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Sales Industry Sector Metallurgy

Formulary Hydraulics

Hydraulic Formulary

Author: Houman Hatami


Tel.: +49-9352-18-1225
Fax: +49-9352-18-1293
houman.hatami@boschrexroth.de

10.01.2013

Sales Industry Sector Metallurgy

Formulary Hydraulics

CONTENTS
RELATIONS BETWEEN UNITS ............................................................................................................. 4
IMPORTANT CHARACTERISTIC VALUES OF HYDRAULIC FLUIDS ................................................ 6
GENERAL HYDRAULIC RELATIONS ................................................................................................... 7
PISTON PRESSURE FORCE ...................................................................................................................... 7
PISTON FORCES ..................................................................................................................................... 7
HYDRAULIC PRESS ................................................................................................................................. 7
CONTINUITY EQUATION ........................................................................................................................... 8
PISTION SPEED....................................................................................................................................... 8
PRESSURE INTENSIFIER .......................................................................................................................... 8
HYDRAULIC SYSTEM COMPONENT ................................................................................................... 9
HYDRO PUMP ......................................................................................................................................... 9
HYDRO MOTOR ....................................................................................................................................... 9
Hydro motor variable ...................................................................................................................... 10
Hydro motor fixed ........................................................................................................................... 11
Hydro motor intrinsic frequency ..................................................................................................... 12
HYDRO PISTON ..................................................................................................................................... 13
Differential piston ............................................................................................................................ 14
Double acting cylinder .................................................................................................................... 15
Cylinder in differential control ......................................................................................................... 16
Cylinder intrinsic frequency at differential cylinder ......................................................................... 17
Cylinder intrinsic frequency at double acting cylinder .................................................................... 18
Cylinder intrinsic frequency at plunger cylinder.............................................................................. 19
PIPING................................................................................................................................................... 20
APPLICATION EXAMPLES FOR SPECIFICATION OF THE CYLINDER PRESSURES AND
VOLUME FLOWS UNDER POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE LOADS ........................................................ 21
DIFFERENTIAL CYLINDER EXTENDING WITH POSITIVE LOAD ..................................................................... 22
DIFFERENTIAL CYLINDER RETRACTING WITH POSITIVE LOAD ................................................................... 23
DIFFERENTIAL CYLINDER EXTENDING WITH NETAGIVE LOAD.................................................................... 24
DIFFERENTIAL CYLINDER RETRACTING WITH NEGATIVE LOAD .................................................................. 25
DIFFERENTIAL CYLINDER EXTENDING AT AN INCLINED PLANE WITH POSITIVE LOAD .................................. 26
DIFFERENTIAL CYLINDER RETRACTING AT AN INCLINED PLANE WITH POSITIVE LOAD................................. 27
DIFFERENTIAL CYLINDER EXTENDING AT AN INCLINED PLANE WITH NEGATIVE LOAD ................................ 28
DIFFERENTIAL CYLINDER RETRACTING AT AN LINCLINED PBLANE WITH NEGATIVE LOAD ............................ 29
HYDRAULIC MOTOR WITH POSITIVE LOAD ............................................................................................... 30
HYDRAULIC MOTOR WITH NEGATIVE LOAD.............................................................................................. 31
IDENTIFICATION OF THE REDUCED MASSES OF DIFFERENT SYSTEMS ................................... 32
LINEARE DRIVES .................................................................................................................................. 33
Primary applications (Energy method) ........................................................................................... 33
Concentrated mass at linear movements....................................................................................... 35
Distributed mass at linear movements ........................................................................................... 36
ROTATION ............................................................................................................................................ 37
COMBINATION OF LINEAR AND ROTATIONAL MOVEMENT .......................................................................... 38
HYDRAULIC RESISTANCES...39
ORIFICE EQUATION ............................................................................................................................... 39
TROTTLE EQUATION .............................................................................................................................. 39
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HYDRO ACCUMULATOR .................................................................................................................... 40


HEAT EXCHANGER (OIL- WATER) .................................................................................................... 41
LAYOUT OF A VALVE ......................................................................................................................... 43

