having close at that site; if only
moist and juicy, which is the medium; and if another provision, which is distant from
the site; and if you found that lean, there is no water at all, or that there is filed under
hard rock where cannot copy a lot of water, however there maybe.
Also water wool indicates proven to taste the taste of water in that place;
because it is similar or almost similar. All of which having proved and experienced,
says Abu-Abdallah Ibn-el-Fasel, we have found as to what the authors report. And
about knowing the taste of water from the well before opening, we have also seen that if
the site where you want to open a hole in one cubit deep is made, and taking from the
depths of him a piece of land you put this in a large bowl or pot of new green with fresh
water as rain or other similar, or well in which it is dissolved, and allowed to stand there
until the next day; if tested after that freshwater is found, the same flavor is what would
in that place, and this proportion if it were different flavor.

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ARTICLE II.

The way to open wells in gardens and homes.

Says Abu-el-Jair and others, round bottom, and extended through the opening well known for Arabic,
Says Abu-el-Jair and others, round bottom, and extended through the opening
well known for Arabic, and blind in both parts whatever the latter figure. It happens that
the round hole of the bottom water contains more prolonged, as the roundness is
equivalent to that length, by reason of being wider mouth.
Describes in Agriculture Nabathea that if doing well last saw land, do wider than
usual; and narrow, if the earth were loose or soft. I discovered the source of water, a jug
of it to be taken if proven there is found to taste sweet, work should be continued; or
suspend a little, if there be found another flavor. Like that back then, and if that truly
altered taste brackish'll throw it, it ceases to work for it without taking it. Though it be
bitter salt, cover the pot until the next day, then turns to him to finish blinding. The deep
well, says Abu-el-Jair, big mouth yourself, in this form or proportion. If depth is five
states, or ten yards, the rim has sixteen feet long, so that it enters the plane and two
cubits, leaving out nine spans.

If deeper, more become the curbstone to manifest major figure in the circle of twelve hands. Kutsámi says that if digging the well few springs or springs be discovered and as contained or entrained water, and wilt this in greater abundance, do the digging too deep without neglecting or omitting to do what was said above on this subject. If you want to increase either water, you do another well off, but not next to each other, up to find that, as shallower cubit and a half than the first, by then another something separate well and shallower cubit after of water found, concluding the operation to make a fourth well, so that the former is deeper than each of them; whose waters gathering in that communication ducts must made in the background, to come to double that of the first and principal.

Says Abu-Abdallah-Ibn-el-Fasel, if the springs in the well come by between little stones, water flows abundantly of them; with less force, if sand; and if by persistent or packed earth, not out but by slime. One of the things that greatly increase

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water springs or foreign sources, which is good also do little water wells, is to take a little common salt by measure, and last night watchman in the open mixed other both phlegm taken from a dry river, then sprinkle in the morning venerate, or throw it in the pot every day only seven scattered handfuls; fact which clearly is the water flow more abundantly. Other than that, if you want to dig into the well to increase with the water by this means, ask yourself this when they come down or sit waters in September and October before the rainy season in the seventh, twenty-one and twenty- Two lunar month.

Says Abu-Abdallah-Ibn-el-Fasel and others who seek to do well in the top of the garden
Says Abu-Abdallah-Ibn-el-Fasel and others who seek to do well in the top of the
garden or vegetable garden near the door or in the middle of it, if possible; the first for
which there can be watering all; and second, that those who go in, you have immediate.
The well is open in the months of August, September or October based on the quality of
the land from which any immediate to the place, its depth and back water, or signs
which they shall show any.
Excavators when they bring up water, take out and continue their work to find it
in abundance. If in the depths of the pit give into hard, yellow, slightly moist soil,
something tight to white, yellow or white tie to call almothbal, water will be low. Also,
if the land of the depths of the pit regardless thick or stony, or manare water by way of
slime sides to sparingly and not then, caves to break that covered the springs and reach
the water flowing through between the little stones. He says the author of Agriculture
Nabathea, that if in the stone pit to prevent the excavation is discovered, it lights the fire
to break with the force of its heat and smoke.

Abu-el-Jair, that's well done quickly rather than slowly in the soft earth says; and if ark shall need, be it twenty feet long and twelve wide; of which the smallest should have twelve feet long and five feet wide. If you recelareis says Nabathea Agriculture, which is in the pit evil vapors that deter entry to the jobs that have to be made in it, this will be known within getting hung a lighted candle; which if not I'll put, it is a sign that is free from them; and if otherwise, they stir the air with a big blanket or any such thing (what is known) will be extracted, tucking inside tied a rope and pulling hurry towards the mouth, and lowering the same way to the depths repeatedly; running this same by many and some blankets, regardless if the well width, depending on the area any. After which the test is done with the candle, and if this does not go off, it indicates that those evil vapors and vanished.

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Or do yourself a bundle of reeds or such a thing provided the scope of the barrel of the well, and putting his hands on some tied to a string in the depths of it with restless movement, upload it to his mouth, then let it fall headlong into the depths, If they wish to grind there as anything, still moved or shaken that way going up and down, and down and up; and then dropping slowly into the depths of the well, then upload it rapidly. And this is the way to extract the bad vapors well stand up to the wellhead ten men or more, depending on the scope of its circumference, having hands full glasses of cold water and place ten pounds each and pouring them all together and even time, immediately stir the air with what we said, or something similar, and so will the vapors, by Allah.

It is said that water sheds that there must be very hot, and then plugging
It is said that water sheds that there must be very hot, and then plugging the
wellhead with a thick cloth, removed this then come away vapors. It is also said, that
getting repeatedly into the pit some glasses filled with straw burning and smoking, the
vapors go along with the smoke.
Says Abu-el-Jair in every state or every two yards of rope to the waterwheel
there are five aqueducts, pails or buckets, and that the more were teeth on the small
wheel together with the greatest circulates said rope, this will become lighter and lighter
machine, and so if the crossbar post was long; which harms not nearly thirty or twenty
feet.
Easy course that is also given to the double rope to cut off the right post what
stands above the crossbar Horatio; and the same if the slices are or where lie the heavy
wooden were aqueducts; for which purpose they have to be thicker and heavier than
usual, with respect to that effect is achieved as well. They say that to hinder the meeting
of the steps of the ladder with the aqueducts in the well water is made to each of these in
the background a small hole, thereby swaying, are free to break with each other, or the
expansion of the well; which also emptied to stop the rope, for this reason it lasts a long
time.

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ARTICLE III.

The way to level the ground with the instrument called the-marhifal (or pendulum) or another so that the water flow through it.

This instrument is well known, said Abu-el-Jair; and mode match with it the earth is
This instrument is well known, said Abu-el-Jair; and mode match with it the
earth is this. Look straight three or four sticks of equal length on a table shaped table
with their bases also equal, and placing the right one without decline near the wellhead
or the tapping of the pond or pool from which to draw any water for irrigation, will be
the second front and away from him, and so the third, and the fourth in the ends of the
pipe that desires to match with the wellhead or with the runner pond. These sticks are to
be distant from each other equally, and their bases were loaded with stones or anything
like that do not fall or twist. Then I pulled a thin, very strong cord from the head first to
the last, this instrument of him hangs in the middle of the first two sticks; and if looking
to lead assay balance, falls on this perpendicular line dividing into two halves that
instrument, the portion of pipe comprehended between these two poles is the same; and
if either declines towards either of these same rights or perpendicular sticks, it comes
from that part of the depression, and the elevation of the other; whose inequality is
removed soil from the site taking up and throwing more at the lowest up to equalize and
drop the thread level or assay or on the dividing line through the middle that instrument,
and was all the same. The same operation is performed between each two of the other
clubs. And matched the land to the place at this level, it will serve the land from shore
to where any of conduct water remains lower than the immediate to the wellhead or
runner, at least six fingers on extension hundred cubits, which is the measure that sets
Filemon in his book of the Directorate of waters.

Levels gives the land in this way, it also matches well with the astrolabe. Get to the wellhead or a table runner pond same, and stand in it the instrument so that its end or tip up and drop one of the two holes in the sides to the part of the wellhead or tapping the pond, and the other to where it was intended to go water. Then take a table or square wood and in one of his paintings make up and down a large, together circles, of a size and in the same series; or go forth therein different signals with anything any to hand, so

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clear that the viewer can see them from afar, and look after this table, or tree stand, without turning or to decline any of the posts to be equalized to give effect to the water.

Put those circles in front of the astrolabe, the man put his cheek between the tapping of the pond and the astrolabe, which itself approaching, look through the hole he has at his side, and the other will face towards the circles given color straight line, until the hearing, which will tightly and equally by those two holes at the ends, to play in one of such circles; which known and noticed by their color or distinctive sign, going after him will be known as far from the surface of the land at the site where it is secured that post; and therefore that this elevation is the same as has the hump of land from the tapping of the pond.

