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5/11/2015
The Hindu: November 5, 2015 00:34 IST Becoming an opposition .............................................................. 1
The Hindu: November 5, 2015 00:23 IST ...................................................................................................... 3
A gratifying outcome..................................................................................................................................... 3
Business standard ......................................................................................................................................... 5
Banks with impaired assets are just leaky buckets ....................................................................................... 5
Indian Express ............................................................................................................................................... 7
Good riddance: Delhi govt okays scrapping of 200 affidavits ....................................................................... 7
Nov 05 2015 : The Times of India (Ahmedabad)........................................................................................... 9
Civic Poll Lesson ............................................................................................................................................ 9
Nov 05 2015 : The Economic Times (Mumbai) ........................................................................................... 10
Strengthen Domestic Financial Markets ..................................................................................................... 10
The Guardian............................................................................................................................................... 11
view on Abdel Fatah al-Sisi: sup with a long spoon .................................................................................... 11
The Dawn(pakistan) .................................................................................................................................... 14
Victims without shelter ............................................................................................................................... 14
the newyork times ...................................................................................................................................... 16
The Tough Realities of the Paris Climate Talks ........................................................................................... 16

The Hindu: November 5, 2015 00:34 IST Becoming an opposition


In 2004, when the Congress-led United Progressive Alliance (UPA) came
to power after eight years in the wilderness, it had as much to do with
the failure of the Atal Bihari Vajpayee governments India Shining project

as it had to do with the peoples desire for the return of pluralism and
tolerance. For in the six years of the Bharatiya Janata Party-led National
Democratic Alliance (NDA) government, the Rashtriya Swayamsevak
Sangh and its affiliates had been active, though perhaps not with the kind
of fervour that is visible today. In the wake of its loss in the Lok Sabha
elections, the Congress, grappling with problems of identity, had held a
series of closed-door sessions that started in late-October 2014 where
the partys top 200-odd leaders, divided into small groups, had debated
the partys future. One of the key areas under discussion had been the
need to re-articulate the partys ideology: roughly summarised, the
conclusion was that the Congress must remain pluralistic and inclusive
without looking like a pro-Muslim party, and retain the minority vote
without annoying the liberal Hindu mainstream. Many members,
however, felt that the party had tilted too far in favour of the minorities.
But today, with well-known members of civil society including many
distinguished academics, writers, historians and filmmakers speaking
out, the Congress clearly sees this as an opportune time to seize the
moment.
On Tuesday, led by party president Sonia Gandhi, Congress leaders
marched from Parliament House to Rashtrapati Bhavan to seek President
Pranab Mukherjees intervention in checking the growing atmosphere of
fear, intolerance and intimidation being deliberately created by sections
of the ruling establishment. Twice earlier this year, the party took to the
streets: first, during Parliaments Budget session as part of a 14-party
delegation along the same route to protest against the Modi
governments efforts to legislate a farmer-unfriendly land acquisition
law; the second time, to express solidarity with former Prime Minister
Manmohan Singh when he was sought to be implicated in the coal scam.
On both those occasions, too, Ms. Gandhi led from the front. The partys
State units and front organisations have also organised padyatras and sitins, occasionally under Rahul Gandhis leadership, largely on the
controversial Land Acquisition Bill, but these have gone generally
unnoticed. As the Congress seeks to recover from its 2014 defeat, its
efforts to make a comeback have been hampered as much by the delay
in installing heir apparent Rahul Gandhi as the new leader, as the lack of
clarity on whether it needs to re-invent itself. The partys mobilisation of
its rank and file has been sporadic since its strength was reduced to a
mere 44 seats in Parliament. But with civil society rising up against
growing intolerance, that has manifested itself both in physical and verbal
violence, the Congress feels that it may have found a launch pad for its

return. To make a game of it, however, the party will have to articulate
its core beliefs and play a leading role in banding together a secular
opposition.

wilderness
An uncultivated, uninhabited, and inhospitable region.
fervor
Intense and passionate feeling
grappling
A grappling hook or grappling iron.
tilt
Move or cause to move into a sloping position
solidarity
Unity or agreement of feeling or action, especially among individuals with
a common interest; mutual support within a group.
sporadic
Occurring at irregular intervals or only in a few places; scattered or
isolated.