10.01.2013

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Relation between Units


Size
Lengths

Surfaces

Volume

Density

Unit

Symbol

Relation

Micrometer

1m = 0,001mm

Millimeter

mm

1mm = 0,1cm = 0,01dm = 0,001m

Centimeter

cm

1cm = 10mm = 10.000m

Decimeter

dm

1dm = 10cm = 100mm = 100.000m

Meter

1m = 10dm = 100cm = 1.000mm = 1.000.000m

Kilometer

km

1km = 1.000m = 100.000cm = 1.000.000mm

Square centimeter

cm2

1cm2 = 100mm2

Square decimeter

dm2

1dm2 = 100cm2 = 10.000mm2

Square meter

m2

1m2 = 100dm2 = 10.000cm2 = 1.000.000mm2

Are

1a = 100m2

Hectare

ha

1ha = 100a = 10.000m2

Square kilometer

km2

1km2 = 100ha = 10.000a = 1.000.000m2

Cubic centimeter

cm3

1cm3 = 1.000mm3 = 1ml = 0,001l

Cubic decimeter

dm3

1dm3 = 1.000cm3 = 1.000.000mm3

Cubic meter

m3

1m3 = 1.000dm3 = 1.000.000cm3

Milliliter

ml

1ml = 0,001l = 1cm3

Liter

1l = 1.000 ml = 1dm3

Hectoliter

hl

1hl = 100l = 100dm3

Gram/

g
cm3

g
kg
t
g
=1 3 =1 3 =1
cm3
dm
m
ml

Cubic centimeter

Force

Newton

1N = 1

Weight

kg m
J
=1
s2
m

1daN = 10N

Torque

Newton meter

Nm

1Nm = 1J

Pressure

Pascal

Pa

Bar

Bar

1Pa = 1N/m2 = 0,01mbar = 1kg


m s2

psi =

pound
inch 2

1bar = 10
Psi

1psi = 0,06895 bar

kp
cm 2

10.01.2013

N
N
= 100.000 2 = 10 5 Pa
2
cm
m

kp
= 0,981bar
cm 2

Sales Industry Sector Metallurgy

Formulary Hydraulics

Mass

Acceleration

Milligram

mg

1mg = 0,001g

Gram

1g = 1.000mg

Kilogram

kg

1kg = 1000g = 1.000.000 mg

Ton

1t = 1000kg = 1.000.000g

Mega gram

Mg

1Mg = 1t

Meter/

m
s2

per square second

Angular speed

One/ Second
Radiant/ Second

Power

m
N
=1
s2
kg

1g = 9,81 m/s2
= 2n

1
s

n in 1/s

rad
s

Nm
J
kg m m
=1 =1 2
s
s
s
s

Watt

Newton meter/ second

Nm/s

Joule/ second

J/s

Work/ Energy

Watt second

Ws

Heat volume

Newton meter

Nm

Joule

Kilowatt hour

kWh

1kWh = 1.000 Wh = 10003600Ws = 3,6106Ws

Kilo joule

kJ

= 3,6103kJ = 3600kJ = 3,6MJ

Mega joule

MJ

Mechanic

Newton/ square

N
mm2

tension

millimeter

Plane angle

Second

1 = 1/60

Minute

1 = 60

Degree

Radiant

rad

1 = 60 = 3600 = rad
180

1W = 1

1Ws = 1Nm = 1

kg m
m = 1J
s2

N
= 10bar = 1MPa
mm2

1rad = 1m/m = 57,2957


1rad = 180/

Speed

One/second

1/s

One/minute

1/min

1 1
= s = 60 min 1
s

1
1
= min 1 =
60s
min

10.01.2013

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Important Characteristic Values of Hydraulic Fluids

HLP

HFC

HFA
(3%)

HFD

880

1085

1000

925

10-100

36-50

0,7

15-70

12000-14000

20400-23800

1500017500

1800021000

[Bar]
Specific Heat at 20C

2,1

3,3

4,2

1,3-1,5

[kJ/kgK]
Thermal Conductivity at 20C

0,14

0,4

0,6

0,11

[W/mK]
Optimal Temperatures

40-50

35-50

35-50

35-50

[C]
Water Content

40-50

80-97

[%]
Cavitation Tendency

low

high

very high

low

Density at 20C
3

[kg/m ]
Kinematic Viscosity
at 40C
2

[mm /s]
Compressions Module E
at 50C

10.01.2013

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General Hydraulic Relations


Piston Pressure Force
Figure

Equation / Equation Variations

Symbols / Units

F = 10 p A

F = p A 10
A=
d=

F = piston pressure force[N]

d2
4

p = fluid pressure[bar]
A = piston surface[cm2]
d = piston diameter[cm]
= efficiency cylinder

4 F 0,1
p

p = 0,1

4 F
d2

Piston Forces
Figure

Equation / Equation Variations

Symbols / Units

F = pe A 10
F = pe A 10
A=

F = piston pressure force[N]


pe = excess pressure on the piston[bar]

d2
4

A = effective piston surface[cm2]


d = piston diameter[cm]
= efficiency cylinder

A For annulus surface:

A=

(D2 d 2 )
4

Hydraulic Press
Figure

Equation / Equation Variations

Symbols / Units
F1 = Force at the pump piston[N]

F1
F
= 2
A1 A 2

F2 = Force at the operating piston[N]


A1 = Surface of the pump piston [cm2]

F1 s1 = F2 s2

A2 = Surface of the operating piston [cm2]


s1 = Stroke of the pump piston [cm]
s2 = Stroke of the operating piston [cm]

10.01.2013

F1 A1 s 2
=
=
F2 A2 s1

= Gear ratio

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Formulary Hydraulics

Continuity Equation
Figure

Equation / Equation Variations

Q1 = Q 2

Symbols / Units

Q1,2 = Volume flows [cm3/s, dm3/s, m3/s]

Q1 = A 1 v 1

A1,2 = Area surfaces [cm2, dm2, m2]


v1,2 = Velocities

Q2 = A 2 v2

[cm/s, dm/s, m/s]

A 1 v1 = A 2 v 2

Piston Speed
Figure

Equation / Equation Variations

v1 =

Q1
A1

v1,2 = Piston speed [cm/s]


Q1,2 = Volume flow [cm3/s]

Q
v2 = 2
A2

A1 =

Symbols / Units

A1 = Effective piston surface (circle) [cm2]


A2 = Effective piston surface (ring) [cm2]

d2
4

(D2 d 2 )
A2 =
4
Pressure Intensifier
Figure

Equation / Equation Variations

Symbols / Units

p1 = Pressure in the small cylinder [bar]

p1 A 1 = p 2 A 2

A1 = Piston surface [cm2]


p2 = Pressure at the large cylinder [bar]
A2 = Piston surface [cm2]