Thus at that post the lift as it is necessary to lower removing land from
Thus at that post the lift as it is necessary to lower removing land from there to
throw in the low place until entering the line of sight of the viewer through the two
holes in the sides of the astrolabe, is known to reach in the first circle of those close to
the surface of the earth, which is the signal to get just the intermediate site and from the
tank to said pole stick. The same operation continues both front and sideways left and
right in proportion to the distance of the sites; and the intermediate pipe equals earth
moving higher up room for the low end there pave ground space is wanted. And these
are the maximum that among other similar Filemon brings in his book of the Directorate
of waters.
Astrolabe other is pulled through a long table in a side with a thread in a straight
line, and making two holes at both ends, in either two rings of iron nailed equal in width
and elevation, so that their eyes come down facing each other on the line; which use the
same instrument Astrolabe by pulling the eye between the eyes of the rings toward that
same suit is made.

Also take astrolabe instead of two tiles and placing one's back on the floor, the other is placed on top so that it is formed both as a conduit drilled; and looking through the top hole in the side of the runner to the other, hence the post, the rest was said above is executed. Equaled the earth, as applicable, are identified and open it in the usual distances corresponding ditches along the tables, ensuring that they are lower.

The pictures must be leveled well, so they are not lower or higher than the top of the bottom; lucky because otherwise the water would take from that to this the seeds and manure. According to Abu-Abdallah-Ibn-el-Fasel, the picture should be twelve

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cubits long and four wide, (whose measure is always understood to be mentioned in this work); although it is not bad to be smaller. If you want to ditch out right from the tapping of the pond (ie any other) takes three stakes size wilt and setting one on earth with that site so that it was like a foot, nail on his right the second by the wall of the pool at a distance cubit or more of the other, and left put last just as the first, and an equal distance from it to the second.

After taking a slender thread, made a loop at one end, and start one of
After taking a slender thread, made a loop at one end, and start one of the two
side poles extrude it to the other and tie a knot right there, and he grabbed figure half
circle on the left; and then moving to the same stake loop, the thread extends to the
other where it was before, and half circle to the right another figure, so that both come
to be in front of the stick from the middle to the runner.
After tying a rope loose bat Environment from the runner, spread it to where
they are or touch the two circles, and likewise the stretch from this point of assembly
without separating it from him; as well it goes straight to the term you would. You do
the same operation respectively to include ditches must exit the other.

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CHAPTER IV

About the Orchards and the disposition or order of the plantations of trees on them,
About the Orchards and the disposition or order
of the plantations of trees on them, according to the book
where Ibn-Hajáj works this subject.
According Junio to the orchards of seedling must be chosen, the places with a lot
of water, close to the owners house, if it is possible, so it is appropriate to keep the air
healthy, and the same to the eyes of the specters, beside the happiness that causes lay
the eyes on them. Won´t be plant the trees mixed, but with separations between each
species, because the sturdy don’t take violently the irrigation that will decay on the
weak. Also the distance between the plants must be proportional in virtue of the quality
and sturdiness of the land; in which matter, with the grace of Allah, will face latter.
According the same Junio and Kastos, it must be know, that the plants putted
from seed are commonly the weakest of all; very good the transplanted; and the best are
the trees plant by branch. Kastos, that concurs with this on Junio, adds, that each species
of trees must be plant with his similar, and not with those of contraire or different
nature; and that not even the smalls must be with the tall, because giving this big
shadows and covering with it the small neighbors, will hurt them by taking away or
avoiding their sturdiness.

According Casio, the best spot for the orchard, is flat that allows to irrigate having water in the high spot. Good possession is, say some farmers, the one from every tree that can be irrigate in the summer; the ones must be cleaned by hand from the offshoots that will grow at the feet or around, when they are early before getting hard, until they begin to give branches so in this way all the strength finish in there or the nutritive juice that causes that freshness.

The tree that rise twisted straighten, says other author, with sticks or cords, until already harden they persevere straight; from which they are very susceptible while young. Also they must be served with manures several times.

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Look preferably, says Abu-el-Jair and others, for orchards and gardens the best kind of ground, which underground water is very sweet, and regular, besides this; it will pave before plating equating later so the water will on all over it at the moment of irrigation; that if is executed after the plantation of the trees, they will show some roots, what will damage them. The orchids, been possible, must be facing at east, and in them will be put the trees by order on straight lines; in which the big ones won’t be plant with the ones that weren’t , and those that become naked with those that don’t from their leaves, been this more gentleness and beauty. Of this last kind must be plant close of the door and the pond the laurel, the myrtle, cypress, pine, cedar, jasmine, the orange, the zamboa, lemon, madroñera and those similar.

The pines must be plant where is of dense shadow, and also in the middle
The pines must be plant where is of dense shadow, and also in the middle of the
orchard; and the streets, angles or corners from squares, cypresses. In that way close of
the well and pond or pool must be plant rowans, margosa, dadis, elms, black poplars,
willows, pomegranate and similar, and in the biggest must be hanged vine trees, in their
shadow the water will refresh, in reason of the convenient and useful that cold water
irrigations are in the summer. The trees of big shadow, and the thorny as the jujube, and
pine, hackberry, elm, willow, and similar must be placed next to the walls of the orchard
to the north, and also at the entrance so their shadow don’t hurt the vegetables. Each
spice of tree must be separated in the big gardens, and those who give fruits by seasons
will be plant together in a place that can be custody with less job; and those are as
example the apple, plum, pear and apricot. The rosebushes will be plant at the sides of
the orchard. In places humid, spacious and exposed to the dew will be planted elms,
willows, bananas, citrons, hackberry and laurels; taking care that citrons are in a
reserved place of the north wind, west wind and exposed to the east. In the chapter
twenty-three, will talk, by Allah, about the choice of good lands for vegetables, in
which matter was say something before that you won’t omit remember.

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CHAPTER V Of the plantation of trees in drought conditions, and watering the gardens. Refer
CHAPTER V
Of the plantation of trees in drought conditions, and watering the gardens.
Refer that there are trees whom the gardener shall not water if he plans to
partake a direct benefit from them.
It is known that some trees are planted for their fruits, others by his aesthetics
and/or the smell of its white or yellow flowers; others just for the utility of its wood. All
of them are planted from the seed, for those who had them; from the fruit, for those who
didn’t had the seed; from the best ripped or broken twig, coming from a good part of its
body; from the leaf bud of the twig’s upper part; from a stake made from the lower part
of the same twig; from the sprouts that are born at the foot of some trees or near them,
from the most exquisite way named nawámi (asleep or taken down); and from united
twig (not cut or separated from the tree). The plants, including the perséa, taken from its
roots and foot are moved to the place where they would take a rise in these, and if they
didn’t had roots they would grow up until they have some; from their respective
regimen named tagtis and astasláf, and whom it particularly has each species in its
planting and crop we’ll talk about later , by Allah. These plants pinned, they later grow
roots and their wood hardens up, what comes to happen around their third year or
almost; in which status the move to the place it believes it’s useful to lay it’s fruit with
Allah’s favor.

Junio named in the book of Ibn-Hajáj, about the species and similarities of trees, that not all are planted the same way; which means, that each one is planted by a seed, or a twig torn from the tree, or from a stake; choosing for this purpose the ones who looked big, for these the ones who grow vegetation or bloom better. And as long each plant has its special nature, it comes into convenience having utmost attention in this test. The trees, whose planting must be done from the seed, are the walnut, almond,

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chestnut, peach, plum, palm, pine, cypress, cicely, bay, and the male pine. In this class there are also taken into account the apricot (by Demócrito) and Kastos adds the alfonsigo. This author says that, when the seeds are pinned in its place, they be moved to other one searching for the best; which, according to Demócrito, must be done at the two-years mark; and Junio also speaks of them being transplanted; and in the same converge, according Ibn-Hajáj, the smart and industrialized farmers.

The trees that are advised to be planted from a torn twig are, according to
The trees that are advised to be planted from a torn twig are, according to Junio,
the apple, cherry, hazelnut, myrtle and the aronio medlar; in which Kastos also counts
the serval. Junio says, that some take twigs from these trees while they’re still
connected with them and put them into the ground until roots come out, and later
transplanting by the plant’s nature. The form of this operation will be described later, by
Allah.
The trees planted from a stake, says the same author, are the berry, citron,
quince, olive, tamarisk, and the white poplar; the ones whom the author confirms best
up when they are transplanted.

