Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 72
UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE LOCAL EXAMINATIONS SYNDICATE General Certificate of Education Ordinary Level BIOLOGY 5090/1 PAPER 1 Multiple Choice Friday 5 JUNE 1998 Morning 50 minutes Additional materials: ‘Multiple Choice answer sheet Soft clean eraser Soft pencil (type B or HB is recommended) TIME 50 minutes INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES Do not open this booklet until you are told to do so. Write your name, Centre number and candidate number on the answer sheet in the spaces provided unless this has already been done for you. There are forty questions in this paper. Answer all questions. For each question there are four possible answers, A, B, C and D. Choose the one you consider correct and record your choice in soft pencil on the separate answer sheet. Read very carefully the instructions on the answer sheet. INFORMATION FOR CANDIDATES Each correct answer will score one mark. A mark will not be deducted for a wrong answer. Any rough working should be done in this booklet. This question paper consists of 16 printed pages. 2 1 Which structure in the plant cell contains chromosomes? The table shows three functions of cells. Which row is correct? 2 A B c D 3 A B c D absorption support transport ted blood cell muscle cell —_root hair cell root hair cell xylem vessel_red blood cell muscle cell red blood cell_ xylem vessel xylem vessel root hair cell muscle cell Which substance enters plant cells by active transport? carbon dioxide nitrate ions oxygen water 4 Which blood vessel carries blood with the lowest concentration of urea? A B c D hepatic portal vein pulmonary vein renal vein vena cava oe 3 Six bean seeds were soaked in water for 24 hours. Three of them were then boiled and cooled. The boiled and the non-boiled seeds were placed on the surface of agar jelly containing starch. After two days, all the seeds were removed and the jelly was flooded with iodine solution. The diagram shows the result of the experiment. boiled non-boiled seeds seeds key yellow/brown colour blue/black colour position of seeds at start of experiment What does the experiment show about non-boiled bean seeds? A They absorb iodine. B They absorb starch. They secrete acid, D They secrete amylase. Which chemical elements are combined to make molecules of starch and cellulose? ‘A. carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen B carbon, hydrogen and oxygen © carbon, nitrogen and oxygen D__ carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen v7 The diagram shows an investigation into the effect of light intensity on the rate of photosynthesis by counting the number of bubbles released per minute. gas collects here > bubbles of gas water water plant —_ = = light Which graph shows the results of this experiment?” A 8 c D 40 40 10 40 3S 3 3 5 3s es ey as ge 82 2 82 BE BE £4 BE 3 » 5 » 2B a © increasing light © increasing light © increasing light © increasing light intensity intensity intensity intensity The photograph shows a section through part of a leaf, as seen under the microscope. Which cells are specialised for carrying water and mineral salts? 5 10 " —_— . 5 The diagram shows part of the human alimentary canal. Which two structures produce substances involved in the digestion of fat? A tandsS B 2and3 C Sand4 D 4and5 Where do chemical digestion and absorption of food occur in the human alimentary canal? chemical digestion absorption A oesophagus colon B oesophagus stomach © stomach liver D stomach ileum Constipation, dental decay and obesity can be caused by poor diet. Which diets are linked with these conditions? constipation dental decay obesity ‘A high energy diet low fibre diet __—high sugar diet B high fibre diet low energy diet__ low sugar diet Clow fibre diet high sugar diet high energy diet D low sugar diet high energy diet high fibre diet 6 12 Which graph shows the effect of increased humidity on the transpiration rate of a plant? transpiration rate A 8 c D Pa humidity humidity ‘humidity humidity transpiration rate transpiration rate transpiration rate 13 In an experiment to investigate the transport of water, the roots of a plant were placed in a coloured dye ‘The diagrams show sections of the leaf, stem and root. leaf stem root 1 vo@> leat | stem | root Pa [3] s 2) 3] 6 ee ie 2[4fe Which substance occurs at a higher concentration in the pulmonary vein than in the pulmonary artery? ‘A carbon dioxide B glucose © oxygen D_ water 7 15 The diagram shows three types of blood vessel, 1, 2 and 3 (not drawn to scale) 1 2 3 OO-r Which of the following describes features of each vessel? fluid passes fluid under | least resistance through wall_| high pressure | to flow of fluid A 2 1 3 B 2 3 1 c 3 1 2 | D 3 2 1 16 The respiration of a molecule of glucose can be either aerobic or anaerobic. Which of the following correctly describes aerobic respiration? amount of energy | carbon dioxide | lactic acid | water released produced | produced | produced A high v ¥ x B high v x v c low x v * \p low * * v 17 Which path does a molecule of oxygen take as it enters the body? A bronchiole -» bronchus —> — larynx trachea alveolus 4 B bronchiole — bronchus > trachea = _larynx © trachea > bronchiole > bronchus > D + trachea = bronchus. -» _ bronchiole alveolus 4 8 18 The table shows the percentage composition of four samples of air. Which sample could have been breathed out by a person after vigorous exercise? same | ‘oxygen | carbon | water dioxide | vapour la 24 03 | saturated | B | 21 | 0.03 | trace c 14 | 7 saturated dp | a 3 trace Between which parts would a ball and socket joint be formed? A tand3 B tand5 C 3and4 D 2and5 20 From which of the following is urea formed? A fat B glycerol C protein D starch 9 is the result of a rise in body temperature? a decrease in the production of sweat {an increase in blood flow to the skin narrowing of blood vessels in the skin raising of hairs on the skin 22 Which change occurs when the ciliary muscles in the eye of a mammal are contracted? A Images of distant objects are focused on the retina. The diameter of the pupil is reduced. The lens becomes flattened. soo Tension on the suspensory ligaments is reduced. 23. The diagram shows a section through the head showing the brain and part of the spinal cord. Which structures carry out the functions below? conscious thought control of body and memory movements and posture A x Ww B w x c Y Zz D z Y ¥ 10 Ne 7 The diagram shows a cross-section of the spinal cord of a mammal. y Which region contains the axons (fibres) of motor neurones, but not those of sensory neurones? 