Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 415

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1.1

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1.1.1

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1.1.2

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1.1.3

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1.1.4

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1.1.5

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1.1.6

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1.1.7

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1.1.8

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1.1.9

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1.2.1

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1.2.2

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1.2.3

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1.2.4

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1.2.5

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1.2.6

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1.2.7

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1.2.8

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1.2.9

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1.2.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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1.2.11

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1.2.12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

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1.3.1

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1.3.2

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1.3.3

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1.3.4

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1.3.5

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1.3.6

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1.3.7

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1.2

1.3

ii

1.3.8
1.4

1.5

1.6

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17

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1.4.1

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1.4.2

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1.4.3

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1.4.4

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1.4.5

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1.4.6

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25

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1.5.1

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1.5.2

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1.5.3

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1.5.4

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1.5.5

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1.5.6

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1.5.7

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1.5.8

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1.5.9

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31

1.5.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

31

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31

1.6.1

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1.6.2

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1.6.3

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1.6.4

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1.6.5

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1.6.6

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1.6.7

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33

34

2.1

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34

2.1.1

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2.1.2

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2.1.3

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2.1.4

2.1.5

2.2

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35

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2.1.6

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2.1.7

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35

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2.2.1

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2.2.2

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2.2.3

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2.2.4

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37

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2.3

2.4

2.5

2.6

2.7

2.8

iii

2.2.5

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38

2.2.6

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38

2.2.7

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38

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38

2.3.1

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2.3.2

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2.3.3

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2.3.4

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2.3.5

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2.3.6

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2.3.7

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41

2.3.8

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42

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42

2.4.1

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42

2.4.2

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2.4.3

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2.4.4

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44

2.4.5

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45

2.4.6

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45

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45

2.5.1

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2.5.2

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2.5.3

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46

2.5.4

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48

2.5.5

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48

2.5.6

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48

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48

2.6.1

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49

2.6.2

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2.6.3

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2.6.4

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2.6.5

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2.6.6

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2.6.7

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50

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2.7.1

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2.7.2

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2.7.3

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2.7.4

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2.7.5

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52

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52

iv

2.8.1

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52

2.8.2

54

2.8.3

2.8.4

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55

2.8.5

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2.8.6

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56

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56

2.9.1

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2.9.2

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2.9.3

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2.9.4

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2.9.5

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57

2.10 , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

58

2.10.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

58

2.10.2

59

2.9

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2.10.3

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2.10.4

55

59

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59

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59

2.10.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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2.10.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

60

2.11 , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

60

2.11.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

60

2.11.2

62

2.10.5

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2.11.3

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2.11.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

62

2.11.5

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63

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63

2.11.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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2.11.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

63

2.12 , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

63

2.11.6

2.12.1

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2.12.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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2.12.3 , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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2.12.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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2.12.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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2.12.6

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67

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67

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68

2.12.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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2.12.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

68

2.13 , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

69

2.12.7
2.12.8

2.13.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

69

2.13.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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2.13.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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2.13.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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2.13.5

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2.13.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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2.13.7

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2.13.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

70

2.13.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

71

2.14 , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

71

2.14.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

71

2.14.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

72

2.14.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

72

2.14.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

72

2.14.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

73

2.14.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

73

2.14.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

74

2.15 , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

74

2.15.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

74

2.15.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

75

2.15.3

75

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.15.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

76

2.15.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

77

2.15.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

77

2.16 , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

77

2.16.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

78

2.16.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

78

2.16.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

78

2.16.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

78

2.17 , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

78

2.17.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

78

2.17.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

79

2.17.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

79

2.17.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

79

2.17.5

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

79

2.17.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

79

2.18 , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

79

2.18.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

79

2.18.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

80

2.18.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

80

2.18.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

80

vi

2.19 , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

80

2.19.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

80

2.19.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

81

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

81

2.19.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

81

2.19.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

81

2.20 , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

81

2.20.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

81

2.20.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

85

2.20.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

85

2.20.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

86

2.20.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

86

2.20.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

86

2.20.7

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

87

2.20.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

87

2.21 , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

87

2.21.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

87

2.21.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

92

2.21.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

93

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

93

2.21.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

93

2.21.6

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

93

2.21.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

94

2.21.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

95

2.22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

95

2.22.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

95

2.22.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

95

2.22.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

95

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

95

2.22.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

95

2.22.6

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

95

2.22.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

95

2.23 , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

95

2.19.3 .

2.21.4

2.22.4 .

2.23.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

96

2.23.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
2.23.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100

2.23.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
2.23.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
2.23.6 , , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
2.23.7

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

2.23.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

vii

2.23.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
2.23.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
2.23.11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
2.24 , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
2.24.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
2.24.2
2.24.3 .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

2.24.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
2.24.5

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

2.24.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
2.25 , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
2.25.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
2.25.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

2.25.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
2.25.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
2.25.5

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115

2.25.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
2.25.7 .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115

2.25.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
2.25.9

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116

2.25.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
2.26 , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
2.26.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
2.26.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
2.26.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120

2.26.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
2.26.5

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121

2.26.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
2.26.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
2.26.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
2.26.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
2.26.10 .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124

2.26.11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
2.26.12

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

2.26.13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
3

3.1

126

(, 2009) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
3.1.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126

3.1.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128

3.1.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128

3.1.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132

viii

3.1.5

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134

3.1.6

3.1.7

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136

3.1.8

3.1.9

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137

3.1.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
3.1.11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
3.1.12

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149

3.1.13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
3.2

3.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
3.2.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150

3.2.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151

3.2.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151

3.2.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151

3.2.5

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151

(, 1902) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
3.3.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152

3.3.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152

3.3.3

3.3.4

3.3.5

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153

3.3.6

3.3.7

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153

4.1

4.2

4.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152

154

16- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
4.1.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154

4.1.2

4.1.3

16- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156

4.1.4

16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157

4.1.5

16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157

4.1.6

4.1.7

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157

4.1.8

4.1.9

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
4.2.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160

4.2.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161

4.2.3

4.2.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161

4.2.5

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162

4.4

4.5

4.6

4.7

ix

4.3.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162

4.3.2

motion capture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164

4.3.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165

4.3.4

4.3.5

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165

4.3.6

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
4.4.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166

4.4.2

4.4.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168

4.4.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169

4.4.5

4.4.6

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169

4.4.7

4.4.8

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170

() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
4.5.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170

4.5.2

4.5.3

4.5.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171

4.5.5

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
4.6.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172

4.6.2

4.6.3

4.6.4

4.6.5

4.6.6

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175

4.6.7

4.6.8

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
4.7.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176

4.7.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177

4.7.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178

4.7.4

4.7.5

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179

4.7.6

4.7.7

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179

4.7.8

4.7.9

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180

4.7.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180

4.7.11

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181

4.7.12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
4.8

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
4.8.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182

4.8.2

4.8.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186

4.8.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186

4.8.5

4.8.6

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189

4.8.7

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190

4.8.8

4.8.9

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190

4.8.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
4.8.11

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193

4.8.12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
4.9

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
4.9.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195

4.9.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195

4.9.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196

4.9.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197

4.9.5

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197

4.9.6

- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198

4.9.7

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201

4.9.8

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201

4.9.9

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201

4.9.10

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202

4.9.11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
4.9.12 .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202

4.9.13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
4.9.14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
4.9.15

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203

4.9.16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
4.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
4.10.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204

4.10.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
4.10.3 .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206

4.10.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
4.10.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
4.10.6

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207

4.11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
4.11.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207

xi

4.11.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208

4.11.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
4.11.4 .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209

4.11.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
4.11.6

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209

4.11.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
4.12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
4.12.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
4.12.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210

4.12.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
4.13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
4.13.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
4.13.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
4.13.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
4.13.4
4.13.5 .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216

4.13.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
4.13.7

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217

4.13.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
4.14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
4.14.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218

4.14.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
4.14.3
4.14.4
4.14.5 .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220

4.14.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
4.14.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
4.14.8

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221

4.14.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
4.15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
4.15.1
4.15.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222

4.15.3
4.15.4 .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223

4.15.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
4.15.6

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223

4.16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
4.16.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
4.16.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
4.16.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224

4.16.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225

xii

4.16.5 .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225

4.16.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
4.16.7

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225

4.17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
4.17.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
4.17.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
4.17.3 .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227

4.17.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
4.17.5

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228

4.18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
4.18.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
4.18.2 .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232

4.18.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
4.18.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
4.18.5

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232

4.18.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
4.19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
4.19.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
4.19.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
4.19.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
4.19.4 , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
4.19.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
4.19.6

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237

4.19.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
4.20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
4.20.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
4.20.2
4.20.3 .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239

4.20.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
4.20.5

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239

4.21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
4.22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
4.22.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
4.22.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
4.22.3 .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246

4.22.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
4.22.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
4.22.6

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247

4.22.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
4.23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
4.23.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248

xiii

4.23.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249

4.23.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
4.23.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
4.23.5

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249

4.23.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
4.24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
4.24.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250

4.24.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
4.24.3 .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251

4.24.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
5

5.1

5.2

5.3

5.4

5.5

252

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
5.1.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252

5.1.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252

5.1.3

5.1.4

5.1.5

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253

5.1.6

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
5.2.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253

5.2.2

5.2.3

5.2.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255

5.2.5

5.2.6

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
5.3.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256

5.3.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256

5.3.3

5.3.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257

5.3.5

5.3.6

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
5.4.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257

5.4.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257

5.4.3

5.4.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
5.5.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259

5.5.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260

xiv

5.6

5.7

5.5.3

5.5.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
5.6.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261

5.6.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261

5.6.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262

5.6.4

5.6.5

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264

5.6.6

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264

5.6.7

5.9

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
5.7.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265

5.7.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267

5.7.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267

5.7.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267

5.7.5

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267

5.7.6

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268

5.7.7

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269

5.7.8

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270

5.7.9

, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271

5.7.10
5.8

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
5.8.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271

5.8.2

5.8.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272

5.8.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272

5.8.5

5.8.6

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
5.9.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273

5.9.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273

5.9.3

5.9.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275

5.9.5

5.9.6

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275

5.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
5.10.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
5.10.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
5.10.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
5.10.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
5.10.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277

xv

5.11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
5.11.1 .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278

5.11.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
5.11.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
5.12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
5.12.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
5.12.2 . . . . . . . 279
5.12.3
5.12.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280

5.12.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
5.12.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
5.12.7 , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
5.12.8

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282

5.13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
5.13.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
5.13.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
5.13.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
5.13.4 .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286

5.13.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
5.13.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
5.13.7

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287

5.13.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
5.14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
5.14.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288

5.14.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
5.14.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
5.14.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
5.14.5 .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297

5.14.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
5.14.7

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297

5.14.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
5.15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
5.15.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
5.16 () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
5.16.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
5.16.2
5.16.3 .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300

5.16.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
5.16.5

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301

5.16.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
5.17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301

xvi

5.17.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
5.17.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
5.17.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
5.17.4 .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302

5.17.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
5.17.6

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302

5.17.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
5.18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
5.18.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
5.18.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
5.18.3 .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303

5.18.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
5.18.5

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303

5.19 - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
5.19.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
5.19.2
5.19.3 .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304

5.19.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
5.19.5

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304

5.19.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
5.20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
5.20.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304

5.20.2 DCI

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305

5.20.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
5.20.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
5.20.5

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306

5.20.6

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307

5.20.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
5.20.8 .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307

5.20.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
5.20.10

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307

5.20.11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
6

6.1

6.2

308

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
6.1.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308

6.1.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308

6.1.3

6.1.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
6.2.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309

6.2.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309

6.3

6.4

6.5

6.2.3

- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310

6.2.4

6.2.5

6.2.6

6.2.7

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310

6.2.8

6.2.9

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311

6.7

6.8

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
6.3.1

6.3.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311

6.3.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312

6.3.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
6.4.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312

6.4.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312

6.4.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314

6.4.4

6.4.5

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314

6.4.6

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
6.5.1

6.6

xvii

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
6.6.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316

6.6.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316
6.7.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316

6.7.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316

6.7.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317

6.7.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
6.8.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317

6.8.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318

6.8.3

6.8.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320

6.8.5

6.8.6

6.8.7

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322

6.8.8

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323

6.8.9

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323

6.8.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
6.9

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323

xviii

6.9.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323

6.9.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324

6.9.3

XX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325

6.9.4

6.9.5

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326

6.9.6

6.9.7

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327

7.1

7.2

328

() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328
7.1.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328

7.1.2

7.1.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329
7.2.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329

7.2.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330

7.2.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330

7.2.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330

7.2.5

7.2.6

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331

7.2.7

7.2.8

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332

7.2.9

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332

7.2.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
7.3.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332

7.3.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335

7.3.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335

7.3.4

7.3.5

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336

7.3.6

7.3.7

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
7.4.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337

7.4.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
7.5.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337

7.5.2

7.5.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
7.6.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338

7.6.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338

xix

7.6.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342

7.6.4

7.6.5

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344

7.6.6

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344

7.6.7

7.6.8

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344

7.6.9

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344

7.6.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344
7.6.11

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345

7.6.12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
8


8.1

8.2

8.3

8.4

346

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
8.1.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346

8.1.2

8.1.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
8.2.1

18951918: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347

8.2.2

19181933: ,

8.2.3

19331945: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350

8.2.4

19451980: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351

8.2.5

1990 : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353

8.2.6

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354

8.2.7

. . . 348

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354
8.3.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355

8.3.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358

8.3.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359

8.3.4

8.3.5

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359

8.3.6

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360

8.3.7

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
8.4.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360

8.4.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360

8.4.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361

8.4.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361

8.4.5

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361

8.4.6

8.4.7

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362

8.4.8

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362

xx
9


9.1

9.2

363

Internet Movie Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363


9.1.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363

9.1.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364

9.1.3

9.1.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365

9.1.5

Alexa Internet

9.1.6

9.1.7

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365

9.1.8

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
9.2.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366

9.2.2

9.2.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367

9.2.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367

10 ,

368

10.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368
10.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
10.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394

1.1.

. .
28 - . 1895 , - (, - ). ,
.
.
( )
.

. (1907)

1.1.1.
XV-XVII
,
( , ,
, ). XV , .
XVII
. .
-, ,
. .* [1]

. (1878)

1877 . , ,
. ,
1830 .
. - 1878 , - 1

2
. , c
, , -
,
.
12 ,

.

* [2]. ,
. , : , * [3]. ,

, .
.
24, ,
.

1.
, , .
1876 . , . : . , , : 80, 90 100
.
.
, .
12.

:
, , .
, . ,
. . . . , . , - .
, .
, . , - 1870 1887 : - , . 7
, -
*
1872 1885 - [6]. 1889
, - ,
. - , , , ,
. , , , , , .

1901 - .* [1]
.
.
1904 . 1.1.3. -

1.1.2.

,
,
XIX
, , . ,
- .
. 1894 .
.
1876 .

10 * [4]. ,
* [5]. -

.
, , ,
. , , .
,

1.1.
150 . 35- ,
, . 1,33:1 .* [1]
1893 * [7].

. ,
(
). 1893
. , ,
.

. ,
; , ,
, ,
. .
, . 1894 ,
,
, :
, * [8].

, .

1895
. 1895 : 22 ; 11 ; 11 ; 10
16 .
.
28 1895
, . 4550 , 1895 .
,
-, ,
1896 . ,
, .* [1]

3

, (
), , .* [1]

1.1.4.

:
, . , ,
, ( ).
( ), , . 1898 (
).* [1]
, 1897 ,
( ). 15- , ; , .


. (
),
. , ---.* [1]


, -.
1910- - , (
). 1920-
8
, .
- Fox, Loew-MGM, Paramount, RCA
Warner Brothers - , - Universal Pictures, Columbia Pictures
, United Artists - .* [1]

1.

1.1.5.
1.1.6. .

1.1.7.
[1] .. " :
". Slon.ru, 28 2015.
[2] . (.). . 29 2015.
[3] , 1958, . 68.
[4] , 1958, . 77.
[5] . (.). . 29 2015.
[6] , 1975, . 65.
[7]
[8]

1.1.8.

.) .
,
, . XIX XX
.

, , () , , ,
, . . .

.
. . .
, ,
,

, ( ).

. / . .
. .,: , 1958. . 1.
1.2.1.
611 .
80- (.) //
: . 1975.
12. . 6467. ISSN 0040-2249.
. . .

1.1.9.
: (.)
(.)

1.2.
( . , . . . , ;
) , . ( . cinmatographe,

,
: (1878 ),
(1889 ),
(1891 ) (1895 ).
80- XIX . :
(1882),
(1888), . - . (1889), . . (1891),
. (1892). ,

(
) , . 1887 , * [1]. 1889 -

1.2.
.

: . . . , 1891 1892 , , . , 1892
, . . . . (1893).

5
.
22 1895
, 1
.
, 28 * [2]. 1896
1897
. 4
(16) 1896 - ( ), .
(. , . , . .). 3 1897 , .
,
.

.
(1,5 , ).

(1896).

( , )

: (1891), .
. (1893), .
(1893), . .
(1894), . (1895), . (1894) .
18951896 ,
: .
. (1895) .
(1895); . (1895) . (1896);
. . (1896);
. (1896) . (1896), .
(1896).

- , ,
.
! , -
, ,
,
, ,

, , ,
.
* [3]

50
( 15 1,5 ) ,
* [4].

, , 1900- 200300 (15-20 - ).


1.
. ,
, ,
1912 , , .
,
, 1919 ,
,
. 17 1922

* [5].

1925 Warner Brothers, ,


. 1926
Warner Brothers , , .

,
, - . 6
1927 , . - .
, , ,

. ,
, .

20- XX , , .

.
XX c , . , , , 1889
, .
, .

Annabelle Serpentine Dance (18941896)

(.
Annabelle Serpentine Dance). 1894 , 1895 1896 ( ).
- ,
, 1902 ,
: - .

1.2.
1899 .
, . 2012
,
1902 * [6]* [7]* [8].
1909 ,
Kinemacolor.
(.
Kinemacolor), 1906 ,
, . ,
, ,
: , :
- -* [9].
1908 (.
A Visit to the Seaside) , , 1910
(. Checkmated),
1911

(. With Our King and Queen Through India).

, , The
World, the Flesh and the Devil (1914) Little Lord
Fauntleroy (1914), , The Gulf Between (1917),
(. Technicolor),
Cupid Angling (1918),
Douglass Natural Color process.

7
, , . .
.
( ). ,
, , .
, -.
.
. 1932 .
Technicolor La Cucaracha 1934 .

1935,
.


-
(1909). 1925 .
( ) , , 1931 * [10].

,
1936 . 30 1.

