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Task 3

Direct method
The direct method of teaching was developed as a response to the Grammar-Translation
method. It sought to immerse the learner in the same way as when a first language is learnt.
All teaching is done in the target language, grammar is taught inductively, there is a focus on
speaking and listening, and only useful everyday' language is taught. The weakness in the
Direct Method is its assumption that a second language can be learnt in exactly the same way
as a first, when in fact the conditions under which a second language is learnt are very

The teacher explains new vocabulary using realia, visual aids or demonstrations.

In the classroom
Aspects of the Direct Method are still evident in many ELT classrooms, such as the emphasis
on listening and speaking, the use of the target language for all class instructions, and the use
of visuals and realia to illustrate meaning.

Probably the biggest advantage of this method of teaching English is that it actually teaches
the language and doesnt teach about the language. Furthermore, due to its emphasis on
speech, it is better for students who have a need of real communication in English. Finally,
this method introduced the use of teaching vocabulary using realia, which is still widely used
today when teaching English to speakers of other languages.
The focus of the lessons is on good pronunciation, often introducing learners to phonetic
symbols before they see standard writing examples.

The Direct Method continues to provoke interest and enthusiasm today, but it is not an easy
methodology to use in a classroom situation. It requires small classes and high student
motivation, and in the artificial environment of a classroom it is difficult to generate natural
situations of understanding and guarantee sufficient practice for everyone.
However, variants of this method have been developed where the teacher allows limited
explanations in the students native language and explains some grammar rules to correct
common errors a student may make when speaking.
One of the most famous supporters of this method was the German Charles Berlitz, who
founded the Berlitz chain of private language schools.

Classroom instruction is conducted exclusively in the target language. The teacher

should demonstrate, not explain or translate.



. Only everyday vocabulary and sentences are taught.


3. Vocabulary is taught through known words, demonstration, authentic objects (realia),

pictures, and miming.

4.Grammar is taught inductively. There may never be an explicit grammar rule given.


. New teaching points are introduced orally.


6. Both speech and listening comprehension are taught.

. The teacher, by asking the student to make a choice, gets him to correct his own error.


8. The syllabus is based on situations or topics, not usually on linguistic structures.


. Correct pronunciation is emphasized.

10. Students should learn to think in the target language as soon as possible

11.The purpose of language learning is communication; therefore students need to learn how
to ask questions as well as answer them.


Exampes of exercises which can be used in comtenporary lesson.

Reading Aloud:

Students take turn reading sections of a passage, play or dialogue out loud.

Map Drawing: Students are given a map without labeled then the students label it by
using the directions the teacher gives.

Paragraph Writing : The students are asked to write a passage in their own words.

"What happens in the cognitive classroom?"
Teachers should carefully assess the current stage of a child's cognitive development and
only assign tasks for which the child is prepared. The child can then be given tasks that are
tailored to their developmental level and are motivating. Teachers must provide children with
learning opportunities that enable them to advance through each developmental stage. This is
achieved by creating disequilibrium. Teachers should maintain a proper balance between
actively guiding the child and allowing opportunities for them to explore things on their own
to learn through discovery. Teachers should be concerned with the process of learning rather
than the end product. For example, the teacher should observe the way a child manipulates
play dough instead of concentrating on a finished shape. Children should be encouraged to

learn from each other. Hearing others' views can help breakdown egocentrism. It is important
for teachers to provide multiple opportunities for small group activities. Piaget believed that
teachers should act as guides to children's learning processes and that the curriculum should
be adapted to individual needs and developmental levels. Teachers can engage children in
games in which the children sort items by various criteria, such as color, size, texture, and
other physical attributes of the items. Teachers may include board games in their classrooms
to promote cognitive development. Unlike computer and video games, board games are
tangible. Children can manipulate different pieces in the game.

Affective Filter Hypothesis
The fifth hypothesis, the affective filter hypothesis, accounts for the influence of affective
factors on second language acquisition. Affect refers to non-linguistic variables such as
motivation, self-confidence, and anxiety. According to the affective filter hypothesis, affect
effects acquisition, but not learning, by facilitating or preventing comprehensible input from
reaching the language acquisition device. In other words, affective variables such as fear,
nervousness, boredom, and resistance to change can effect the acquisition of a second
language by preventing information about the second language from reaching the language
areas of the mind.