25 What causes the symptoms of emphysema? A disintegration of alveolar walls inflammation of bronchioles narrowing of pulmonary arteries cow uncontrolled division of lung cells 26 The diagram represents the flow of materials within a balanced ecosystem. The boxes are various trophic levels. Which box represents herbivores? key indicates flow am of organic ‘compounds indicates flow —>— ofcarbon dioxide " z 1°27 The diagram shows some organisms (not drawn to scale), which live in the same habitat. oxpecker bird eats ticks that suck zebra's blood aN (aur Db. lioness preys on zebra zebra eats grass Which of the following is a food chain for this habitat? A grass >» zebra > lion > oxpecker B grass + zebra + tick — oxpecker © oxpecker > lion > zebra + grass D oxpecker > tick > zebra > grass 28 The diagram shows a food chain found in a freshwater lake which is polluted by insecti ides. Which organisms in the food chain will accumulate the highest concentration of insecticide in their body tissues? A B c D single cell i preaniomns insect larvae fish bird ie 30 29° The diagram shows a bean plant. What chemical change is cartied out by bacteria inside the swellings labelled X? A B c D ammonium compounds —> nitrates nitrates + ammonium compounds nitrates + nitrogen gas nitrogen gas — nitrates Parasitism is an association between two types of organism in which A 8 c D both organisms benefit. ‘one organism benefits while the other is not affected, one organism benefits while the other is harmed. neither organism benefits. ie 13 he diagram shows part of the carbon cycle Which arrow represents the process of photosynthesis? plant and animal remains in soil (humus) 32 Most wind pollinated flowers have A astrong smell B brightly coloured petals. © large nectaries. D__ long projecting stigmas. carbon dioxide c in atmosphere i ‘carbon, —_——— _ compounds in plants. carbon ‘compounds in animals D 33. The diagram shows a section of a seed, What are the numbered parts? 1 2 3 A cotyledon plumule ~—radicle B plumule cotyledon —_radicle C plumule radicle cotyledon D radicle plumule cotyledon 14 » The offspring from asexual reproduction in plants are likely to A B c D bbe more resistant than their parent to disease. develop into a new variety. grow bigger than their parent. have the same flower colour as their parent. 35 Which sequence of events is correct? A B c D first + rast menstruation menstruation ‘ovulation ovulation 4 SS + + ovulation ovulation ‘menstruation menstruation + 5 + + fertilisation implantation fertilisation implantation 5 + 5 > 36 Which substances enter the fetal circulation from the mother? amino acids | _ glucose urea A v x v B v v x c x x v D x v | 37° Which statement about sperm cells is correct? A B c D They contain one X chromosome. They contain two X chromosomes. ‘They contain either one X or one Y chromosome. They contain one Y chromosome. 38. Which of the following are genetically identical? A 8 c D brothers and sisters in the same family cuttings taken from the same plant mammals in the same litter seeds produced by the same tree key = enter implantation fertilisation implantation fertilisation test cope 02207010 FORM TP 2005172 MAYJUNE 2005 CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION BIOLOGY UNIT2 - PAPER 01 Ty hours Candidates are advised to use the first 15 minutes for reading through this paper carefully. READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY. 1. Candidates must attempt ALL questions in this paper. 2. Answers are to be written in the spaces provided in this answer booklet 3. EACH question is worth 10 marks. 4. The use of silent non-programmable calculators is allowed. eee Copyright © 2004 Caribbean Examinations Council All rights reserved. 02207010/CAPE/2005 ©) @ ee <32 Define the term ‘anaerobic respiration’ Distinguish between the two types of fermentation. [ 2 marks] ‘After a 100 m race, runners may experience discomfort and fatigue in their muscles and may breathe deeply or pant. (@ Name the chemical that causes the discomfort in the runners’ muscles. [ Imark] (ii) Explain why it may be necessary for the runners to breathe deeply and pant. [ Imark ] Sparkling wines, for example champagne, are bottled while the yeast is alive and fermenting, thereby trapping the fermentation products in the bottle. Bakers yeast in bread dough causes it to rise. ‘Name the fermentation product that causes the bread to rise and the champagne cork to oP. 3 [ 1 mark } GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 02207010/CAPE/2005, O° © © -3 In cyanide poisoning, cyanide attacks the enzyme that transfers electrons from the respiratory electron transport chain to O3. Explain why itis not possible to survive cyanide poisoning by using anaerobic respiration alone. [ 2 marks] Respiration occurs in all living cells, but at different rates. Explain why respiration occurs at different rates. Use ONE example to illustrate your answer. [ 2 marks] Total 10 marks GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE (02207010/CAPE/2005 48 2, Figure 1 is a simplified outline of the respiratory pathway. INITIAL PATHWAY FINAL REACTANTS: PRODUCTS: GLYCOLYSIS a ADP ao io NADH +H Pyruvate Pyruvate PYRUVATE, on Coenzyme A. oR NADH + Hs NADY ' ‘Acetyl CoA ‘Acetyl CoA. NADY ‘Coenzyme A NADH + H+ ADP. ATP CO, NADH NADY RESIRATORY mi ADP. ale ATP Figure 1. Outline of the respiratory pathway (@) On Figure 1, indicate with a clear, bold arrow where O, will enter the pathway. () Name the cycle labelled A in Figure 1. [ 1 mark } [ 1 mark} GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 02207010/CAPE/2005 © @ wo ® a5 Name the THREE pathways in Figure 1 that do not function if O, is NOT available. { 3 marks] Name the organelle in the cell in which the reactions shown in Figure 1 occur. [ 1 mark } ATP synthase is a specific channel protein that synthesises ATP. Name the specific molecule or ion that must flow through the channel of this protein for ATP to be synthesized. [ 1 mark | Define the term ‘metabolism of a cell’ [mark] Explain why metabolic pathways need to be linked or coupled together in the cell. { 2marks]} Total 10 marks GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 02207010/CAPE/2005 6- 3. Figure 2 below is a diagram of the nitrogen cycle Gaseous nitrogen u w Uptake by v | Ammonium compounds in the soil | Dead plant & animal debris & humus animals Figure 2. The nitrogen cycle Use Figure 2 to answer questions (a) to (e).. (@) State the names of the bacteria acting at X and Y. @ xX — - a Y: a [ Imark] GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 02207010/CAPE/2005 Bey (’) Give the names of the ions labelled V and W. @ Vv: eee [ Umark] GW: ——— { Imark] (©) Identify the bacteria operative at T and U. @ T [ 1mark } Gi) OU: [ Imark] (@ State ONE other process by which gaseous nitrogen is converted to nitrates. [ 1mark] (©) Minerals are absorbed by primary producers, and