The Hindu: November 5, 2015 00:23 IST


A gratifying outcome
The only way the state can demonstrate its commitment to rendering
justice to victims of sexual violence is by ensuring a speedy trial and
procuring exemplary punishment for offenders. That trials that yield such
outcomes have become more frequent is a matter of considerable
satisfaction. The sentencing of a Delhi taxi driver to a prison term for the
remainder of his life for raping a passenger in December 2014 ought to

be gratifying for two reasons. The final verdict has come within 11
months of the crime, and it imposes the maximum punishment available
in law under penal provisions that were significantly strengthened in
2013. It was only three days earlier that a sessions court in Mumbai
sentenced a man to death for the rape and murder of a 23-year-old
software engineer, although the conclusion that it was one of the rarest
of rare cases, warranting the death penalty, will have to be tested in
higher courts. It has been proved again that it is possible to end the
cynicism about the countrys tardy judicial system and its reputation for
being soft on gender crimes. But it will also need courageous survivors,
efficient investigators, committed prosecutors and judges sensitive to the
need to keep the trial on track. Last year, a Mumbai sessions court
sentenced four men to life terms in the Shakti Mills gang-rape cases
within seven months. The Delhi gang-rape of December 2012 ended with
death sentences for four and crossed both the trial and appeal stages in
the High Court within 16 months. The common message from these fasttracked trials is that the national outcry since the Delhi gang-rape for a
progressive socio-legal structure to combat gender violence may not have
been in vain.
However, what ought to concern the public more, especially in a society
marked by entrenched patriarchy, is that public spaces are not as safe as
they ought to be for citizens, and that predators do sometimes have the
run of the streets. When Uber driver Shiv Kumar Yadav sexually
assaulted a passenger on another December day last year, it was a
setback to the cause, as it highlighted the persistent lack of safety for
women in the national capital. A man with a long history of sexual
offences managed to conceal his past and break into the hail-a-ride cab
system with a fake certificate and little background scrutiny. The lack of
visible policing in a vast city with considerable scope for opportunistic
crimes against women made passengers travelling alone added to their
vulnerability. Stronger laws, quicker trials and convictions may foster
trust in the criminal justice system. The idea that sexual offenders do not
enjoy impunity and are ultimately made answerable to the courts is a
source of comfort, but the possibility that such crimes will recur is not.
gratify
Give (someone) pleasure or satisfaction.
cynicism
An inclination to believe that people are motivated purely by self-interest;
skepticism.

tardy
Delaying or delayed beyond the right or expected time; late.
vain
Having or showing an excessively high opinion of one's appearance,
abilities, or worth.
impunity
Exemption from punishment or freedom from the injurious consequences
of an action.

Business standard
Banks with impaired assets are just leaky buckets
Over the past few days, concerns over the state of bank balance sheets
have intensified. First, Axis Bank declared that its asset quality problem
was worse than previously indicated, causing its stock price to decline
sharply. Soon after, Indian Overseas Bank showed a very large year-onyear decline in its quarterly profits, again leading to a massive fall in its
stock price. While the general state of banks is well known and has
presumably been discounted by investors, unanticipated signals even
from a small number of banks that the situation might be worse than
previously believed could have implications for the system as a whole. If
markets begin to distrust financial declarations, banks will find it
increasingly difficult to raise funds. As it is, credit growth is at an
abysmally low rate, which is only partly explained by the moderation in
inflation. The situation will only worsen if banks are unable to mobilise
more funds. The recovery that some sectors are seeing could easily be
choked off by a credit squeeze.
A number of things need to be done urgently. Many of the actions
proposed in the Indradhanush programme are appropriate responses to
the problem, but the time they may take and the magnitude of the action