( ) - 1944 . ,
AGFA 1945 .


(1922)

,
1922 , . , (1924), .


- ( ,
17 . .). .
, . ,
.

1.

,
,
1950- .
. - .
,
(,
, .)
, - . () . , , . , - .
.

- . , -
. - .
, ,
.

, ,
, . - . .
7, 24. ,
-
,
.
() . ,
. ,
1.2.2.
, , , ,
. , , ( () (- , ). ) . , - , - .
. ( , - ,
, ) , . , - . , , - 1960- 1970- , - , , . ( , - ),
() .
, .
.
, - , , - ( 1520 ). .
,

, - 1.2.3.
.

1.2.

(. aspect ratio) .


4:3 (4 3 ; 1,33:1 1,33)

,
. .
1,375:1,
1,37:1* [11]. ,
, : 2,35:1 ( 7:3) 2,2:1.
(,
360).

9
() -
1000 (16 ),
,
,
,
0,1 * [13] (. ).
24,

XX .
48
( 24
).

XX ,

24 25- , , . 25-
(, , - , ,
, .).
, 25- .
( ,
, -
). , - XXI , 1,37:1 - ,
, .
, - ,
( 1,62:1). - . , , 5:3 (1,66:1),
; . , -
1,85:1* [12].
. .

-. (. internegative)
,
.
, , , .
, , ,
,
, . .

.
, , 25-
, - .
( ). , . -

10
,
Digital Intermediate. ,
.

1.2.4.

1.
, , , ,
, ,
, , .
, , , , ,

.

1.2.5.

- 19601970- ,
, , , - .
(. Neuer Deutscher Film).
, ,

, ,
. - , , - , , , .
, , , - ,
.
.
, -
. (. Nouvelle Vague) , - 1968 .
,
, .


. ( 37 ).
, ,

,
- .
, . .
. . , , - ,
, , , , .
- , . .

.

, .
- , . , , ,
,
.

1.2.

11

1.2.6.

Internet Adult Film Database

1.2.7.

Internet Broadway Database

.

.
. . :
, ; ,
.
,
. , , .
. , ,
.

Internet Movie Cars Database


Rotten Tomatoes
Metacritic
IMDb
(. Internet Movie Database; IMDb) - . .
,
. IMDb .

1.2.9. .


, , . - 1.2.10.

, - [1] , 1988, . 36.
, . [2] , 1965, . 375.
, , -, [3] - . ,
(
,
M. Pacatus), ,
. , , 1896, 4 (16) , 182, . 31.
,
[4] . 1, 1958.
( ) . . - [5] (
, , 23-05-2013 (1113 ) , )
,
[6] BBC Worlds first colour moving pictures discovered
.
[7] The Guardian Colour film of 1901, judged worlds
earliest ever, found at media museum

1.2.8.

IMDb
Movie Tome
All Movie Guide

[8] National Media Museum World


s First Moving Colour
Pictures
[9] (.) // : .
2007. 5.
[10]
(.) // : .
2002. 56.

12

[11] . (.). . (18 2011). 26 2012. 16 2012.


[12] , 1975, . 30.
[13] . ., . .
, .: , 1979, . 121122.

1.2.11.
. .
(.) //
: . 1988. 11. . 3037. ISSN
0130-5972.
. / . .
. .,: , 1958. . 1.
611 .
: 3 . ., 1965
1981.
: . .: , 1987
, . . ., 1996.
, . . II. // . 2-
. .: , 1975. . 30. 448 .
, . . / . .
. .: , 1965. 636 .
: (1908 1919) / .: .
, . , . ,
. , . . .: , 2002. 568 . ISBN 5-86793155-2.

1.
, . . : . 19201930- . .: ,
2008. 496 . 3000 . ISBN 978-5-98854005-2.
, . .
: 2 . . 1: 1918
1929. . 2: 19301980 / [., . . . ; . . . , . . ]. .: :
, 2010. 544 + 640 . ISBN 978-5-85887385-3.
, . . :
/
. . . . . . .: , 2011. 416 .
(). ISBN 978-5-86793-858-1.

1.2.12.
Open Directory Project
(dmoz).
,

-
-
-
Sight & Sound (.)

1.3.

, . . 100 - 1920-
. .: , 2005. 480 . ISBN 5-9533-0863-9.
,

, . . 100 - , . .: , 2008. 480 . ISBN 978-5- .
9533-2750-3.

, . . 3500. : 2- .. .: , 2008. ISBN 978- (
-, ),
5-9901318-3-5.
, . - .
= Dictionnaire du cinema: Les films. .: .
Rosebud Publishing, 2009. ISBN 978-5-904175- ,
02-3.
.

1.3.

13

, , 1929 - .
.
1907 .
.

1.3.1.

XX , , -. , . - .
, 1909 , * [1].
,
. - -,
.
,
XIX . -, : 300
, ( ),
.

, ( ).
Vitagraph. 1898
, -

. .

. ,
.

1913
. , .
1920, , 800 , ,
.
15
, 90 % .

. (1916)

,
,
1892 ,
.
- - .
.
9
XX ,
5 .
, 1908
. ,
. .

. - :

14

1.

1912 Universal Studios Paramount


Pictures.
1919 United Artists ( ,
, ).
1923 Warner Brothers
1924 Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. Columbia
Pictures.
1911
. 1914

, : Biograph, Vitagraph . .


. , ,
,
- ( )
.

. ,
, , .

. , Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 1924 , ,
Metro Pictures, Goldwyn
Pictures . Louis B. Mayer Pictures .
. .


(1942)


:
(. , . , . ,
), :
. .
,
. . .

1920-
. 20-30
: , .

. .

MGM ( ), Paramount
( ), 20th Century Fox, Warner
Bros., RKO, Universal Columbia.
, , , , .
, .
( , .)
United Artists.

. .
- . . ;

. .
.
B ( ,
Universal) . ( , ) .

1.3.

15

, .
1930-
(
).

,
, ,
-.
,
, ,
.
.



1960- , 1970- .
, , ,
, .
,
.
, ,
,
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1980- .

1985

. .

1.3.2.
() .
, ,
. ,
.
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()
DVD .

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.
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. (
) (), - . (, -

16

1.

, ) , ,
. ( , ). ,
, :
Miramax Films , Focus Features
Universal, Fox Searchlight 20th Century
Fox . .

.
,
, .

1.3.4.

1.3.5.

1970- ,
,
: -
,
. , . 1980- 1.3.3.
,
- , -: .
Paramount Pictures, Warner Bros., Columbia Pictures, 1990- 20th Century Fox, Universal Studios Walt Disney , ,
Company ( Buena Vista). 10-15 % , DreamWorks,
Lionsgate The Weinstein Company.
- , - . , 1940-
: -
. - , , () , - , ,
- ,
.
.


.
. ,
,
, ,
.

1.3.6. .
()
100
100




1920- ,
1930- 1940- 1950-.
- - 1.3.7.
, . - [1] . . , , ,

1.4.

(.). . (24 2013). 12 2015.

1.3.8.


(19481978)

1.4.

17
MPPC,
. , , , 90%
. MPPC
,
. , (), - MPPC .
Edison Trust : 1912 , , 1915 , MPPC.
- , ,

.



,
. ,
,
/ .
,
,
.
1910, . .
, , - Biograph Company
, ,
. , - , , , , . - -.
. - , , , . - . - .
, , .
, In Old California, 1800- , .
1.4.1.
, ,
-.

Edison Trust 1900-,
(. Motion Picture Patents Company, M. P. P. C., , . Edison Trust, ) 1908 . Edison Trust . , - , ,
, - (MGM), (Columbia
. - Pictures), (Universal Pictures),
(Edison, (Paramount Pictures),
Biograph, Vitagraph, Essanay, Selig, Lubin, Kalem, (, , )
American Star, American Path), - .
(George Kleine) - , 1913
Eastman Kodak. - - , , Edison Trust.
.
: .

18
, , , Edison
Trust -, . Edison Trust.
, , .
: 20th Century
Fox, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Paramount Pictures, RKO
Pictures, Warner Bros. Columbia
Pictures, United Artists, Universal Studios. Poverty Row, , . , , Poverty Row, ,

, .
Poverty Row, Poverty Row, . , Poverty
Row , , ,
.

1.
. , ,
, .
, Richard
A. Rowland, Metro Pictures, : .

, (
),
, Hiram Abrams . , , ,
, 1920
1921 ,
, ( ). , ,
, .
1924 :
. Joseph
Schenck .
,
, Norma Talmadge, , Constance Talmadge, ,
. , Samuel Goldwyn,
, - Alexander Korda Howard Hughes. - , :
United
Artists.
, , United
- Artists .
.
, , - , .
, - 1933 Darryl
. 5 1919 F. Zanuck, Twentieth Century Pictures,
( , , , . . United Artists. , ) United Artists, - Al Lichtman, . 20 % .
, 20 % ,
William Gibbs McAdoo. - Goldwyn, Korda, Walt Disney, Walter Wanger,
, , , David O. Selznick William S. Hart , - ( ),
, - .
, - , " . , " : Goldwyn
, RKO, Universal Pictures, - . 1940, United Artists . ,

1.4.

19


, . 1950 ,
Motion Picture
,
, (1955
1941 Mary Pickford, Charlie Chaplin, Walt 1959).
Disney, Orson Welles, Samuel Goldwyn, David O.
Selznick, Alexander Korda, Walter Wanger
, , United Artists
Motion Picture. William
. Cagney, Sol Lesser, Hal Roach.
-, , . SIMPP
. ,

,
, , , .
, , 1942 SIMPP , [9]
United Detroit Theatres, , Paramount. Paramount - , . , ,
, .
. 1962
1948 , , , - . , - . 1960-,
. .
, 1958 SIMPP - . Anthology
.
Film Archives 1970 ,
.

SIMPP
,
, ,

. ,
, ,
1943 ,
1947
, 1953 . :
, .

MPAA

. , Little Fugitive,
( )
. (
), . , / Roger Corman
, .
1971 ( , ) , .


, .
. ,
, , , ,

20
, . ( , )
B-movies 1960-,
, . ,
, ,
,
,
, .

. , , ,
B- , , Z movie. .
1968

(Night of the Living Dead)
. , MPAA. ,
,
, .
, , (1974)) (1980) .

1.
.
1950- 1960-
, ,
. 1950- .
, 1960- , . , ,
! .
, 1951 , , Arthur Krim Robert Benjamin United Artists, , , . , 1955
United Artists . UA / ,
. - ,
.
, . UA ,
,
. UA 1956 , ,
, UA , Mirisch brothers, Billy
Wilder, Joseph E. Levine .
1960- , RKO ,
,
, . ,
, , . , ,
. ,
( ) .


, MPAA,
.
,
, , . - 1967 Warner Brothers .
40%
, .
- 70
1973 .

,
Paramount Case, - ,
- .
. , , CinemaScope, stereo , 3-D ,
,
, , -

16 , 1969, , ,
. / - / ,

1.4.
. Easy Rider
First Film Award
(Prix de la premiere oeuvre "), , , - American Civil Liberties
Union.
Easy Rider
,
United Artists, , Easy Rider,
.
X-, .
, -.
, , ,
Donostia-San Sebastian International Film Festival
The Rain People , ,
, American Zoetrope.
, American Zoetrope
.
Zoetrope,
,
, .
. 1971
Zoetrope THX 1138, Zoetrope. , . , , .
American Graffiti Universal. 1970-
, , ,
Paper Moon, Dog Day Afternoon Taxi
Driver,

.
,
, .

21
,
, . , , . - , - . , Taxi
Driver, The Last Picture Show : , , . , ,

1979- ,
,
,
.
, , . United
Artists, , , . , Zoetrope , , ,
.
Zoetrope 1971 , Lucasfilm,

. ,
, Easy Rider They All
Laughed Peter Bogdanovich. Peter Bogdanovich 1980
, , ,
- .

, ,
(1975) (1977)
.
, , , . , (, ), ,
, , ( The
, - Godfather Part II ), ,
. .
, -

22
,
, , RKO 50-. , RKO . , .
,
Edison Trust , , , ,

,
.


1970- . , , , , .
,
, , ; . (, Ingmar Bergman Federico Fellini),
( Joseph P. Mawra, Michael
Findlay Henri Pachard) ,
(Kenneth Anger, .), , .
John Waters 70- ,
.
- 1977 Mel Brooks,
-
Paramount 5 .

, .
.
, , -,
. VI: . , ,
. , ,

1.
.


De Laurentiis Entertainment Group, ,
, . Dino De Laurentiis ,
, (1984) 45 , $ 27,4
. ,
, . $ 6000000, , . ,
.

,
.
Kembra Pfahler, Casandra Stark, Beth B, Tommy
Turner, Richard Kern Lydia Lunch. Anthology Film Archives,
, , " , ".

1.4.2. -
1990- , , ,
,
. - 1990 New Line Cinema $ 100
, -
- . Miramax Films , , , , Miramax New Line
Cinema ,
. 1993 Disney Miramax $ 60 Turner Broadcasting,
, New Line Cinema,
Fine Line Features Castle Rock Entertainment 1994
.
Turner Broadcasting. New Line 1994
, Castle
Rock , Miramax
.


. -

1.4.

23

- :
. -
Sony Pictures Classics 1992
. , Lucasfilm
,
Fox Searchlight Pictures 1995

Paramount Vantage 1998
. ,
Focus Features 2002
.
Warner Bros. 2000 Warner Independent Pictures 2003* [1]
( 10
% 1987 ).
2000-, - - , ,
.
,
1) .
( , - . ) - MGM, UA (under MGM), New Line Cinema,
. HBO Films, Castle Rock Entertainment, Disneynature,
$ 100 , - DreamWorks, Sony Pictures Classics, Fox Searchlight
- . Pictures, Miramax Films, Warner Independent Pictures,
2) , - Picturehouse, Paramount Classics/Paramount Vantage,
Go Fish Pictures (under DreamWorks), Focus Features,
.
Screen Gems, TriStar Pictures, Destination Films,
- Fox Faith, Fox Atomic, Gener8Xion Entertainment,
, - Hollywood Pictures, Rogue Pictures, Five & Two
. - Pictures, New Name Pictures Sherwood Pictures.
$ 40
2000-, $ 10 $ 15 15 .
3) , - , - . , - , Reservoir
, , Dogs, Little Miss Sunshine, Juno. , ,
. $ 10
, $ 5 , , .
. , , 1.4.3. ,

.
, ,
, - , , .
, - ,
. , - HANDMOVIE, Slamdance Film Festival,
- South By Southwest, Raindance Film Festival, ACE
, - Film Festival, Cannes Film Festival. . - , , , .
.

24

( / ):
Film4 Productions
Lions Gate Films
Summit Entertainment
Overture Films (out of business)
Hannover House
IFC Films
Samuel Goldwyn Films
The Weinstein Company/Dimension Films
Magnolia Pictures
Palm Pictures
Tartan Films
Newmarket Films
ThinkFilm
Troma Entertainment
Maverick Entertainment Group
First Look Studios ( )
Image Entertainment
Maya Entertainment
Entertainment One
Phase 4 Films
Yari Film Group
Screen Media Films
LD Entertainment
Millennium Entertainment

1.
. , DVD ,

.

-.

1990- 2000- ,
,
35-, . , , , . 2002
35 23 %
.
1985
, ,
1990- .
-, , DVD, Blu-Ray -
. 3-D .
, Arri Alexa,
RED Epic, , , 35- ,
. . 2008 Canon
, , Canon EOS 5D Mark II. 5D Mark II, "" , 1920x1080
, (1080p) 24 , . ,
,
, .


, .

,
.
, , - , . -

1.5.

25


Hall Phil. The History of Independent Cinema.
, BearManor Media, 2009. ISBN 1-59393-335-5.
Richard Dyer Maccann (Summer, 1962).
Independence, with a Vengeance. Film Quarterly
. (University of California Press) 15 (4): 1421.
, Avid Media Composer, Adobe
DOI:10.1525/fq.1962.15.4.04a00060.
Premiere Pro, Final Cut Pro, (Color Grading Software)
DaVinci Resolve . 1.4.6.
, .
IMDb

,
(19481978)
. 2007
, "
- . - 1.5.
: ,
.
, , * [1]. 1.4.4.

[1] McDonald, Paul and Wasco, Janet. The Contemporary
. Hollywood Film Industry. Malden, MA, USA: Blackwell
Publishing, 2008. p 29-30

* [2].

1.4.5.
Lyons Donald. Independent Visions: A Critical
Introduction to Recent Independent American
Film. Ballantine Books, 1994. ISBN 0-34538249-8.
Vachon Christine. A Killer Life: How an
Independent Film Producer Survives Deals
and Disasters in Hollywood and Beyond. Simon
& Schuster, 1996. ISBN 0-7432-5630-1.
Redding Judith. Film Fatales: Independent Women
Directors. Seal Press, 1997. ISBN 1-87806797-4.
Levy Emanuel. Cinema of Outsiders: The Rise of American Independent Film. New York
University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-8147-5123-7.
Merritt Greg. Celluloid Mavericks: The History of ( ).
American Independent Film. Thunder's Mouth
, Press, 2000. ISBN 1-56025-232-4.
.
Biskind Peter. Down and Dirty Pictures: Miramax, 25% , Sundance, and the Rise of Independent Film. * [3].
Simon & Schuster, 2004. ISBN 0-684-86259-X.
Pierson John. Spike Mike Reloaded. Miramax
Books, 2004. ISBN 1-4013-5950-7.

1.5.1.

Levy Emanuel. Cinema of Outsiders: The Rise of


American Independent Film. NYU Press, 2001. , , ,
ISBN 978-0-8147-5124-4.

26

1.

, .
XIX
, .
,
.
:

, ,
. 28 -
, 14
* [12]* [13]. 10
* [14]* [15]* [16]* [17].
,
* [18]. 35 ,

1878 * [19].

50
( 15 ),
* [4].
. -

-* [11]. 1884 - ,
,
* [5].
,
1888 . - 1897 . * [20].
* [6].
, , 1889 Eastman Kodak . 1908 300 , 15
, * [5].
16 .

1891 , - * [21].
,
, * [7]* [8]. 20 - 1.5.2.
.
, 14 1894 - . (. Kinetoscope Parlor), - 35- , - 19 . * [9]. 1 - : - . , , 17 - ,
.
,
13 1895 -
, * [13]. 1909
-
* [10]. - * [22].
, .
1824
.
, 22 1895 44 - 1932 * [23].
* [11]. ,

1.5.

27
. * [26].

1.5.3.

(. Congrs International des Editeurs du Film, ,


1909). (-):
, , , , , . , , ,
, .

1622 , . - 1,33:1 1,375:1.