passed up the trophic levels of the food chains. They are eventually returned to the soil in approximately the same concentration, due to the action of decomposes. Does energy circulate through the trophic levels in the same way? Give reasons to support your answer. [ 4 marks] ‘Total 10 marks GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 02207010/CAPE/2005, Figure 3 is a scanning electron micrograph showing the anatomical basis for kidney function. @ @ ii) 02207010/CAPE/2005 Loose network of capillaries surrounding nephron Afferent arteriole Efferent arteriole Figure 3. Scanning electron micrograph of part of a kidney Life: The Science of Biology, 6th Edition. W.K. Purves et al. Sinauer Associates, Inc. ‘Name the structure labelled A in Figure 3. [ 1mark } Briefly describe how A functions. [ 1 mark] GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE (b) The graph in Figure 4 shows how the glomerular filtration rate is affected by changes in arterial pressure. z 104 z 3 3 100. z . a és» Ba , & ° so 100150200 Arterial pressure (mm Hg) Figure 4. How glomerular filtration rate is affected by arterial pressure. Life: Science of Biology, 6th Edition. W. K. Purves et al. Sinauer Associates, Inc. (Using the graph in Figure 4, determine the range of arterial pressure over which a kidney functions NORMALLY. [1 mark ] (ii) From the graph in Figure 4, estimate the maximum glomerular filtration rate. [1 mark } Gi) With reference to the graph in Figure 4, give ONE reason for kidney failure. [ 1mark} (©) Inulin is a carbohydrate molecule that is filtered in the glomerulus but is NOT secreted NOR re-absorbed by the renal tubules. One single dose of inulin was injected into an animal's blood stream and the rate of urine production of the animal was found to be 1 cm? per minute. (State the function of the renal tubules. [1 mark | GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 02207010/CAPE/2005 (ii) Gi) 02207010/CAPE/2005 -10- Suggest, giving ONE reason, whether inulin would be a) excreted in the animal's urine [ imark} b) maintained in the animal’s blood over a prolonged period. { 1 mark } Suggest how the glomerular filtration rate can be determined using inulin, { 2 marks] ‘Total 10 marks GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 5. (a)_During the resting potential, there is a potential difference of approximately 70 mV between the inside and the outside of the axon membrane, with the inside being negative in relation to the outside. Explain the role of membrane pumps and diffusion gradients in creating this potential difference. Refer to both anions and cations in your answer. [ 4 marks] GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 02207010/CAPE/2005 125 (b) Figure 5 below shows activity along an axon. +605 +50-4 sa0-| Membrane potential/ m i ‘Time, ms thet te ht te te ee + + + + Axonmembran (i) Describe the event occurring at X and suggest how this eventis affected by lack of oxygen. [ 2 marks] GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 02207010/CAPE/2005 e Brig — (ii) Describe the activity occurring at X. [mark } Suggest what causes the reading of -90 mV at Z. [1mark } (©) Suggest the benefit of saltatory conduction in myelinated nerve fibres. [ 2 marks} Total 10 marks GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 02207010/CAPE/2005 =a (@) Figure 6 below depicts pancreatic cells in the ilets of Langerhans. L- effect 1 M- effect 2 N- effect 3 Liver Hormone to liver High blood sugar K Feedback reaction T Liver Hormone to iver R-effect 1 S- effect 2 ae Figure 6. Feedback processes in pancreatic cells Study Figure 6 and answer questions (i) to (iv) in question (a). (@ Identify cells K and Q. Cell K: E Cell @ 02207010/CAPE/2005 [ 1mark ] GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE (b) Bris - (ii) State the effects identified by L, M and N. Effect at N: iii) State the effects at R and S. Effect at R: Effect at S: [ 1mark J (iv) Give the approximate adjusted concentration of glucose in the blood at P and T. Concentration at P: Concentration at T: { Imark } When bunches of bananas are harvested, all the fruits are generally at the same stage of ripeness. It is much more expensive to harvest mangoes, as the fruits on a ‘ree are at slightly different stages of ripening. How can the growers and shippers ‘overcome this problem? [ 2 marks] GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 02207010/CAPE/2005 16 - (©) Complete Table 1 by describing THREE differences between co-ordination effected by the endocrine system and the nervous system. TABLE 1 DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ENDOCRINE AND NERVOUS SYSTEMS Endocrine System Nervous System [ 3 marks] Total 10 marks GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 02207010/CAPE/2005 @) (b) ears Figure 7 shows an immunoglobulin molecule. Figure 7. An immunoglobulin molecule @ Examine the immunoglobulin molecule in Figure 7 and complete the labels A WE. [ 3 marks] (i) CIRCLE the antigen binding site on the immunoglobulin molecule in Figure 7. [ 1 mark | ‘The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) encodes proteins that present antigens to the immune system's T cell receptors. In human organ-transplant surgery, MHC molecules are important because the proteins produced by the MHC are specific to each individual. They act as antigens if transplanted into another individual. Explain why twins can accept organs from each other and parents can accept organs from their children. [ 3 marks] GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE (0220701 0/CAPE/2005 -18- (©) The method used in laboratories to determine blood groups involves the mixing of blood of unknown type with anti-A or anti-B antibodies, Table 2 below shows ABO blood reactions when anti-A and anti-B antibodies are | mixed with blood of different blood groups. Red blood cells that react with antibodies i clump together and the blood appears speckled. Red blood cells that do not react with antibodies remain evenly distributed. (Study and complete Table 2 by writing ‘CLUMPED’ or ‘EVENLY DISPERSED" in the boxes a) to d). TABLE 2 ABO BLOOD REACTIONS bod Reaction to Blood Antibodies pS: Red blood cells that do not type | Genotype | made by |__2dded antibodies react with antibody remain of cells body evenly dispersed. Anti-A | Anti-B Red blood cells that react with antibody clump together (speckled appearance). A | PR or P| Anti-B B | Por PP? AB ne °) d Life: The Science of Biology, 6th Edition. | W. Purves et al. Sinauer Associates, Inc. | [ 2marks] (ii) State the blood type of a person who is a universal donor (can give blood to individuals of all ABO blood types) AND a person who is a universal recipient (can receive blood from individuals of all ABO blood