10.01.2013

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Hydraulic System Components


Hydro Pump
Q=

V n vol
1000

pQ
Pan =
600 ges

Q = Volume flow [l/min]


[l/min]

V = Nominal volume [cm3]


n = Drive speed of the pump [min-1]

[kW]

Pan = Drive power [kW]


p = Service pressure [bar]

1,59 V p
[Nm]
M=
100 mh

M = Drive torque [Nm]


ges = Total efficiency (0,8-0,85)

ges = vol mh

vol = Volumetric efficiency (0,9-0,95)


mh = Hydro-mechanic efficiency(0,9-0,95)

Hydro Motor

Q = Volume flow [l/min]


V = Nominal volume [cm3]

Q=

V n
1000 vol

n = Drive speed of the pump [min-1]


ges = Total efficiency (0,8-0,85)
vol = Volumetric efficiency (0,9-0,95)

Q vol 1000
n=
V
M ab

mh = Hydro-mechanic efficiency

(0,9-0,95)

p V mh
=
= 1,59 V p mh 10 2
20

Pab =

p = Pressure difference between motor inlet and

outlet (bar)

p Q ges

10.01.2013

Pab = Output power of the motor [kW]


Mab = Output torque [Nm]

600

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Formulary Hydraulics

Hydro Motor Variable

Md =
P=

n=

Md = Torque [Nm]

n = Speed [min-1]

Md n

30000

30000

Md =
n=

30000 P

Md

M d max
i Getr

i = Gear ratio
Getr = Gear efficiency
mh = Mech./hydraulic efficiency
vol = Vol. efficiency

Vg = Flow volume [cm3]

Md
Vg mh

Vg n
1000 vol

QP =
P=

Mdmax = Max torque [Nm]

n max
i

p = 20
Q=

P = Power [kW]

Vg n vol
1000

Q p
600 ges

10.01.2013

10

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Formulary Hydraulics

Hydro Motor Fixed

Md =
P=

n=

Md = Torque [Nm]

n = Speed [min-1]

Md n

30000

30000

Md =
n=

30000 P

Md

M d max
i Getr

i = Gear ratio
Getr = Gear efficiency
mh = Mech./hydraulic efficiency
vol = Vol. efficiency

Vg = Flow volume [cm3]

Md
Vg mh

Vg n
1000 vol

QP =
P=

Mdmax = Max torque [Nm]

n max
i

p = 20
Q=

P = Power [kW]

Vg n vol
1000

Q p
600 ges

10.01.2013

11

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Formulary Hydraulics

Hydro Motor Intrinsic Frequency

V
( G )2
2 E
2
0 =

VG
J red
+ VR )
(
2

f0 = 0
2

10.01.2013

VG = Displacement [cm3]
0 = Intrinsic angular frequency [1/s]

f0 = Intrinsic frequency [Hz]


Jred = Moment of inertia red. [kgm2]
El = 1400 N/mm2
VR = Volume of the line [cm3]

12

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Formulary Hydraulics

Hydro Cylinder
d d 1 0,785 2
[cm ]
A= 1
=
400
100
2

d1 = Piston diameter [mm]

d2 = Piston rod diameter [mm]


p = Service pressure [bar]

d 2 0,785 2
[cm ]
100
2

A st =

v = Stroke speed [m/s]


V = Stroke volume [l]

(d d 2 ) 0,785 2
[cm ]
AR = 1
100
2

Q = Volume flow, considering the leakages


(l/min)

p d1 0,785
[kN]
FD =
10000

Qth = Volume flow, without considering the

p (d 1 d 2 ) 0,785
[kN]
Fz =
10000

vol = Volumetric efficiency (approx. 0,95)

h
Q
[m/s]
v=
=
t 1000 A 6

t = Stroke time [s]

Qth = 6 A v =

Q=

V=
t=

leakages (l/min)

V
60
t

h = Stroke [mm]

FD

[l/min]
FZ

Q th

vol.

FS

Ah
[l]
10000

A h6
Q 1000

10.01.2013

[s]

13

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Differential Cylinder

dK = Piston diameter [mm]

4 FD
pK

d K = 100

dst = Rod diameter [mm]


FD = Pressure force [kN]

pK =

4 10 FD
d K2

p St =

4 104 FZ
(d K 2 d St 2 )

Fz = Traction force [kN]


pK = Pressure at the piston side [bar]
= Aspect ratio

QK = Volume flow piston side [l/min]


QSt = Volume flow rod side [l/min]
va = Extending speed [m/s]

dK
2
2
(d K d St )

ve = Retracting speed [m/s]


Volp = Working volume [l]

6
2
va d K
QK =
400

QSt =
ve =

va =

VolF = Fill-up volume [l]


h = Stroke [mm]

6
2
2
v e (d K d St )
400
QSt

6
2
2
(d K d St )
400
QK

6
2
dK
400

Vol p =

Vol F =

4 10

d St h

h (d K d St )

4 10

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Double Acting Cylinder

pA =
pB =
QA =

4 104

4 104

dK = Piston diameter [mm]

FA
2
2
(d K d StA )

dstA = Rod diameter A-side [mm]


dstB = Rod diameter B-side [mm]

FB

2
2
(d K d StB )