35
4 * [24].


. . , 1894 60 ,
, ,
* [28].
, , , ,
. XIX XX

, .


, * [29].
, . ,
- .
30 40 , -
- * [23]* [25]. - . , - 16 - .
- , .
. , - ,
, - , * [30].
. - ,
, , - * [31]* [32]. , - , , - ,
* [26]. , - . , ,
, : - ,
* [27]. ,
* [31]. 18 24 , : ,
2030 . - ,
, , - * [30]. , - . - , , 50 . ,

28

1.

, . XX
* [33].
,
. ,

, ,
. , 12
, .
* [37].

()



, .
,
1920- ,
, -
* [34]. ,
, .
,

.
:
,
* [35]. ,
* [36]:

. ,

.
. .

. ,
, .
, .
,
, .
* [38]

: .
; , . 1920- ,
( , , .),
( ,
.) ( ).


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,
. .

, , . - * [38]
, ,

1.5.
1920-

.
,
, , . .
, . , -.
, , . ,
,
. ,
. ,
, .
,
* [39].
.
1928
, , * [40]. ,
, , - . , .
.
,
,
* [41].
, ,
(The Jazz Singer, 1927)* [42]. , 1929 .

(1931). 30- . -

29
, ,
(1935).

1.5.4.

:

!,

1.5.5.

1.5.6.

. ,
, (2003) (2006), * [43]. 2007
, , 1920-* [44].
(2011),
,

30
.* [45]
, ,
.

1.5.7. .
()
()
:



1.

[15] . ,
(.). . 3 2015.
[16] .
(.). . Mediaeducation. 5 2015.
[17] Luke McKernan. VICTORIAN 'CINEMAS' (.).
Who's who of Victorian Cinema. 3
2015.
[18] : , 2008, . , . 17
[19] (.). . 3 2015.
[20] The Latham LoopA Loop of Film that Freed an
Industry (.). The Picture Show Man. 30
2015.
[21] . 2, 1958, . 19.

1.5.8.
[1] , 1975, . 27.
[2] . . ... , (.).
. ( 2005). 7 2015.
[3] . . .
(.). .
( 2001). 2
2015.
[4] , 1983, . 71.
[5] 18781929 (.). History of Kodak. Kodak. 13 2014.
[6] LOUIS AIME AUGUSTIN LE PRINCE (1841 - 1890)
(.). Chapter Thirteen. The History of the Discovery
of Cinematography. 17 2015.

[22] , 1971, . 34.


[23] , 1979, . 9.
[24] . 35 (.). . www.leonidkonovalov.ru (18 2011).
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[25] , 1971, . 182.
[26] , 1971, . 185.
[27] . 1, 1958, . 16.
[28] . 1, 1958, . 155.
[29] Story of film. (.).
Livejournal (17 2006). 6
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[30] , 1945, . 11.

[7] . 1, 1958, . 108.

[31] , 1965, . 109.

[8] Origins of Motion Pictures the Kinetoscope (.).


History of Edison Motion Pictures. American Memory.
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[32] , 1945, . 19.

[9] . (.).
. 3D News (16 2009). 13
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[34] . Leica. (.). . (16


2012). 25 2015.

[33] MediaVision, 2013, . 61.

[10] , 1965, . 374.

[35] , 1945, . 13.

[11] . 1, 1958.

[36] , 1945, . 14.

[12] .
(.). (5 2014). 25 2015.

[37] , 1945, . 41.

[13] , 1965, . 375.


[14] La premire sance publique payante (.). association
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[38] . = Le
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").
[39] . 4, 1982.

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31

[40] , , .
., ., . . (.). LiveJournal (2
2008). 2 2015.

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(.) // MediaVision : .
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[41] MediaVision, 2011, . 60.

(.) //
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[42] (.). 625 (11 2010).


5 2015.
[43] . : .. (10,
2005). 7 2012. 31 2012.
[44] . 2007:
, . (5,
2007). 7 2012. 31 2012.
[45] . : .
(9, 2011). 7
2012. 31
2012.

1.5.9.
. . . II.
? // . .,: , 1971. . 33.
225 .
. . . / . .
. .,: , 1965. 636 .
. . . / . .
. .: , 1965. 239
. 7000 .
. . , . . . I.
// /
. . . .,: , 1979.
. 7-67. 440 .

. . .,:
, 1983. . 71. 176 .
. / . .
.: , 1945. 115 . 5000 .

1.5.10.

(.). . 7 2015.

1.6.
(. Nouvelle Vague)
1950 1960- .

. , , , . .
1958
,
.* [1]

. / . .
1.6.1.
. .,: , 1958. . 1.
611 .

, - , ,
. / . . , . .,: , 1958. . 2. 523 .
Cahiers du
cinma ,
. / . . , , , . .,: , 1982. . 4 . ( ). 528 .

, ( 1970 . . . II. - )
// / . . .
. 2- . .,: , 1975. . , 2538. 448 .

32
, .
, ,
.
, ,
Cahiers du cinma ,
. (1958)
.
( , 1959)
- ( , 1960) , .
.

1.
-







-

, -
,

, , ,
.
-

1.6.2.

, .

-
, -
1960- 1970- (.. New
Hollywood: , , , )



, , , , ,

, , *
. [2]
(1992) ,
A Band Apart ( 1.6.4.
Bande Part).
1. (. ) - 1958 . ( ).

1.6.3. 2. (. ) - 1959

.
. ,
, , , .

3. , (. ) - 1959 .
4. (. - ) 1960 .
5. (. ,
, , , - ,
, ) - 1967 . (
).

1.6.5. .

1.6.

33

1.6.6.
[1] NOUVELLE
Universalis

VAGUE,

cinma

Encyclopdia

[2] Les amours imaginaires: Xavier Dolan x 3 (.). The


Cinematheque. 7 2015.

1.6.7.

. .

2.1. ,
(. Lindsay Gordon
Anderson; 17 1923, , 30 1994, , , )
, ,
, . , ,
.

2.1.1.

17 1923
, , . :
,
,
.
, , Sequence (1947-52),
, Sight and
Sound New Statesman.
1956 Stand Up, Stand Up
Sight and Sound, -, , .
, 1935 ,
, , :
"

, .
[:] ,
, ; , -

, ,
[] . "


, , , 1950- , . , .
,
(
),
, . (1954),
,
( ),
1954 .

(1963)
. ,

,
,
( ), , .
.
, . Royal Court Theatre. -

34

2.2. ,
1969
,
.

35
1969 (
....)
1973 ( , !)
1983 ( )


, 71 , 30 1994 .

DAFF
(. ritish Film Institute) 1987 (
,
)
. : - Fantasporto
, , * [1].
1983 ( 2.1.2.
)

1983 ( , )
,
.
,
. 2.1.5.
2006 :

2.1.6.

,
,
. ,
, , ,
. . , . , , * [2].

2.1.3.
2.1.4.

1954 ( )
BAFTA
1969 BAFTA ( )

[1] Lindsay Anderson (I) (.) Internet Movie


Database
[2] Geoffrey Macnab Malcolm McDowell: Lindsay
Anderson and me, The Independent, 15 November
2006. Retrieved on 11 May 2009. For Andersons
rather tortured feelings about Richard Harris at the time
This Sporting Life was in production during 1962, see
Paul Sutton (ed) The Diaries: Lindsay Anderson, 2004,
London: Methuen, Chapter 3, especially p77-80.

2.1.7.
(.) Internet
Movie Database

.Ru

2.2. ,

(. Bernardo Bertolucci;
. 16 1941* [1], , ) 1963 , .
( 1960-
)
, ,

36

2.

- (La Strategia
.
Del Ragno), .
1970 , (Il Conformista), , .
(
- ).
,
(Last Tango In Paris/Dernier Tango
.
Paris)

, (1970) - .
(1972) ,
, 1976
(Novecento),
-* [2].
. - (La Luna,
1979) (La Tragedia
(1987).
Di Un Uomo Ridicolo, 1981) .

2.2.1.
() (.). , , , , , .
1957 1958
16-
(1957)
(1958).
(
; ).
1961 .

1962 (La Commare Secca). , . 1987
. (The Last Emperor, 1987), (Prima Della Rivoluzione).

.
19651966 :

1990
(
) (The Sheltering Sky).
1993
(1966)
(Little Buddha) -.
(Amore E Rabbia, 1967).
.

1968 (Partner)
.
. 1969

1995 15 . 2003 , -

2.2. ,
. .
2011
.
2007
.
.

2.2.2.

37
1970 / La strategia del ragno
1970 / Il conformista
1971 / La salute
malata ()
1972 / Ultimo tango
a Parigi
1976 / Novecento
1979 / La Luna

1981 / La tragedia
di un uomo ridicolo

1987 / The Last Emperor

2.2.3.



,







Sight & Sound (2002)* [3]

1962 / La commare secca


1964 / Prima della
rivoluzione
1966 / Il canale
1967 / La via del petrolio ()
1968 / Partner
1969 ( ) /
Amore e rabbia (segment Agonia)

1989 12 12 (.) ( ) / 12 registi per 12 citt (segment


Bologna) ()
1990 / The Sheltering Sky
1993 / Little Buddha
1996 / Stealing Beauty
1998 / Besieged
2002 :
( ) / Ten Minutes Older: The
Cello (segment Histoire deaux)
2003 / The Dreamers
2012 / Io e te

2.2.4.
( )
1962 (
)
1988 (
(The Last Emperor).
, , ,

1988 ,
(
).
2011
( 2011)

38

2.

2.2.5.

2.3.1.

(- 29 1954 ,
)
21 1957 .
* [5] - ,
1962 (- , .
)
, , , , ,
. - - -.
. , , 1962-2010. .
. . . = La mia magnifica ossessione:
Scritti, ricordi, interventi 1962-2010. .: -
, -, 2012. 304 . (- Super-8
, ). 3000 . ISBN 978-5-389-02088-7.
. (. The
2.2.6.
Lumberjacks of the North),
*
[1] Grandi cult, e ora il 3D I 70 anni di Bertolucci . [6]
(.). La Repubblica. 11 2012.
30 2012.

, St. Louis Park High School, [2] Bernardo Bertolucci in Neue Zrcher Zeitung, 18. Simons
Rock Early College ,
Februar 1994, S. 65
.* [7] [3] BFI | Sight & Sound | Top Ten Poll 2002 - How the - directors and critics voted ( 06-09- .
2013 (1006 ) , )
-
Soundings ( ,
2.2.7.
, ).* [8] (.) Internet Movie Database
, : , . , - .* [8]
.
,
. . // -
1979 .* [9]
Premiere. 1994. 24. . 2530.
.

2.3.
2.3.2.
(. Joel David Coen; . 29
1954) (. Ethan Jesse
Coen; . 21 1957) , . ,
( , , . Roderick Jaynes).* [1]* [2]
(2013).* [3]

1980- (. Edna Paul),



.
.* [10]

4 ( 1997
2008 ), BAFTA (1997 2008 ),

(1991 ) 70 * [4].

1984 . . ,
1,5

1980-

2.3.
. (
,
, ,

).* [11]
, ,
. ,

: (
), ,
, .* [12] ,
. .* [13]* [14]

,
(1985). , ,
. ,
.
3,5 . .,
* [15]
. : ,
, .* [16]

39
100 ,
.* [18]
,
(1991), ,

.* [19]

,
15 .
1994 ( ) ,

, . , , , . : , . .* [20] .* [21]

1996 .
, , , . - .
: 7 . 2011 60 .* [22] : (. , -)* [23],
(
, - )* [24].
- AFI , . 55 .* [25]

1988
.
: - ( ) ( ), , , . , ,
, . ,
,
. , ,

, - 1998 .* [17] .

31- .
2000-
1990-
1990-
,
, . . Time,

,
, ? (2000)
. , ,
,

.* [26] -

40
( 70
. 26 ).* [27] -.
, , : ,
( , ).* [28]

2.
(2007).
.* [34] , ,
. -
, .
.* [35]
,
, , . 2009 . :
.
,
. , , -,
,

. ,
.* [36]
, , , .* [37]


: - ,
(2001), (2003),
(2004)
, (2006). 23
( 32 ), . ,
2000- * [29] :
,
(. Some movies just dont need to get
made but the only way to nd out is to make them,
2010-
San Francisco Chronicle).* [30]

22 2010 , .* [38]
10 ,
,
! .

, 2007 .


(2007). , , ,
(95 % 100% Rotten Tomatoes)* [31] (
Empire)* [32]. 98 ( 48 )* [33],
3 BAFTA, 4 ( 2 .
, IMDb, Rotten Tomatoes)
2013 -

2.3.
, - 1960-
(19362002), , - -,
,
.* [39]
.* [40]

2.3.3.

41

[5] Coen Brothers: Boycotting Israel is a mistake


Haaretz.com, 15 2011
[6] Joel and Ethan Coen - The Gods of
Filmmaking
[7] Simons Rock

[8] Yahoo!
[9] ,
Agence France-Presse, AFP, 24 2008
[10] IMDb

1984 [11] The Coen Brothers Were Never Better Than with Barry
, Sonnenfeld Village Voice, 29 2008
. .
[12] , 15-
-, 14 2000

2.3.4.

[13] . , 1 1985

- [14] The A.V. Club, 29 2002


(. The Two-Headed Director)* [2].
[15] usiness for Crimewave IMDb

2.3.5.

[16] Simon Hill. Crimewave


[17] Review by Lucia Bozzola

2.3.6.

[18] ALL-TIME 100 Movies TIME, 2005

4 : 3 ( , ) 1
.

[19] IMDb

-
.

[21] Business for The Hudsucker Proxy IMDb

:
; -
;
, ,
, .
: ()
( ).
-
( ) .

[20] . , 25 1994

[22] Business for Fargo IMDb


[23] . , 8 1996
[24] . -
, 4 1996
[25] Awards for Fargo IMDb
[26] Jonathan Romney. Double vision (.). The Guardian
(19 2000). . 27 2011.
7 2012.
[27] Box office for O Brother, Where Art Thou? IMDb

2.3.7.
[1] . , 4
2011
[2] IMDb
[3]
[4] IMDb

[28] . , 29 2000
[29] . . Volgograd.ru (16
2008). 25 2011.
7 2012.
[30] Mick LaSalle. Put on the Boccherini, boys -- it's time
to rehearse for our robbery (.). San Francisco
Chronicle (26 2004). 25 2011.
7 2012.

42

[31] No Country for Old Men (.). Rotten Tomatoes. 29 2011.


[32] Ian Nathan. No Country For Old Men (.). Empire.
29 2011. 7 2012.
[33] Awards for No Country for Old Men IMDb
[34] . , . (29
2008). 31 2011.
7 2012.
[35] . : , !
(). (07.10.2008). 25 2011. 7 2012.
[36] : ! . (24 2010).
31 2011. 7
2012.
[37] Ella Taylor. For A Serious Man, Coen Brothers Aim
Trademark Contempt at Themselves (.). Village
Voice (29.09.2009). 31 2011.
7 2012.
[38] Emma Jones. Coen brothers bring Grit to Berlin Film
Festival (.). BBC News. 31
2011. 7
2012.
[39] -.
OpenSpace.ru (27 2011). 29 2011. 7
2012.
[40] -.
. (27 2011). 29 2011.
7 2012.

2.

2.4. ,
(. Wilhelm
Ernst WimWenders, . 14 1945)
, ,
, .
1996 .

2.4.1.
14 1945
, . 1949
, . 1963 , ,
, .
1966 (IDHEC),
. 1967

, .
, United Artists. 1967 . , , , .
1966 .
(1970) . . 1971

(Filmverlag der Autoren)
.

(1972)

. 2.3.8.
: 1975
(.) Internet Movie Deutscher
Database
Filmpreis, .
, (.) Internet Movie ,
Database
.

1976 -


. ,

: (- . 1978 09-09-2013 (1003 )) - -, , SHARP for men, 2011

2.4. ,
.
1979
, 1979 . ,
, 4 1980 . ,
.

43
, . ( , -,
, ) .
1983 ,
1984 .
1987 ,
, ,
-.
.
1991 ,
, 1993 , ,

.

(1989),
, (1984), (1991), .
19681974 . ,
, 1979 ,
1981 , 19861993 .
, 1993
, , .

2.4.2.
2011

- . . 1980 ,
,
, .
. 1981
,
. 23
1981 . ,

.
1982

, . , U2, .

2.4.3.

. :
1982 1982
1984
1984 ,
1987 (
)

44

2.4.4.

1970 / Summer in the City
1972 / Die Angst des Tormanns beim Elfmeter
1972 / Der scharlachrote Buchstabe
1974 / Alice in den Stdten

2.
1998 "" / Willie
Nelson at the Teatro
1999 / Buena Vista Social Club
2002 - BAP / Viel
Passiert Der BAP Film
2003 / The Soul of a Man
2011 / Pina
2014 / The Salt of the Earth

1975 / Falsche Bewegung


1976 / Im Lauf der Zeit
1977 / Der amerikanische
Freund
1982 / Hammett
1982 / Der Stand der Dinge
1984 , / Paris, Texas

1995 / Jenseits der Wolken ( )


1995 / Lumire et
compagnie

1987 / Der Himmel ber


Berlin

2002 : (
12 ) / Ten Minutes Older: The
Trumpet (Twelve miles to Trona)

1991 / Bis ans Ende


der Welt

2007 / Chacun son cinma


1993 , ! / In weiter Ferne,


so nah!

1994 / Lisbon Story

1966 / Schaupltze

1997 / The End of Violence

1968 /
Same Player Shoots Again

2000 / The Million


Dollar Hotel

1968 /Klappenfilm

2004 / Land Of Plenty

1968 /Victor I.

2005 / Dont Come Knocking

1968 / Ohne Titel

2008 / Palermo Shooting

1969 / Silver City

2015 / Every Thing Will Be


Fine

1969 / Polizeifilm

2017 / Submergence

1969 : 2000 /
Alabama: 2000 Light Years from Home
1969
/ Drei
Amerikanische LPs

1990 - / Nicks
Film Lightning Over Water

1974 . / Aus
der Familie der Panzerechsen. Die Insel

1985 - / Tokyo-ga

1982 / Reverse Angle


New York City. March 1982

1989 /
Aufzeichnungen zu Kleidern und Stdten
1995 / Die Gebrder
Skladonowsky

1982 666 / Chambre 666


1992 , /
Arisha, the Bear and the Stone Ring

2.5. , -

45

2.4.5.

1954 . 1960
, .
(1960) .

[1] Wim and Music / Wim Wenders The Official Site

2.4.6.
(.) Internet Movie
Database

,

, , - , . 1965
, .