types). Universal donor Universal recipient { 1mark } Total 10 marks GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 02207010/CAPE/2005 © 219 - 8. (a)_Using ONE named example of EACH type of drug, distinguish between a socially- accepted drug and an illicit drug. [ 2 marks} (6) Figure 8 below shows a part of the lungs of a non-smoker in photograph (a) and part of the lungs of a smoker in photograph (b). Figure 8. Lungs of a non smoker and a smoker Biology of Life on Earth. J. Audesirk, G-Audesirk, Prentice Hall Explain what causes the lung of the cigarette smoker to appear as in photograph (b), Figure 8. { 2 marks} GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 02207010/CAPE/2005, =e (© Describe ONE symptom experienced by the cigarette smoker whose lungs are shown in (b) {1 mark } (@)_ The graph in Figure 9 below shows how the risk of road accidents increases as the blood alcohol concentration increases. J 15times4 3 People most g susceptible 2 toaleohol E 10 times T sts | & 4 a 3 ~ People least | te susceptible Risk of accident | eatcohol withno 9” 10 50 80 100 150 200 rink Blood alcohol concentration/mg of alcohol per 100 cn of blood Human Health and Disease. A. Fullick. Heinemann Educational Publishers. Figure 9. How the risk of road accidents varies with blood alcohol concentration. Examine the graph in Figure 9. With regard to road accident risk, describe the MAIN | trend that is illustrated by the graph. } { 2 marks] GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE (02207010/CAPE/2005 ) @ 02207010/CAPE/2005 Pie In developed countries, there are legal sanctions against driving with blood alcohol levels, ‘over a set limit. In Britain the 80 mg per 100 cm’ of blood. The police can stop drivers and ask them to take a Breathalyser test which involves breathing into a device that analyses the breath and estimates the content of alcohol in the blood. The graph in Figure 9 on page 20 shows how the risk of road accidents increases as the blood alcohol concentration increases. ‘Using the graph as well as your knowledge of the physical symptoms caused by different levels of alcohol in the blood, suggest, giving your reasons, where the legal alcohol limit should be set for your territory. [ 3 marks] Total 10 marks (® A pplasmid has taken up some genes, including the human insulin gene. Outline THREE steps in the method for producing human insulin commercially through transgenic bacteria. [ 3 marks] (ii) Suggest ONE method which could be used to introduce new genes into eukaryotic cells. [mark GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE ee ee -2- @ Restriction endonucleotidases are enzymes found in bacteria which recognise and cut DNA. ‘The enzymes bind to the DNA at target sites and cut it at specific base sequences, as shown in | Table 3 below. TABLES TARGET SITES OF RESTRICTION ENDONUCLEOTIDASES Enzyme | Target site on DNA. ! | ECORI j ; | ! | Figure 10 below shows sections of cut DNA, revealing “sticky ends”. / T ATA A T ala G a a i c | “ ai) ® 1 i fo: a A } © T i G i 6 A a © A A a i | 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 8 Figure 10. Sections of cut DNA revealing sticky ends I GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE | 02207010/CAPE/2005 ¢€ aes (b) Use the numbers provided to identify the DNA whose “sticky ends” are complementary to each other, which would enable them to rejoin accurately. @ Number and Number (by Hind 1) Gi) Number ‘and Number (by ECORD [ 2marks] (© @_ Name the enzyme which seals the “sticky ends” together in complementary bonds. [1 mark] (ii) State ONE function of this type of enzyme during meiosis I in eukaryotes. [ 1mark} (@) Genetic engineering has been used to integrate insecticide genes into the genome of crop plants, such as maize (com). Each cell of the genetrically altered plant can produce the toxin which, when eaten, kills insects. Maize is a wind pollinated plant. State TWO effects that this example of genetic engineering could have on the ecological balance of the environment. ! [ 2 marks] ‘otal 10 marks END OF TEST , The Council has made every effort to trace copyright holders. However, ifany have been inadvertently overlooked, or any material has been incorrectly acknowledged, CXC will be pleased to correct this at the earliest opportunity. 02207010/CAPE/2005 test cope 02207020 FORM TP 2005173 MAY/JUNE 2005 CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION BIOLOGY UNIT 2- PAPER 02 hours Candidates are advised to use the first 15 minutes for reading through this paper carefully. READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY. 1. This paper consists of NINE questions. 2. Section A consists of THREE questions. Candidates must attempt ALL questions in this section and should spend no more than 30 minutes on this section. Answers to this section MUST be written in this answer booklet. 3. Section B consists of SIX questions. Candidates must attempt THREE, questions inthis section, ONE question from EACH module, Answers to this section MUST be written in the answer booklet provided. 4, The use of silent non-programmable calculators is allowed. Copyright © 2004 Caribbean Examinations Council. Al rights reserved. 02207020/CAPE/2005 -2- > SECTION A. You must attempt ALL THREE questions in this section. You should NOT spend more than 30 minutes on this section. 1. Figure 1 below shows the materials and experimental apparatus A, B and C, used to measure oxygen uptake under three different circumstances. Capillary tube a 20 drop 8 Ruler eT ZAZA ——Rabber bung ——|——Thermometer Germinating | — Germinating beans beans that |__Wire gauze were soaked Soda lime in potassium cyanide Figure 1. Oxygen uptake under different circumstances (a) Outline an experiment, based on the apparatus in Figures 1 A and B, to measure oxygen uptake in germinating beans. [ 4 marks} (6) What is the purpose of the thermometers used in the experimental apparatus in Figures 1 A and B? [1 mark ] GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 02207020/CAPE/2005, 9 © @ oc ‘The beans in the experiment shown in Figure 1 C are soaked in potassium cyanide. ‘Suggest whether the beans soaked in potassium cyanide will take up oxygen. Give ONE reason for your answer. { 2 marks] Figure 2 below shows the scheme for an experiment. ‘The experiment has been designed to test whether a hydrogen ion (H*) gradient can drive ATP synthesis by isolated mitochondria. Mitochondria are isolated from cells and a) Placed ina medium at pH 8. This resuts in a low H* concentration both outside and inside the organelles. Mitochondrion ‘The mitochondria are moved to an acid ‘medium (pH 4; high H* concentration). H* movement into mitochondria drives BX} thesynthess of ATP in te absence of reine elesroa tanspart Figure 2. Experiment 