FA = Force A [kN]
FB = Force B [kN]

6
2
2
v a (d K d StA )
400

pA = Pressure at the A-side [bar]


pB = Pressure at the B-side [bar]
QA = Volume flow A-side [l/min]

6
2
2
QB =
v b (d K d StB )
400

ve =

va =

QB = Volume flow B-side [l/min]


va = Speed a [m/s]

QSt

vb = Speed b [m/s]

6
2
2
(d K d St )
400

Volp = Compensating volume [l]


VolFA = Fill-up volume A [l]

QK

VolFB = Fill-up volume B [l]

6
2
dK
400

Vol p =

4 10

Vol FA =
Vol FB =

d St h
2

h (d K d StA )

h (d K d StB )

4 10

4 10

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Cylinder in Differential Control

dK = Piston diameter [mm]

4 FD
d st = 100
p St

dst = Rod diameter [mm]


FD = Pressure force [kN]

4 10 FD
d St 2
4

pK =

Fz = Traction force [kN]


pK = Pressure at the piston side [bar]
pSt = Pressure at the rod side [bar]

4 104 FZ
p St =
(d K 2 d St 2 )
Q=

h = Stroke [mm]
QK = Volume flow piston side [l/min]

6
2
v a d St
400

QSt = Volume flow rod side [l/min]

Extension:

va =

QP = Pump flow [l/min]


va = Extending speed [m/s]

QP

6
2
d St
400

Q d
QK = P 2 K
d St

ve = Retracting speed [m/s]


Volp = Working volume [l]
VolF = Fill-up volume [l]

Q P (d K d St )
2
d St
2

QSt =

Retraction:

ve =

QP

6
2
2
(d K d St )
400

QSt=QP

QP d K
QK =
2
2
(d K d St )
2

Vol p =
Vol F =

4 10

d St h

h (d K d St )

4 10

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Cylinder Intrinsic Frequency at Differential Cylinders

AK = Piston surface [cm2]

d
AK = K
4
100
2

AR = Piston ring surface [cm2]


dK = Piston diameter [mm]
dSt = Piston rod diameter [mm]

(d d St )
AR = K
4
100
2

dRK = NW- piston side [mm]


LK = Length of piston side [mm]
dRSt = NW-rod side [mm]

d L
= RK K
4
1000
2

VRK

LSt = Length of rod side [mm]


h = Stroke [cm]

d L
= RSt St
4
1000

VRK = Volume of the line piston side [cm3]

VRSt

mRK =

VRSt = Volume of the line rod side [cm3]


mRK = Mass of the oil in the line piston side [kg]

VRK l
1000

mRSt = Mass of the oil in the line rod side [kg]


hK = Position at min intrinsic frequency [cm]

V l
= RSt
1000

mRSt

f0 = Intrinsic frequency [Hz]

A h V
V
R
+ RSt RK
3
3
A3
AR
AK
R

hk =
1
1
(
)
+
AR
AK

01 = 0
f 01 =

A EL
AR El
1
( K
+
)
A

h
A

(
h hK )
m
K
R
K
+ VRK
+ VRSt
10
10
2

0 =

f0 =

0 = Angular frequency

0
2
4

mlred

1
d
= mRK K + mRSt
d RK
d RSt

10.01.2013

400 A R

17

01
2

mred
mlred + mred

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Cylinder Intrinsic Frequency at Double Acting Cylinders

AR = Piston ring surface [cm2]

(d d St )
AR = K
4
100
2

dK = Piston diameter [mm]


dSt = Piston rod diameter [mm]
dR = NW [mm]

d L
VR = RK K
4
1000

LK = Length of the piston side [mm]

V l
mR = R
1000

VR = Volume of the line [cm3]

h = Stroke [mm]

mR = Mass of the oil in the line [kg]


f0 = Intrinsic frequency

2 E l
AR
0 = 100
(
)
AR h
m red
+ VRSt
10
2

0 = Angular frequency

Equation applies only to the middle position of the


double rod cylinder
Natural frequency of any position can be calculated
using the equation for the differential cylinder (as shown
on page 17, however AK = AR)

f0 =

0
2

mlred

1
= 2 mRK
dR

01 = 0
f 01 =

400 A R

mred
mlred + mred

01
2

10.01.2013

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Cylinder Intrinsic Frequency for Plunger Cylinders

AK = Piston surface [cm2]

d
AK = K
4
100
2

dK = Piston diameter [mm]


dR = Diameter of the piping [mm]
LK = Length piston side [mm]

d L
VR = K K
4
1000
2

LR = Length of the line [mm]


h = Stroke [mm]

V l
mR = R
1000

VR = Volume of the line [cm3]


MR = Mass of the oil in the line [kg]
2

E
AK
0 = 100 l (
)
mred AK h + VRSt
f0 =

0 = Angular frequency

0
2

m lred

d
= 2 mR K
dR

01 = 0
f 01 =

f0 = Intrinsic frequency

mred
mlred + mred

01
2

10.01.2013

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Piping

p =

l v 2 10
d2

lam.
turb.

