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EE 451

Load Flow Analysis (LFA)

LFA is performed for:
1- Power system planning
2- Operational planning
3- System operation and control
4- Economic dispatching
Data obtained to identify the following:
1- Normal operation mode (day to day etc.)
2- Contingency analysis
3- Outage security assessment
4- Optimal dispatch
5- Stability investigations

Power Flow Problem

Consider a typical power system network, shown by its typical
single line diagram:
Load 4

Load 6

Load 5

Load 2

Analysis of positive sequence network is performed due to

balance nature.
Types of buses

Generation buses

(active power (MW)) & voltage magnitude |V|

ii- Load buses (P(MW), Q (MVAR) & power factor)
iii- Slack or swing bus
1- Acts as a reference for voltage measured
2- Supplies system losses
To have the following:

P, Q (MW, MVAR), V (bus voltages) & P (power balance)

Network model Formulation:

Network modeling is necessary in order to solve the load flow
Line model, Generators, Loads (-ve generators), Transformers
At ith bus, net complex power injected into the bus:
Si = Pi + j Qi = (PGi PDi) + (QGi QDi)

Basic consideration:
[V] = [Z] [I] Mesh
[I] = [Y] [V] Nodal

Formulation of system admittance matrix

Consider a 2-bus system network.









V1 & V2 are voltages of nodes 1 & 2 w.r.t ground (0)

I1 & I2 are injected current at nodes 1 & 2
y12 is mutual admittance between nodes 1 & 2
I 1 = I1 + I1 + I1

, assuming V1 > V2 & V1 > V3

I1 = y12 (V1 V2) + y10 V1 + y13 (V1-V3)

I2 = -y12 (V1 V2) + y20 V2 + 0

For an N-bus network (assuming all nodes (or buses) are

connected together):
I1 = y12 V1 y12 V2 + y10 V1 + y13 V1- y13 V3
= (y10 + y12 + y13+) V1 y12 V2 - y13 V3 - y1N VN
Injected current at node # 2
I2 = y12 V1 + (y20 + y21 + y23+)V2 y2N VN
For any node k:
Ik = Yk1 V1 Yk2 V2 ...+ (yk1 + yk2 + yk3+)Vk YkN VN
For node N
IN = YN1 V1 YN2 V2 ...+ (yN1 + yN2 + yN3+)VN
Re-arranging and writing in matrix form for an N-bus network:

Where Y11, Y22 YNN are the self admittances of nodes #

(1,2N) respectively.
Y12 is the negated mutual admittance joining nodes 1 & 2
For any nodes k linked with node j, Ykk is the sum of all
admittances linking node k to every other node.
Ykj is the negated mutual admittance linking nodes k and j


Ykj = Yjk

Solution of linear simultaneous equations by iterative method

Consider a set of n linear simultaneous equations as follows:
a11 X1 + a12 X2 + a13 X3 + = y1
a21 X1 + a22 X2 + a23 X3 + = y2
a31 X1 + a32 X2 + a33 X3 + = y3

aN1 X1 + aN2 X2 + aN3 X3 + = yN

Rearranging the set to solve for X1, X2, X3, XN

X1 =

(y1 - a12 X2 - a13 X3 )

X2 =

(y2 a21 X1 a23 X3 )

X3 =

(y3 a31 X1 a32 X2 )

XN =

(yN aN1 X1 aN2 X2 )

Assume solution vector for the variables X1, X2, XN

To be:

(calculated) X =X1 -

& = X 10-5
Where is the tolerance limit for convergence.
System of equations for short circuit current calculation as
0.6270 I1 + 0.1930 I2 + 0.0100 I3 = 1.0
0.1930 I1 + 0.4840 I2 + 0.1711 I3 = 1.0
0.0100 I1 + 0.1711 I2 + 0.6960 I3 = 1.0

Solve for I1, I2 & I3 , = 10-6

a) Use Gauss method
b) Use Gauss-seidel method
Obtain number of iterations for both methods.

Gauss-Seidel Method for Load flow Analysis

Basic equations:
[I] = [Y] [V]
P-jQ = V* I


P+jQ = V I*)


Constraints (Bus Specifications)

GBP, |V|

LBP,Q (or cos)

& SB |V|,

Assume the voltages of slack bus + all PQ buses.

In general for any bus k in an N-bus power system, the bus
voltage can be found as follows:
Ik = (Pk jQk)/Vk*

The previous set of equations is non-linear. It is however

possible to linearize this set by initially estimating values of the
unknown bus voltages & hence applying Gauss-seidel
technique for solution.
Process for solution:
All buses PQ , slack (1)

Find Pk , Qk at 2,N

ii- Assemble Ybus

iii- Iterative computation of bus voltages (use flat voltage
start i.e. V = 1)
iv- Compute bus voltages

v- Immediately substitute computed voltages in successive

vi- At the end of the first iteration compare guessed and
computed values and insure tolerance limit satisfied for
all voltages values.
vii- If not proceed to another iteration
viii- If convergence is reached print out your result.
Recalling Vk:

For an iteration r

For the succeeding iteration (r+1)

To satisfy convergence

Solution is ensured when all bus voltages have converged

to, within the specified tolerance limit.

Computation of Line Flows between any two buses k & n will be:

Acceleration of Convergence:
To speed up the solution, acceleration factors are applied on the
bus voltages.

Where is called the acceleration factor and lays between (1.2

& 1.6). Each system may be characterized by a certain value of

When a PV buses are present:

Application of Vk equation is carried out as follows for any
generator bus:

If Qk violates the limit (Qmin or Qmax) then:

1- make (Qk = Qmin or Qk = Qmax)
2- PV bus should be converted to a PQ bus.
If the violation vanishes then the bus must be returned back to
its original state (PV) bus

Then the computation of slack bus power will be