could dilute their impact. Two aspects of the problem need to be


addressed with urgency. The first is, of course, a clear and transparent
assessment and communication of the problem. Official numbers on nonperforming assets are being questioned by an increasing number of
observers; this is a clear manifestation of distrust. The problem is that
everyone will make their own assessments, so no clear picture emerges.
It would be in everybody's best interests for judgements to be made on
the basis of common knowledge and understanding. The opacity problem
has been compounded by the relaxation in disclosure norms made for
infrastructure projects. Postponement would have made some sense if a
solution were to be found in the meantime. But, that has not happened;
inevitably, these exposures have to be classified as bad assets at some
point. The government should make a worst case assessment and make
it public as a first step to rectifying the situation.
Second, the intent to infuse more capital into banks, even if it is based on
performance, is a hugely risky move without full transparency.
Apparently well-performing banks may suddenly show themselves to be
worse than reported. Any move to re-capitalise the banks should only be
made once full transparency is achieved and, beyond that, a process of
transferring these assets to appropriate institutions, with fairly distributed
haircuts is initiated. As long as banks carry impaired assets, both known
and unknown, on their books, they are leaky buckets and more capital is
going to be wasted. The long-term capacity of banks to provide funds to
their traditional borrower segments will be compromised and, in turn, this
will become another noose around the neck of the growth momentum.
There has to be a sense of urgency about this; Indradhanush on steroids.
Many observers are beginning to list this problem on the top of their lists
of what is wrong with the economy. The old management dictum "what
does not get measured, does not get managed" is particularly appropriate
here. (Disclosure: Kotak Mahindra and associates are significant
shareholders in Business Standard Limited.)
impaired
Weakened or damaged.
leaky
Having a leak or leaks.

abysmally
Terribly: in a terrible manner; "she sings terribly"
CHOKE OFF. transitive verb. : to bring to a stop or to an end as if
by choking.
manifestation
An event, action, or object that clearly shows or embodies something,
especially a theory or an abstract idea.
opacity
The condition of lacking transparency or translucence; opaqueness.
noose
A loop with a running knot, tightening as the rope or wire is pulled and
typically used to hang people or trap animals.

Indian Express
Good riddance: Delhi govt okays scrapping of 200 affidavits
In a welcome move, the Delhi cabinet has given the go-ahead to scrap
200 affidavits that were required in order to access various government
services, including ration cards, income and caste certificates, electricity
connections, even the booking of baraat ghars. The government rightly
noted that these could be replaced with self-declarations and has tasked
the department of administrative reforms to look into provisions for
stringent punishment for wrong declarations. The Delhi cabinets decision
takes forward a project started in Punjab in 2010, aimed at reposing trust
in citizens and moving away from affidavits sworn before a magistrate or
public notary, and certified true copies attested by gazetted officers and
the like, in favour of self-attestation. The Centre under Prime Minister
Narendra Modi gave impetus to this campaign, and other state
governments Gujarat, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Goa
have followed Punjabs example.
Indeed, as noted in a document of the Central department of
administrative reforms and public grievances, affidavits impose a huge

cost on citizens of stamp paper, fees for the deed writer and notary for
attestation, as well as time and effort. In Punjab, it was found that, on
average, 50 per cent of the states households file an affidavit in a year.
The document concluded that, if this figure is extrapolated for the whole
of India, the total expenses incurred by citizens would be about Rs 8,000
crore per year. All this when affidavits have no particular sanctity in law
and the same function can be easily performed by declarations. The
Indian Penal Code already contains a number of sections that deal with
false information, evidence, disclosures and declarations, and prescribe
penalties, fines and even imprisonment for them. In Punjab, the
introduction of self-attestation had unexpected benefits in freeing up the
energies of local suvidha kendras. Prior to the reform, in 2009-10, 65.6
per cent of the services availed of by citizens were affidavit-related. But
in 2012-13, only 9.81 per cent were even though the absolute number
of services dispensed at these centres increased considerably.
But some caution is warranted. As the Union minister of state for
personnel, public grievances and pensions, Jitendra Singh, admitted in
the Rajya Sabha, some complaints about the non-acceptance of selfcertification have been received, in spite of the Modi governments push.
In Maharashtra, too, the governments initiative to dispense with the
requirement for stamp paper for certain affidavits was ignored by the
establishment. Efforts must be made to ensure that the Delhi initiative
doesnt hit a bureaucratic wall.
impetus
The force or energy with which a body moves.
extrapolate
Extend the application of (a method or conclusion, especially one based
on statistics) to an unknown situation by assuming that existing trends
will continue or similar methods will be applicable.
dispense
Distribute or provide (a service or information) to a number of people.