0,316
= 4
Re
vd

turb. = Pipe friction coefficient for turbulent flow

l = Length of the line [m]


v = Velocity in the line [m/s]

103

6 d2

d =

lam. = Pipe friction coefficient for laminar flow

v=

= Density [kg/dm ] (0,89)


= Pipe friction coefficient

64
=
Re

Re =

p = Pressure loss at direct piping [bar]

102

d = Internal diameter of the piping [mm]


= Kinematic viscosity [mm /s]
2

Q = Volume flow in the piping [l/min]

400 Q

6 v

10.01.2013

20

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Application Examples for Specification of the Cylinder Pressures


and Volume Flows under Positive and Negative Load
Nomenclature

Parameters

Symbols

Units

Acceleration / deceleration

m/s2

Cylinder surface

A1

cm2

Ring surface

A2

cm2

Aspect ratio

=A1/A2

FT

daN

Fa=0,1ma

daN

External forces

FE

daN

Friction forces (coulomb friction)

FC

daN

Sealing friction force

FR

daN

Weight force

daN

Total force
Acceleration force

Mass

G
+ mK
g

kg

Piston mass

mK

kg

Volume flow

Q=0,06 Avmax

l/min

vmax

cm/s

T=J+ TL

Nm

m=

Torque
Load torque

TL

Nm

Angular acceleration

rad/s2

Inertia moment

kgm2

10.01.2013

21

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Differential Cylinder Extending with Positive Load

Calculation:
Layout:
FT = Fa+FR+FC+FE

p1 =

[daN]

Given Parameters

p 2 = 5,25 +

FT = 4450 daN
PS = 210 bar
PT = 5,25 bar
A1 = 53,50 cm2
A2 = 38,10 cm2
= 1,40
vmax = 30,00 cm/s
==> p1 und p2

Q N = 96

p S A2 + R [ FT + ( pT A2 )]
bar
A2 (1 + 3 )
p p
p2 = pT + S 2 1 bar

Verification of the cylinder dimensioning and


calculation of the nominal volume flow QN,
depending on the load pressure p1.
Q= 0,06A1vmax

QN = Q

l/min

35
p S p1

l/min

Selection of a Servo valve 10% larger than the


calculated nominal volume flow.

10.01.2013

210 120
= 52bar
1,4 2

Q= 0,0653,530=96 l/min

p1 =

210 38,1 + 1,4 2 [4450 + (5,25 38,1)]


= 120bar
38,1(1 + 1,4 3 )

22

35
= 60l / min
210 120

Sales Industry Sector Metallurgy

Formulary Hydraulics

Differential Cylinder Retracting with Positive Load

Layout:

Calculation:

FT = Fa+FR+FC+FE

[daN]

p2 =

Given Parameters

p 1 = 5,25 + [(210 187)1,4 2 ] = 52bar

FT = 4450 daN
PS = 210 bar
PT = 5,25 bar
A1 = 53,50 cm2
A2 = 38,10 cm2
= 1,40
vmax = 30,00 cm/s
==> p1 und p2

Q= 0,0638,130=69 l/min

( p A 3 ) + FT + ( pT A2 )]
bar
p2 = S 2
A2 (1 + 3 )

Q N = 96

p1 = pT + [( p S p2 ) 2 ] bar
Verification of the cylinder dimensioning and
calculation of the nominal volume flow QN,
depending on the load pressure p1.

Q= 0,06A2vmax

l/min

35
pS p 2

l/min

QN = Q

Selection of a Servo valve 10% larger than the


calculated nominal volume flow.

10.01.2013

(210 38,1 1,42 ) + 4450 + (5,25 38,1 1,4)]


= 187bar
38,1(1 + 1,43 )

23

35
= 84l / min
210 187

Sales Industry Sector Metallurgy

Formulary Hydraulics

Differential Cylinder Extending with Negative Load

Calculation:
Layout:

FT = Fa+FR-G

p1 =

[daN]

Given Parameters

p2 = 0 +

FT = -2225 daN
PS = 175 bar
PT = 0 bar
2
A1 = 81,3 cm
2
A2 = 61,3 cm
= 1,3
vmax = 12,7 cm/s
==> p1 und p2

p S A2 + 2 [ FT + ( pT A2 )]
bar
A2 (1 + 3 )
p p
p2 = pT + S 2 1 bar

Q N = 62

Verification of the cylinder dimensioning and


calculation of the nominal volume flow QN,
depending on the load pressure p1.

Q= 0,06A1vmax

l/min

35
p S p1

l/min

Selection of a Servo valve 10% larger than the


calculated nominal volume flow.

10.01.2013

175 36
= 82bar
1,32

Q= 0,0681,312,7=62 l/min

p1 =

QN = Q

175 61,3 + 1,32 [2225 + (0 61,3)]


= 36bar
61,3(1 + 1,33 )

24

35
= 31l / min
175 36

Sales Industry Sector Metallurgy

Formulary Hydraulics

Differential Cylinder Retracting with Negative Load

Calculation:
Layout:

FT = Fa+FR-G

p2 =

[daN]

(210 61,3 + 1,32 ) 4450 + (0 61,3 1,3)]


= 122bar
61,3(1 + 1,33 )

Given Parameters

p 1 = 0 + [(210 122)] = 149 bar

FT = -4450 daN
PS = 210 bar
PT = 0 bar
2
A1 = 81,3 cm
2
A2 = 61,3 cm
= 1,3
vmax = 25,4 cm/s
==> p1 und p2

Q= 0,0661,325,4=93 l/min

p2 =

Q N = 93

( p S A2 ) + FT + ( pT A2 )]
bar
A2 (1 + 3 )
3

p1 = pT + [( p S p2 ) 2 ] bar
Verification of the cylinder dimensioning and
calculation of the nominal volume flow QN,
depending on the load pressure p1.

