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()

, Ph.D.

13 2011


pcap

2 LG cos

:
r

LG

2 LG cos
gr


Oil

Oil
W

W
W

1.
2.


3.

4. ,

5.


()
Gas

pcap

2 LG cos

Gas

LG
CMC
Surfactant concentration


LG cos
, :

, LG


S. Key et al, SPE 50744

35

Interfacial Modulus of Elsticity (mN/m)

30
25

interface stabilization

20
15

10
5

effective demulsification

0
0

20

40

60

80

100

Demulsifier dose (mg/L)

Oil

Oil

-
()

()


()

Surfactant

1 phase

(/)

2 phases

Water

3 phases

+
Oil/

Solvent

7.0
6.5
6.0

PSD from acoustics (wt.basis)

5.5
5.0

30

Acoustic spectroscopy
Emulsion
Microemulsion
Micoremulsion diluted (20 gpt, 2% KCl)
Dynamic light scattering
Microemulsion diluted (2gpt, 2% KCl)

4.5

28
26
24
22
20
18

4.0

16

3.5

14

3.0

12

2.5

10

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0
1E-3

0.01

0.1

Droplet diameter (m)

10

0
100

Properties
Molecular formula

C10H16

Molar mass

136.24 g/mol

Density

0.8411 g/cm

Melting point

-74.35 C, 199 K, -102 F

Boiling point

176 C, 449 K, 349 F

-(CH-CH20-)n
-(CH-CH20-)n

Castor beans.

(CH-CH20-)m
l

-(CH-CH20-)n

-(CH-CH20-)o


()

--- -

+ +

+ +



LG

LG

LL
SL

SL



ME

NP

NP nonyl phenol
alkoxylate
AE alcohol ethoxylate

AE

Port 1

6 ft shale/sand column

Port 2
Port 3
Port 4
Port 5

(Dyn/cm)

(2 gpt in 2% KCl)
80
70
60

pcap

50

2 LG cos
r

40
30
20

10
0
0

Port 6



pcap

2 LG cos
r

2 1000 2% KCl

(dyn/cm)

-
()

30.0
29.5


()

150
400

cos

28.98
22.60



600
2
SPE 122307, Comparison of Flowback Aids: Understanding Their Capillary Pressure and Wetting
Properties


3.6
3.2
3.0

Permeability (mD)

2.6
2.4
2.2
2.0
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1.0

fractured core 1

0.8

dry fracture permeability 7.1 mD

0.6
0.4
0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Gas Flow Rate (ml/min)

pcap

2 LG cos
r

A. Zelenev et al, SPE 127922

1.0

ME1 contact angle on shale

75

34

ME1 surface tension


70

33
65
32
60

31

55

30

50
45

29

t=24 C

28

2% KCl brine

40
0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

Microemulsion Concentration (gpt)

2.0

27
2.2

Surface Tension (dyn/cm)

2.8

Contact Angle on Canadian Shale (degrees)

35

brine
0.5 gpt ME1 in 2% KCl
1.0 gpt ME1 in 2% KCl
2.0 gpt ME1 in 2% KCl

3.4

0.6

Ohio Sandstone Cores


t =150 F

Permeability to nitrogen (mD)

0.5

-
. 100 108%

0.4

. 119%

0.3

before surfactant treatment


after surfactant treatment
before microemulsion treatment
after microemulsion treatment

0.2

0.1

2 gpt of treatment in 2% KCl brine


0.0
0

25

50

75

100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300

time (min)

SPE Paper 122109 Microemulsion Technology for Improved


Fluid Recovery and Enhanced Core Permeability to Gas

Displaced Fluid Volume Fraction

80%
70%

2%KCl

2gptME

0.5
MMCF
thru 50 ft

1.0 MMCF
thru 50 ft

2gptCommon Surf

60%

. -

50%
40%
30%
20%

10%
0%
0.00

5.00

10.00

15.00

20.00

25.00

Gas rate (cc/sec)

+
Treated solution:
50 ml Crude Oil
50 ml 2% KCl
with demulsifier

Emulsion

% =100 (ml) / 50 (ml)


: 2% KCl

(%)
% Demulsification

Crude B Tested at 70 F

100
90

80
70

0.2% ME-Dem
0.2% Eqv. DeM
Baseline Test

60
50
40
30
20

10
0
0

()

10

Port 1

6 ft shale/sand column

Port 2

Port 3

Port 4
Port 5
Port 6

: Speechley, Balltown ,
Bradford , ,
:

(:)



Balltown Oil
( 9:17)

8:24
7:12
6:00

0.2% NP

4:48

0.2% AE

3:36
0.2% ME DeM

2:24
1:12

0:00
0

5
()

10

(NP AE):

:

Barnette:


1,000,000

246,726
101,836

100,000
6,291

10,000
1,261

6 mo av cum
water bbl

1,000
6 mo av cum
gas MCF

100
10
1
Conv surf -

With ME

250 :
60% 40% 6

4

Barnett
10000
Well 1 Conv
Well 2 Conv
Well 3 ME

Gas (MCFD)

Well 4 ME

1000

100
1

10

100
Time (Days)

1000


San Juan

New Mexico CBM Well
Well treated with Microemulsion

10000

MCF

1000

100

10

1
Jan-98

Apr-98

Jul-98

Oct-98

Jan-99

Apr-99

Gas Production

Jul-99

Oct-99

Jan-00

Apr-00

Water Production

Jul-00

Oct-00

7
Marcellus
80

Marcellus Shale
Microemulsion Treatment
1.02
0.54

70

gpt

Load Recovery %

60

0.6
50

1.02
40

0.96

0.91

1.06

30

0
20

10
no treatment A

Wells

SPE Paper 125987

50% !
!


( ),
,

()
,




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