Nov 05 2015 : The Times of India (Ahmedabad)


Civic Poll Lesson

Maharashtra results show that BJP and Shiv Sena continue to need each
other
The BJP-Sena alliance in Maharashtra has been more than rocky lately.
Indeed, it has looked close to coming unstuck on several occasions as
Uddhav Thackeray's Shiv Sena and chief minister Devendra Fadnavis's
party fired salvoes at each other, with each threatening to ditch the
alliance and go it alone. Would that be such a bad idea? The results of the
Kalyan Dombivli Municipal Corporation (KDMC) elections suggest that it
would be for both.Fighting the civic polls separately , Shiv Sena secured
the highest number of seats (52). But BJP too rang up a fivefold increase
in its number of seats from 9 to 42. In Kolhapur Congress-NCP held the
winning hand, securing 42 out of 81 seats. However, if BJP and Shiv Sena
had joined forces, they would have swept civic polls.
Sena leader Sanjay Raut, who recently dubbed Fadnavis pro-Pakistan,
has seen reason and hinted at a possible rapprochement with BJP . But
feelings are still running high on both sides. In the run up to civic polls,
Shiv Sena had launched a well-coordinated effort to oppose and
embarrass bigger partner BJP in all manner of ways.
First, it was fiercely vocal in its opposition of the meat ban imposed
during a Jain festival. Second, it unle ashed such a barrage of threats
against Pakistani ghazal maestro Ghulam Ali that he was forced to cancel
his concert in Mumbai.Fadnavis was unable to reason with the Sena and
get it to withdraw the threats. Third, Sena lumpens blackened the face of
former BJP leader Sudheendra Kulkarni. Clearly , Sena was doing its best
to put its nativist ideals front and centre at the expense of BJP.
It is possible that Sena felt it had more to gain by dissociating itself from
its longtime ally in the state. However, the fact is and civic poll results
illustrate this neither side can do without the other.Moreover Sena's
divisive, nativist politics has its limitations its more extreme format, Raj
Thackeray's Maharashtra Navanirman Sena, is routinely rejected by

voters. The Sena-BJP combine in Maharashtra has four more years to go.
It's a fractious alliance all right. But both parties need to kiss and make
up. Without a rapprochement, both Sena and BJP will be seriously
weakened in the state.

salvo
A simultaneous discharge of artillery or other guns in a battle.
lumpens
(lumpen) lumpish: mentally sluggish
fractious
(typically of children) irritable and quarrelsome.
rapprochement
(especially in international relations) an establishment or resumption of
harmonious relations.

Nov 05 2015 : The Economic Times (Mumbai)


Strengthen Domestic Financial Markets

The Indian rupee is increasingly traded in the financial cen tres abroad,
even as the domestic currency market remains below potential due to
deficient policy , including onerous tax and regulatory requirements. This
needs to change, as the maiden report of the standing council on the
Indian financial sector rightly calls for. We do need more liquid financial
mar kets at home, to empower the small player.
An active market abroad for derivatives on the rupee means that an enduser seeking to hedge his currency risk has a choi ce of markets and
attendant instruments. We need to proac tively develop onshore markets
not just to meet domestic re quirements but also to boost exports of
financial products and services. If the domestic market cannot create