: // . 2003. 4

1968
,
, - (. Jean-Luc Godard, . 3 - .
1930, , ) -

, , ,
: , ,
( ), , : .
. 1960 * [4] 1990-
. (1996)
.

.

2.5. , -

2.5.1.


, , - 3 1930 , .
. , , * [5]
, , ( - 2011
), .
, - 2014 3D-
, - , ,
, . , - , - 2014 ,
* [6]* [7]. .
4 , . , , , 1946 ,
* [8]. . * [9]. 1949 . , , .
1951 .

2.5.2.
.-. 5 ,

.* [10]
1. (19601966)
(1960), (1960), (1965), -

46

2.

, , ((1966), - (1966).

: ).
. -, jump cuts,
, -

, .
. : -, ,
, ,
, , - . ,
*
, - [11].
.
1978 , , . :
2. (1967)
(1967), -(1967).
: , .
: .
3. (19671970)

,
.
,
.


* [12].

(1976), (1971),
(1971), (1970),
(1970).
2.5.3.
:
.

1. 1954 / Opration bton ()

: ( , , ), .

2. 1955 / Une femme coquette ()

4. Sonimage (19731979) -

4. 1957 / Charlotte et son


Jules ()

(1975), (1978).

5. 1957 / Une histoire d


eau( . )

:
( )
, , , ,
, , .
5. ( 1980- . ..)
: , .
: ,
, ,

3. 1956 / Tous les


garons sappellent Patrick ()

6. 1959 / bout de
souffle
7. 1960 / Le Petit Soldat
8. 1961 / Une femme
est une femme
9. 1962 (
) / Les Sept Pchs capitaux (sketch La
Paresse)
10. 1962 / Vivre sa vie
11. 1962 ( ) /
Ro.Go.Pa.G. (sketch Il nuovo mondo)
12. 1963 / Les Carabiniers

2.5. , -

47

13. 1963 / Le Mpris

39. 1972 / Letter to Jane

14. 1964 ( ) /
Bande part

40. 1975 / Numro deux

15. 1964 /
Les Plus Belles Escroqueries du monde (sketch Le
Grand Escroc)
16. 1964 / Une femme
marie

41. 1976 / Ici et ailleurs


42. 1977 /Six fois deux / Sur et sous la communication
(TV)
43. 1977 /France / tour / dtour / deux / enfants (TV)
44. 1978 ? / Comment a va?

17. 1965 / Alphaville, Une trange


aventure de Lemmy Caution

45. 1980 , ( ) / Sauve


qui peut (la vie)

18. 1965
(
-) / Paris vu par
(sketch Montparnasse-Levallois)

46. 1981 / Lettre


Freddy Buache ()

19. 1965 / Pierrot le fou


20. 1966 / Masculin, fminin
21. 1966 / Made in U.S.A.
22. 1967 ,
/ 2 ou 3 choses que je sais delle
23. 1967 ( ,
2000 ) / Le Plus Vieux Mtier du monde
(sketch Anticipation, ou lamour en lan 2000)
24. 1967 / La Chinoise
25. 1967 / Loin du Vietnam
(sketch Camra-il)
26. 1967 - / Week end
27. 1968 ( ) / One plus one (Sympathy for the Devil)
28. 1968 , / Un film comme les
autre
29. 1968 /Cintracts
30. 1969 / Le Gai Savoir
31. 1969 ( ) /
Amore e Rabbia (sketch LAmour)
32. 1969 / Le Vent dest
33. 1970 / Vladimir et Rosa
34. 1970 / Pravda
35. 1970 / Lotte in Italia
36. 1970 / British Sounds

47. 1982 / Passion


48. 1983 : / Prnom Carmen
49. 1985 , / Je vous
salue, Marie
50. 1985 / Dtective
51. 1986 / Grandeur et dcadence dun petit
commerce de cinma (TV)
52. 1986 / Soft and Hard
53. 1986 / Meetin' WA
54. 1987 / King Lear
55. 1987 ( ) / Aria
(partie Armide)
56. 1987 / Soigne ta droite
57. 1988 / Puissance de la parole
58. 1988 /On sest tous dfil (TV)
59. 1989 /Le Rapport Darty
60. 1990 / Nouvelle Vague
61. 1991 / Contre loubli
62. 1991 , / Allemagne
90 neuf zro
63. 1993 / Hlas pour moi
64. 1993 / Les enfants
jouent la Russie
65. 1995 / JLG
Autoportrait de dcembre

37. 1972 / One P.M.

66. 1995 / Deux fois


cinquante ans de cinma franais

38. 1972 / Tout va bien

67. 1996 / For Ever Mozart

48

2.

68. 1998 / The Old Place

[6] Jean Monod (1765-1836), pasteur (.).

69. 1998 () / Histoire(s) du cinma


(V)

[7] The Religious Affiliation of Director Jean-Luc Godard


(.).

70. 2000 XXI / LOrigine


du XXIe sicle
71. 2001 / loge de lamour
72. 2002 :
( ) / Ten Minutes Older:
The Cello (partie Dans le noir du temps)
73. 2004 / Notre musique
74. 2010 / Film Socialisme

[8] Roberto Chiesi. Jean-Luc Godard. Rome: Gremese,


2004. ISBN 978-88-7301-584-0.
[9] Brody, Richard. Everything Is Cinema: The Working Life
of Jean-Luc Godard. Macmillan, 2008. P. 7. 720
p. ISBN 978-0-8050-6886-3.
[10] - : ,
.
[11]
[12] : ,

75. 2014 , 3D / Adieu au Langage

2.5.6.
2.5.4.
. .-. , " ". .: +
"", 2012.
- . :
. ..:
- , 1991.
.
. 19681972. .: , 2010
, , &, 2003.
ISBN 5-93414-100-7
Collet J., Jean-Luc Godard, [P., 1968];
Eberhardt ., Jan-Luc Godard, Warsz., 1970
Roberto Chiesi, Jean-Luc Godard, Rome, Gremese,
2004 (ISBN 978-88-7301-584-0)

2.5.5.
[1] Record #118540009 // Gemeinsame Normdatei 2012
2016.
[2] http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/
film/cannes-film-festival/7736026/
Cannes-Film-Festival-2010-as-it-happened-day-six.
html
[3] http://www.theguardian.com/film/2000/feb/11/culture.
features
[4] godard revolutionized My library Google Books
[5] Morrey, 2005, p. 1.

- (.) Internet Movie


Database
- .
- Les
Inrockuptibles
/ Histoire(s) du cinma (.)
.
: -

-

. , 60- - .
, 2 1991
, 2 1991
1983:


. Histoire(s) du Godard .

2.6. ,
(. David
Llewelyn Wark Grith; 22 1875, ,
23 1948) , , , ,
.

2.6. ,

2.6.1.

49


, ( , ) 22
1875 . , ,
.
,
, * [1].
.
, , ,
, , , ,
,
. 20 ,
.
, .
.

1907 .


1907 . ,
. ,
.
,
,
* [1].
1907 - .
.

. , , , * [1].

. . . .
. , , , , .



. 1908
-
a .
, , 17 1908 - .
,
50 . - , , , . - , , , - , .
, , ,

50

2.

. , 2.6.6.
. . .
. .// . XX . .
. .:
1935, ,
,1992.- C.232-267. ISBN 5-02-012780-9

. , , 2.6.7.
.
(.) Internet

Movie Database

, 23 1948
- 2.7. ,
.
, (. Jim Jarmusch; . 22
1953, -, , )
.
, . . 2.6.2.
(1984, 1989, 1993, 2005).
1936
.
2.7.1.
1938 DGA Honorary Life Member Award 22 1953 , . 1971
Star on the Walk of Fame

- ,
2.6.3.
.
,
.
- ,
- . : (. cross-cut), - ,
(. cut back . ash 1975 . , back), (. switch back)* [1].
,
: , - - (New York Universitys
. school of film). - ,
1979 .
2.6.4.

2.6.5.
[1] . . :
, 1958. . 1.

. // . : , 1965. . 1.
416 .



(Lightning Over Water,
1980). . . 15 , 1980
.

. , . .: - ,
, 1974.
(1984) ,

2.7. ,

51

(New World).
. ,
, (, , )
.
(1986) (1989).
; , ,
.

1986 ,
,
. ,
2003
, 11 , ,
.


. , 1991
, , , .
, ,
.
(1995)

.
-: (1999)

.
XXI
. ,
,
.
,

, .

2012

:
Concerning the Entrance into Eternity The Mystery of
Heaven.

2.7.2.

2.7.3.
1980- Dark Day,
-
No Wave- DNA (.).
No Wave-, The
Del-Byzanteens, , EP Draft Riot.
Washington Post, 1984 ,
: -
. ,
, : ,
, ; [] * [1].
: , 2005 .
-
Wu-Tang Clan Wu-Tang Meets Indie Culture, 2006
White Stripes
2000 , Blue Orchid, * [2]. ,
; . Sons of Lee Marvin ( ), , ,
;
,
, , ,
, , , . .

(2005) .
,
.
- - 2.7.4.
.
2006 The Raconteurs
Steady,As She Goes.
2009 -
Focus Features, -

[1] Jim Jarmusch Breaks In: Discovering a Hot New Director


at the New York Film Festival, jimjarmusch.net
[2] Connecting the White Stripes

52

2.7.5.

2.

1983
. , - , ,
(.)
, .
, ,
,
57 ( . ,
, Kinote)

1987 . 2.8. ,
12 .
1990
(. Sir Peter Robert (Fantafestival) (
Jackson; 31 1961, -, - ) ) , , .
, , 1980-
. . . . , ,
, ; - .
, ,
BAFTA -
. WingNut Films, Weta
Workshop Weta Digital.
: : 1989
. .
:
.
,
.. , ,
* [4].
2.8.1.
,

.
31 1961 - , .
* [2]* [3],
.
,
, .

,
(,
, ). , ,
, .

-

(1992) ,
,
, ,
. ,
,
, -
1993 .

1994
, ,
, , .

2.8. ,

53

; , .
.
, ,
.

,
. - , ,
, ,
* [5]* [6].


(1996) . . , 1990- .
. 1997 Universal Studios : - , 2003
-,
,
-
* [7]* [8].




. 1997
. . . . Miramax , .
New Line Cinema, .
11 1999 22 2000
.
2001
, 2002 2003
. 17 , ,
11 ,
. ,
1 .

14 2005
-, - 1933 . 20 ,
, - .
218 (547 ) DVD.
, . 2002
, Premiere. 2002 41-, 2003 20-, 2004
6-, 2005 1-
* [9].


11 2009
, . -

54

2.

- New Line Cinema,


* [19]. New Line Cinema .
, New Line Cinema,
* [20].

* [21],
2007 * [22]. 18 2007
- , - , New Line Cinema
,
* [10]* [11]. 24 2009 ; IGN , - ,
-, - * [23]. 2010 ,
, - * [24], * [12].
* [25]; 15
*
- [26].
20 2011 . 30 2012 9, Facebook,

* [13].
. - 2008
2013

RED One. 12 ,
* [27]. .
Wingnut * [28], Interactive : - .
, Microsoft Studios * [29].
Bungie.
, Universal Studios 20th Century Fox* [14], 2.8.2.
2006

.
- :
,
, ,
.
The FAIRWATER Gazette,
The Vintage Aviator.
.

: ,
.

-. 2011

. * [15].

2006 * [16];
MGM
New Line* [17]* [18]. 2006
Wingnut Films



,
-, ,
.

,
(
)* [30]. , .
:
, ,
* [31].

2.8. ,

55

- [10]
lenta.ru. , 19 2012.
(
).
[11] Temeraire on Warpath, IGN.com (12 September 2006).

. [12] SDCC 09: Peter Jackson Updates IGN (.)


:
, ,
.

[13] Michael Fleming.. Peter Jackson gears up for 'District',


Variety (1 November 2007).
[14] Joseph Staten. The Great Hollywood Journey, Part II.
Bungie. 25
2005.

, . [15] AFP. Spielberg announces new Tintin movie. Google


News (December 13, 2011). (2007) . 19 2012.

Air New Zealand, [16]
* [32].

, ,
, .

[17] MGM 4
[18] New cash stash for MGM Variety (.)

2.8.3.

[19] xoanon. Peter Jackson and Fran Walsh talk The Hobbit,
TheOneRing.net (19 November 2006).

2.8.4.

[20] New Line boss hits out at Peter Jackson, The New
Zealand Herald (12 January 2007).

2.8.5.
[1] Record #12345395X // Gemeinsame Normdatei 2012
2016.
[2] FilmReference.com.
[3] David Smith. Guardian.co.uk, Guardian (30 November
2003).

[21] McKellen 'sad' that Jackson may not make Hobbit, The
New Zealand Herald (23 November 2006).
[22] Hobbit studio sweet-talks Jackson, The Dominion Post
(Wellington) (11 August 2007).
[23]
[24]

[4] Ian Pryor, 'Meet the Feebles', Evening Post, 24 August


1989, p.25.
[5] Observations on film art and Film Art. David Bordwell.
19 2012.
[6] Hight, Craig Forgotten Silver. Mock-documentary: the
subversion of factuality. Screen and Media Studies
Department, University of Waikato, New Zealand.
19
2012. Derived from Roscoe Jane. Faking It: Mockdocumentary and the subversion of factuality.
Manchester, U.K.: Manchester University Press, 2001.
ISBN 0-7190-5641-1.
[7] Ian Pryor. Peter Jackson: From Prince of Splatter to Lord
of the Rings - An Unauthorized Biography. New York
City: Thomas Dunne Books, 2004. P. 209210.
ISBN 0-312-32294-1.

[25] Nicole Sperling. Peter Jackson in negotiations for 'The


Hobbit'. 19
2012.
[26] Tom Cardy. Peter Jackson to direct The Hobbit in 3-D
(16 2010).
[27]
(26 2013). 23 2013.
23 2013.
[28] Peter Jackson Will Direct Who for aDalek
[29] . !. (26 2013). 11 2014.
11 2014.
[30] The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King. Did You
Know? IMDb (.)

[8] Michael Fleming. Universal going ape for 'Kong', Variety


(30 2003).

[31] Peter Jackson Talks The Dambusters.


23 2012.

[9]

[32] Air New Zealand

56

[33] Full cast and crew for The Hobbit: Part 3


[34] B. Fritz, S. Zeitchik and N. Sperling Third 'Hobbit'
movie may be coming from Peter Jackson. Los Angeles
Times (24 July 2012). 28 2012.
5 2012.

2.8.6.

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lordre
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2.9.5.
[1] Richard Dyer. No place for homosexuality. Marcel
Carne`s L`Air de Paris // French Film: Texts and Contexts.
Routledge, 2000. ISBN 0415161177. P. 129. (.)


1933 / Le Grand Jeu (
)
. . .
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Heroique ( . )

1929 / Nogent,
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2.10.6.
[1] John Carpenters The Ward
[2] A Lord of Fright Reclaims His Dark Domain

1981 - / Escape from New


York

[3] From All Movie Guide: A director whose quick-witted


and full-blooded approach to genre filmmaking has won
him both mainstream success and a cult following, John
Carpenter was born in Carthage, NY, in 1948

1982 / The Thing

[4] Awards for The Resurrection of Broncho Billy at IMDb

60

2.

2.10.7.
(.)
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* [4].

[1] Record #119066890 // Gemeinsame Normdatei 2012


2016.

2.11.5.

[2] James Cameron se moviliza por el Amazonas (.).


elmundo.es (31 2010). 14 2010.
8 2012.

, .

2.11.6.

[3]
[4] Rare interview with director James Cameron: Titanic
temper, Kate Winslet, and veganism

* [5].
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* [5].
, ,
* [5].

[5] . : // ,
02.04.2012 .
[6] Director James Cameron Works with NASA on Future
Mars Mission. Science Channel's Mars Rising. Space.com.
8 2012.
[7] Mars Society Conference
FreeMars.org, 1999

August

1999

Roll-9,

- [8] James Cameron tells of plans for MARS miniseries &


IMAX 3D!!!, Aint It Cool News, 15 August 1999
:
100 . ( 2)
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Digital Domain,
1946) , .
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1974 / The
Amputee
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Frenchman

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2012 Crazy Clown Time
2013 Came Back Haunted, Nine Inch
Nails* [22]

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animation series)

1990 1.
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Dream of the Broken Hearted
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2007 / Boat
2007 / Absurda ( / Chacun son
cinma)* [19]
2010 Lady Blue Shanghai (12- )

BlueBob ( , 2001)
The Air is on Fire: Soundscape (2007)
Polish Night Music ( , 2008)
Danger Mouse Sparklehorse: Dark Night of the
Soul (2010;
.)
This Train ( , 2011)
Crazy Clown Time (2011)
The Big Dream (15 2013)* [23]

68

2.

[14] The Guardian: The latest offbeat experiment from


filmmaker David Lynch: pop singles

Ghost of Love (2007)


Good Day Today / I Know (2010)

Zola Jesus In Your Nature (David Lynch remix)


(2012)
Ultrasta Strange Formula (David Lynch remix)
(2012)
John Foxx Jori Hulkkonen Evangeline (David
Lynch remix) (2013)
Agnes Obel Fuel To Fire (David Lynch Remix)
(2014)

2.12.8.
. : ,
= Catching the Big
Fish. : , 2009. 208 . ISBN
978-5-699-32205-3.

2.12.9.
[1] Record #119035316 // Gemeinsame Normdatei 2012
2016.
[2] The Police Knighted In France: Filmmaker David Lynch
Promoted to Officer in France's Legion of Honor, CBS
News Online (October 1, 2007). 29
2010.
[3] Michel Ciment. Kubrick: The Definitive Edition. Faber &
Faber, 2003. ISBN 0-571-21108-9
[4] Twin Peaks Fest
[5] Twin Peaks Fire Walk with Me Rotten Tomatoes
[6] JonathanRosenbaum.com 2007 January
[7] Slavoj iek. Organs without Bodies. ISBN 978-0-41596921-5. Page 98.
[8] JonathanRosenbaum.com Blog Archive Splitting
Images [THREE LIVES AND ONLY ONE DEATH &
LOST HIGHWAY]
[9] Wild at Heart Page 1 Movies New York Village
Voice
[10]

[15] http://www.nytimes.com/2013/02/24/magazine/
david-lynch-transcendental-meditation.html
[16] TM ,
[17] theguardian.com: Paul McCartney and Ringo Starr
reunite on stage at Lynch concert
[18] Independent.ie: Director David Lynch and wife welcome
first daughter
[19] Imdb.com
[20] Thompson, Dave. I Predict (.). AllMusic. Rovi. 11 2012. 4 2012.
[21] David Lynch/Interpol Collaboration, 'I Touch A Red
Button Man' (.). The Huffington Post (13 July 2011).
3 2012. 17 2012.
[22] David Lynch to Direct Nine Inch Nails' Came Back
HauntedVideo (.). 19 2013.
20 2013.
[23] David Lynch Announces New Album The Big Dream,
Shares Track Featuring Lykke Li

2.12.10.
(.)
(.)
(.) Internet Movie
Database

,
" 2009
,
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(.)