The trees, by Sidagós, that do not rip apart from the leaf or that remain too long in the ground, and that don’t grow old until a long time has passed, or that detach the leaf slowly, we know to be of thick and gooey matter, and not subtle and rare; and likewise, that the tree of low subsistence, and that doesn’t takes long in detaching the leaf, are of thin and subtle matter that doesn’t grow weak. By said reason I am of dictating that the planting of thick-matter trees be by a smooth and new stake than a tender twig or green, for the last one’s matter being more dense, more thick and richer in glucose than the first one. Of these there are the berry, quince,, olive, pear, citron, pomegranate, and myrtle; those that if planted with said stakes of thick matter, the roots to be born are the ones most suited for these trees to have. You will also be able to, if you want, to do this twig planting; as the expressed method it’s the best and the most comforting. The trees that take a while to grow, and the ones who anticipate to the bloom, we know them to be of subtle and thin matter, like the almond, peach, apple, cherry, and similar; whose planting is done by the means of a tender twig. On the case of the fig tree, even though it is a tree of slow vegetation , it is suggested that, for the bad quality and weakness of its wood, the planting be done by a tender twig method, because if it were made by the stake method, being this one big, the wind and humidity of the rains would penetrate to the core of it by the place of its cut, and reach its still-

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weak heart (called marrow) , wouldn’t grow roots and, dragging like this, it would be lost. So it is by the author.

Says Solon that the stake of low sweat and lean by nature the torn twig and the renewal are preferred for being juicier. Carmáno says almost the same; but Kastos explains it more, and opposes Junio; whose max are reduced to this: That it is better to know which tree is planted by seed, and this one must be planted broken up using the hands: and the twig plantation to be done, using from these the ones who are born at the tree’s feet. All of it varies (or opposes in between); because sometimes the seed planting is best, and others it is best to do it using the last twigs of the tree, each one of these has its particular method, and doesn’t have another one on purpose. Like this, the trees that are planted from the seed are the alfonsigo, walnut, hazelnut, almond, chestnut, peach, cherry, pine, citron, bay, and the palm; the ones for it’s good to transplant to another place once seeded. Of torn or broken twig, the ones planted are serval, myrtle and the apple: for it’s good to all of them to be transplanted to another location after being planted the first time. The ones planted using the twigs born from the buds and the stake, are the almond, pear, berry, citron, apple, olive, quince, myrtle and the serval; whose transplanting done in the same way is very good for them. The trees from this species that requires extreme care are the berry, citron, olive, pomegranate, white Montesano lotus and quince. The plant species that, taken from their feet, are later transplanted by hand are the Barbados of the vines, pine and willow. The trees whose plantation comes best be done from the seed are the apricot, all the species of cherry, almond, alfonsigo and bay.

Says Ibn-Hajáj that, according to what has been seen, Kastos points that trees from these
Says Ibn-Hajáj that, according to what has been seen, Kastos points that trees
from these be planted in a single way mentioning them in a particular ARTICLE in its
bokk: that in others it acclaims the ones who are planted with two different ways,
explaining after together in an special ARTICLE about the benefits of each way, having
repeated it already nevertheless.

About the way of planting, says Ibn-Hajáj, that Junio attempting the use of torn twigs and stakes, orders for them to be put on a place named thormadanát to transplant them there after; and that thormadanát, according to what this same author in its book, it’s the name the Greeks give to the place where the plant is first put on and from its transplanted after; that the first operation is best be done in fall like this: dig up the place first, put some manure on it and then apply whatever you want to grow there, be

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them twigs or stakes, at the distance of an elbow one from the other; these will be covered up with dirt and then watered until they are transplanted to the desired place three years after. They must be cleaned up with a sickle of the little twigs that they may have around them; and, when transplanting them, it is convenient to tenderly dig up the ground in order to avoid harm to them with the digging, and to also avoid mud falling over them which, to accomplish must be tied up in the surroundings. Likewise, this same author claims rules about the seeds; and those are: that some plants are left to dry too much when they are taken to faraway lands, some do the planting this way; to know, that, seed taken from the seasoned fruit in the tree, they leave it to dry, and in this disposition it’s planted; warning that isn’t convenient to leave to dry in the sun but in the shadows; to which effect some spread up a handful of ashes: and that it is important to water and apply manure to the place where they would be planted , and dig in those the holes, each one of the size of a seed; the one, which covered with dirt, is watered each day until the rain season arrives, so that when two or three years have the plants endured, and some aridness appears on them, they are transplanted into holes with its roots, before their stem sprout; and leaving out of the dirt only their hearts, some stakes are put at its sides. But some affirm for this method of planting to be tenderly done. The aforementioned author adds that, it must be known, a tree grows of the type from which its seed was taken, except the olive, from which it blooms a wild plant named carthanum acebuche that does not have a fruit.

Sidagós says, about this matter, that it is convenient to spread ashes in the seeds
Sidagós says, about this matter, that it is convenient to spread ashes in the seeds
when we want to move them from a region to a faraway another for them to not be
swamped with humidity; which if it weren’t done, many would never sprout or get
rotten: nor a part of them to be left exposed to the sun because the outer aridness would
not damage them; given that, losing its subtle humidity and juiciness, they would get
sick by this; except the seeds with a shell like the almond and the hazelnut; ones whom
the sun doesn’t affects, but it’s better to leave them in the shadows nevertheless.

In another part of its book it says that, when the plants are transplanted from the tormadanát to their final rooting place it is convenient that they be taken along with its mud, without removing it; and that, when we plant them, bury three quarters of its body leaving the remaining quarter outstanding of the dirt; experts in the matter assure it’s the best at that point.

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Junio says, that the planting ground must be done in a never-plotted land, this is, one where nothing has been put to grow before, and also exposed to the rising sun and winds. That it must be able to turn accordingly for the roots of the herbs to be well torn. That the plants be put one feet of distance between each, and half foot deep in the ground, which, if done, makes them easier to take out with a gardening shovel; if it may be well for these to be wide and not too shallow for the sun to bathe them all the time. The canes or sprouts that are to be collected for the planting are those of thick buds for them to lay roots, and must be at least foot and a half of length. Some are dictated to be planted one each month for around six months, starting from the first; and for it to be done with very small instruments to avoid meddling with the ones already rooted, being these one right beside the other.

He adds the author that the twigs that’d be born from these plants along with
He adds the author that the twigs that’d be born from these plants along with
the buds to be cut down while still green in color, before they harden up, to avoid extra
difficulty of said work. It isn’t convenient for the plants to have more than one foot out
of the ground; and if that were the case, they’d be cut down for them to grow thicker;
operation that must be done with the hands and not with a tool. At the second year, the
holes are dug up another six times in the same way as the first time, leaving two buds
in each one, and the same respective procedure to their twigs. That, correctly done with
them where they are planted, be moved to where they are to be transplanted; action
which some execute at the third year, because they would take long to grow up if it were
done in the first year. For this cause, the good farmer won’t move these planting pots, a
year past; because it would make them weaker and cause a lack of steadiness if they
were transplanted when they’re just beginning to lay roots and growing up.

Says Junio that some water the plants while they are on the pots; but it isn’t wise to do it until after transplant; which, according to Ibn-Hajáj, confirms the rule of Sidagós that claims that we must exercise utmost care to not move the roots, twigs or stakes placed in the watering spot or of continuous humidity but to another equal in conditions to the one where they were. According to Ibn-Hajáj, it is of common talk in the farmers that it isn’t bad to water the plants in that first planting ground, being too much the heat and the dryness of the land.

Junio, again, states that there’s difference between the planting using the roots and the branch that are cut by the time they are planted, called heady ; because the one that’s left with all the roots and then planted, it is said that transplanted after it bears

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better fruits, and Katos comes up with an almost equal suggestion. The same author says that it is convenient to clean up the places where the plants are to be placed, of all the plants that are rank or vicious in the vicinity, not only by digging them up, but sometimes plotting them; throwing them out of there, specially the hard ones. And the reason is, because the stones that are over the dirt burn the plants in the summer with the heat they get from the sun by this last one lasting more in the hard materials; and also because in the winter the stones that are frozen damage the trunks of the plants growing near them; besides they cause a contrary effect when they are found in deep ground, because the refresh the tree’s roots in heat seasons.