liquidity and efficient prices for the rupee, it would have adverse consequ
ences for companies both large and small and affect Indian industry as a
whole. Be sides, products like rupee derivatives re quire skill-sets and
systems that India is well-endowed with.
The report contains several policy recommendations to boo st the
domestic currency derivatives market. For instance, it calls upon the
Reserve Bank of India to remove restrictions on participation of domestic
financial institutions and on can celling and rebooking over-the-counter
contracts. The author ities also need to clarify ambiguities in the direct
tax treatme nt of exchange-traded currency derivative transactions for
domestic corporates. Further, what's suggested is that produ ct
innovation decisions devolve on exchanges and not regulat ors. Other
issues, like position limits and margin requiremen ts, as also trading
times, need to be revisited and rationalised We do need reforms to arrest
the slide in competitiveness in the currency derivatives market.

onerous
(of a task, duty, or responsibility) involving an amount of effort and
difficulty that is oppressively burdensome.
devolve
Transfer or delegate (power) to a lower level, especially from central
government to local or regional administration.

The Guardian
view on Abdel Fatah al-Sisi: sup with a long spoon
s dictators go, Abdel Fatah al-Sisi certainly meets the criteria that have
long defined the Arab strongman, harnessing his power through the
violent crushing of dissent and individual freedom, while claiming that he
is doing no more than benignly protecting his nations security. Such
excuses should fool no one. The Egyptian president visiting David

Cameron this week is nothing other than the man who has buried the
democratic hopes that were born in Tahrir Square in 2011.
Since Mr Sisi took power in the aftermath of the coup in July 2013,
hundreds of political opponents have been sentenced to death or life
imprisonment; no one has been held to account for the deaths of more
than 1,000 people demonstrating in Cairo two years ago; military court
jurisdiction has been expanded; journalists have been locked up and put
on trial; and NGO work has been severely restricted. None of this is likely
to come up in public this week as the UK government instead fixes its
gaze on security cooperation and lucrative arms contracts. So it is
welcome and natural that Mr Sisis visit is accompanied by protests from
human rights organisations and other critics.
But there is a wider picture. The Middle East is fast unravelling into
chaos. It makes sense for the UK and other western powers to keep
channels of communication open to Mr Sisi. Egypt, along with Turkey,
Iran, and Saudi Arabia, is one of only four key Muslim countries in the
region that can still be described as functioning states. Syria, Iraq and
Libya are all in a state of collapse, spreading disorder beyond their own
borders and even beyond the region. For European countries confronted
with the threat of violent jihadi networks and searching for solutions to
the refugee and migrant crises, Egypt is as necessary and indispensable
an interlocutor as Turkey however unsavoury each of those very
different regimes might be.
The problem lies therefore not in holding talks with Mr Sisi, but in how
those talks are conducted and what is being said. At the moment there is
a risk that he is being given a blank cheque to pursue abusive policies
that not only trample on universal values but will also ultimately breed
the very instability the west fears. Nor are his repressive measures
conducive to economic development. If the current situation holds, that
will only exacerbate Egyptian instability. Western policymakers should
keep that in mind.
But Mr Sisi has inherited some big problems, starting with a series of
armed attacks, including perhaps the downing of the Russian jet that
crashed over Sinai on Saturday, which the UK government said on

Wednesday may have been caused by an explosive device. That and a


pattern of attacks targeting minorities serve as reminders of the presence
of Isis cells and other extremist groups on Egyptian soil. And those who
protest against Mr Camerons rolling out of the red carpet to Mr Sisi
should remember that many Egyptians were repelled by the authoritarian
abuses that came to characterise the Muslim Brotherhood-led
government of his predecessor, Mohamed Morsi.
Egyptians rightly want a government that is, at the very least, fair and
decent. That means both those protesting outside the room and those
leaders who are in dialogue with Mr Sisi inside it should give in neither to
one-eyed indignation nor to complacency in the face of deplorably
autocratic behaviour.

harness
Put a harness on (a horse or other draft animal).
coup
A sudden, violent, and illegal seizure of power from a government.
unravel
Undo (twisted, knitted, or woven threads).
indispensable
Absolutely necessary
interlocutor
A person who takes part in a dialogue or conversation.

unsavory
Disagreeable to taste, smell, or look at.
trample
Tread on and crush.

repressive
(especially of a social or political system) inhibiting or restraining the
freedom of a person or group of people.
exacerbate
Make (a problem, bad situation, or negative feeling) worse.
repel
Drive or force (an attack or attacker) back or away.
deplorably
In an unfortunate or deplorable manner; "he was sadly neglected"; "it
was woefully inadequate"
complacency
A feeling of smug or uncritical satisfaction with oneself or one's
achievements.