[11] Time Out London: David Lynch Interview


[12]
Arthouse.Ru
[13] .

: non-cinematic work (.)



(2009) (.)

2.13. ,

69

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THX 1138

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[1] George Lucas The World's Billionaires 2011 (.).
Forbes (28 August 2011). 12 2012.
[2] </
DreamWorks Animation. Lenta.ru (4 2013).
3 2013.
[3] Kapos, Shia. Taking Names: Stars in Chicago, but finding
love elsewhere. Chicago Business (3 2007).
19 2008. 12 2012.
[4] Germain, David. 'Indiana Jones' debut survives
Cannes( ). The Courier
News via AP (19 2008). 19 2008.
30 2008.
[5] " " ,
. (25 2013). 25 2013.
[6] " " , - (12 2013).
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[7] The Religious Affiliation of Director George Lucas
[8] ,
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[9] : 10
-
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Time ( 2014).

2.14. ,

71

2.13.9.

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2.14.6.
[1] Record #118783084 // Gemeinsame Normdatei 2012
2016.
[2] Bibliothque nationale de France: open data platform
2011.
[3] http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/373930/
Georges-Melies
[4] 3- . .: , 1969.
[5] - . .
: , 1998. ISBN 985-6329-11-6.
[6] . . :
, 1958. . 1.
[7] . //
. : , 1965. . 1. 416 .
[8] Bessy, Maurice et Lo Due a, Georges Melies, Mage,
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[9] Le voyage extraordinaire (2011) (.). IMDb.com.
1 2012. 31 2012.

74

[10] . 1895 1928.


- ., ., 1967.
[11] . Lapierre, Antologie du cinema, Paris, 1946
[12] Le Grand Mlis (.) Internet Movie
Database
[13] Visual Effects Society Honors

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), 1996 . , - 1997 ,
,
* [1].


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31 2015. 29
2013.
[2] Box Office Mojo: Christopher Nolan
[3] Buzzy Times
[4]
. .Ru
[5] Christopher Nolans Top 10 - Explore - The Criterion
Collection (.).
[6]
BAFTA Britannia Awards (.). mail.ru (5.08.2010).
28 2011. 13 2012.
[7] Anthony Breznican. With 'Inception,' Chris Nolan's head
games continue (.). USA Today (16 July 2010). 26 2012. 7 2012.
[8]

[9]
// , oKino.ua
[10] A Man and His Dream: Christopher Nolan and
InceptionArtsBeat Blog NYTimes.com
[11] 'Batman 3' To Begin Filming In April?

2011 :
2.15.6.
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Jean Renoir, Bert Cardullo. Jean Renoir: interviews
(.). Univ. Press of Mississippi (2005). 18 2010.

2.17.6.
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2011.
1966
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[2002]

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80

2.

2.18.2.

2.18.3.

1955 / Othello

[1] John Quine - Telegraph

1955 / Momma Don't


Allow
1956 / The Gambler
1959 / Look Back in Anger
1960 / A
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1960 / The Entertainer
1961 / Sanctuary

2.18.4.
.

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Balance


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2.20. ,
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, slate.com, 8 2005
.
Chingon

[3] Film director Robert Rodriguez named his new baby girl
Rhiannon (.).
[4] Battle Angel Alita |

2.20.1.

2.19.5.
(.) Internet Movie
Database

2.20. ,
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Scorsese,

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2.

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2.

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* [18]* [19]. ( ). .

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-, -
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1987 (1978), . -

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* [20].
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, * [22].

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: 1981
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.* [23]

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2006
, 2002 ,
. .

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: , ,
.

, . (. Laraine Marie Brennan),


. 1976 . -
(. Domenica Cameron-Scorsese),
. . , Gods
Will* [24], * [25]* [26]. 1979 1983 .
1985 (.
Barbara De Fina), 1991 . 1999

86

2.

(. Helen Morris). , - Bad



1987
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Bad ( ),
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.

18-
. 2010
1961 ,
Cool.

, ,
, The Rolling Stones.
, * [27].
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The Rolling Stones
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2006 .

2.20.5.

.
-,
1969 .
, . .

2.20.6.
[1] Record #118811991 // Gemeinsame Normdatei 2012
2016.
[2] Filmmaker Martin Scorsese named 'Best Living Director'
in US poll (.). The Times of India (11 2010).
21 2012.
[3] LoBrutto, 2008, p. xi.
[4] LoBrutto, 2008, p. 27.
[5] LoBrutto, 2008, p. 3.
[6] LoBrutto, 2008, p. 4.

[7] LoBrutto, 2008, p. 5.

, 1995 . , ,
1960-, . . 1910-
,
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, , , , , .
, ,
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,
.

[9] LoBrutto, 2008, p. 7.

[8] LoBrutto, 2008, p. 6.

[10] LoBrutto, 2008, p. 8.


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NOUVEAU SOMMET DU SEPTIME ART (.).
ParisMatch (3 2012). 3
2012.
[13] (.) Taxi Driver: Its Influence on John Hinckley, Jr.
30 2007 .
[14] (.) Taxi Driver, Denise Noe. Crime Library.
Courtroom Television Network, LLC. 30 2007 .
[15] (.) -
UMKC Law 30 2007 .
[16] (.) Ill Get You, Foster, Denise Noe. Crime
Library. Courtroom Television Network, LLC. 30 2007 .

2.21. ,

[17] (.) The American Experience John Hinckley Jr.,


Julie Wolf. 30 2007 .

87
200 ) 8,4 .

, . ,
, , [19] (.) Yale Police Searched For Suspect Weeks Before
, ,
Reagan Was Shot, Matthew L. Wald, New York Times,
5 1981.
.
[18] (.) Teen-age Actress Says Notes Sent by Suspect
Did Not Hint Violence, Matthew L. Wald, New York
Times, 2 1981 .

[20] The Last Temptation of Christ / review on


oldschoolreviews.com ( 28 2010)
[21] Martin Scorsese: interviews / edited by Peter Brunette /
page 136
[22] Scorsese Missing In Action: by Peter Hourigan / book
review ( 23 2010)
[23] Most Famous Film Director Cameos by Tim Dirks,
Filmsite.org (online), 2008
[24] Gods Will (1989) Internet Movie Database entry & full
credits
[25] Keyser, Les. Twayne's Filmmakers Series: Martin
Scorsese. Twayne Publishers: New York, 1998. P.
188. ISBN 0-8057-9321-6.
[26] Piccalo, Gina. Agonizing success of `Artist's Way', Los
Angeles Times (June 23, 2006). 1 2011.
[27] Martin Scorsese voices his support of Transcendental
Meditation and DLF (.) (2011). 10 2012.

2.20.7.

2.21.1.

18 1946 ( , )
( ).

GE-200.
. : * [3].
( , 1873
1945) ( , 18841969)
-
1906 * [4]* [5]* [6]* [7]. () (1884?)
; (1881
?) * [8]* [9].

( ),
. Martin Scorsese: A
. Biography. Greenwood Publishing Group,
2008.
, , . . 8- 2.20.8.
, ,
(.) Internet Movie -. Database
,
Peoples.ru
.
. . 12 ,
// - . 1993. 20. (California State College)
.3439.
. , 40-
(1960), 2.21. ,
.

(. Steven Allan Spiel- 24 1963 berg; 18 1946 , , )


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2.
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100 .

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, 2004
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, 29 2001 ,
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.
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92
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XXI ,
. 132 ,
591,7
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, . The Pacific , 87 %
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brose) .
2005 - HBO.
. - E
(. (Easy)* [16] 506- -
Vengeance: The True Story of an Israeli Counter-Terrorist 101- -
Team)* [15]. , ,
- . , 78- . ,
.
.

2003 2004 .
, ,

.


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.

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, 2149 .
; ,
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, .
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.

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2001 2 ). Walt Disney
(. David Geen) Dreamworks

SKG , , ( ,
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- 2001 . , -

,
. - , .

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II * [17].

93
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. 2.21.6.
8,45 * [18].

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,
, . 1995 ,
,
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Dig. DreamWorks Interactive Electronic Arts.
, Trespasser:
The Lost World Jurassic Park (1998) Medal of
Honor (1999)* [19]. Medal of
Honor* [19].
2005 Electronic
Arts . 2008
Boom Blox Wii,
,
* [20].
. -
, - .
Westwood Studios - Electronic
Arts, 1959 / The Last Gun
, *
, [20].
1961 / Fighter Squad

2.21.4.
,
(

).
() (. 4 1953), * [4].
(. 7 1956), .

1961 / Escape to Nowhere


1964 / Firelight
1968 / Amblin
1971 / Duel
1972 / Something Evil
1973 / Savage
1974 / The
Sugarland Express
1975 / Jaws

2.21.5.
(, 21
2008) ,

* [21]

1977 /
Close Encounters of the Third Kind
1979 / 1941
1981 :
/ Raiders of the Lost Ark

94
1982 / E.T. the ExtraTerrestrial
1983 / Twilight Zone: The
Movie ( 2)
1984 /
Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom
1985 / The Color
Purple
1987 / Empire of the Sun
1989
/ Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade
1989 / Always
1990 / The Visionary (
)
1991 / Hook
1993 / Jurassic Park
1993 / Schindlers List
1997 : / The Lost World: Jurassic Park
1997 / Amistad
1998 / Saving
Private Ryan
1999 / The
Unfinished Journey
2001 / Artificial
Intelligence: AI
2002 / Minority Report
2002 , / Catch Me
If You Can
2004 / The Terminal
2005 / War of the Worlds
2005 / Munich
2008 / Indiana Jones and the
Kingdom of the Crystal Skull
2008 / A Timeless Call
2011 : / The Adventures of Tintin: Secret of the Unicorn
2011 / War Horse
2012 / Lincoln
2015 / Bridge of Spies
2016 / The BFG
2017 , / Ready
Player One

2.

2.21.7.
[1] Record #118812068 // Gemeinsame Normdatei 2012
2016.
[2]
[3] Michael Calia. Steven Spielberg Remembers the Cold
War inBridge of Spies(.). The Wall Street Journal.
Dow Jones & Company, Inc. (7 October 2015). Steven
Spielberg: I was brought up with Yiddish and Russian
in my house. 22 2016.
[4] Joseph McBride Steven Spielberg: A Biography
[5]
[6] Samuel Spielberg on Ancestry.com
[7] Tom Tugend. A close encounter with Steven Spielbergs
dad (.). Hollywood. Jewish Journal (13 June 2012).
22 2016.
[8]
[9] Ancestry.com
[10]
[11] Lawrence Van Gelder. Indiana Jones Finds the Pot of
Gold (.). Movies. The New York Times (26 May
2008). 19 2014.
[12] Spielbergs Listteaching tolerance ten years on
[13] . 2010.
[14] War of the Worlds (2005) Box Office Mojo
[15] 1986
.
[16] -
. , : A, B, C, D, E . . ( E ).
( ) Able, Boy, Cast, Dog,
Easy
[17] Spielberg receives Royal honour (.), -- (30
January 2001). 24 2009.
[18] 5,6 , (3,95 ).
[19] Steven Spielberg (.), MobyGames. 22
2016.
[20] Darren Waters. Making games with Steven Spielberg (.), BBC News (23 February 2008). 22 2016.

2.23. ,

[21]
. (21
2008). 14 2010.
25 2011.
[22] .
(9 2009). 9 2009.
25 2011.

2.21.8.
(.) Internet Movie
Database
, . 2012
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The original Indiana Jones: Otto Rahn and the
temple of doom

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" , ,
, " * [1]
,
. ,
-.* [1]

2.22.4. .
(. Annabelle Buttery Dance)
(. Annabelle Sun Dance)

2.22.5.

2.22.

[1] , 1958, . 157.

(. Annabelle Serpentine
Dance, 1895) - 2.22.6.
,
. / . .
.
. .,: , 1958. . 1.
611 .

2.22.1.
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. (.) Internet Movie
, Database
.

2.22.2.

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Annabelle Serpentine Dance


. ,
. -, .

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Jerome Tarantino, : [trntino]; . 27
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, , ,
. .

,

,
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, ,
, (1994),

96
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* [5].
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2004), (2007),
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.
2004
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2.
. ,
.
,
, 16 * [14].
* [15].
. .
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* [14]



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.
, * [9]* [10]* [11]* [12]. , 15
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97
* [15].
, :
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,
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, * [18].
.

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,
Live Entertainment * [19].
.
* [2].

- ,

.

, - * [14].



: , .
* [15]

A Band Apart* [14] ( (. Bande part) (1964) - , * [15]) , , . 1994 , A Band Apart. . , , , ( Like a Virgin
), , , * [21]* [22].
. ,
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. ,
. , , : -

98

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,
* [24]. , , .

. 1996
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, 20- 21-
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.


70-

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* [30], * [31]* [32], , , * [33].
, - ,
. , - , . - * [34]* [35]. * [25].
,

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, * [27]* [28].
1995

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11 1995 .

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* [15]

2003 ,
,
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* [15].
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, * [37].

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2004 . ,
,
C.S.I.: ,
(Grave Danger)
19 2005 .

. ,
- CSI
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Volume 1 Volume 2, . :
,
- , ,
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.

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,
. .
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. , ,

* [42].

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,
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* [43].

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: ,
,

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2.
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.
(.)
So now, in Israel, I
m watching the lm, and
we get into the theater sequence. And literally,
not when Hitler gets killed, but when you hear
Shoshanna
s voice say,This is the face of Jewish vengeance,the whole theater just erupted
in applause. I think there were two guys that
started it, but everyone jumped in. And you
know something? It was violent. It was scary.
There was violence in that cheer. It wasnt like
cheering Indiana Jones. There was something
bloodcurdling about it.
NY
Magazine

, , .
.
2001 , 14 , 7 . 2004
, 53 . 2006
, 20 .
, 12
20 DVD. 2007 2, 2008 .
2005
, , DVD:
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2011 - , , * [45]. ( 2007 -

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, 1 * [49].
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Intelligence Service, SIS)
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2.23.4.

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104

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,
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, - ( )* [95]* [96]. , , I Dream of Jeannie
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IQ, 160,
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2.23.7.
2.23.8.


2011

2007 100
* [103].
2004
.
2013
* [104].
21 2015
* [105].

37 47 2.23.9.
. 2007 Total Film
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,
, [2] Michaela Latham. Interview Quentin Tarantino (.).
8,12* [101].
BBC. 9 2009.
100
FHM: ( 1),
( 11), . 1 ( 25),
. 2 ( 26), (
73), ( 75)* [15].
81- 2004 ,
Premiere* [15], 8- 2005 , Empire* [102]. -

23 2011.
[3] Award 1994 (.). (1994).
2 2012. 15 2012.
[4] Writing (Screenplay Written Directly for the Screen)
(.). (1995). 2 2012.
15 2012.
[5] The 52nd Annual Golden Globe Awards (1995) (.).
(1995). 2 2012.
15 2012.

2.23. ,

[6] Quentin Tarantino President of the jury (.).


(2004). 24 2010.
23 2011.
[7] , . (.). (30 2010).
30 2010. 23
2011.
[8] Venezia 67 (.).
(2010). 2 2012.
15 2012.
[9] Quentin Tarantino Biography (1963-) (.).
filmreference.com. 24 2010.
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23 2011.
[11] 3 Quentin Tarantino (.). Entertainment Weekly
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[12] The Man and His Movies, -: Harper Perennial,
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[16] Ken P. An Interview with Danny Strong (.). 19
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[17] (.).
- . 12 2010. 23
2011.
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[24] Jeff Dawson. Quentin Tarantino: The Cinema of Cool.
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[26] Man From the South (.). roalddahlfans.com. 2 2012. 15 2012.
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Exler.ru (22 2004). 7 2010.
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15 2012.
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2010. 23 2011.
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Jack Foley. 10 2009.
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[39] Grindhouse (.). IMDb. 30 2010.


23 2011.
[40] Grindhouse (2007) (.). Box Office Mojo. 9 2009.
23 2011.
[41] Quentin Tarantino Says DEATH PROOF Is the Worst
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(24 2007). 30 2010.
[43] Trivia for Inglourious Basterds (.). IMDb. 30 2010.
23 2011.
[44] Election DVD (.). bs (11 2007).
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2011.
[45] . Quentin Tarantinos Next Film Is
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Collider (28 2011). 17 2012.
[46] Quentin Tarantino: I'm proud of my flop (.). The
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2011.
[47] . Django Unchained: new Tarantino movie
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[48] . Quentin Tarantino's 'Django Unchained'
will shoot in New Orleans, city confirms (.). Nola
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[49] , (.). .. 7 2010. 23 2011.
[50] Moore film 'won Cannes on merit' (.). BBC News (23
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23 2011.
[51] Stone to join Tarantino for Weekend"? (.). Liz
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23 2011.
[52] (.). . (26 2007).
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[53] (.).
. (18 2008). 9 2009.
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[56] 3: ,
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MrDisgusting (4 2009). 10
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[58]
" " | .
[59] ., .. .

[60] :
[61]
[62]
(.). Russian Fun Site (20 2009).
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[70] . Tarantino: Brevet (.). RopeOfSilicon.
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[54] (.). Film.ru (18 2006). 10 2009.


23 2011.

[71] The 50 Most Influential Directors of the Century (.).


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[72] Allen-Taylor, J. Douglas New Word Order.


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[91] Quentin's 'Mexican' Halloween. New York Post (2 2010). 9 2010.


23 2011.

[74] Schnakenberg, Robert Secret Lives of Great Filmmakers:


Spike Lee. 15 2012.

[92] . . (21 2004). 6 2013.


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[75] Samuel L. Jackson blasts Spike Lee for criticizing him for
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[76] Denzel Washington. Celebrities-Pictures.Com. 5 2010. 23 2011.
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TheDailyBeast (24 2009). 18
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[79] Quentin Tarantino Film Maker. BBC (4 2004).
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[80] . !.
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[93] . youtube.
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hollywoodinvestigator.com (13 2004). 28 2012. 15 2012.
[96] Tyra Banks. Tyra Banks Show (.). You Tube. 28 2012.
[97] Quentin Tarantino's Top 20 Favorite Films.
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[98] Constantino Tejero. Tarantino raves over Pinoy B-movies,
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[99] . Quentin Tarantino talks Inglourious Basterds
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15 2012.

[81] The Fifty Best Living Directors (.). Paste Magazine.