1 ‘What conclusion can be drawn from the results of Experiment 1? { 1 mark } GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 02207020/CAPE/2005, © ota Another experiment is designed to test the role of H* pumps in ATP synthesis. An artificial lipid vesicle with a proton pump is created and ATP synthase inserted into the membrane. Hydrogen ions, pumped into the vesicle to create a gradient, diffuse out through the ATP synthase, producing ATP. ‘What conclusion can be drawn about the conditions necessary for ATP synthase to form. ATP? [ 2 marks] Total 10 marks GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 02207020/CAPE/2005, @ ) ist Figure 3 shows the stoma from the under surface of a leaf. In (A) the stomais open while in B) it is closed. (B) Closed Figure 3. Stomata Draw the stoma in Figure 3 (A) and the cells immediately surrounding it, as well as any other features of significance. The drawing should be twice the size of the specimen in the photograph (magnification x 2). Do not spend more than FOUR minutes on your drawing. Labels are not required [ 4 marks} Adjacent to the left guard cell in Figure 3 A is a long narrow cell called the “accessory cell to the guard cell”. Account for the difference in its shape in A as compared with B. [ Imark } GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 02207020/CAPE/2005, rior © — @)_ Figure 4 is a diagram frequently used in botanical textbooks to show the size of the stomatal aperture over a 24-hour period. Collect data from this diagram and use it to construct a histogram to show the relationship between the time and the width of the stomatal pore. Figure 4. Stomatal pore-size over a 24-hour period Histogram to show relationship between time and stomatal aperture [ 4 marks] GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 02207020/CAPE/2005 oe (a) Bae (ii) Account for the shape of the histogram between 11.00 a.m. and 3.00 p.m. [ 1 mark } Total 10 marks Light exercise creates little demand on the rate of breathing and heart output but as exertion and duration increase, both breathing movements and heart output intensify "When the body is exercising at its maximum capacity, oxygen consumption is at its highest. Thisstate iscalled the VO, max. Itis measured as the volume of oxygen in cubic centimetres, used per kilogram of body mass per minute. ‘VO,max = O, em kg“'minute ‘A sports lab is equipped with a stopwatch, a weighing scale, appropriate tubing and a gas analyser, to measure oxygen consumption. Explain the procedures you would use and the calculations you would make to find out the VO,max of an athlete. Z z GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 02207020/CAPE/2005 -8- a (b) A 40-year-old subject signed up for a 24-month endurance training programme. ‘The graph in Figure 5 summarizes the adaptive changes in the muscles. 10 Adaptive control ratio a ed 6 8 0 12 14 16 18 2 22 24 36 I <— Training duration (months) —___________><— no trai KEY 5 — aerobic enzymes in citric acid cycle t - capillary network u - VO, max v — cross-sectional size of muscle fibres Figure 5, Adaptive changes in muscles / Adapted from Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition and / Human Performance, 5th Edition. W.D. Mc Ardle, F. 1. Katch V. L. Katch. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins With reference to the graph in Figure 5, answer questions (i) to (v). (Whats the percentage increase in VO,max attained by the 40-year-old subject at the end of the 24-month period? { 1mark} GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. 02207020/CAPE/2005, i) Gil) (iv) Ww) (02207020/CAPE/2005 Suggest why muscle fibres, which attain an increase in cross-sectional area in the first two months, do not achieve any further increase in diameter over the next 22 months. [ Tmark ] If the muscle cells do not increase in cause an increase in VO,max. e, suggest how muscles continue to [ Tmark } ‘At the end of 24 months, when training stops, why do curves ‘s’ and ‘u’ decline abruptly, while curves ‘t’ and ‘v’ decrease more slowly? Reason ‘s’ and ‘u’ decline abruptly: [ Imark ] Reason ‘t’ and 'v’ decrease more slowly: [1 mark] Fitness instructors are advised to exercise at 50% of their VO,max, to ‘maintain health. On the graph in Figure 5 draw the letter X at the points which show the 50% VO,max value at 18, 20 and 22 months. [1 mark} ‘Total 10 marks GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE -10- SECTION B You must answer THREE questions in this section. Answer ONE question EACH from ‘Modules 1, 2 and 3. You MUST write your answers in the answer booklet provided. MODULE 1 Answer EITHER Question 4 OR Question 5. 4. (a) _ Explain how ATP and NADPH are synthesized in chloroplasts. [10 marks] () The Calvin cycle stops in the dark Briefly outline the THREE main processes of the Calvin cycle and discuss why the processes stop in the dark. [ 6marks] | (©) Forty moming glory plants grow crowded together in a well-watered flower plot, under a sealed bell jar in full sunshine. Twenty morning glory plants grow in a poorly-watered flower pot in the shade, under a sealed bell jar with a lizard. Indicate, with reasons, FOUR factors which limit the rate of photosynthesis in the flower pots. [ 4marks] ‘Total 20 marks 5. (@)__@_ Difficulties with quantifying relationships between organisms in food chains led to the concept of pyramids of numbers. Explain how a pyramid of numbers is constructed and, by means of TWO examples, why there may be inconsistencies in the shapes of the pyramid. [ 5 marks] Gi) Pyramids of standing crop biomass are more accurate in recording trophic evel measurements. Why are they more accurate and how do they vary seasonally? [ Smarks] (b) In temperate forests of Alaska there may be fewer than 50 species of trees and shrubs per hectare, while in forests of Guyana there are over 500 different species of trees | and shrubs per hectare. (® Discuss the effects of the variety of plant species in Guyana on the potential diversity of animal life, [ 6marks] (ii) Discuss how the stability of an ecosystem is related to its species diversity. [ 4 marks} ‘Total 20 marks GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 02207020/CAPE/2005, | | | | 6. @ (b) @) ) (c) Bae MODULE 2 Answer EITHER Question 6 OR Question 7. (i) Describe the forces and conditions which cause blood from the right atrium to center and fill the right ventricle. [ 6marks] (ii) The right and left ventricles force blood out of the heart at pressures of approximately 4 kPa and 16 kPa respectively. Why is this necessary? [ 4 marks] Discuss how the blood vessels of the circulatory system are well adapted, structurally and functionally to: (@® the distribution of blood [ 4marks] Gi) the return of blood [ 3marks] iii) the