There are several implications to the affective filter hypothesis. Krashen believes that the
learners anxiety, lack of motivation and negative attitude blocks incoming messages to reach
the language acquisition device. However, he does not realize that a little anxiety is better
than having no anxiety at all. Another inference that can be made is that a learners anxiety
level, motivation, and attitude may be a result of the language acquisition process rather than

the cause. Krashen seems to be looking solely at the cause and fails to notice that the learner
could have had a bad experience learning a new language which resulted in these higher
levels of anxiety, low motivation, and a negative attitude

In Krashens hypothesis, he says that affective filter increases dramatically in strength at

puberty but does not explain how and why this filter develops during that time. He seems to
indicate that the emotional upheaval and hypersensitivity of puberty is linked to the affective
filter but this would mean that the filter would slowly disappear in adulthood, which he
disagrees with. Teachers like this hypothesis because it positively affects the self-confidence
and motivation in students. Krashens insinuation is that teaching students who dont have this
filter is easier because when they are given sufficient exposure, most children reach nativelike levels of competence in second languages. What he tends to overlook is the struggles
that minority children face every day in the U.S. Implications in the classroom occur because
teachers think that these problems are easily solved and they just have to follow this path .

Asher's Total Physical Response is a "Natural Method" inasmuch as Asher sees first and
second language learning as parallel processes. Second language teaching and learning should
reflect the naturalistic processes of first language learning. Asher sees three processes as
Children develop listening competence before they develop the ability to speak. At the early
stages of first language acquisition they can understand complex utterances that they cannot
spontaneously produce or imitate. Asher speculates that during this period of listening, the

learner may be making a mental "blueprint" of the language that will make it possible to
produce spoken language later,
Children's ability in listening comprehension is acquired because children are required to
respond physically to spoken language in the form of parental commands,
Parallel to the processes of first language learning, the foreign language learner should first
internalize a "cognitive map" of the target language through listening exercises. Listening
should be accompanied by physical movement. Speech and other productive skills should
come later. The speech-production mechanisms will begin to function spontaneously when the
basic foundations of language are established through listening training. Asher bases these
assumptions on his belief in the existence in the human brain of a bio-program for language,
which defines an optimal order for first and second language learning.
A reasonable hypothesis is that the brain and nervous system are biologically programmed to
acquire language ... in a particular sequence and in a particular mode. The sequence is
listening before speaking and the mode is to synchronize language with the individual's body.
Asher sees Total Physical Response as directed to right-brain learning, whereas most second
language teaching methods are directed to left-brain learning. Asher refers to neurological
studies of the brains of cats and studies of an epileptic boy whose corpus callosum was
surgically divided. Asher interprets these as demonstrating that the brain is divided into
hemispheres according to function, with language activities centralized in the right
hemisphere. Drawing on work by Jean Piaget, Asher holds that the child language learner
acquires language through motor movement - a right-hemisphere activity. Right-hemisphere
activities must occur before the left hemisphere can process language for production.

Similarly, the adult should proceed to language mastery through right-hemisphere motor
activities, while the left hemisphere watches and learns. When a sufficient amount of righthemisphere learning has taken place, the left hemisphere will be triggered to produce
language and to initiate other, more abstract language processes.
An important condition for successful language learning is the absence of stress. First
language acquisition takes place in a stress-free environment, according to Asher, whereas the
adult language learning environment often causes considerable stress and anxiety. The key to
stress-free learning is to tap into the natural bio-program for language development and thus
to recapture the relaxed and pleasurable experiences that accompany first language learning.
By focusing on meaning interpreted through movement, rather than on language forms
studied in the abstract, the learner is said to be liberated from self-conscious and stressful
situations and is able to devote full energy to learning.


How I understand the problem-solving approach expressed in the famous quotation by B.

Franklin: "Tell me and
I forget, teach me and I remember, involve me and I learn".

Tell me and I forget. Teach me and I remember. Involve me and I learn. Among these, the third
one seems to be one of the ideas in constructivism. It
means that students can understand knowledge if they participate in the process of

teaching. Over 200 years later, these words crafted by Benjamin Franklin remind us that he
was not only a scientist, philosopher, author, inventor and one of the Founding Fathers of our
great country; his utterance could easily serve as a modern-day mantra for outdoor and



Without question, encouraging your child to go outside and be active along with reinforcing
the positive impact of personal fitness and environmental responsibility is highly
recommended parental advice. However, children need much more than words to modify their
behavior and acquire knowledge, especially when it comes to being engaged in the great
outdoors. Whether it comes from mom and dad, a science teacher or soccer coach, children
learn by involvement and participation much more successfully than by simply listening to
your good advice
students decide themselves to be personally involved in the learning experience (students are
actively participating in their own learning and have a personal role in the direction of
learning). Students are not completely left to teach themselves; however, the instructor
assumes the role of guide and facilitates the learning process. Although good lecturing should
be part of an educators teaching repertoire, faculty should also actively involve their students
in the learning process through discussion, group work, hands-on participation, and
applying information outside the classroom. This process defines experiential learning where
students are involved in learning content in which they have a personal interest, need, or want.