Q= 0,06A2vmax

l/min

35
pS p 2

l/min

QN = Q

Selection of a Servo valve 10% larger than the


calculated nominal volume flow.

10.01.2013

25

35
= 59l / min
210 122

Sales Industry Sector Metallurgy

Formulary Hydraulics

Differential Cylinder Retracting at an Inclined Plane with Positive Load

Calculation:
Layout:

(140 19,9) + 1,62 [2225 + (3,5 19,9)]


= 85bar
19,9(1 + 1,63 )

FT = Fa+FE+FS+[G(cos+sin)] daN

p1 =

Given Parameters

p 2 = 35 +

FT = 2225 daN
PS = 140 bar
PT = 3,5 bar
2
A1 = 31,6 cm
2
A2 = 19,9 cm
= 1,6
vmax = 12,7 cm/s
==> p1 and p2

p1 =

Q= 0,0631,612,7=24 l/min

Q N = 24

p S A2 + 2 [ F + ( pT A2 )]

p2 = pT +

A2 (1 + 3 )
p S p1

bar

bar

Verification of the cylinder dimensioning and


calculation of the nominal volume flow QN,
depending on the load pressure p1.

Q= 0,06A1vmax

l/min

35
p S p1

l/min

QN = Q

Selection of a Servo valve 10% larger than the


calculated nominal volume flow.

10.01.2013

140 85
= 25bar
1,6 2

26

35
= 19 l/min
140 85

Sales Industry Sector Metallurgy

Formulary Hydraulics

Differential Cylinder Retracting at an Inclined Plane with Positive Load

Calculation:
Layout:

(140 19,9 1,63 ) + 1780 + [3,5 19,9 1,6)]


= 131bar
19,9(1 + 1,63 )

FT =Fa+FE+FS+[G(cos+sin)] daN

p2 =

Given Parameters

p 1 = 3,5 + [(140 131) 1,6 2 = 26bar

FT = 1780 daN
PS = 140 bar
PT = 3,5 bar
2
A1 = 31,6 cm
2
A2 = 19,9 cm
= 1,6
vmax = 12,7 cm/s
==> p1 and p2

p2 =

Q= 0,0619,912,7=15 l/min

Q N = 15

( p S A2 3 ) + F + ( pT A2 )]
A2 (1 + 3 )

bar

p1 = pT + [( p S p2 ) 2 ] bar
Verification of the cylinder dimensioning and
calculation of the nominal volume flow QN,
depending on the load pressure p1.
Q= 0,06A2vmax

QN = Q

l/min

35
pS p 2

l/min

Selection of a Servo valve 10% larger than the


calculated nominal volume flow.

10.01.2013

27

35
= 30 l/min
140 131

Sales Industry Sector Metallurgy

Formulary Hydraulics

Differential Cylinder Extending at an Inclined Plane with Negative Load

Calculation:
Layout:
FT = Fa+FE+FR+[G(cos-sin)] daN

p1 =

(210 106) + 1,22 [6675 + (0 106)]


= 131bar
106(1 + 1,43 )

Given Parameters

FT = -6675 daN
PS = 210 bar
PT = 0 bar
2
A1 = 53,5 cm
2
A2 = 38,1 cm
= 1,4
vmax = 25,4 cm/s
==> p1 und p2

p1 =

Caution!!!

Negative load is leading to cylinder cavitation.


Specified parameters to be changed by means of
using a larger cylinder size, increasing the system
pressure or reducing the necessary total force.
A1 = 126 cm

p S A2 + 2 [ F + ( pT A2 )]

p2 = pT +

A2 (1 + 3 )
p S p1

bar

bar

Verification of the cylinder dimensioning and


calculation of the nominal volume flow QN,
depending on the load pressure p1.
Q= 0,06A1vmax

QN = Q

p2 =

l/min

Selection of a Servo valve 10% larger than the


calculated nominal volume flow.

10.01.2013

A2 = 106 cm

210 44
= 116bar
1,2 2

Q= 0,0612625,4=192 l/min
35
Q N = 192
= 88 l/min
210 44

l/min

35
p S p1

28

R=1,2

Sales Industry Sector Metallurgy

Formulary Hydraulics

Differential Cylinder Retracting at an Inclined Plane with Negative Load

Calculation:
Layout:

(210 38,1 1,43 ) + [ 6675 + (0 38,1 1,4)]


= 107 bar
38,1(1 + 1,43 )

F = Fa+FE+FR+[G(cos-sin)] daN

p2 =

Given Parameters

p 1 = 0 + [(210 107) 1,4 2 ] = 202 bar

F = -6675 daN
PS = 210 bar
PT = 0 bar
2
A1 = 53,5 cm
2
A2 = 38,1 cm
= 1,4
vmax = 25,4 cm/s
==> p1 and p2

Q= 0,0638,125,4=58 l/min

Q N = 58

( p S A2 3 ) + F + ( pT A2 )]
bar
p2 =
A2 (1 + 3 )
p1 = pT + [( p S p2 ) 2 ] bar

Verification of the cylinder dimensioning and


calculation of the nominal volume flow QN,
depending on the load pressure p2.
Q= 0,06A2vmax

QN = Q

l/min

35
pS p 2

l/min

Selection of a Servo valve 10% larger than the


calculated nominal volume flow.