interchange of substances with the tissues [ 3marks] ‘Total 20 marks With specific reference to the cells, explain how the structure of phloem is related to its function. (10 marks} ‘A young bean seedling has two cotyledons, two developing leaves and one root. A sweet potato vine has.a long stem, 40 mature leaves and four large sweet potatoes underground. (@ State CONCISELY the pressure flow hypothesis, CLEARLY distinguishing between a source and a sink. [ 2marks] (ii) Identify the sources and sinks in the bean seedling and in the sweet potato vine, [ 4 marks} With reference to the bean seedling, outline the pathway a water molecule would take from the soil solution to the atmosphere via the xylem. [ 4marks] Total 20 marks GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 02207020/CAPE/2005 b) © %» @ ) © Se MODULE 3 Answer EITHER Question 8 OR Question 9. Describe the causes and effects of malnutrition with reference to: () Protein energy malnutrition (PEM) Gi) Anorexia [ 8marks} The advice of dieticians is based on DRV. () What is meant by the abbreviation ‘DRV’? Gi) State ONE advantage of fibre in the diet. [ 2marks] A diet high in saturated fats is associated with atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD). Give reasons for this fact. [10marks} ‘Total 20 marks State briefly what is meant by the following terms: (@ Humoral immune response (ii) Cell mediated immune response [ 4marks] Explain what is meant by the term ‘monoclonal antibody’ and describe the use of monoclonal antibodies in ONE diagnosis and ONE treatment procedure. [ 6 marks] (Distinguish between the two methods by which artificial immunity can be acquired AND suggest the advantages and disadvantages of this type of immunity. [ 6 marks} ) With reference to the immune response generated, indicate how artificial immunity is beneficial to young children. [4 marks] Total 20 marks END OF TEST ‘The Council has made every effortto trace copyright holders. However, ifany have been inadvertently overlooked, or any material has been incorrectly acknowledged, CXC will be pleased to correct this at the earliest opportunity. 02207020/CAPE/2005 FORM TP 2007167 ce. rest cone 02207020 MAY/SUNE 2007 CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION BIOLOGY UNIT 2 - PAPER 02 1 24 hours Candidates are advised to use the first 15 minutes for reading through this paper carefully. ‘THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY. ‘This paper consists of NINE questions. Section A consists of THREE questions. Candidates must attempt ALL questions in this section and should spend no more than 30 minutes on this, section. Answers to this section MUST be written in this answer booklet. Section B consists of SIX questions. Candidates must attempt THREE questions in this section, ONE question from EACH module. Answers to this, section MUST be written in the answer booklet provided. ‘The use of silent non-programmable calculators is allowed. Copyright © 2006 Caribbean Examinations Council®. All rights reserved. (02207020/CAPE/2007 a, ey SECTION A You must attempt ALL THREE questions in this section. You should NOT spend more than 30 minutes on this section, 1. Figure | is an illustration of the apparatus used to measure the rate of photosynthesis of a water plant, Elodea, over a known period of time. Barrel of syringe Plastic tube Plunger of syringe- ‘Thermometer: Light => capillary tube Cpittary - Beaker of ‘Water plant tube water . (heat shield) ‘Test tube 4” Figure 1 (@) Explain how the apparatus can be used to measure the rate of photosynthesis. { 5 marks} GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE (02207020/CAPE/2007 (b) The graph in Figure 2 shows the results of an experiment in which a plant was exposed to light at varying intensities and at different concentrations of carbon dioxide. The rate of photosynthesis was measured as the volume of oxygen per unit time. 2 B 013% CO, 2 g 2 ‘Wams% CO, a High ra Light intensity/ arbitary units Figure 2. (@® Explain the shape of Curve A. [ 2 marks] (i) Compare Curves A and B and account for the observed differences. [ 2 marks] ii) Suggest a possible hypothesis for this experiment. [ 1 mark} Total 10 marks GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 02207020/CAPE/2007 Sra (a) Figure 3 (a) is a longitudinal section of part of the wall of the heart, as seen on a microscope slide. Figure 3 (b) is a diagram of the structure of the heart. Figure 3 (6) Figure 3 (a) Adapted from M. S. H. Difoire, Atlas of Normal Histology, Lea and Febiger, 1989, p 91. (By means of a plan drawing (without drawing actual cells), draw in outline the structures shown in Figure 3 (a). Use the space below and a magnification of x1. [ 3 marks} GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 02207020/CAPE/2007 -5- Gi) By means of a ruled square or rectangle, indicate on Figure 3 (b), the location of the drawing you provided in (a) (i). [mark ] (b) On the dras ig of Figure 3 (a), use labels to identify EACH of the following: (The identity of the structures marked A, B,C, D A c D (i) The areas labelled E and F E [ 3 marks] (©) State the width of the wall at G as a proportion of the wall width at H. { 1mark] (@ Give a reason for the differences in width you gave in your answer to (c).. { 2 marks} Total 10 marks GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE (02207020/CAPE/2007 ae 3. Figure 4 shows the outcome of a study among men whose cumulative increase in risk for developing lung cancer (as a %) was determined in association with the age at which they ‘stopped smoking. Continuea 15. smoking ey é q 2 Stopped | 3 s. age 50 | Stopped | era ‘ Novae catat & s 6 % Age Source: P. Vines, M. Alavanja, P. Buffer et al. Commentary: Tobacco and Cancer: Recent Epidemilogical Evidence, Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Vol 96, No. 2, January 2004, pp 99 - 106. Figure 4 . (@) Use the data from the graph to answer the following questions: . @ —Atage 75 which group has a) the HIGHEST cumulative risk? b) the LOWEST cumulative risk? { 2 marks} Gi) Inthis study, at what age have all men been considered to have a cumulative risk of zero? [mark ] GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 02207020/CAPE/2007 -7- (iii) Atage 65, what is the difference in risk between those who stopped smoking at 30, compared with those who stopped smoking at age 50? [1mark | (iv) Suggest how the failure of 50-year-old men in 2007 to quit smoking will affect their risk of developing lung cancer in 2027 in comparison with those who never smoked. [ 2 marks] (b) Ten 35-year-old women comprise 5 smokers (Group A) and 5 non-smokers (Group B). How could you precisely design an experiment, and what measurements would you take in order to determine which group