He adds that care must be taken into account into plotting the land as soon
He adds that care must be taken into account into plotting the land as soon as
possible. Other than this, it is necessary to test the land before hand to know if it suits
the type of tree that’s going to be planted there; it must be well plotted sometimes when
juicy and tender, cleaning it from the herbs and other stuff it may had, leading to the
conclusion that the more dedication it is given, the better it will be; and the same if
these were deep, because that would make them preserve more juice over time: in which
in given disposition , were of watering, are planted after the trees, with Allah’s favor.
The time in which this should be executed and other stuff related to the matter are going
to be talked about later, by Allah himself. According to Nabathea agriculture, for the
transplant of trees and seed, places with large quantity of soil are to be picked, soil
where nothing has been planted for over a year (if possible) or two, not plotted, and an
area where winds pick up regularly. It matters that the dirt holes where the plants are
going to be are closed or similar in quality or disposition to those in which they were
first planted, avoiding a transplant from good soil to bad soil.
ARTICLE I
About the times to do the torn twig, bud and stake tree-planting, by Ibn Hajaj’s
book.

Sidagós states than in warm regions it is convenient to plant the trees in fall, especially if the land were low on water, in order for the rains to hit them just after the same fall, winter and spring. It is also usually done after the rigorous cold has passed,

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and when the branches are next to blooms. The planting of these trees will be a valuable possession if the grid works, and together with the grooves; because like this the earth retains the humidity in benefit of what were in it. In the cold regions it is convenient to do the planting after the cold has lowered since winter when the branches were near to revive and bloom. But if you want, you could do the planting in fall, paying deed to the opinion of those that claim that in this station the roots get vigorous and strong. Soften the land in order to undo what the sun does with its heat; and if the colds haven’t froze it, it is softened after being prepared for whatever will be thrown into it; which disposition it’s the best for this effect.

Says Junio that many are the times to do the planting, according to the variety
Says Junio that many are the times to do the planting, according to the variety of
climate and regions. Some advice for the planting to be done after the harvest and when
the branches gets torn from the tree. Others do it in the beginnings of spring, or the 7th
day of February. But it is better to do it in high places in lean and flimsy, after the
harvest; in tender and plain or semi plain fields, in the starts of the spring, from March
1st; and in the other seasons, in the temper fields. In the brackish lands it is convenient
to do it after the harvest because the following rains wash the land from its bad
properties. When taking care of the dirt of this species it is good to throw manure
towards the plant’s trunk, which removes its brackishness. The lands that were to be
thick are known to be left to be sunbathed and then softened with the rains to receive the
plants. It isn’t convenient to dig beforehand the thin dirt because it would leave it
vulnerable to the sun’s heat. It’s supposed to be dug up in the moment of fall, for the
planting to be done in that land in order to take advantage of it.

Same Junio adds that others think that it’s generally convenient to do the planting in fall in the warm lands starting from mid-October until the firsts of December; and leaving them there until February 7th, when it should begin again then, when there’s some heat already. In cold climate, especially in the mountains, it must be done in the beginnings of spring; to which places, if the plants were transplanted without letting the air heat up, would be lacking the energy to grow vegetation. It’s because of this that the planting should be done in fall in warm places, because the plant would not be busy trying to grow out but extending its roots; being in spring, with the hot air, when it focuses in exactly the opposite. We must do the planting starting in the 3rd hour of the day and finishing in the 10th for the vehement winds that usually rise

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up in the morning or afternoon. To do it, the land must not be humid or muddy, but neither dried up.

It’s already been mentioned, says Junio , from the planting of olive, and it has been said in several other places that it’s convenient that the land be humid and warm; because if one of these were missing, the fruit in the branches would not get its best flavor. It’s because of this that’s convenient to do it in fall or spring; in which last time’s the land’s warm due to the sun, and humid thanks to the rains, or It having heat and humidity for the good pacing of the air in these seasons; and, equally, starting in the spring beginning to heat up with the cold that came from the atmosphere being suspended, and the sun rising the water the land had, with the diminishment of its humidity, boosts the plant’s growth. It’s important because fall it’s the best season to do the planting in order to get this effect; one which must be executed by the time of the rains after the sunset until the clod strikes; from which moment it’s suspended until the start of the spring before the leafs resurrect and the branches bloom because of the time since there to the spring being one of much cold; in which it begins anew being executed in days with abrego wind and suspended on days with a strong north wind.

Kastos sayings go as far at this point as to say that fall is the
Kastos sayings go as far at this point as to say that fall is the best season to
attempt planting, mostly in low-water landscapes in order for the plants to receive all
the humidity of winter; in which wise men agree: It isn’t bad to do it in spring. Very
same Kastos says that in other lands planting is done in fall; statement that I support,
and is also followed by others; people who are delighted with the success of this
method. The wise men prefer the planting to be done in fall rather than in spring;
because the vegetation of the upper part of some trees, and others with their lower part
(according to the times when they were planted), verifying the first in spring, and the
second in those planted in fall; the best time to do the planting will be in fall for the
plants to grow both roots and body in equality. And here ends the citation from the
author.

So much is the opinion, says Ibn-Hajáj, of three famous wise men in this field about the plating done in fall; these which are preferred in this matter over those aforementioned. The trees, which planting we have described, are to be planted (says Marsial the medic) not in the cold days, but in the warm ones of spring, starting from its fecundation moment in early February. But this, says Ibn-Hajáj, is contrary to the first opinion, as visible; because it forces the planting to be done in spring; if it well says so,

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that the trees planted in fall bear more fruits than the ones of spring. According other authors, the hard-wood trees like the olive, alfonsigo, jujube, holm oak, elm and similar are planted in winter. Those with medium-hard wood like the apple, peach, and apricot and alike are planted in early spring; which must be before they grow leafs. Other suggest the planting of all kinds of tree to be made when it’s time for it to fecundate again, which, would be, in the middle of January; making the almond and similar ones the exception because of their early blooms, those that must be planted before. These must not be planted after the tree has renewed its leaves, the pomegranate being the only exception, which prevails being planted that way. It is also said that it doesn’t affects the plum nor the fig tree planting them in the same way: the fall season being the best to do it, winter after it; and that plants placed from the early spring onwards, getting them to get warmer when green and tender without having been rigid, are corrupted and loses; and the ones who escape, the cold applies the same effect: That in the warm countries the planting is done earlier, and the same in the cold landscapes and farms, particularly in the meadows; because here and in the lands with high water humidity isn’t good to do in the fall nor winter; and it is good to do after the water has dissipated, leaving only the earth in an ideal temperature: to summarize, after middle spring no tree shall be planted in high lands. It is also said that, the first thing to do is a bud, stake and torn twig planting because of the winter in high lands or dried ; and that of all the other watering trees in the three remaining seasons, especially in the early spring, particularly the one where one extracts all, or most all, of the plant with its roots from its own land, without skipping on the watering. Says Abu-el-Jair, that the best airs and winds in our region to do planting are the one from the west and the one that covers the sky with clouds and …….; but that no tree be planted in a rainy day, the olive being the only exception; and that it is necessary to transplant the seed and granite a second time from the place they initially were. I’ve seen trees, says the same author, of almond that did bear any fruit because they weren’t transplanted. Be done as said, that the planting must not be done either Friday or Sunday. The time the planting of each kind of seed, granite, twig and stake, will be discussed later, with Allah’s favor, in the next ARTICLEs.

of each kind of seed, granite, twig and stake, will be discussed later, with Allah ’s

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ARTICLE II

About the time to do the planting of trees with seeds.

According to Abu-Abdalah Ibn-el-Fasél the time to do all types of planting is generally when
According to Abu-Abdalah Ibn-el-Fasél the time to do all types of planting is
generally when its respective fruit is about to bear, after having a good growth; and
also in November, December, January and February, being the very last moment to do
it. The ones planted after this time are lost due to the heat or burned because of the cold.
Most of the seed plantings are born in March. The ones regularly planted in our regions,
like the peach, apricot, almond, walnut, plum, olive, carob, hazelnut, pine, cherry, palm,
alfónsigo, cypress, holm, chestnut, aronio medlar, margosa, and similar are planted this
way. Let their seeds be chosen fresh and healthy, not harassed by some calamity, of a
mature fruit from a known tree or own . The ones that weren’t of similar quality aren’t
good. According to Abu-el-Jair, the fruits must be from the first harvest, and be planted
in corresponding holes, that has been said, and also in big new holes of mud. Those
must’ve been plotted and befit with manure and water: in which the seeds are to have
two third parts of its body buried into the ground, or a little less, later covering the
surface with dirt. The distance from one hole to another will be that of an elbow, if they
were to be transplanted with its same mud: and higher, if they were transplanted in that
way, that will be said later. After that they are watered, avoiding bleaching of the lands
because of the poor watering, until they are born and are as taller as a hand or more;
reserving for later its ulterior regimen. In the next ARTICLE it will be said, by Allah,
the way in which the seeds are to be planted in the holes.

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ARTICLE III

The planting of granite into the fruit of trees that lack seeds like the quince, laurel, grape, cypress, pear, apple, citron, orange, cherry, fig and similar ones that have it in its fruit.