10.01.2013

29

35
= 34 l/min
210 107

Sales Industry Sector Metallurgy

Formulary Hydraulics

Hydraulic Motor with a Positive Load

Calculation:
Layout:
T = J+TL

p1 =

[Nm]

p 2 = 210 127 + 0 = 83bar

Given Parameters

T = 56,5 Nm
PS = 210 bar
PT = 0 bar
3
DM = 82 cm /rad
M = 10 rad/s

QM= 0,011082=8,2 l/min

Q N = 8,2

==> p1 and p2

p S + p T 10T
bar
+
2
DM
p 2 = p S p1 + p T bar
p1 =

Verification of the cylinder dimensioning and


calculation of the nominal volume flow QN,
depending on the load pressure p1.
QM= 0,01MDM

QN = QM

l/min

35
p S p1

l/min

Selection of a Servo valve 10% larger than the


calculated nominal volume flow.

10.01.2013

210 + 0 10 56,5
+
= 127bar
2
82

30

35
= 5,3 l/min
210 127

Sales Industry Sector Metallurgy

Formulary Hydraulics

Hydraulic Motor with a Negative Load

Calculation:
Layout:
T = J-TL

p1 =

[Nm]

p 2 = 210 40 + 0 = 170bar

Given Parameters

T = -170 Nm
PS = 210 bar
PT = 0 bar
3
DM = 82 cm /rad
M = 10 rad/s

QM= 0,011082=8,2 l/min

Q N = 8,2

==> p1 and p2

p S + p T 10T
bar
+
2
DM
p 2 = p S p1 + p T bar
p1 =

Verification of the cylinder dimensioning and


calculation of the nominal volume flow QN,
depending on the load pressure p1.
QM= 0,01MDM

QN = QM

l/min

35
p S p1

l/min

Selection of a Servo valve 10% larger than the


calculated nominal volume flow.

10.01.2013

210 + 0 10 ( 170)
+
= 40bar
2
82

31

35
= 3,6 l/min
210 40

Sales Industry Sector Metallurgy

Formulary Hydraulics

Identification of the Reduced Masses of Different Systems


The different components (cylinder / motors ) have to be dimensioned for the layout of the
necessary forces of a hydraulic system, so that the acceleration and the deceleration of a mass is
correct and targeted.
The mechanics of the system are defining the stroke of the cylinders and motors.
Speed- and force calculations have to be carried out.
Statements with view to acceleration and its effects on the system can be made by fixing the reduced
mass of a system.
The reduced mass (M) is a concentrated mass, exerting the same force and acceleration
components as the regular mass at the correct system.
The reduced moment of inertia (Ie) has to be considered for rotational systems.
The reduced mass has to be fixed in a first step for considerations with stroke measuring systems or
for applications with deceleration of a mass!
Newtons second axiom is used for the specification of the acceleration forces.

F = m a

F= force [N]
m= mass [kg]
a= acceleration [m/s2]

The following equation is applied for rotational movements:

= I

= torque [Nm]
= moment of inertia [kgm2]

= angular acceleration [rad/s2]

10.01.2013

32

Sales Industry Sector Metallurgy

Formulary Hydraulics

Linear Drives
Primary Applications (Energy Method)

The mass is a concentrated mass and the rod l is weightless. The cylinder axis is positioned
rectangular to the rod l.
Relation between cylinder and rod:

vc v m
=
r
l

ac am
=
r
l

Needed torque for acceleration of the mass:

= IX = F r

= m l 2 X
= m l2 X

I = m l2

am
l

am
l

= m lXa m
==>

F=

m l am
= m i am
r

i=

l
r

mi can be considered as mass movement m.

F = m i am = m i

l ac
= m i2 a c = M a c
r

mit

ac am
=
r
l

F= cylinder force
M= reduced mass
ac= acceleration of the cylinder rod
General validity:
M = mi
The same result can be obtained by the aid of the energy method (kinetic energy of the mass m). The
dependence of the mass movement with the cylinder movement can be specified with the help of the
geometry of the system.
2

Energy of the mass:

1
1
KE = I 2 = m l 2 2
2
2

10.01.2013

(I=mi2)

33

Sales Industry Sector Metallurgy

Formulary Hydraulics

1
v
= m l2 c
r
2
=
=

(vc=r )

1
l2
2
m 2 vc
2
r

1
2
M vc
2

10.01.2013

M=mi

34

and i=l/r

Sales Industry Sector Metallurgy

Formulary Hydraulics

Concentrated Mass with Linear Movements

v is the horizontal component of v. v is positioned rectangular to rod l.


Energy method:

1
1
KE = I 2 = m l 2 2
2
2
v
1
= m l2
2
r

( =v/r)

l2
1
2
= m 2 v
r
2
1
2
= m i2 v
2
with v=vcos

==> KE =

1
m i2 v 2
2

1 m i2
1
v2 = M v2
2
2 (cos )
2

with M = m
If:

i2
==> M is position-depending
(cos ) 2
= 0 then, =1

and M=mi2

=90 then, cos=0

and M=

=30 then, cos=0,866

and M = m

i2
0,75

If a cylinder is moving a mass, as shown in the preceding figure, and the movement is situated between -30 and
+30, the acceleration- and deceleration forces have to be calculated in the center of motion with a reduced mass,
twice as large as the one in the neutral center.