18 2012.
[100] Greatest Directors Ever - Part 2 (.). Total Film
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[82] The world's 40 best directors (.). The Guardian. 23 2011.
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[102] Greatest Film Directors (.). Empire. filmsite.org.


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Sommet Du Septieme Art (.). ParisMatch (3
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[103] Top 100 living geniuses (.). The Daily Telegraph.
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.). South Coast Today. 10 2009.
23 2011.
[104] Lien web: Quentin Tarantino reoit le prix Lumire 2013
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[106] . The Awards Season Kicks Off With The
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Hollywood Film Awards (.). Awards Circuit (23 [88] I'm the One That I Want (.). Stephen Tropiano
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[107] Writing (Original Screenplay) (.). The 82nd
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Academy Awards (2010) Nominees and Winners.
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Career (.). Artist Alphabetocally (28 2009).
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10 2009. [108] Directing (.). The 82nd Academy Awards (2010)
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Nominees and Winners. (2009). 2 [90]
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[109] Original Screenplay 2009 (.). Awards Database. [125] Award Maria honorfica (.). 25ed. Festival
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[111] Best Screenplay - Motion Picture (.). The 67th


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[112] Best Director - Motion Picture (.). The 67th Annual


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Jeff Dawson. Quentin Tarantino: The Cinema of


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[114] Official Selection 2007 (.). (2007). 2 2012.


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Wensley Clarkson. Quentin Tarantino: Shooting


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Jerome Charyn. Raised by Wolves: The Turbulent


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(1998). 2 2012.
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Jim Smith. Tarantino. London: Virgin Books Ltd.,


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[121] Palmares 1995 - 20 eme Ceremonie Des Cesar
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[122] Miglior Film Straniero (.). Vinctori 1995.
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The Myths and His Movies. London: John Blake,
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-
(.) Internet
Movie Database
allmovie (.)
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2012 .
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109

,

. ,
.


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:
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Homme qui aimait les femmes
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1980 * [4] / Le Dernier Mtro

1973 / La Nuit Amricaine


1983 (
!) / Vivement dimanche!

1977 / Close
Encounters of the Third Kind
1978 / La Chambre verte

1981 / La Femme d Ct


1954 / Une visite
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1954 / Une visite

1958 / Une histoire deau (/,


.-. )

1957 / Les Mistons

1959 / Les quatre cents coups


( )

1958 / Une histoire deau (/,


.-. )

1959 / bout de souffle


()

1959 / Les quatre cents coups

1960 / Tirez sur le pianiste


( )

1960 / Tirez sur le pianiste


1962 / LAmour vingt
ans
1962 / Jules et Jim
1964 / La Peau Douce
1966 451 / Fahrenheit 451
1968 / La marie tait en
noir
1968 / Baisers Vols

1960 / Tire-au-flanc 62 ()
1961 / Me faire a moi
( )
1962 / Jules et Jim ()
1962 / Une grosse tte
1962 / LAmour vingt
ans
1964 / La Peau Douce
1964 / Mata Hari, agent H21

1969 / La Sirne du
Mississippi

1966 451 / Fahrenheit 451

1969 / LEnfant sauvage

1968 / La marie tait en


noir ()

1970 / Domicile conjugal

1968 / Baisers Vols

1971 / Les deux


anglaises et le continent

1969 / La Sirne du
Mississippi ()

1972 , / Une Belle Fille


Comme Moi

1969 / LEnfant sauvage ()

1973 / La Nuit Amricaine

1970 / Domicile conjugal

1975 . / LHistoire dAdle


H.

1971 / Les deux


anglaises et le continent ()

2.25. ,
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Comme Moi ()
1973 / La Nuit Amricaine

111

2.24.3. .

1975 . / LHistoire dAdle 2.24.4.


H.
1976 / LArgent de Poche

[1] 3- . .: , 1969.

1977 , / L [2] Bibliothque nationale de France: open data platform


Homme qui aimait les femmes
2011.
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1980 * [5] / Le Dernier Mtro

[3] Record #118624202 // Gemeinsame Normdatei 2012


2016.
[4]
[5]

1981 / La Femme d Ct
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2.24.5.
. .: , 1987. 456 .
, . \ . , , . . . .: ( ), 1996.

1960 / Le Testament d'Orphe


1960 / Tire-au-flanc 62
1962 / Jules et Jim
1964 / La Peau Douce
1968 / L'enfance nue
1968 / Baisers Vols
1969 / La Sirne du
Mississippi
1970 / Domicile conjugal

2.24.6.
(.) Internet Movie
Database

2.25. ,

1973 / La Nuit Amricaine


(. Sir Al 1976 / LArgent de Poche (
fred Joseph Hitchcock; 13 1899 29 )
1980) 1977 , / L , , . 1939
, .
Homme qui aimait les femmes
1978 / La Chambre Verte
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55 , . , 21 2.25.7. .

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[2] Bibliothque nationale de France: open data platform


2011.
[3] (.). 13
2012. 24
2012.
[4] (.). 13 2012.
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[5] (.). 13 2012.
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2007.
[9] Alfred Hitchcock Dies; A Master of Suspense;
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21 2011.
[10] (.). 13
2012. 24
2012.
[11] , ? (.). 13
2012. 24
2012.
[12] , ? (.). 13 2012. 24
2012.
[13] (.). 13 2012.
24 2012.
[14] , ?
(.). 13 2012.
24 2012.
[15] , ,
(.). . 14 2012. 24 2012.
[16] (.). 14 2012.
24 2012.
[17] 10 . 14
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2012.
[18] Alfred Hitchcock (.). 14 2012.
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2.

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2.25.10.

Alfred Hitchcock The Master of Suspense

2.26. ,
(10 [22]
1898, , 11 1948,
, ) ,
, , , .
(1935). (1941,
1946).
. (1939
), .

2.26.1.

,
* [1],
, * [2]. [20] Sir Alfred Hitchcock (American director) (.). - , Encyclopdia Britannica Online.
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[21]
-
[22] . - , , 16 2012.
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[19] , , (.),
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2.26. ,
, ,
. ,
. ,
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-
, ,
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, * [6].
,
* [7]. ,
* [6].

2.26.2.
,

117
; * [10], * [11]
. -* [9].
26 (9 ) 1912 . , ,
, .
.
* [12].
-.

* [10]. ,
* [5]. : , ,
* [6].
* [6]* [13].
1915

* [14].


, . , . , . 1918
.

, .
* [15].

10 (22)
1898 * [5] * [6].
2 (15) 1898 . ,
, * [5].
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, * [8]
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18 1918 * [16], 20 1920


6
- * [17]* [18].
, ,

, ,
. * [17], * [19].
,
, , ,
, , .
.
, , * [19]. -

118

2.

* [20].


, .

* [25],
28 1925 * [26]. 1920 , - , - (
, - ) . , . , - ,
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. * [21], ,
* [20], .

-
. ,
, . * [21].
1921 (),
, . , .
,
* [21].
,
. 1923 .
, . , ; -, , .
, : ; , * [22].

* [23].

, . , . * [24]. -



, .
.

: 1) , 2) , 3) 1
, 4) 1905 , 5) , 6) , ,
, 7) . , 1905 . * [27]
1905 , , - , - . ,
,
-* [28].
24 1925
* [27], * [29].
* [30]
* [27].

2.26. ,

119

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( ).
Frauennot Frauenglck ( )

1930 Paramount Pictures
.
. Paramount .

!. , 75 , .


, 1928

1932
, , 1935
.
,
, .

1935
. , ,
. ,
.

, 1924 . ( ), ( ), (4- ),
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, ,
. ,
, . 2
,
, , , , ,

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,
(
), , . ,
1937 .
,
. , 11
.
( ),
* [31].

120
, , ,
.

1938 .
( ).
.
. .

2.
To Brother Jews of All the World (
),
* [32]* [33].
25 1941
!* [34]* [35].
7 .
.

To the Jews of the World ( ).
5 1944 .


10 11 1948 , .
. . .
( 4).

19411945
. , ,
1942 ,
-. . 1945 . , (
,
, ),
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1958 . ,
,

( , ).

2.26.3.
( 1934 )
( ; 18 1900 23
1965),
. . (1964
1971), .* [36]* [37]
, , 19191939 (.: ,
1940).

2.26.4.
,


, ,
,
.
: .
3 1941 ,
- * [10].

2.26. ,
,
* [10].

2.26.5.

121
8. 1931 ()
9. 1931 ! ( ; 1979 .)
10. 1933 / Eisenstein in
Mexico ()
11. 1933
12. 1934 / Death Day ()
13. 1935 37 ( , . .
. . )
14. 1938
15. 1940 / Time in The Sun (; )
16. 1941 / Mexican
Symphony
17. 1941 / Land of Freedom
18. 1941 / Idol of Hope
19. 1941 / Conquering of Cross
20. 1941 / Seeds of Freedom ( )

, 100-
. . . 2 ,
, 1998

21. 1944 (1- )


22. 1945 (2- ,
), 1958
23. 1946 (, 3- )

1. 1923
2. 1924 ( ,
)
3. 1925 (1905 )
4. 1927 ( :
, )

1. 1924 ( ,
)
2. 1927 ( , )
3. 1929 ( )
4. 19351937

5. 1929 / The Storming of


La Sarraz (
)

5. 1938

6. 1929 ( )

7. 1945 (2- ,
)

7. 1930 / Le Romance
sentimentale

6. 1944 (1- )

8. 1946 (, 3- )

122

2.26.6.
(1941)
(1938)
(1946)
1- (1944)
(1935)
(1939)
(1938)

2.26.7.
,
, .
, , , . ,
,
.

. , ,
.* [38] .
,
, . ,
,
* [39].
.

2.
. .
. ( ) /
.. .: , 1984.
., , . .
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. // . . . . 3. .: , 1988. .
279-290.
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. .: , 1998. . 1. .
. . . 141378. ISBN 5-78590073-4.
. : : . .: -,
2005. 344 . ISBN 5-901631-15-3.
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1948. .: , 2005. 352 .
ISBN 5-98379-022-6.
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2.26.8.

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2015 . .
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123


1958 , * [40]
1990 : ,
. ; ; . . . -
1998 ,

2.26.9.
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. . //
. 1923. 3. .70 75.
. // . 1926. 35. .10.
., ., .
: // . 1928. 32. : .
1928.
. // . 1926. 34.
[ . .] [: ]. .: , 1944. 192 .
[ . .] .
: , 1946. 340 .:.
. . . .:
, 1956. 456 .
. . : , // . .: , 1960. 4. 424
.
\ Eisenstein. / Dessins /
Drawings. .: , 1961. 226 .
. . .
6- . .: , 19641971.
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, .
, , . ., 1964. 696 .
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.4: . .: 1966.
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, ;
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2.26.12.
, . :
= Historie Gnrale
Du Cinma / . . . . .:
, 1982. . 4 ( ). 528
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. . . 2- . .:
, 1976. 328 . ( ).
50 000 .
.
.: , 1974. 424 . 30 000 .
Marcad Jean-Claude. S. M. Eisenstein: dessins
secrets. Seuil, 1999. 183 p. ISBN
202033612X, 978-2020336123.

, , - , 110-

3.1. (, 2009)

,
, * [27] , , 12 * [28]. , 2 * [29].
, * [30], :
, -.
DVD- , Blu-ray .
2018
2.* [31].

(. Avatar, : [v..t])

2009

.
2154 ,
,
* [9]* [10]* [11].
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.
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.
2005-, 2006
, , * [16]* [17].
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* [32],
280 310
- .
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3D, XpanD 3D IMAX 3D) 4D- * [21].
10 2009 . , , 16 18 - RDA
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* [22]* [23]* [24] - * [25]* [26]. 126

3.1. (, 2009)
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128

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.

3.1.2.
,
* [39].
,
* [40]
* [41]. , :
. , * [42].
,
. , , * [43].


(1986)* [44].
,
* [45]. ,
(2000)* [46].

, , * [46].
, , * [47], ,
3D- * [48].

3.1.3.

1994 * [14] 80-


, , ,
* [13]. 1996
,
CGI * [15]. 100 , , * [49].

3.
Digital Domain* [50]* [51]. 1997 1999-* [50]* [52].
, , .
SFX-. Bloomberg BusinessWeek,
20th Century Fox 10
, -
Fox 2005 * [53]. , 880
(. Project 880)* [54].

-
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, kx skxawng,
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* [57].
2005 2007 ,
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;
* [58]* [59]. 2006 , 2008 , 2007-* [60]. 2006 ,
Weta Digital* [61]. ,
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3.1. (, 2009)
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: , , . 2006
Fox , ,
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Studios. , Disney
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* [64]

129

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$150 . , $30 * [18]* [19]* [20]. - ,
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* [4].
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(1997),
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,
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:
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, , * [73]. :
;
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, * [75].

, * [1]. : . , * [76] , 1976 1977 , , . -
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* [79]. 2010
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131

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*
2006 . , [97].
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3-D Fusion Camera System 3-D Fusion Camera System, - . * [87]. - simulcam, CGI , 3D- . , ; , , 2007 Fox , - 24 * [88]. * [93].
, 60%
40% * [89].

Hughes Aircraft
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2007
Stone Street Studios
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132

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& Magic, Weta * [115].
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3.1.4.

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[123].
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[125]
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930 4 .

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[128].
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3.1. (, 2009)
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133
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Books 272- The Making
of Avatar,
* [143].
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* [144]. 2010 , * [145].

20th Century Fox The Coca-Cola


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Avatar: A Confidential Report on the Biological and


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24 2009 .
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Camerons Avatar: The Movie Scrapbook* [141]. 30
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Avatar: James Camerons Epic Adventure
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: )
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: * [146]. 1
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360, Wii, Nintendo DS, Microsoft Windows* [147], 8
PlayStation Portable* [148].

134

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Happy Meal* [152].

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3.1. (, 2009)

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3.1.7.

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3.1. (, 2009)
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(1992). :

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, . * [239].

3.1.8.


. ,

* [240].
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137
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3D* [245].
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Vogue 10- ,
* [246]. Nike
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4.2.3. .
4.2.2.



1980- ,
, * [10].
1950-, , - 4.2.4.
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. 68142. 440 .
). 2006
, 2007
. . . / . . . , 2009
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--
39. 447 .
, :
. . //
( ).
. 2- .
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(.) // MediaVision : - , . 2011. 3. . 3639.


,
,
. (.) //
: . 1957. .
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// - capture:
. 1- . .,: , 1990.
. 163239. 288 . ISBN 5-217-00900-4.
1. motion capture, . , 4.3.
, ,
, ;
, ,
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) . ( , ).

Motion capture .
.
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4.3.4. .




4.3.5.
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[2] Organic Motion
[3] Stanford Markerless Motion Capture Project

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166

4.

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[18] .

[19]

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170

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. .
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. . . .:
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. .
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. .
. .3.
. .: , 2012.
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. ,
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171

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. , ,
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2
- .
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- 4.5.3. .
, , * [1].
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, ,

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, , * [10].
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1
-, 17 . , , . 11

150 * [11].


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,
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,
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,

30 40 * [4].
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1891 , - , , . * [5]* [6]. - ,
20 1894 60 , , 150 . , * [14].

174
50 , , . , .
,
. 1894 : - ,
. , ,
: ,
, ,
.

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4.
. 1896 (. Projectoscope)* [15].
1912
.
22- 46 * [3]* [16]. : , , , . , 28- Path KOK. , -
.

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,
. , , , . , 1895
(. Vitascope)
(. Charles Francis Jenkins) (. Thomas Armat)
.
, -

, ,
, , ,
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, ;

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* [1].

, ,

* [2].

-, -
-* [3].

.


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, ;

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,
,
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* [7]. ,
.

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.
:

;
;

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. L
M
F,
, . N2 K2 . .
,
,
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4
5 * [12].
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. 35-

0,04 , 96,4 * [13].


.
, , , * [9].
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.


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, - ,
*
[8].

12
23

, . - ,
. , ,
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*
[15].

1313782 [11].
,
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- , * [7]. () - ,
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. , , . , 8 * [5]. , . , 35- 16- ,
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, , 35.
, .
, ,
- . ,
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.

23 1* [18],
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, ,
, .
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() * [19]. , 70 ,
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.
: A
, , .
D . ,
F ,
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, , .
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,

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.

, , ,
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,
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,
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, ,
,
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// The Essential Reference Guide for


Filmmakers = . Rochester: Eastman Kodak, 2007. .
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,
, , . ()
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, 1887
, * [5].
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2
* [6]* [7]. 1891
.


5 . -
, ,

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- 35-

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,
,
,

1871 * [2].
,
.
, , ,
- ,
- * [3].
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,

* [4].

, ,
, ,
. 1896
,
. , . , (. Etiquette Bleue). 1895 65 (~19,5 ),
75
(~22,5 ). 16 , , 65 75 * [* 1].
,
* [10]* [11].
, .
1899
, 1000 * [12].

. XX

35- , * [13].

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* [15].

183
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8 ,
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,
.

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1974 . 1986 , * [26]. , , ,
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,
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Wolfen), 1964 Agfa Wolfen* [28].



,
. , , Kodak
. , * [16].
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, , * [17].
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IG Farben. , ,
. 1913 , , , Kinemacolor Prizma.
, - - , - * [19]. 1931 - .
5 - 3 * [20]. - , : , -
*
[29].

-, *
*

[21] [22].
* [30]

184
* [31].
,
, , . (7 3 ) ,
* [31].

1920-
, Gevaert
Pan-23. Kodak ,
,
1928 .
.
,
- , . ,
.

, , ,
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,

, ,

* [33]. ,
Pan
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.
,
,
* [34]* [35].

4.
, .

Agfa, 1942
, * [37]* [29]. UFA
* [38]. , 1941
35- Monopack,

* [39].
, ,
1,
1947 3- * [40].
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* [41]. Kodak
1950
, * [42]* [43].
-,

, .

2016
: Eastman Kodak (), Agfa-Gevaert
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, Fujifilm, 35%
* [44].
,
,
.


.
* [45]* [46].

1935 Kodak 16 Kodachrome


.
-, ,
.

- * [36]. Kodachrome , - , -

4.8.
: * [47]* [48].
, ( 70%
- 98% ) . 1
8 * [49].

, . 1922 Kodak 1/12
* [18].

( IMAX) . Kodak, , 2007 2013 96% 3,5
127 * [6]* [50].
Fujifilm
2013 - * [51]* [52]* [53]. , ,
, , -.
* [54].
2015 Kodak
. XX
, , ,
NBC Universal, Sony Pictures
* [55].
,
,
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4.8.2.
* [57]. : , , ,
, * [58]* [59].
* [60].
,
,
,

185
. , :
-* [61].
-
. - , . , , : ,
* [61].
, * [62]. , ,
* [63]* [64]. , , ,
* [49].
, , . , .
, .
* [65].