From these beans we will take those that correspond to the qualities that were spoken
From these beans we will take those that correspond to the qualities that were
spoken in this matter, which must be ones from the first harvest of the tree for being the
one with the most flavors, and will be planted in the aforementioned months in order for
the plant to have grown and hardened by the time summer starts; fearing that the heat or
cold from their respective seasons nullify the plant’s growth because of their
weaknesses.

The method to plant them is to put the seeds from the desired species of tree in big and new pots of mud, with holes in the bottom, with good-quality dirt or other of similar quality, mixed with manure, in a way that the pots are a little below the “full” mark, because of the watering that would later be applied. The seeds are to be planted according to their weaknesses or sturdiness; this is, thicker the flimsies because of the fear of some plants to rot; y thinner the sturdy ones because of the security that they will prevail after being covered with manure as thick according to the power of penetration that they could have over it by the time they start to spread roots, and throwing over them cut chunks of wood or esparto in the same way to preserve them from drying up because of the air. After, they are watered by means of a piece of esparto, or similar, to avoid that water moves them to another place; and, if it is possible, water them before sprouting by spraying them with the hand, which is very good. This is done with the weak seeds from which are cypresses, resume, cherry and similar; and the same is done with the weak seeds like the ocimo and related species; the delicacy in said operation is proportional to its sturdiness or weakness. The watering must be done frequently until they start to sprout; less, near the winter; and totally suspended if the rains are continuous, because they would get enough water from there; and the watering applied before the heat seasons must be light for them to grow hard and less vicious; which, if it came up to them while they were still tender, would damage them; and even if they

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managed to live through the heat, the cold would burn them later. If the seeds are planted in the mentioned way, their procedure should be executed the same way as talked about in the raising boxes, and it would be good to cover them up with sand.

ARTICLE IV

They will not be left in the basins for over a year, and from them
They will not be left in the basins for over a year, and from them they are to be
transplanted to where they are supposed to grow. Leaving them in the basins for longer
would make them weak; and the same would happen if they are transplanted before that,
especially if the trunk hasn’t got hard or neither lost its green looks; and from the
raising boxes they are transplanted to the place where they would get their
corresponding size.
According to Abu-Abdalah Ibn-el-Fasél, the tree planted from the seed reach its
maximum, and bears fruit at the age of seven; and seeds at the age of four; from which
they are transplanted at the age of three when they reach perfection. Says Abu-el-Jair,
the orange tree isn’t transplanted until it’s as tall as a grown man, because it would
slowly rot if it were transplanted before. From that it must be observed with it in its
successive, we’ll talk about later, by Allah. If you want the tree to hasten its harvest, to
be useful in shorter time, and that that wish that the raising boxes where the seeds are
planted not to be idle, plant right there some vegetables before these are born, like the
coriander and similar.
ARTICLE V
The planting done from torn twigs, and the choosing of the best

According to Ibn-Hajáj in one of his works titled “La Suficiente”, is of common opinion in farmers that he who chooses to do planting from torn twigs, or cut stake, not to torn any of these, but from the part of the tree that faces the east. One that refers to this is Junio; whom says that twigs torn from the upper part of the tree must be two

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years old, and that the planting be made of these plus the ones torn from the face of the tree that looks to the east. Marsial says that the torn twig and stake must be taken from the face of the tree that looks to north. But shouldn’t be in any way from that first part because the best torn twig is the one that faces the east; then there’s the one that looks to noon and the one that faces the west; making it seem like the ones that face the north provide no advantage.

Sodobún says, that when you are to do the planting with your chosen method, you
Sodobún says, that when you are to do the planting with your chosen method,
you should only choose the pots that have been receiving sun light, that being because
the heat has already prepared them, and for this they are the best ones, the ones with
higher possibilities for sprouts, and those that harden their trunk while blooming several
new buds; which are preferred over those that grew in the shadows. By that, the pot that
looks north must never be taken, for having low possibilities for the plants to grow roots
and good fruits.
It isn’t convenient, according to Junio, taking for the planting the branches born
in the mid of the tree, and the ones from the upper part are. They loathe the farmers, say
Solon, what was born at the foot of the tree for being low on sun light and not ready to
receive it since having its source naturally blocked or sunkened with the humidity; in
which disposition barely blooms. He adds, that it is common opinion among the farmers
that such pot of weak and few fruit is like that because of the dominant humidity and
scarce heat that it has in the beginnings of its planting. And I said, continues the same
Solon, that even when it blooms, the few fruit that it lays are going to rot; because
planted and bloomed manifesting itself to the sun, and dominating this one the heat it
bears, takes the same pot, too much sturdiness and growth; which shows refuses its few
roots, especially for being of few heat or lazy and not having a total fermentation or
corresponding digest.

It was already said before which trees prevail with the torn twig planting; leaving for the election the planting of the others, the thick ones and also the ones that carry fruits, of knotty trunk, of soothe and healthy crust, and form the trees that bear the more fruit. The twigs exposed only to the shadows aren’t good; and even if the lay a bloom, the fruits are few. Be taken the branches from the middle of the tree and not from the upper part, the ones that aim to the east, if no available, then the one that faces noon; and when these two are missing, from the face that looks to the west, and never

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using the ones that look to the north because of them being low on blooming fruits; and because, if they were, the fruits would fall before even reaching its mature stage. The same goes to the ones that aim to the west. The time of picking them is after being sunbathed: and are picked by hand, if possible, or cut up with a sharp tool, which should be at least two elbows long, not affecting anything if they have more. The time to do this is when its veins are filled with humor, which is when they start to fecundate again and flourishing, and when planted in the pots they are given its corresponding watering.

The method of planting them is to do holes in dirt placed in squares, longer
The method of planting them is to do holes in dirt placed in squares, longer than
wider, and with the deep of two hands, if they are to be transplanted; or more deep,
proportional to the magnitude that the torn twigs have; which are to be placed in a way
that the heart is hold up with dirt, dug up and refilled , that is his signal; in a way that it
stands out from the earth’s surface by a distance as big as a finger, mixing in it some
dirt with manure, and leaving the hole a little less than full capacity after being well
compacted with the feet. The torn twigs are also planted besides the irrigation ditch in
the mentioned way, to know.
In the chapter about the planting of big trees and vegetables will be about these
dried branches with everything else relative to this matter and also the care that must
later be held to it. Said branches must have a distance from one another an elbow or
more, if they were to be transplanted without its defensive pack of dirt; and if they are,
should be planted a greater distance away. OF those that must obey this and the ones
who are to be planted dried we’ll talk about after, with Allah’s favor.
ARTICLE VI
The planting of the buds of the branches of the trees, such as apple, jasmine, fig tree,
vine and other fruit trees of much humidity; and the choosing of the best for this effect

Haj Granadino says that, for this, new knotty buds are to be used from said trees, observing the other stuff addressed in the planting of torn twigs; and that the time of planting is between February and March (in the same way as torn twigs and stakes) next to the irrigation ditches in lines.

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ARTICLE VII

The planting of stake and torn twig, and choosing of the best and of greater gentleness for this effect

According to Ibn-Hajáj, the torn twig is to be taken from the two-year branches, and
According to Ibn-Hajáj, the torn twig is to be taken from the two-year branches,
and it’s also good for the stake which can reach up to three years; the which, planted
right above the earth, lays bloom. If it is necessary to bury the whole branch, it isn’t
convenient to put it too deep or leave it nailed to the ground, unless it’s going to be
transplanted after that. The small stake blooms and starts to grow; and the big one don’t
have enough energy, says Solon. Another author says, that the form of the stake has to
match the form of the torn twig, looking for it to be as thick as an arm and longer than
an elbow; it must be cut with a sharp tool, watching out in order to prevent any damage
to its crust at the moment of the cutting and when planting in the time mentioned above.
The orange tree’s stake must be planted into manure. The way of doing this is taking
one wooden stake from a holm oak or a similar one in sturdiness, a little bit thicker and
longer that the one being planted; the one which fixated in the place where the stake is
to be planted until buried into the ground or the desired dept, in its place the planting
stake is placed, being fixated a little, around her the remaining dirt or sand is spread
until intermediate holes are filled, if there were any. Watered and then let to be, it’s
repeated after the same operation to avoid any empty hole. The stakes should be put in
lines, with equal distance between them, as with the torn twigs. If nailed with strength
into the ground in an attempt to fixate them there, care will be applied in avoiding the
crust being damaged, especially the citrus’s stake and similar.
Another method

You’ll dig the holes for the stakes next to the irrigation ditches, each as long as the stake; in which, stake placed and ground replaced, what is about to be said in the ways of planting of vegetables and trees will be done, placing them in order lines

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having the same distance one between another as it was said that should be between the torn twigs.