10.01.2013

35

Sales Industry Sector Metallurgy

Formulary Hydraulics

Distributed Mass at Linear Movements

When considering the same rod l with the mass m, you can here also calculate the reduced mass of
the rod.

1
1
1
KE = I 2 = X m l 2 2
2
2
3
v
1
1
= X m l2
2
3
r

1
m l2
3

( =v/r)

l2
1
1
2
= X m 2 v
r
2
3
1
1
2
= X m i2 v
2
3
with v=vcos

M=

1
1 m i2
1
X
v2 = M v2
2
2
3 (cos a )
3

1 m i2

2 (cos a ) 2

10.01.2013

36

Sales Industry Sector Metallurgy

Formulary Hydraulics

Rotation

If considering now a rotating mass with a moment of inertia I, driven by a motor (ratio D/d).

1
1
d
KE = I 2 m = I ( ) 2
2
2
D

I= moment of inertia [kgm2]

1 d
= I 2
2 D

= angular acceleration [rad/s2]

1
= I i2 2
2

1
= Ie 2
2

Ie= Ii2
i=d/D

If a gearbox has to be used, i has to be considered.


2

If i=D/d, then Ie=I/i

10.01.2013

37

Sales Industry Sector Metallurgy

Formulary Hydraulics

Combination of Linear and Rotational Movement

A mass m is here moved by a wheel with radius r. The wheel is weightless.

KE =
=

1
2
m ( r )
2
=

1
m v2
2
v=r

1
m r 2 2
2

1
Ie 2
2

10.01.2013

Ie= mr

38

Sales Industry Sector Metallurgy

Formulary Hydraulics

Hydraulic Resistances
The resistance of an area reduction is the change of the applied pressure difference
corresponding volume flow change.

R=

p to the

d (p)
dQ

Orifice Equation

QBlende = 0,6 K

dB
2 p

4
2

K = flow coefficient (0,6-0,8)


= 0,88 [kg/dm3]

dB = orifice diameter [mm]

p = pressure difference [bar]


Qorifice= [l/min]

Throttle Equation

Q Drossel

r4
( p1 p 2 )
=
8 l

Qthrottle= [m3/s]
= dynamic viscosity [kg/ms]

l = throttle length [m]


r = radius [m]
= kinematic viscosity [m2/s]
= 880 [kg/m3]

10.01.2013

39

Sales Industry Sector Metallurgy

Formulary Hydraulics

Hydro Accumulator

1
1

p 0 p1
V = V0 1
p1 p 2

p2 =

V0 =

p1

V
1
1

p0
V0
p

V
1
1

p 0 p1
1
p2
p1

10.01.2013

= 1,4 (adiabatic compression)


V = effective volume [l]

V0 = accumulator size [l]


p0 = gas filling pressure [bar]
p1 = service pressure min [bar] (pressure loss at the
valve)
p2 = service pressure max [bar]

p0 = <0,9*P1
Provide an accumulator in the pressure circuit for
pressure-controlled pumps!
Swivel time of pump tSA of the pump catalog.

V = Q t SA

40

Sales Industry Sector Metallurgy

Formulary Hydraulics

Heat Exchanger (Oil - Water)


ETD = t l t K

Vl = oil flow [l/min]


PV = dissipation power [kW]

P
p 01 = V
ETD

tl = inlet temperature oil [C]

14 PV
t K =
VK

tK = inlet temperature cooling water [C]

tl = cooling of the oil [K]


tK = heating of the cooling water [K]

VK = cooling water flow [l/min]


Calculation of tl is different, depending on the

ETD = inlet temperature difference [K]

respective hydraulic fluid.

p01 = spec. cooling capacity [kW/h]

HFA

t l =

HLP/HFD

14,7 PV
Vl

t l =

HFC

36 PV
Vl

t l =

17,2 PV
Vl

The size of the heat exchangers can be defined by the calculated value p01 of the diagrams of the
different manufacturers.

10.01.2013

41

Sales Industry Sector Metallurgy

Formulary Hydraulics

Example AB-Standards:

10.01.2013

42

Sales Industry Sector Metallurgy

Formulary Hydraulics

Layout of a Valve

The necessary volume flow can be calculated


based on the cylinder data as well as on the
extending and retracting speeds.

Q= 0,06A2vmax

l/min

X
pS p2

l/min

QN = Q

P= PS system pr.-PLload pr.-P Treturn pressure

(Load pressure

2
*System pressure)
3

X= 35 (Servo valve) pressure loss via a leading edge


X= 35 (Prop valve) pressure loss via a leading edge
(Prop valve with shell)

At optimal efficiency
FT = load force [daN]
PS = system pressure [bar]
PT = return pressure [bar]
A1 = piston surface cm2
A2 = ring surface cm2
= aspect ratio cylinder
vmax = extending speed of the cylinder cm/s

X= 5 (Prop valve) pressure loss via a leading edge


(Prop valve without shell)

Selection of a valve 10% larger than the


calculated nominal volume flow

p1 and p2

p2 =

( p S A2 3 ) + FT + ( pT A2 )]
bar
A2 (1 + 3 )

p1 = pT + [( p S p2 ) 2 ] bar

Verification of the cylinder dimensioning and


calculation of the nominal volume flow QN,
depending on the load pressure p1.

Translation: Harm/March 16, 2011


10.01.2013

43