is the fittest in relation to their pulse rate (P), their blood pressure elevation (BP) and their breathing rate, (BR), following exercise. The ‘equipment you are provided with is 1. asetofst 2. equipment to measure blood pressure 3. a stopwatch, [4 marks] Total 10 marks GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 02207020/CAPE/2007 ase SECTION B ‘You must answer THREE questions in this section. Answer ONE question EACH from \ i (b) ©) (a) ) © ‘Modules 1, 2. and 3. You MUST write your answers in the answer booklet provided. MODULE 1 ‘Answer EITHER Question 4 OR Question 5. For living organisms state TWO specific cellular processes that require energy, giving brief explanations as to why energy is required [ 2marks] (What is meant by the term ‘glycolysis"? (ii) Describe, in their correct sequence, SIX major steps in glycolysis. [ 8marks] (@ ‘Anaerobic respiration’ is considered to be inefficient, in terms of energy, when compared to aerobic respiration. Discuss this statement referring to SIX points in your discussion. (ii) Discuss, using FOUR points, the importance of the production of lactate when a person does sustained vigorous exercise. [10marks]} Total 20 marks In an ecosystem, energy and nutrients flow through three nutritional groups, namely producers, consumers and decomposers. State the sources and the differences between energy flow and nutrient flow through these nutritional levels. { 6 marks} When nutrients cycle through an ecosystem, point out the advantages of a food web over a food chain. [ 4marks] In tropical rainforests, leaves, fruits and branches fall to the ground and are subject to the action of micro-organisms and chemical actions which regenerate minerals essential for further plant growth. Apply your knowledge of the nitrogen cycle toexplain, in detail, how deforestation/slash-and-burn interferes with EACH stage of the cycle. [10 marks] ‘Total 20 marks GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE } 02207020/CAPE/2007 4 6. (a) b) ©) b) © MODULE 2 Answer EITHER Question 6 OR Question 7. (Draw a large, labelled diagram to illustrate the detailed structure of a nephron of a mammalian kidney. Outline the role of the ‘Loop of Henle’ in water conservation. [10 marks) Discuss the effect that pregnancy has on the functioning of the kidney. [ 2marks] High glucose and protein levels were detected in a urine sample from a 60-year-old patient, Discuss the clinical significance of this result. [ 8marks] Total 20 marks (@ — Givealarge, clear drawing of a section through a synapse, and label the pre-and post-synaptic membranes. Gi) Label FOUR additional structures you have clearly drawn. (iii) Describe briefly the sequential steps which occur in the transmission of an impulse across a synapse, and its reception at the post-synaptic membrane. [10 marks] Clarify the role and mode of action of synapses in the following events. (The waking cries of the baby in the bedroom gradually penetrate our awareness, (ii) A dish of food given to you is painfully hot and your reflex action urges you to drop it. However, it is your mother’s favourite china and you immediately hold on even though your fingers are burning. [ 6marks] Discuss FOUR points of difference between the operation of the nervous and endocrine systems in response to stimuli. { 4marks] ‘Total 20 marks GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 02207020/CAPE/2007 — sa), (b) oon) ) Gi) ii) Gi) @ i) @ Gi) -10- MODULE 3 Answer EITHER Question 8 OR Question 9. Explain how HIV causes AIDS. Outline FIVE symptoms of AIDS. Discuss the impact of AIDS in the Caribbean. [12marks] Briefly explain how malaria is transmitted to humans. Discuss the role of biological factors in the prevention and control of malaria. [ 8 marks] ‘Total 20 marks Explain what is meant by the term ‘restriction enzymes’ and state their normal function in life. Describe how restriction enzymes are used in genetic engineering using plasmids, bacteria and gene probes to produce recombinant DNA, which includes a specific transplanted gene. (10 marks} ‘Comment on the therapeutic procedures used to treat a genetic disorder. Gene therapy can be applied to both germ cells and somatic cells, Most countries prohibit the application of germ cell therapy in humans. Give reasons for their decision, [10 marks] ‘Total 20 marks END OF TEST The Council has made every effortto trace copyright holders. However, ifany have been inadvertently overlooked, or any material has been incorrectly acknowledged, CXC will be pleased to correct this at the earliest opportunity. 02207020/CAPE/2007 ce. test cope 02207020 Oo FORM TP 2008162 MAY/JUNE 2008 CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION BIOLOGY UNIT 2- PAPER 02 2 hours 30 minutes READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFUI 1. This paper consists of SIX questions. 2. Section A consists of THREE questions. Candidates must answer ALL questions in this section. Answers to this section MUST be written in this answer booklet. 3. Section B consists of THREE questions. Candidates must answer ALL ‘questions in this section. Answers to this section MUST be written in the answer booklet provided. 4, The use of silent non-programmable calculators is allowed. | Copyright © 2007 Caribbean Examinations Council®. | All rights reserved. | (02207020/CAPE/2008 ae > SECTION A 2 Answer ALL questions. You must write your answers in the spaces provided in this answer booklet. } 1. Figure 1 shows the apparatus used to investigate oxygen uptake in small organisms. | Syringe Manometer capillary Vatube containing coloured guid) Carprated 5 H } seale | Tap | (closed during experiment) Perforated gauze basket Small invertebrates —}f Fitter paper —| y Fiter paper Potassium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide BmaGkanat oo) solution (absorbed CO) TubeA ‘TubeB Figure 1. Apparatus to investigate oxygen uptake in small organisms htp://images.google.tt/imgres?imgurl=http://www. biologymad.com/PhotosynResp/ j Photos19.gif&imgrefuurl=http:/Awww.biologymad.com/PhotosynResp/PhotosynResp.him&h= 412&w=5634s2=14&hl=endstart= 15&tbnid=5_NesDmUuRo42M: &tbnh=97 &tbnw=133 prev=limages%3 Fg %3D%2 560respirometer%2527 %26svnum%3D 10%26h1%3Den% 261r%3D%26sa%3DN GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 02207020/CAPE/2008 a (a) Explain how the apparatus is used to measure the rate of oxygen uptake by organisms. [ 6 marks] GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 02207020/CAPE/2008 -4- (>) Table 1 gives the results of an experiment in which the rates of oxygen uptake, by germinating and dry peas, were measured at two different temperatures over a period of 30 minutes. The results are expressed as the cumulative oxygen consumed (em*) by peas at different temperatures. TABLE 1: RATE OF OXYGEN UPTAKE BY GERMINATING AND DRY PEAS ‘Temperature | Time in minutes | Germinating peas | Dry peas i 10°C 0 0 0 ! 