ARTICLE VIII

The planting from twig named el-nawámi (asleep or lay down), lafát (inclined) and lawáhek (or
The planting from twig named el-nawámi (asleep or lay down), lafát (inclined) and
lawáhek (or related)
See which are able to be torn with its roots, and be torn with that, be planted in
another spot of the ground, or in that which they should bear fruit (if the place was
cared for that exact purpose), in the corresponding time to the planting of that same
species. If it’s not available to torn with its roots, they will be inclined for them to grow
the said ones by means of an operation called al-tagtís (submersion), or by another
operation named el-astasláf (loan), choosing the best method for the situation.
Of the operation el-tagtís, also called el-takbís (incubation with submersion of heart)

In first place, chosen or signaled the most sturdy plants from the aforementioned, the longest, the straightest and free of any kind of damage and calamities, are preferred the ones with these qualities that were mentioned in the torn twigs section, saving those that are plants that grew in the foot of the tree. Likewise, the torn twigs, buds and stakes must be well cared if they bear fruits. The best and main planting is the transplanting of the barbate. In order, to the branches, for each one, a hole will be dug up that measures two and a half hand, and as long as the branch itself; one whose extreme that has a bud will be left out of the ground, that is its signal; and without separating it from its foot it is left to feed, the earth treated; remaining like this until its roots are grew, then doing the transplant. This operation is done in every stem that is able to; which if it were a branch, and you wished to extend to where it can reach, it will be done with him what was exposed above; or if you want it to remain on its same vine, and feed with part of that juice from where it fed before, you’ll incline it a little by the part that is joint with it, you’ll sink it then in the hole. Said operation is

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really advantageous to do with new vines from the dried and in all the watered plants; in which the branches sunk one year or more, after a slight incision be made with a sharp tool for them to lose some of that lushness that caused the feeding matter of the vine; and from the tree to five years, according to the vigor and sturdiness they manifest, they are to be separated from the from the vine to feed on its own foot; or transplanted, if necessary. The branches that don’t reach the corresponding place will sink again the following year; action executed in the vines that carried fruit the same time, before the bloom of the buds; it isn’t bad to do it after. In the other trees this operation is made all the time without separating the stems from its respective feet. I’ve sunk the resume and jasmine (says Haj Granadino) in summer days and in winter when hot air was present, and they preserved very well. And he adds, that if they are cut from the ground near the foot, some trees don’t bloom again because of some damage been done to them, for old age, or just because of another accident, they vegetate throwing new branches, with which the process made is the same as with the pots; such trees are the orange and similar.

Another operation similar to the last one
Another operation similar to the last one

Let a green, and bearer of fruit, branch be taken from the tree that produces lots and juicy fruits, so long that it reach the ground, and that gathers the qualities expressed in the torn twigs section, or better; and knotting to its stem a string of palm leaves or a strong thread, it will be inclined until it reaches the ground, and the thread will be knotted to a steady stake to avoid the branch from rising until what we wished to do with it is done; for the heart one large hole as deep as two hands or more, in which dirt is thrown again, that is then very well compacted with the feet according to that said in the operation of takbís swelling (from which this comes to be the last species); and care is applied when watered and harvested until a year has passed. After its fecundation and sturdiness it becomes visible that it already fees from the roots that it laid in that hole and that doesn’t needs the supply vine of its first foot, it’s separated from the same with a sharp tool; and if it’s the contrary, naught is done until a change is visible.

After a year from the separation it is transplanted moving it along with its roots safe in that chunk of earth, if it were from those trees that need this defensive way, such

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as those that don’t let go of the leaf; and later transplanted in the corresponding place, where they are to bear fruit with Allah’s favor; which is accomplished advantageously, being place of watering. It would be convenient that this operation be made in the fig tree inclining the branch until it reaches the ground, and doing with it what was told above. It is also torn from the fruit tree a big branch that stays united to it without separating it; whose heart, reaching the ground, it’s buried in said way to avoid the halt of its feeding from the tree, until it doesn’t need it anymore due to the new roots that it lays, and then it would be separated with a cut. This branch prevails better than renews born in the feet or close the tree due to the reason that it bears fruit sooner. Also, the renews that are in the foot or far away from the tree that aren’t able to sink by said operation, they are covered with dirt again, gathering a pile so big that they’re able to lay roots on it; which will be watered frequently until this is verified, doing all the other stuff expressed before. And if the renew is put into a new mud pot by the operation astasláf (loan), in which the one full with dirt is frequently watered, is also good.

The operation called el-akláb (turn or reversal) and also tagtís (submersion) are done in the
The operation called el-akláb (turn or reversal) and also tagtís (submersion) are
done in the branches of the vines and in the vine if it were tall. By this, if the vines are
very wide with big holes in between them and with many branches near them, the holes
will be made with as much capacity in them as it requires to totally hide and to where
it’s desired to sink, if it were necessary; avoiding cutting the foot nor the big and main
roots. Exposed that and the other big roots, the holes are made towards those sides from
which it’s pretended to pull them out, and later taking down the vine in that hole
without tearing it up, in it it’s hidden and branches are pulled out toward the empty
corresponding holes, or in the same place of sinking; from which the (cut down the
unnecessary ones) are replaced and earth compacted, as done in the planting; whose
branches, not stopping in its feeding from the vine and this from its roots, take a big
growth and bear fruits within a year, vines being produced in short time, the first one
rotted; and the same must be understood from the vines.

The main thing in this operation consists in attending to where to do the cut, especially the one of the main roots. The time for doing this is before the first trim, and the same that it’s recommended for the planting, that being the first fall season. Same operation is done in the vines, laying their body in the hole, and doing the same with its other branches towards the empty spots, leaving their corresponding extremes outstanding from the ground: and that’s how they prevail, doing in them the

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aforementioned. I add, that if in the sturdy parts of the body or trunk of the vine some branches were inserted before covering it up with dirt., leaving outside their extremes where it corresponds, with some changes done to the operation described in the chapter of insertions, they also prosper (by Allah) advantageously just for being planted and inserted in the same time; and because it prevails well the whole branch because of the takbís operation and similar, as long as they’re frequent. This operation is done in fall. Likewise, if some vine, when sunk, is left out or inclined where it shouldn’t be, they are to be left like that, and after some time will be cut.

ARTICLE IX Operation called astasláf, by which trees are multiplied and one where everyone is
ARTICLE IX
Operation called astasláf, by which trees are multiplied and one where everyone is
used, similar to the last of takbís

Let new mud pots be taken, saucepans big in the mouth or similar, corresponding to the number of branches in which this operation is wished to be made; and doing in each a drill of a size that it’s able to enter through the branch of resume, jasmine, pear, citrus or any another species of tree, go after to that whose operation is about to be applied; the one which, if it were a fruit bearer, the renew or branch will be picked in the best way, corresponding the mentioned in the twigs section, taking it from where it were available, be it the upper part of the tree, its trunk or foot; an clearing it from the little branches that it could have, it will be reduced to a single bud in its heart, which inserted in the drill via seating of the pot, it will be out over the mouth of that same drill going down until where it stops; or until the place one wishes, sticking all or part of the branch; or until the ground if it were in the tree, or be born from the ground. A seat will be made of thread for the pot for it to rest where it should reach; and if the tree could not carry it or is feared that the winds move it from one place to another because of its distance from the ground, a wooden bed will be done below it that measures four feet, or the best possible, with a table over that holds the pot; which will be tied from it and the close branches with strong knots to avoid being moved by the wind; after which, the drill being finished from the inside, done in the pot

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to stick the branch in, with wooden slivers, plaster or sticky dirt, from this same taken from good grounds and mixed with old manure of the same quality will be put in a three quarters way, in a way that it has some space remaining for when it is watered.