, ,
. ,
. ,
,
,
* [66]. ,
,
. , , ,

.
,
* [67].
Kodak 1948 , , ,

186

4.

* [64]* [68]. Kodak 1951


,
* [69]. 8-, 9,5- 16-

. ,
* [70].
() ,
* [71]. Safety film* [72].
Kodak
1982 ,
* [69].

.

* [78].
.
.

.
,
. , . , ,
* [73]. , , * [67]* [74].

55-

, , 20 25
* [75].
0,1
0,15 .
0,070,08 * [76].

4.8.3.

. XXI
: 70- (65- ), 35-, 16- 8* [77].

4.8.4.

, * [79].
, .

55,625
55, XX * [80].
46,3236,32 * [78].
,
35-
* [81]* [82].
32-
16-
,
16- * [* 4]. 16- * [83]* [84].

16-
35- * [84].
32- ,
-. 16-
.
32- 8- . 4 , * [* 5]. 4 , 8-* [85].

, ,
. 35,
65 70- , 28-
16- , ,
8- 1910 Path
, * [1].

4.8.

187

, 1926
Path (. Path Rural, )* [92].
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,
16- .
( Pathscope)
, 35- .
,
* [95].
Path KOK 28-
,
*
[86]. - * *
, - [87] [96].
.
,
. 9,5-
.

: 3 .
, * [87]. , . Path KOK
. , 935 , * [88]. 16- * [89].
17,5-
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4,75
35- .

.
, * [91].
, - * [92].
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9,5-

Path 1923
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(. Kleinlm). 7,54 , . 6,58,5 , 1 * [78]. , * [87]* [98]. , * [97].

188

4.

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T (. Tungsten),
D (Kodak)
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: (. Camera Films), (. Laboratory Films)
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- . - , , .
, - . -
Kodak 1926 , .
* [17].

(0,2 0,7 ISO) . , -. * [109]:


* [101].

-
* [100]. - (
0,6) - (.
1,65) .
,

- -
* [102].
, * [103].
,
-
;

1970-
* [104]. 35-
1990-
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* [110]* [111].


.
, 8 * [105].
,


, .
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, , .
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,
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16 . , ,
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.

- , . - Digital Intermediate.
c
:
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, . * [104].
. : , * [116]. * [117].
. * [118].

* [104].

- -
* [118].

0,5
0,7* [116].



* [119]. ,
, .
: .
, * [120].
, . . -
3, 8
11 * [121].
KODAK VISION Color Print Film 2383,
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189

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. Kodak
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, , .

,
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4.9.

195


,
.
,
. ,
,
.
,
* [1].
, 1913

1919 ,
* [ 1],
.
. , . - , .

4.9.2.
4.9.1.
XIX . , ,
, . , , ,

.
1890- , . ,
.
10 .

, . ,

.
,
.

, ,
- , , , , , . , .
:
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. ;
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(, , , );
.
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;
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. . ;
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-

196
.
,
, , .

.
,
.

.

4.
, ,
, , , ;
;
;
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, ;
;
- ;

4.9.3.


: (. pre production),
(. production) -
(. - post production).

;
;


,
* [1]:
;
;

;

;
;
;

;
;
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;
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4.9.

197

,
.
, - , .
. , - ,


, .
. Digital
, , Intermediate . * [3].
,
: ,
, , . ,
.
: , ,
. .

4.9.4.


,
, , ,
.

, , .

.
-
, , .
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, ,
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.
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-, (
, ).
, , .
* [2].

- , , , ,
.
, . , , .

. , : ,
, - , , , , - , , , -
.

.
-
,
.
- .
,
.


-* [4].

4.9.5.

, ,

198

4.
,
.
- ,
. ,
* [7].


,
,
.

.

4.9.6. -


(), * [8]. -
. * [9]. , -
,
.
, , -
* [10].
.

,
, * [11]. .
.
, .

Digital Intermediate.

* [5]. , , ,
.
,
, , .
, ,
- * [6].

4.9.

199
.


, ,
.

, , ,
,
,
. -
, * [9].
-
,
.
,
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.

.
,
250 300
.
:

, .
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.

,
, * [ 2].

- . , . ,
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.

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.


.

, , .
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, , , , , ,

200
. .
. .
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- ,
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, * [8].
, , , , - . . ,

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, * [12]. -
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* [13].
, .

. , , . .
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4.

,
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,
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, * [14].

, ,
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* [15].
, .
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( ) ,
* [16]. ,
, . ,
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* [14].
,

,
.
,
, . ,
, Dolby Digital, SDDS, Dolby SR* [17]. -

4.9.

201

DTS - ,
- , .
, . -.

4.9.7.
,
-.
, ,
. .
.
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4.9.8.
* [11].


- (, )* [11]. -
, .
, , - .
, .
,
.
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, , (), * [11]. Digital
Intermediate -

4.9.9.
, .
, , . ,
16- ,

.

,
.

, .
16 ,
. , .
,
.
, 1970- . , , . .
, 35, * [18]. : , , . .
,
.

202

4.

4.9.10.
() ,
.

,
,
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-.
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;
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4.9.11.
,
,
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.
, ,
, , ,
.

, , ,
. , . - 4.9.12. .
,
.
DVD
.

, .

4.10.
()

4.9.13.
[1] ,
, 1919 , 44, 433
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. , ,
,

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. , , 1973
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, , 1947

, , 1958

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[15]
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[18]

" "

(, )

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,
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. , 1968, . 30.
, ,
. , 1975, . 384.
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,
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.

[13] , 1975, . 150.


[14]

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204

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, ,
,

.

, * [1].
,
.

(1895 ). .

. . 1897 .
* [* 1]. () ().
, * [2]* [3]. -
. , , .

.

4.10.1.

;
;
;

,
, . , 1 XX , .
-
. ,
.
1908 .
.

, , .
;
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;

, .
;
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Digital Intermediate;

1920- , , - , ; .

4.10.

. XIX ,
XX
.

205

.

XXI , , . ,
, ,
- .
.
1930- . , -
. . 1940- -
.
- ,

. ,
, , .
3D* [4].
, .
, 4.10.2.

. -
(),
* [4].
* [6].
, , , XX ,
: , , .
* [7].
.
, - , - , * [5].
, 1930-
* [8]* [9].
, . -
: - , , - , .
- *
. - [10],
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[11]. -
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206
, .
, * [12].
,
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* [13].

.
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XX ,
* [15]. , . -
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4.
* [17]* [18].

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, .

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.
.


, * [17].
, ,
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.

- 4.10.3. .

. ,
, , ,



.

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, .

[1]
,
,

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[12] , 1980, . 28.
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[14] , 1980, . 112.
[15] . . . (.). .
9 2012. 27 2012.
[16] 3D (.). . 9 2012.
27 2012.
[17] , 1980, . 221,236.
[18] // : [ 30 .] / . . . . . 3- .
. : , 19691978.
[19] . Digital intermediate:
(.). Broadcasting
(2008). 9 2012.
27 2012.

4.10.6.
. . . / . .
. .: , 1965. 239
. 7000 .
. . , . . . / . . . .,: , 1979. 440 .
. . . I. //
. 2- .
.: , 1980. . 28-37. 239 .

* [1]. .
.

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208

4.

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4.11.3.


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4.12.

209

4.11.4. .


4.11.5.
[1] , 1981, . 137.
[2] , 1980, . 208.

Yamaha PM5D

4.12.

[3] , 1966, . 443.


[4] , 1971, . 56.
[5] , 2007, . 44.
[6] , 1981, . 125.

4.11.6.
. . , . . , . . , . . , . . , . . . / . . . 2- .. .: , 1966. 636
.
. . . III // . 1- . .: ,
1971. . 56. 220 .
, . . / . . .
. : , 1981. . 137
138. 447 .

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).

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. . . . VIII. - DJ- // . 2- (,
. .: , 1980. . 208224. ), ,
239 .
,
// The Essential .
Reference Guide for Filmmakers = . Rochester: Eastman
Kodak, 2007. . 3548. 214 .
4.12.1.
,
. () .
. . . .
, -

4.11.7.

210
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1989. . 182185. 336 . 24 000 . ISBN
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4.13.1.
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, * [2].

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(5%)
180 ?
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?

4.13.4.

[1] , 1981, . 194.


[2] , 1977, . 29.
[3] , 1992, . 194.
[4] , 1975, . 145.
[5] , 1964, . 159.
[6] Kodak Keykode , 2007, .
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- [7]
, XX , - [8]
. [9]
, 180 [10]
, .

, 1988, . 11.
, 1964, . 164.
, 1975, . 146.
, 1968, . 30.

[11] , 1952, . 10.

, [12] . . - (.). . . 30 2012.


15 2012.
, .
, - [13] . (.).
MTV,
. .
.
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, [14] , . ,
? (.).
. Broadcasting (2005).

9 2014.
1950- 1960- . 1960- [15] ? (.). . . 9 2014.
- [16] (.). .
. . 9 ,
2014.

4.13.

[17] , 2007, . 168.


[18] . Digital intermediate:
(.). .
Broadcasting (2008). 9
2014.
[19] . (.).
(2005).
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[20] . ! ! !
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[21] , 1977, . 144.
[22] , 1992, . 209.
[23] , 1977, . 41.

217
. . . I. //
/ . . . .: , 1964. . 523. 300 .
. . . 2 . .: , 1975. . 326. 448
.
. . I. // . 1- . .: , 1952. . 1020. 252 .
. . . / . .
. .: , 1992. . 194
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[24] , 1977, . 142.


[25] , 1992, . 204.
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[29] , 1977, . 39.
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. (21
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4.13.7.
. , . . VI.
// / . . . .: , 1977.
. 103151. 368 .
. , . . / . . , . . . .: , 1968. 127 .
. . . / . .
. .: , 1965. 239
.

. . . / . . . .:
625, 2001. 207 . ISBN 5-901778-01-4.
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= .
Rochester: Eastman Kodak, 2007. . 149157.
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// The Essential
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Kodak, 2007. . 167185. 214 .

4.13.8.

Q
(.).
. . 11
2014.

. . (.). (1960).
11 2014.

. . / . . . .: , 1988. . 8
23. 272 . ISBN 5-217-00276-0.

. (.). XX .
. 13 2014.

. . . / . . . .: , 1981.
. 194. 447 .

. . , . . , . . .
(.). . 11 2014.

218

4.14.

* [1].

.


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, * [2].
8 16-
* [3]* [4].

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4.14.

219

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, - . , - , -

220

4.

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4.14.3.

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.

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. 35- 35-1* [18]* [19].
3521
* [20]. 35- ,
, . 742 , , * [21]. 741 16- .
, : 8 8- , 16
16 16-* [4].

4.14.4.

16

16-


.

.

4.14.5. .
Steenbeck, 60
. Moviola,

, ,

. 4.14.6.
,
, . [1] 17,5
,
, [2] Digital Intermediate* [15].

4.15.

4.14.7.
[1] , 1981, . 195.
[2] Kinoton
MT600/ MT2000/ MUU2000 (.). -.
13 2014.
[3] , 1952, . 205.

221
. . . / . . . .,: , 1981.
. 195, 196. 447 .
. ., . . X. ,
// . .,:
, 1986. 254259 . 200 000 .

[4] , 1986, . 255.


[5] , 1968, . 65.
[6] , 1975, . 386.

. /
. .,: , 2007. . I. .
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[7] , 1981, . 92.


[8] , 1957, . 234.
[9] , 1968, . 67.
[10] , 2007, . 200.
[11] , 1968, . 64.
[12] , 1968, . 63.
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[14] Kodak Keycode (.).
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. . XII. //
. 1- . .,: , 1952. . 203210. 252 .
. ., . . (.) // : . 1981. 3. .
69. ISSN 0040-2249.
. . , . . , . . ,
. . - (.) //
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[18] , 1968, . 66.
[19] , 1965, . 412.
[20] 3, 1981, . 69.

4.14.9.

Steenbeck
Steenbeck. 13 2014.

(.).

[21] 5, 1981, . 26.

4.14.8.

4.15.


. . . / . .
. .,: , 1965. 636 .
. , . , . . -
/ . . , . . - , , . . .,: , 1968. 127 .
. . . - . / . . . .,: , 1957. ,
278 .
.
. . .
2- . .,: , 1975. . 383
389. 448 .

222

4.
- * [2]. ,
.
, ,
* [3].


- . -

* [4].
, , ,
(.
Russian Arm)* [5].

4.15.2.

4.15.1.

,
* [1].
,

, .
-
.



,
. -

.
,
* [6].
, ,
,
-
.

,
* [6].

.
-.

,

.
-

(. Motion Control)* [7].

4.16.

4.15.3.

223

[7] . - Cyber Cameraman


(.). . 22 2012.
1 2012.
[8] , 2011, . 86-96.

4.15.6.
. . , . . . / . . . .,: , 1979. . 215-218. 440 .
. . //
. 2- . .: , 1975. . 273-278. 448 .
Cinetechno

.
.
, -
. ,

. , .

,
* [4].

(.)
// MediaVision : . 2011. 9. .
8696.

(.) // 625 : . 2001.
4.

4.16.

ABC-Products, Cambo, Cinema


Technologies, Egripment, Filmotechnic, Matthews
Studio Equipment, Panther Polecam* [8].

4.15.4. .
.

4.15.5.
[1] 625, 2001.
[2] , 1975, . 276.

(. pavillon)
.
, , ; .
,
I .

[3] , 2011, . 86.


[4] 625, 2001.
[5] , 2011, . 92.
[6] , 1979, . 216.

4.16.1.
, ,
.

224

4.

( . hermitage ) -
.
, .
. .
.

, . (
.
I) .
1760- II
.
, .

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.

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4.16.3.

, -
.
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4.16.

225
1892 * [2].
. , , , ,
, . XX * [3].

4.16.4.

, , , , , , XVII
,
.

. , 4.16.5. .
, , .
, . , , , , ,
. (
, ).

,
-
, 4.16.6.
:
,
. .,
( ).

[1] , 1975, . 48.

,
, .

[3] , 1945, . 11.

, , , .

,
* [1].
. ,
, . -

[2] , 2007, . 7.

4.16.7.
. . . 2 . .,: , 1975. 448 .
. / . .
.: , 1945. 115 . 5000 .
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Eastman Kodak, 2007. . 518. 214 .

226

4.17.

4.

4.17.1.
, 1912 ,

, , * [3]. ,
, 35- * [2].
, , , , ,
* [4]. , , . , ,
.

. .

- (, . Cinex Strip* [5]) .



- * [6].
,
, . * [7]. .

,
,
* [1].


, * [2].
-
.


* [8].

, * [2]. () , * [9]* [10]. ,

* [11]. -

4.17.

227

,
, , * [12]* [9]. , RF- * [10].

* [2].

,
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()

4.17.2. 4.17.4.

, * [8]. ,
, * [14]. ,
. . ,
, . ,
, .

, , ,
, * [15].
* [16]. ,
, ,

.

[16] , 1964, . 204.

[1] , 1962, . 206.


[2] , 1980, . 117.
[3] , 1958, . 18.
[4] , 1981, . 286.
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[6] , 1975, . 363.
[7] , 1964, . 196.
[8] , 1975, . 362.
[9] , 1964, . 182.
[10] , 2007, . 159.
[11] , 1964, . 179.
[12] , 1962, . 207.
[13] , 1964, . 181.
[14] , 1962, . 211.
[15] , 1980, . 115.

228

4.

4.17.5.

4.18.1.

. . . //
. 2- . .,: , 1980. . 115118. 239 .
, , . . . VII. //
/ . . .
.,: , 1964. . 175230. 300 . . ,
.
. . . / . . . .,: , 1981.
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1:1
. . // . 2- . .,: - .
,
, 1975. . 362. 448 .

. . / . .

. .,: , 1958. . 2.
66 126
523 .
2828 . 7,97,9 - // The Essential Reference Guide for Polaroid SX-70 600. Filmmakers = - , . Rochester: Eastman Kodak, 2007. . 159165. 214 .
Instagram.
18,6718,67

// ,
*

[2].
The Essential Reference Guide for Filmmakers
= .
Rochester: Eastman Kodak, 2007. . 189213.
214 .

4.18.

(. aspect ratio) , ,
. .

. , , * [1].
,
, .

1,25:1 (5:4)
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4:3,
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4.18.
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,
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4:3

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,
16:9, 14:9.
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,

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16:9, .
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16:9 ( )* [12].

* [13].
,
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,
* [14]* [15]. ,
1953 ,
1,66:1.
(. Universal) 1,85:1.
* [16]. 1,66:1,
1,85:1.

Flat.
1,66:1 16* [17].
1,78:1 (16:9)
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4.18.
.

231
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, 55* [24]* [25]. 2,2:1 (22:10)
1954 ,

, ,

,
.
70-

.
*
[20].
Todd-AO, 2,6:1 (26:10)
(Sovscope70)
2,2:1* [21].
, ,
, 35 (. Cinerama)
.
,
30
2,35:1 (235:100)
2,6:1* [26].
1953 , XX
35-
(. CinemaScope), .

35- - ,
.
* [22]. -
- (. travelogue) 2,35:1 (. This Is Cinerama) . - 1952 , - .
, Panavision Arri.
.
- 7 ,
: - (. How the West Was Won) . - (. The Wonderful World
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Franscope, Grandscope, Agascope, Arriscope The Voyage of Christian Radich (. Cinemiracle, 1958,
. .
).
.
2,6:1* [21].
2,39:1; 2,4:1 (Scope)
1970
, , 2,39:1
2,4:1* [23]* [17]. . 2,39:1 (Scope)
.

2,75:1 (11:4)
1957 --
Panavision MGM
Camera 65, Ultra Panavision 70.
- (65/70),
, 2,75:1* [27]* [28].

232

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1959 Panavision - [10]


16:9 4:3
MGM. (.). -R BT.1379-2. ITU.
Super Panavision 70, 2 2012. -,
4 2012.
.

[11]
29 2007 . 1700-
2008 - 2015 ( . 10.03.2009 N 219)


(, 360). - [12]

.
[13] , 1975, . 32.

4.18.2. .

[14] , 1979, . 14.


[15] , 1961, . 66.

[16] , 1975, . 30.

[17] , 2007, . 38.

[18] , 1961, . 71.

( )

[19] , 1979, . 18.

Active Format Description

[20] , 1975, . 33.

4.18.3.
[1] 576 494

4.18.4.

[21] , 1964, . 66.


[22] , 1979, . 15.
[23] Facts On The Aspect Ratio (.). The American
WideScreen Museum. 5 2012.
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[24] , 1961, . 76.