10 29 0 20 62 02 30 94 0 25°C 0 0 0 10 88 02 20 160 ou 30 27 00 (Suggest a control for this experiment. { 1 mark J Gi) On the graph grid provided below, plot the results for the germinating peas at SECs [ 4 marks] GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 02207020/CAPE/2008 > ii) (iv) 02207020/CAPE/2008 Calculate the rate of oxygen consumption for germinating peas at BOTH temperatures using the time interval between 10 and 20 minutes. Rate at 10°C: Rate at 25°C: [ 2marks} Comment on the differences in oxygen consumption observed between a) germinating peas at 10°C and 25°C [ 1mark] b) _ germinating and dry peas. ( Tmark] ‘Total 15 marks GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE ar 2. (@)_ Water is drawn up the entire xylem system due to a negative pressure created by loss of ‘water from the leaf spaces into the atmosphere. This enormous upward pull on the xylem contents, especially in trees, could cause the xylem walls to cave inwards, (cavitation), In a study of trees, the mean diameters of the xylem vessels were measured in the tree trunks, the shallow roots and the deep roots. Two species were evaluated, Juniper (J) and Quercus (Q). The results are shown in Figure 2. WEEE Deep root 120 Shallow root 5 Trunk 100 Mean conduit diameter (jm) 3 J Q Figure 2. Xylem vessel diameters in trunks and roots McElrone A, Pockman W, Martinez-Vilalta J and Jackson R. Variation in xylem structure and function in stems and roots of trees to 20 m depth. ‘New Phytologist (2604) 163: p. 510. : / This bar chart has been adapted from (Complete the table of xylem diameters for Juniper and Quercus and determine the diameter of the trunk xylem as a percentage of the deep root xylem for Juniper and Quercus. Diameter in Juniper Quercus um / Deep root xylem. Trunk xylem Diameter of trunk xylem as a percentage of the deep root xylem [ 2 marks] GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE (02207020/CAPE/2008 ae Gi) Account for the difference in diameter of the xylem between the trunk ofthe tree and the shallow roots. [ 2 marks] Gil) State TWO factors, other than transpiration pull from the leaves, that would account for water movement in the xylem of the roots. [ 2 marks] (b) Figure 3 shows part of a vascular bundle of a dicotyledon in transverse section. Figure 3. T:S. dicotyledon vascular bundle ‘http://www. botany.org/plantimages/ImageData.aspIDN=B-036h () Identify the THREE main tissue types shown. 1 Bs ee 3. [ 1 mark ] GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 02207020/CAPE/2008 a. Gi) Fourcells have an *X” drawn in them. Draw these cells, and all the cells between them in correct proportion, at a magnification of x2. [ 3 marks} iii) The cell labelled V has been magnified 300 times. What is the actual diameter of this cell? [1 mark GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE (02207020/CAPE/2008 e © (©) Figure io 4 is an electron micrograph of a plant structure. i) (02207020/CAPE/2008 Figure 4. Electron micrograph of a plant structure Roberts M., Reiss M. and Monger B., Advanced Biology. Nelson, 2000, p. 259. Identify the structures, X, Y and Z in Figure 4. x y Zz [ 1 mark] State how EACH of these structures is adapted to its function. Ex [ 3marks} ‘Total 15 marks GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE -10- ® the number of fast food outlets (FFO) and the prevalence of obesity. (‘Prevalence’ is defined as the number of cases in the population at a specific time). The results of the survey are shown in Table 2. ‘ABLE 2. THE NUMBER OF FFO (FAST-FOOD OUTLETS) AND THE PREVALENCE OF OBESITY, 1985 - 2005 | 3. Ima country with a population of over 300,000,000, a survey was carried out to determine Fast food outlets | Obesity prevalence Year | (FFO) thousands | (millions of cases) 1985 6 4 1990 10 55 1995 14 8 2000 18.5 13 2005 23 20 | (@) Complete the graph provided on page 11, to construct the two “best fit’ lines to show i the data. Use the same pair of axes for each graph, and provide a key to identify the two graph lines. [ 6 marks} (>) With reference to the data (1985 ~ 2005), describe the relationship between the number of FFO (in thousands) and the prevalence of obesity (in millions). { 3 marks] GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE (02207020/CAPE/2008 FFO (thousands), Obesity (millions) (02207020/CAPE/2008 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE ris (©) By means of a sketched line, project the existing graph lines for FFO’s and obesity to the year 2015. What is the projected relationship between them in 2015? Use the data to support your answer. { 3 marks] (@ What THREE factors other than FFO (fast-food outlets) could be causative of obesity in our societies? Explain your answer. { 3 marks] Total 15 marks GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 02207020/CAPE/2008 “ee SECTION B Answer ALL questions. You must write your answers in the answer booklet provided. 4 @ (b) ©) @ (b) © ) © @ Describe the structure of the thylakoids and explain clearly how they are adapted to their function. [ 4 marks} Clarify the pathway and productivity of a ground electron from its entry into Photosystem I to its incorporation into a reduced phosphate containing product. [ 4marks] Explain the term ‘ecological pyramid’ and distinguish between the THREE major types. of ecological pyramids. [ 4marks] Discuss how energy flows through an ecosystem. [ 3marks] ‘Total 15 marks Describe the ways in which red blood cells and haemoglobin molecules are effective in maximising the uptake of oxygen. { 4marks] The Bohr Effect has implications for the stability of oxyhaemoglobin in active muscle tissue. Explain this effect. [ 4marks] ‘The normal concentration of glucose in human blood is 90 mg per 100 cm? and even after the heaviest meal the level rarely exceeds 150 mg per 100 cm*. Discuss the hormonal processes involved in keeping this level constant. [ 7 marks] ‘Total 15 marks Give a drawing of an antibody molecule using annotated labels to relate the MOST important structural features to its functions. [ 4marks] Distinguish between and describe the modes of action of mature B and T cells in humoral and cell-mediated responses. [ 4marks] Distinguish between physical and psychological drug dependence. [ 4marks] Discuss the long-term consequences of alcohol consumption on the liver. { 3marks] ‘Total 15 marks END OF TEST The Council has made every effortto trace copyright holders. However, ifany have been inadvertently overlooked, or any material has been incorrectly acknowledged, CXC will be pleased to correct this at the earliest opportunity. 02207020/CAPE/2008

Оценить