The branch must be in the middle of said ground, compacted with the hands regularly, will be watered with sweet water. The foot of the branch and the earth inside the pot are to be watered frequently without letting this to be left to dry, continuing the watering long time until, roots grew, the transplant is done. Which, after, the branch is cut up with delicacy below the pot without letting the earth in it loose, and then be transplanted into the hole that’s to be its new ground in the same pot; the pot method usually doesn’t let plants rot. If the pot is in the ground or near it, you’ll find that (the branch in it broken) in the same spot there are one or two new sprouts from that same foot, the operation on them will be done after they reach the same qualities as the first one: which won’t stop being repeated until you reproduce one tree into all the ones you wish. If that branch were in the upper part of the tree, in the trunk or in the place where the pot couldn’t be buried, it will still be strongly tied to the neighboring branches or a wooden bead be made below it as expressed before, because of the fear that the winds move it from one place to another, and removing whatever part starts to rot. Likewise, watering will not be avoided nor it will be left to dry up in the time of a year, watering it at least two times per week in cold seasons; and also the pot must be checked in order to ensure that the winds do not move it from one place to another; which, if it happened, would pile up enough quantity of dirt around. After a year said branch should already laid its roots below the pot, which indicates that roots are a common sight inside the pot; and also shows that she has vigor to attract the nutritious juice from the earth of said pot by the means of the roots born in it.

the earth of said pot by the means of the roots born in it. Be careful

Be careful when sticking the branch in the earth, that part of it remains green or knotty, from where the roots would bloom. It’s also good to separate the tree from the pot after two years have passed. Kastos and other authors talk about this, mentioning another way of operation that they describe like this. Separated from the tree the branch of this species, and already a barbate, it is put with its whole pot in a hole that resembles a grave, in which lays this, and that same sunk or laid , and straight up its extreme along its dirt pillow, earth is compacted again. Frequently watered, and discovering the pot two years after, realizing that enough roots already grew inside it, not needing now the ones which were planted with him, cutting the plant from the trunk upwards to do a

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transplant and re-taking care of the pot with the chopped trunk for the second plant to bloom from there by means of frequent watering; with which the second plant finally blooms, plant that’s going to be objective of the same operation.

Pot again back into the ground, the third plant is born; and repeat this until you have the desired number of trees. These mentioned operations of sinking, reversal and loan are done with all trees, and in both warm and cold seasons. If over these pots a bigger one is hanged filled with sweet water with a subtle hole from which a slight drop will fall in order to maintain its humidity regularly, it will prove to be the best method for watering these plants, and also the inserts, form which matter and similarities are going to be talked about later, with Allah’s favor.

ARTICLE X Disposition of seeds, torn twigs, buds, stakes and branches, and the regime and
ARTICLE X
Disposition of seeds, torn twigs, buds, stakes and branches, and the regime and care
plant that they need until perfectly raised

Says Abu-el-Jair and others that their planting concluded an extended watering is to be done, not allowing the ground to bleach due to dryness; but that it gets watered alternatively one day and one day not as long as eight days, and from there, four days for each fifteen days. That discovered the sprouts in the stakes, these be watered each eight days until the rain season arrives; those that, if missing in the winter, are watered in the same way in that time every fifteen days; and every eight, this season already passed. They are to be watered when the ground whitens; and four months after its planting, when there are no doubts about the roots and sturdiness of these , a good digging done and a well-treated ground, those that have difficulties will be applied with manure, ashes and human feces in third parts, mixing it all with the earth obtained from the digging (excepting the orange and its species, which should only be exposed to human feces with their dirt); and you’ll water each eight days, after that the watering a plotting will continue. In all of this (that has already been talked about, and also the article for the planting of each individual species) consists the well-being and growth of them, by Allah. With the stakes of the quince, pomegranate and similar before they manage to bear fruits, those species of vegetables that need lots of watering, like

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eggplant and similar, which take advantage of the stakes, because they get defense form the sun if they cling to it. It has already been said up that in the boxes of seeds coriander be planted, and all other similar that stay in the ground and are born directly from the ground. The quantity of watering that corresponds to the plants mentioned will be talked about in its individual sections.

ARTICLE XI It is very good to plant in pairs of two the seeds, torn
ARTICLE XI
It is very good to plant in pairs of two the seeds, torn twigs, stakes, buds and
branches in each hole, so that if one rots, the other doesn’t. The stakes of the
pomegranate are planted in a threesome way or more in a same spot: wanting these trees
too thick would mean the grenades would be less and not sunbathed; which would
happen, if they were afar one from the other. These stakes and the ones from the olive
and quince aren’t damaged when planting by sinking or laid down and or with torn
twigs; it’s said that, also, to no tree that were similar to them. All that was mentioned,
after it has acquired the perfect and corresponding form with visible sturdiness (which
would be at the age of three), is moved to the place where it would lay fruits. The
regime of the plants while in the pots has been already said before; with which, and with
what is wrote in this same ARTICLE, come to join in its size, with Allah’s favor.
ARTICLE XII
The space or capacity that is necessary for the holes of the plants to have

The length, width and depth of the holes is varied, according to what’s going to be planted in them, and in proportion of what’s about to be planted in them. The depth is the first step, for the works that were done there or the air to not reach the roots; and to avoid that the winds take down the trees, especially those that are planted to be watered in that same spot summary, not being transplanted . To the torn twigs, stakes and similar that are meant to be transplanted, their hole mustn’t be too deep, for when the sun’s heat creates a need of water, it reaches it accordingly, boosting its growth.

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About the hole of the olive planting, the widest, longest, deepest one is the best for it; it is done one year before the planting, in a way that it is planted in the “second year”, something that came with very good results for me. In thin soil, it’s said, that the plant is to be put just after the hole has been made, to avoid the sun removing the humidity from it, becoming weak. It’s also said that he who would wish to fast-forward the planting in the hole before a year has passed, light a fire in it, and leave it like that until the rains come; and the planting should be done right after this. The plant must not be put in a hole without good and rot manure, mixed with ground from the surface, which should be spread above the roots. According to the Nabathea agriculture, la depth of the hole for the plants should be decided according to how deep the heat of the sun penetrates in that ground. It is also said that the holes should be one foot deep and one hand wide. Other assures that foot and a half of depth plus four fingers wide. Meanwhile, other authors state the same width but with a three feet depth. Others, who say that the important thing is the hole to be at least three foot deep.

Others, that in warm regions the depth must be of four foots, and three foots
Others, that in warm regions the depth must be of four foots, and three foots in
cold regions where it usually snows. According to said agriculture, the sun goes down
in porous earth to bigger depths that in hard earth; for which reason in the extra soft and
thin ground, and in the cracked, the heat goes down up to five foot deep, and, in those
that don’t, three and a half foot are its maximum. It is also said that in all terrains the
depth of the hole should be of an elbow and a half. But in the following sixth chapter
things will wrap up about what has been said and illustrating the points where doubt
could arise; if there were to be repetitions, they’d be in order to attend to the best
convenience of the reader. In the ARTICLE of the planting of each tree we’ll mention
the capacity of the holes, and about what must be done in this matter.

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CHAPTER VI

Of the plantation of fruit trees and vegetables, according to reciprocal convenience in some common
Of the plantation of fruit trees and vegetables, according to reciprocal
convenience in some common maxims, with the explanation that need to be
illustrated. The way of benefit and cultivate the land before make in her a
plantation, and pull out the noxious plants. Of the capacity of the holes for
seedlings and torn. Of the plantation of seeds and their transplantation. Of the
distance between the trees. Of the choice and transplantation of the same. Of the
airs that are appropriate for the plantations, graft and sows. About the
irrigation, manure and cleaning, and the best moment to do all of the mentioned
operations; on whose subject was treated up; to know that it is better to plant the
fruit trees in autumn, according to the Ibn-Hajáj book. Of the way to do the
plantations. Of the capacity of the holes to each tree. Of the preparation of the
land to this effect, and the distance that must be between the trees.
I have read, says Ibn-Hajáj, in some agriculture’s books, that the one that want to
plant, must start tilling the land diligently, with three or four deep and together furrow’s
plowing, which work as more it be, more advantage and force they will have; and also it
must cut the grass, thorns, cañahejas and other such noxious plants, letting the air thin,
and warm their pARTICLEs; which one, if you leave it for an entire year to the air,
sun’s heat and summer pass through it, will be so much better.

Casio says, that the holes to the trees that you want to plant, must be done a year before, so the sun, air and rain that reach them take root and deepen best in the land. Almost the same says Junio, which maxim is that the better plantation is the one that is made in holes excavated a year before the plantation; which if you execute, the land will have a beautiful color for the heat of the sun, the rains and the variety of air: what will

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cause the plants to grow quickly and also burnt the old grass, and the land acquired permanent softness.

In other part of his book says that it is convenient dig the land that you want for planting in hot times, and that behind the diggers go some collecting the roots of bushes and grass torn, extending them up to dry, which must do in June being the sun in Cancer, and sixteen of the moon, being in Capricorn; in the way that dries the grass, also acquire removing it from there; which executing in the mentioned days anything is left to take root.