In this part of the lesson plan, teachers try to decorate the classroom to become brighter
and colorful. They put posters on the whiteboard to make students notice it and, since the
posters are colorful, the colorful and bright environment will make the learning atmosphere
much happier. A happy environment is useful for learning. Besides, there are some grammar
posters on the whiteboard. This decoration is because in De-suggestopedia, teachers do not
really emphasize on grammar, they want students learn by nature.
Grammar posters on the whiteboard makes students look at it naturally, if they look at
the whiteboard. Peripheral learning is used here. Even though students did not focus on the
posters, they still learn the knowledge through peripheral environment.

A preparatory stage in which students are helped to relax and move into a positive
frame of mind, with the feeling that the learning is going to be easy and fun.

First Concert - "Active Concert"

In the beginning of a class, the teacher gives students texts. In the texts, if there are any
vocabulary and grammar, the teacher would mark it with Boldface, meaning they would be
thicker than other words. And also there would have some fine arts on the texts. These art
works may provide students with some inspiration.

During this period, the teacher plays some classical music, usually some melody in
romantic time, which is much more active. The teacher would chant the texts intonated
according to the undulation of the music and students would listen to the teacher chanting
while they read the texts. The teacher would give students enough time to read over the texts,
including articles, vocabulary and grammar. At this period of time, the sense of the learners is
focus on language itself, and the music would influence their subconsciousness. In the
teaching strategy, De-suggestopedia, teachers emphasize that learning is a happy and relaxed

This involves the active presentation of the material to be learnt. For example, in a
foreign language course there might be the dramatic reading of a piece of text,
accompanied by classical music.

Second Concert - "Passive Review"

The students are now invited to relax and listen to some Baroque music, with the
text being read very quietly in the background. The music is specially selected to
bring the students into the optimum mental state for the effortless acquisition of the

An eclectic approach in a primary English classroom

In the move away from teachers following one specific methodology, the eclectic approach is
the label given to a teacher's use of techniques and activities from a range of language
teaching approaches and methodologies. The teacher decides what methodology or approach
to use depending on the aims of the lesson and the learners in the group.

A typical lesson might combine elements from various sources such as TPR and TBL (the
examples); the communicative approach, e.g. in communication gap activities; the lexical
approach, e.g. focusing on lexical chunks in reading and the structural-situational approach,
e.g. establishing a clear context for the presentation of new structures.

The class starts with an inductive activity with learners identifying the different uses of
synonyms of movement using a reading text. They then practise these using TPR. In another
class the input is recycled through a task-based lesson, with learners producing the
instructions for an exercise manual.

Some teachers to engage in deep discussions with students on several topics included in the
course structure. Its not solely the reading of an answer to a question, but a further addition of
views, reviews, criticism, varied new paths. A wider horizon and scope in every topic under
the course material is envisioned. Novel ideas and viewpoints emerge.

No textbooks lessons give a broadened view of every concept, and prevents the creation of
mental blocks. Professors are expected to teach across the range of disciplines even if their
training is in a different field. Even when classes are finished, discussions spill out of the
classroom on a regular basis. The core aim is to have a broader understanding of every
concept. This has proven to aid retention and practical value of the concept.

the evaluations given to the students arent in the form of a letter grade, but are written
evaluations. These dont judge or place anyone based on grades, but point out the students
weaknesses, strengths and areas for improvement. Noncompetitive transcripts are valued
more by employers as they are more descriptive. Students are prepared to think
critically, evaluate faculty, and approach problems in a unique way.

I found in Wright, L. K., Bitner, M. J. & Zeithaml, V. A. (1994),

Journal of Marketing Education the table above with traditional and alternative teaching
Traditional approaches to teaching entrepreneurship are lecture-based in which knowledge is
passed to learners. In contrast, enterprising approaches emphasise the use of experiential and
action learning
through which knowledge is constructed by learners in the process of doing. From the
perspective of educators, is it necessary to choose between the traditional and enterprise

Criticisms of the traditional approach have led to the emergence of an alternative enterprising
approach to teaching the cognitive learning model . Rather than being passive, learning is a
dynamic, active, constructive and goal-orientated process. In contrast to the traditional
approach to education, learning is enhanced as students are engaged in the construction of
knowledge by acquiring,
generating, analysing, manipulating and structuring information. Patterns of teaching are
mainly based on activities, action learning and experiential learning. Learners are engaged in
constructing and owning their learning. In contrast, conventional teaching is instructive and
associated with the transfer of information