The Dawn(pakistan)
Victims without shelter
THE ordeal of many of those who survived the massive Oct 26
earthquake is far from over.
The lack of proper shelter combined with the arrival of winter has
compounded the miseries of the quake victims in the northern parts of
the country.
In some areas, tents and blankets have not arrived, while the supplies
that have reached the affected families are inadequate considering the
harsh weather.

Also read: Shelterless people brace for snowfall, rain in quake-hit areas
This makes the situation critical for the thousands whose dwellings have
been destroyed, especially with snowfall and rain, and temperatures
falling below zero.
Chitral, Shangla and Lower Dir have been the hardest hit districts. True,
the terrain is quite difficult to access, and inclement weather has affected
the relief operation. Nevertheless, KPs Provincial Disaster Management
Authority has been justifiably criticised for its slow response.
Officials say around 15pc of the affected areas have not yet been
reached.
The state, it seems, is ill-prepared to deal with even small-scale
situations of this sort; and, as this response illustrates, it is at sea when
disasters of larger magnitude strike. While the people in the affected
regions are incredibly hardy, it is cruel to let them fend for themselves at
this difficult time.
One solution put forth by the authorities is to house the quake survivors
in schools. We must ask though how many buildings in the affected area
are safe post-quake.
One figure says over 500 schools have been damaged in the affected
areas. The federal and provincial authorities, therefore, need to step up
their efforts to provide relief and safe shelters to the victims, especially
those in remote regions.
Only the state has the resources to overcome the obstacle of poor access
to reach the affected citizens. Winterised tents and heavy blankets that
can protect the people from the regions biting cold should be dispatched
to the affected areas without delay, while the survivors nutritional and
health needs must be looked after.

Moreover, as per the prime ministers instructions, compensation for the


affected must reach them by Nov 14 so that they can start rebuilding
their lives. Without doubt, it is in such times of trial that the intentions
and sincerity of the state towards the people are tested. That is why the
administration needs to rise to the occasion and expedite the relief effort.
ordeal
A painful or horrific experience, especially a protracted one.
dwelling
A house, apartment, or other place of residence.
terrain
A stretch of land, especially with regard to its physical features.
inclement
(of the weather) unpleasantly cold or wet.
expedite
>make (an action or process) happen sooner or be accomplished more
quickly.
"he promised to expedite economic reforms"

the newyork times


The Tough Realities of the Paris Climate Talks
IN less than a month, delegates from more than 190 countries will
convene in Paris to finalize a sweeping agreement intended to constrain
human influence on the climate. But any post-meeting celebration will be
tempered by two sobering scientific realities that will weaken the
effectiveness of even the most ambitious emissions reduction plans that
are being discussed.

The first reality is that emissions of carbon dioxide, the greenhouse gas of
greatest concern, accumulate in the atmosphere and remain there for
centuries as they are slowly absorbed by plants and the oceans. This
means modest reductions in emissions will only delay the rise in
atmospheric concentration but will not prevent it. Thus, even if global
emissions could be reduced by a heroic average 20 percent from their
business as usual course over the next 50 years, we would be delaying
the projected doubling of the concentration by only 10 years, from 2065
to 2075.
Unconditional national commitments made by countries for the Paris
meeting are projected to reduce total greenhouse gas emissions through
2030 by an average of only 3 percent below the business-as-usual
average rise of 8 percent.
This is why drastic reductions would be needed to stabilize human
influences on the climate at supposed safe levels. According to
scenarios used by the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change, global annual per capita emissions would need to fall from
todays five metric tons to less than one ton by 2075, a level well below
what any major country emits today and comparable to the emissions
from such countries as Haiti, Yemen and Malawi. For comparison, current
annual per capita emissions from the United States, Europe and China
are, respectively, about 17, 7 and 6 tons.
The second scientific reality, arising from peculiarities of the carbon
dioxide molecule, is that the warming influence of the gas in the
atmosphere changes less than proportionately as the concentration
changes. As a result, small reductions will have progressively less
influence on the climate as the atmospheric concentration increases. The
practical implication of this slow logarithmic dependence is that
eliminating a ton of emissions in the middle of the 21st century will exert
only half of the cooling influence that it would have had in the middle of
the 20th century.