Kastos says, that for clean the grass and other noxious plants in heat times, must
Kastos says, that for clean the grass and other noxious plants in heat times, must
sow Roman caterpillar calls lupins, which when born are pull out from the root and
throw to the harmful plants to the land and sows, and letting them there for twelve days
till rotten, then thrown manure above, and tumble the earth, the one that after planting
Allah will free from those harmful grass. And till here the maxim of the
abovementioned author.
According to Ibn.Hajáj, how more you dig and till the land that you want for
sows, it will be better, which is the more exquisite way to clean it. When you want to do
the transplantation, the holes dig for the plants will be deep enough to hide a man till the
hips putted on it, if it is transplanting trees. For three reasons the farmers review that the
holes to transplanting must be deep; first, so it do not surprise them the lack of water in
the sun’s heat; to when the cold come to their root won’t be offended; and also it can
stay firm against the strong winds. Torn from the trees will be put into the
establishments, until being large seedlings form holes a span up to cubit deep,
depending on the variety of regions about air, digged the land sometimes before, after
which it won't stop the benefit of the holes, cleaning and cutting the grass so they can
preserve the moisture. And therefore does the fear that dry for the heat if its excavation
was at ground it is also appropriate to make this much deeper than usual.

About the seeds and eatable grains, it is better for them (according Solon, Marsial and the ones that follow their maxims) planting in big pots or jars after filled with old rotten manure, that after a few years it has refined, mixed with surface land, and from there it is irrigate till it born, always separating the bushes they had around, without stopping until they are ready to transplant.

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According to Ibn-Hajáj, the farmers prefer plant the seed in pots because they go with their defense when transplanting; this is, for when it is the time to execute it, put into the planting hole with soil contained in the pots; which must break, staying them in their own earth. Defended well (as they are youngsters), then must throw the earth above according the way that we will explain (by Allah), concluded this ARTICLE; which executed this way do not spoil. Solon talking about the land that is throw above the pots where the seed are planted says, that must be a mix a third part from another good land, from other oh trodden dust at the roads in good soil of sunshine, and another of rotten manure without production virtue of some vegetable. And till here the maxims of the mentioned author.

The cause of moving the seedlings from torn branches, seeds, cuttings and other from one
The cause of moving the seedlings from torn branches, seeds, cuttings and other
from one place to another, is to be the best to do so, and harmful leave on their site (as
all those authors agree), with regard to seeds, cuttings and rooted does not torn because
of its smallness as we said above how deep should be the trees: therefore there is no
need to repeat it. It is important to move them to deep holes (for the said reason) also
taking them trimmed of ground for this operation.
And if someone ask this question: What then is the purpose of making the use of
stakes and small torn in the planting, after having taken care work and transplant?
What? They would not grow in height? Thus, leave it in the same place, not being
necessary this operation. To this we answer, that that is how it is done with some (as it
will be said at its time), for example with the long stakes and olive branches that are
planted in places where it do not need to be translated, having put them really deep. But
the most secure and successful is to make use of every tree planting, small torn and
small stakes; the reason for the maximum (held by essential among farmers) is because
the new branch of two years is that it should be torn, according June.

The green stake of two or three years set at ground roots quickly into the contest subtle matter lowering it with the more subtle parts of the thick, warm earth; whose branches are little remaining and firm, if they are cut from hardened tree; which if one is to be cut off, much of the slime would flow would be small because of it.However, we keep on planting use thick and long branches that may be found in a good turn, putting entire, that is, when we see that are very successful.

If it is convenient to plant the entire new branch, is not bad put it deep in order to remain in the same place. Beyond that, albeit small body short branch, making increase

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soon to perceive the nutritional juice land; which dividing by the body of Long Branch cannot communicate much virtue to sprout, as to the other, as maximum of Solon.

According Sidagós we should aim carefully not moved from the camp started, branch, or stake seed and grown under irrigation or continuous moisture on site but in another similar place; about which if moved to earth whose plants did not have more irrigation than rain, far from taking it increase not flourish regularly; and this is the most common: neither is there any harm in that the transplant will have been to do what we do in irrigation.

But what is appropriate at this point is transplanting from irrigation to irrigated land, and
But what is appropriate at this point is transplanting from irrigation to irrigated
land, and from rainfed to dry land, and that this is the appropriate for the work is not
lost. And here the author quoted maxim.As it regards the plant, and this is placed lying
on a long hole (or trench), which (if not one branch) must have a deep cubit, having to
remain there without transplanted. The other groups that may have been transplanted
should be at the same depth of an cubit, making it exposed them up until the time of
transplantation. The choice of branches to extensive planting and dutifully be treated in
a separate chapter should occur as I say on this matter, with Allah's favor.
About the variety of holes in point of depth with respect to the differences of the
land, says June in the chapter that deals with the holes for planting vines, which in high
places and hills that are intended for this purpose, just with three feet deep, and in the
plains it should be his depth of four feet; and this because we want (say) that the plants
are so deep that it gets the sun’s heat. The ancients said that does not lower the heat (or
not penetrates) rather than to that extent exempt very hot lands. So if you put your
seedlings to less depth of that, no utility vines were formed them be achieved; because
not getting much land nurturing juice would dry in summer, and quickly be lost not
getting the moisture in the center.

June also said, trying the olive tree, which should be the capacity of every hole according to the nature of the land. In high places must have two cubits and 12cm deep, and the same in width. In the plains it will be deeper, and the same width as the aforementioned author says. Ibn-Hajaj says, that June does not explain exactly shallower in the highlands, and the largest in the flat; and yes Sadihámes which he states that the hole to plant it deeper into the plains, except in the highest places in the mountains or hills to, and at least one third of the hillsides.

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The reason for that is because the depth of the plants should be such that does not reach the roots dry air, or the offense to the heat of summer; and the mountains are cooler than the plains nature. And also, because the water penetrates more the latter sites because of its softness; and less in the mountains because of the hardness of their land; and because water down the slopes so precipitously that diminishes or takes part of that same land, no plants would get wet with rain, if they should do the deep hole; and also because if we came to stony and exhausted ground deepening, it would not have roots that feed nutritional juice.

Someone will say, that if you do not deep holes for plants that have set
Someone will say, that if you do not deep holes for plants that have set
themselves on hillsides, carrying water from the little land covering their roots, just
these would be discovered, so you may come to tear the trees. But this is answered, you
owe to take care of them often visit and replenish the earth rains had detached, throwing
it on the roots and the emaciated sites also putting under and the decline part, mixture of
shrubs and stones. And here the saying of that author.
Then will indicate (by Allah), added Ibn-Hajaj, measuring distances in planting
trees; which it is various, and corresponding to the size of them; of which some are
more pompous than others; and should be proportionate to the quality of the land, of
which the best produce large trees and breed them exhausted or weak consumed.
So I try to distance that must exist between them in the lands of good quality and
in the low substance; which is set according to the teaching I have seen in the books of
the Authors who have treated this matter , or by comparing the same principles, when I
do not find maximum of decisive that end. Equally it will be the same case at the end of
this book. It should be known that the undesirable provision that shall be placed trees
the often prove two damages; One is that if the branches are close to each other,
obstruct the Sun enters the interior; and even the same from the outside should be very
linked, so that charge less fruit; many of which do not air out for its multitude same in
the tree, are too flexible, and not standing up straight, before declining towards the
ground; for this reason they lost in much of the fruit.

The other damage is that roots being near and neighboring each other reciprocally extended to search oppress the juice that are attracted to the earth. There are also third calamity that if the land is not thick not toast with the hot sun for very grim; untying whose parts do not thicken and thickened, and contracting coldly, comes the land corrupted much, if not manured. Mind having known, says June, the winds dried

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plants and every fruit; and that as the strong are those that do well also a temple like blowing with softness are convenient to many trees: and I say that to all kinds of plants especially the olive, whose distances should be spacious for easier entry of the winds. Said Author says in another place, that the distances of the trees are equal on all sides by also agreeing to this effect.

He also says that some older making it subtle about plantations, looked at the position
He also says that some older making it subtle about plantations, looked at the
position that the plant had that wanted to move from one place to another, and so they
placed, that is, each side opposite to where it had this or that wind; so that the eastern
side look up to east, the west to the West, and so the other two, because it flourish so
greatly. Which adds June is not difficult business, smearing red ocher side of the plant
falls to east before starting and while some do not observe well; but it is undeniable
straight in the practice this shows great diligence and accuracy in art.
All farmers, as Ibn-Hajaj, agree that only throw surface soil in the plant pit
without mixing of another one, being soft and warm. In others they disagree much on
having enough land for one, or in mixed manure; whose last review is Kastos, and
Solon's first; which adhered to it for the reason that trees torn away from their sites
when they move in others are weakened too much; and thus the manure then fell on the
roots, perhaps the dry up and leave them certain impressions on the strength of its heat.
For whom June is to appear must throw first surface soil, and over aged rotten manure,
to this way go with moderation and gradually penetrating heat and substance of it to the
roots behind the layer from the earth.