These two scientific realities make emissions reductions a sluggish lever


for constraining human influences on the climate. At the same time,
societal realities conspire to make emissions reductions themselves
difficult. Energy demand, which is strongly correlated with rising incomes
and living standards, is expected to grow by some 50 percent by
midcentury, driven by economic progress in developing countries and by
population growth to about 9.7 billion people from the current 7.3 billion.
Fossil fuels, which are not running out anytime soon, supply over 80
percent of the worlds energy today and are usually the least expensive
and most convenient means of meeting growing energy demand. They
continue to be widely adopted as the developing world builds its energysupply infrastructure, because whatever the emissions benefits of
technologies such as nuclear fission, carbon sequestration, wind and
solar, all currently have drawbacks (including cost, land use and
intermittence) that hamper their deployment at scale.
And in the developed world, the energy-supply infrastructure of electric
generating plants, transmission lines, refineries and pipelines changes
slowly because of the large capital costs and long facility lifetimes, and
because different parts of the energy system must work together (for
example, cars, their fuel and the fueling infrastructure must all be
compatible).
Improvements in energy efficiency can help, but even if todays annual
per capita emissions of three tons in the developing world grew by
midcentury to only five tons (about 70 percent of Europes per capita
emissions today), annual global emissions would increase by 60 percent.
And, overarching all this, the tension between emissions reductions and
development is complicated by uncertainties in how the climate will
change under human and natural influences and how those changes will
impact natural and human systems.
These scientific and societal realities compound to make stabilization of
the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide, let alone its reduction, a
distant prospect. As a result, even as the world struggles to reduce
emissions, human influences on the climate will not be decreasing for
many decades. Thus, adaptation measures such as raising the height of

sea walls or shifting to drought-resistant crops become very important.


Fortunately, adaptation is on the table in Paris to complement emissions
reductions.

Adaptation can be effective. Humans today live in climates ranging from


the tropics to the Arctic and have adapted through many climate
changes, including the Little Ice Age about 400 years ago.
Adaptation is also indifferent to whether the climate change is natural or
human-induced; it can be proportional, depending upon how much or
how quickly the climate changes; and it can be politically easier to
accomplish because it does not require a global consensus and has
demonstrable local and immediate effects. Adaptation will no doubt be
more difficult if the climate changes rapidly (as it has done naturally in
the past), and, like emissions reductions, it will induce inequalities, as the
rich can adapt more easily than the poor. Adapting ecosystems to a
changing climate will require a more careful monitoring and deeper
understanding of the natural world than we have today.
The critical role of adaptation in responding to the realities of climate
change demands a deeper analysis and more prominent discussion of the
nature, effectiveness, timing and costs of various adaptation strategies.
But whatever the outcome in Paris, or of future discussions of emissions
and the climate, the reality is that humans must continue to adapt, as
they always have.
temper
Improve the hardness and elasticity of (steel or other metal) by reheating
and then cooling it.

sober
Make or become sober after drinking alcohol.
sober
Not affected by alcohol; not drunk.

accumulate
Gather together or acquire an increasing number or quantity of.
drastic
Likely to have a strong or far-reaching effect; radical and extreme.
sluggish
Slow-moving or inactive.
societal
Of or relating to society or social relations.
overarching
Forming an arch over something.