[1] , 2007, . 36.

[25] , 1965, . 533.

[2] The Rich Man's Poor Man's Version of CinemaScope


(.). The American WideScreen Museum. 3 2012.
7 2012.

[26] , 1979, . 41.

[3] . : (.).
. ( 2009). 16
2015.
[4] ?. 25 2013. 26 2013.

[27] , 1981, . 422.


[28] , 1979, . 32.

4.18.5.
, . . / . . .
. : , 1981. . 422.
447 .

[5] , 1964, . 66.


[6] , 1975, . 28.
[7] . (.). . (18 2011). 26 2012. 16 2012.

. . . II. // / . . . .,: , 1964. . 2468.


300 .

[8] , 2007, . 42.

. . . / . .
. .,: , 1965. 636 .

[9] Specifications at a glance - VistaVision (.). The


American WideScreen Museum. 21
2012. 18
2012.

. .
/ . . . .,: , 1961. 149 .

4.19.

233

. . . II. // / . .
. 2- .. .: , 1975.
448 .
. . , . . . I.
// /
. . . .,: , 1979.
. 7-67. 440 .
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Reference Guide for Filmmakers = . Rochester: Eastman
Kodak, 2007. . 3548. 214 .

(),

4.18.6.

, , (. special eect, .
SPFX, SFX FX)
,
, , * [1].

, -, , ,
, .
, ,
. ,
.

, (, ).

(, , ).

,
,
(. Le manoir du diable,
1896),
,
.

.

4.19.


.
( 4.19.2. ), .
() . -
, ,
. -. , .
.
, XX
, .
* [3].
4.19.1.

( .
1856 :
), 30 * [2].
.

234

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. .
.
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.
.
.
. - ,
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* [4]. , , .
, , . , 45
, . . ,
, - .
,
. .
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;
XX (, -).
- - ,
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- . , , - , ,
, . ,
,
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. . ,
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.


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1896

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1902

1989 / The Abyss

1927

1991 2: / Terminator
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1933 -
1940
1945

1993 / Jurassic Park


1994 / Mask

1953

1995 / Toy Story


1954

1996 / Independence Day

1963 / The Birds

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1968 2001 / 2001: A


Space Odyssey

1997 / Buddy

1973 / The Exorcist

1998 / What Dreams May


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1973 / West world


():
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Reloaded

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1980 . V: / The Empire
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2005 . III:
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2001 : /
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2002 : /
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,
,
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. , ,
,
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.

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,
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, , , , , .
, .
, - .
, , -
.
, .
.
.
.

Lessons in Electric Circuits Volume IV (Digital)


MIT OpenCourseWare introduction to digital
design class materials (6.004: Computation
Structures)
DIY-Digital Experiments!
Digital Logic Simulator v0.4 Brad-Ware Studios'
free program that supports real-time edit and
simulation of digital logic gates.
CEDAR Logic Simulator Free Digital Logic
Simulation CAD Tool
LogicCircuit is a free educational software for
designing and simulating digital logic circuits.
Logisim an educational tool for designing and
simulating digital logic circuits.

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.
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.


. .

.* [1]* [3]* [4]

, .

, , ,
.* [5]
, ( ,
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, . .* [6]* [3]

.* [1]
, .
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.* [1]
- ,
.* [1]* [4]
,
, ,
.
* [5]* [7] .* [6]* [7]
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,

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.
.

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. , , - .* [1] , ,
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. .* [4]
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.

5.1.1.

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2012 ,
.

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1936
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.
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. , , (
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, ,
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,
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).

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.
.
,
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. .).

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;
;
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;


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,

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.
, , 5.3.1.
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,
,

( ,
);

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. ,

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, .

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.
;

5.3.4.

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,
, - 5.4.2.
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5.5.


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; ; ;
, . ,
.

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5.12.

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285

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3-D Filmmaking from Script to Screen (from video
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5.

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:

-

:

The making of a 16 mm 3D film

History of 3D-movies (in German)

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LLC
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Viewers website (viewmaster.co.uk)


3D- ,

:
( POS point of sale). , POS
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6.9.1.
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[12] //
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.
[14] , . = Dictionnaire du thtre
/ . . . . . .: ,
1991. . 285-286. 504 . ISBN 5010021064.
[15] . . // :
XIX
XX : , .
., 1976. . 58.

6.9.

[16] . . // . . . , . .
, . . , . . . . : :
. ., 1991. . 46.
[17] . . // XX . . II III. , 2002. . 7
8.
[18] . . // XX . . II III.
, 2002. . 132.
[19] , 1919 1925 . . .
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2013.
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[21] Geschichte (.). Die Komische Oper Berlin ( ). 11 2013.
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29 2012.

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7.2.8.
[1] Curthoys, Lake, 2004, p. 151.
[2] . / .
. . . . .: , 1972. 240 .
[3] . . . . : 19181934 . 4.
(19261930).

7.2.9.
Curthoys A., Lake M. Connected worlds: history
in transnational perspective. Australian National
University Press, 2004. 278 p.



.
, .

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* [1].
- * [2].

7.3.1.
1990-

7.2.10.


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7.3.
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(1990), (1993),
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, 1992)
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2000- 2010-
.

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Vampire: The Vampire Chronicles, 1994)
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: (X-Men: The
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: (X-Men: First
Class, 2011)

, ,
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Immortal, 2013)

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: (XMen: Days of Future Past, 2014)* [4]* [5]


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334

7.
- 3 (Spider-Man 3, 2007)
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2014)* [4]
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2014)* [4]
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336

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7.3.4. .



. :
/ . . .:
, 2006. . 408. ISBN
5-86793-441-1.
. . 1950- 1960-
// . 2011. 9. .
47-69.
. .
: .
.: , 1977.
., - . - : (1909-2002 .): . .: . , 2003. . 320.

7.3.5.
[1] , 1977.
[2] , 1996.
[3] 2000
[4] BAFTA
[5] 2014:
[6] 10 2015
[7] 10 2015
[8] 10 2015

[9] 10 2015 /

7.3.6.

., ., .,
. :
. .: , 1994. 608 . ISBN 5-8095-0004-8.

Frederik Pohl, Frederik Pohl IV. Science Fiction


Studies in Film. Reissue edition. Ace Books,
1984. . 346. ISBN 0-441-75434-1.
David G. Skal. The Monster Show: A Cultural
History of Horror. Faber & Faber, 2001. .
432. ISBN 0-571-19996-8.
Phil Hardy. The Overlook Film Encyclopedia:
Science Fiction. New York: William Morrow and
Company, 1995. . 512. ISBN 0-87951-626-7.

7.3.7.

7.4.
( , .
court mtrage) , 40-50 . 10 30 . ( ).


, 40 , * [1].
, 4 5
. . // (12001500 )* [2].
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24.01.2006.
.

7.6.

337

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7.5.2.
7.4.1. .

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A short film is defined as an original motion picture that
has a running time of 40 minutes or less, including all
credits.
[2] // . .: . 1969
1978.

. . .
, , , ,
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7.5.3.

7.6.

[3] Sight & Sound 2012 critics top 250 films | BFI | British
Film Institute

7.5.
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339
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7.6.5.
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.

7.
;
,
113 (
13 ); Vampire: The Masquerade; ,

Chevrolet Impala 1967 ,
, , , ,
.

7.6.6.

7.6.7.
7.6.8.

7.6.9. .

()

1996 1998
: .
7.6.10.
[1] . . . // : . 4-
/ . . . .:
88 . , 1987. 640 .

, , - [2] , 1978, . 123.
.
: ( ), , 13- ( ). ,
: ;
,

, ;
,
, , ,

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25-26, s.300
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[10] The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1939)- Moria The


Science Fiction, Fantasy & Horror Review (.)( ). 19
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2005. 23. 1, 2.

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., ., .,
. :
. .: , 1994. . 608.

345
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. .
. .: , 2009. ISBN 978-5-36700860-9.
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IMDb


8.1.

. 1895 1896 .
1896 .
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, * [1].

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27 , - * [13]. -
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(Trmmerfilm)
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,

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.

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1950-

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(Heimatfilm)* [15]* [16]. C 1945
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)
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.

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.

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( ).
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-, (
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.

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8.
28 1962 26
,
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( )
* [18]* [16]. ,
. , ,
* [18].
1965

(
300 000 )* [19]. , , , ( ,
). 1966
( ), 1967
* [20].
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Autoren,

. , 60- 70- : ,
,
,
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34 * [21].
, ,
, .
* [1].
,
(
).

, (1981,
),

8.2.
(1979) (1978)* [22]. , enfant terrible :

,
(
, 1972; "
, 1978; , 1972) ( , 1974)* [23].
80- ( , 1979; , 1981;
, 1982), * [24].

, ,
( , , 1973)* [1].
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.
, ,
,
,
10 %* [25].

1980-
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, , ,
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1982 /, ,
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1981
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.

353
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1987).

8.2.5. 1990 :

(2007).

90-
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2000- .

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. (1993) ,

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-
..., . -

354

(2000)* [31].

,
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, ,
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* [32].

8.2.6.

8.

[20] Watson, 1996, p. 31.


[21] Watson, 1996, p. 32.
[22] Brockmann, 2010, p. 296.
[23] Brockmann, 2010, pp. 359-360.
[24] Brockmann, 2010, p. 363.
[25] Brockmann, 2010, p. 297.
[26] Brockmann, 2010, pp. 297-298.
[27] Brockmann, 2010, p. 301.
[28] Brockmann, 2010, p. 418.
[29] Brockmann, 2010, p. 414.

[1] : 30 . / .-. . . . . . .
. . 6. . .:
, 2006. . 746
748.
[2] Brockmann, 2010, p. 43.
[3] Brockmann, 2010, p. 50.
[4] Brockmann, 2010, pp. 46-47.

[30] , .
-. 2008. 33. . 47.

//

[31] Brockmann, 2010, p. 420.


[32] , . . (18
2012). 30 2016.

8.2.7.

[5] Brockmann, 2010, p. 61.


[6] Brockmann, 2010, p. 51.
[7] Brockmann, 2010, pp. 48-49.
[8] Brockmann, 2010, p. 54.
[9] Brockmann, 2010, p. 55.
[10] Brockmann, 2010, p. 97.
[11] Brockmann, 2010, p. 113.
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Stanford: Stanford University, 2002. P. 23. 620 p.

Brockmann, S. A Critical History of German


Film. Camden House, 2010. 522 p. ISBN
9781571134684.
Watson, W. S. Understanding Rainer Werner
Fassbinder: Film as Private and Public Art. Univ
of South Carolina Press, 1996. P. 29. 341
p. (Understanding modern European and Latin
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8.3.

[13] Knopp, G. Hitler's Women. Psychology Press, 2003.


P. 254. 328 p. ISBN 9780415947305.
[14] Watson, 1996, pp. 28-29.
[15] Watson, 1996, p. 29.
[16] , .
. Kinote (28 2010). 23 2016.
[17] Fehrenbach, H. Cinema in Democratizing Germany:
Reconstructing National Identity After Hitler. Univ of
North Carolina Press, 2000. P. 118. 384 p. ISBN
9780807861370.
[18] Watson, 1996, p. 30.
[19] Graul, H. Knstlerische Urteile im Rahmen der
staatlichen Frderungsttigkeit: ein Versuch zur
Begrenzung der Staatsaufgaben. Duncker & Humblot,
1970. P. 132. 161 p.

, .

8.3.

8.3.1.

21 1895 , .
, 12 1896 . , .
,
- .

355
1908
, , , , (. Gli ultimi giorni di Pompei, 1908) (. Nerone,
1909),
XIX . .
.
,
.

1909 1910
(Cines, Film darte italiana, Ambrosio, Itala,
Pasquali Milano)

. -, , .
,
, , , . . 1911
(. Bagni di Diana), (. I pompieri), (. Arrivo del treno .
nella stazione di Milano) . 1897 10001500 , . ,
, - , . . - XVIII . , 1911 : (. L
, , , , inferno), (. La Ge - rusalemme liberata) (. La ca . duta di Troia).
Path-Frres, (Quo vadis?, ) Gaumont .
, .
1916 .
.* [1]
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.
presa di Roma), 1905 .
() , , , ,
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. - , 1921100, 1922 50, 1928 - .
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1904 1907 ,
; . 1905 1910 , - , 500 .

356

8.

delle beffe,
; ;
Malombra,
, , . , .* [4] ,
. .
- 1935
, - .* [3]
. 1923 Istituto Luce,
, , , - , . 1945 50-* [5], , (. Nella luce di , Roma).
.
(1924) (. Maciste allinferno, 1949
1926), - (. Cineteca Nazionale).* [6] . (.
Sole, 1929) (1951) , . - . , - ( , , ,
, )* [7], , - . .* [3]
( 30- Pittaluga Cine,
, 90% .
, 1933 . . , , , , . C 1936 . ,
: Bianco e Nero, Cinema.
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. , (1930) . 1937
, . , .

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.* [8]

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1962


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1960-

8.3.

357

. - ,
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,
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. - (1971),
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, . (1972)
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(1976).

(, ),

*
. [13]

(. lm impegna , : ti).

( ,

,
1959; , 1963, . ),
1971)

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,
( ,
1962; , 1963, . - 1974), ( , 1976), ). 1968 .
- -.
. ( - (, , ,
. ; 1976).
. )* [11]. - (1977), ,

( ) . . - (1970)
(1975) , -
*
.
[17].


. 60-

(1974)

(1977).
-,
, , .* [14] .

1970-
1969 (. Anni di
piombo), 1980-.
(. poliziesco).
(1972);
(1976); : (1973); (1973); (1976) .* [15]
(1971).* [16]

(1975) - (1977). 1974

70- XX
. : treatments (
). , , , . MIFED, .
.
, , , treatment.
.* [18]
,
,

358
.
1980- 1990-

8.
(. Cos la vita, 1998),
Aldo, Giovanni & Giacomo.* [23]
1996 , .* [24]

90 , , XXI
, .* [19] 1985 5000 , 1998 2600.
1970- 60%,
1993 13%. , , , .* [20] , .* [21]

(1990), ,
- ,
(1986),
: (1983)
(1986).* [19]

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1983 cine- , 2008 .


panettone (
).
2011 : . (1988) , 10 40 . (1991) 37
(1997) . - %, . - 60
, - 12 %.* [25] (1992, . ) - (2001, . (1993, . ). - ), (2001, . (1998, ), (2002,
). . ), (2005,
(1994, . ). . ),* [16] (.
, 14% - ), (.
, ), (. - ).
, .* [20]
(. - ). , -
- (2011, . . ). :
Pummar (1990); (1994, . (2000, . , ),
); L
articolo due (1994, . - (2002, . ),
); Terra di mezzo (1996), (1998) . (2010, . ); Vesna va veloce (1997, . ), (2012, .
); (1998, . ).
).* [22]
90-
, ,
, 8.3.2.
: (1997)

8.3.

8.3.3.
1964 ,

1969 ,

1970 ,
1970 ,

1973
,
1980 ,

1987 ,

8.3.4. .




-
.

8.3.5.
[1] P. Bertetto. Piccola storia del cinema (.). Introduzione
alla storia del cinema. 22 2012.
4 2012.
[2] A history of Italian cinema. Peter Bondanella. 2009.
ISBN 978-0-8264-1785-5
[3] Maria Grazia Mazzocchi. IL Cinema, Grancassa del
regime fascista (.). STORIA in network. 21 2012. 5
2012.
[4] (.).
. 27 2012. 4 2012.

359

[7] Graziano Marraffa. Italia anni '60: l'oro del cinema


(.). ActiveItaly. 4 2012.
17 2012.
[8] IL NEOREALISMO ROSA (.). Markrage. 4 2012. 17 2012.
[9] Anna Carla Russo. Il rinascimento cinematografico
italiano: Fellini, Visconti e Antonioni (.) (2007).
4 2012. 17 2012.
[10] The second wave: a new post-neorealist generation of
auteurs (.). Filmreference.com. 22 2012.
[11] Cinema Italiano. Anni 60&70. (.). Cinziaricci
(14.04.2006).

2012.
17
2012.
[12] The history of Italian cinema. Gian Piero Brunetta. 2003.
p. 175. ISBN 978-0-691-11989-2
[13] Storia del Cinema - Italia: Giovanni e Spaghetti Western.
1958-1967 (.). Cinema del Silencio. Revista del
cinema.. 4 2012.
17 2012.
[14] Anna Carla Russo. Le nuove generazioni del cinema
italiano negli anni '60. (.) (2007). 4 2012. 17
2012.
[15] Alan OLeary. Italian cinema and theanni di piombo
(.). Journal of European Studies. University of Leeds.
21 2012. 17 2012.
[16] Scheda: La reputazione internazionale del cinema italiano
(.). Ufficio Studi. 22 2012.
4 2012.
[17] Claudia Nuzzarello. I 10 registi pi significativi del
cinema italiano anni 70 secondo Viva Cinema (.).
Viva Cinema (21/10/2011). 22
2012. 4
2012.
[18] . 2 (.) (20.02.2006). 16 2012. 17
2012.
[19] Gherardo Fabretti. Il cinema italiano degli anni
'80 (.). Storia del cinema del XX secolo. USA,
Europa e autori italiani. 17 2012.
20 2012.

[5] 1952 1955

[20] The decline and fall: the mid-1970s to the end of the
century (.). Filmreference.com. 22 2012.

[6] Centro Sperimentale di Cinematografia (.). 21 2012.


5 2012.

[21] Le temps prsent, entre mmoire et oubli (.).


Encyclopdia Universalis. 22 2012.
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[22] Sonia Cincinelli. I Migranti nel Cinema Italiano


(.). Cinemafrica. 21 2012.
23 2012.
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toscani (.). Film.it (21/12/2000). 21 2012. 4 2012.
[24] (.). 21 2012.
5 2012.
[25] Richardo Tozzi. Non liquidate il cinema italiano (.).
La Stampa (13/10/2012). 21 2012.
23 2012.

8.3.6.
. : /. . . . ; .: . . , . . , . .
.- .: . , 1987.
640 ., 96 .
100 1942
1976 Corriere dela
serra, Corriere dela serra (2008). 27
2013.

8.3.7.
Encyclopedia of early cinema. 2005. edited by
Richard Abel. ISBN 0-203-63149-8

8.4.

, 1980-

,
. ,
, . 1910-
. , .
. 90 % (
).

(. Cinma franais) -
.

.
. , . 8.4.1.
,
, 28 .
1895 -
()* [1] ( 8.4.2.
; , - - ,
, - .
). , 1946 , 1951 , .
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8.4.

361
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(
).

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.
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8.4.3.
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: , , , (70- 80-,
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.
. :
2002

:
(1948), (1954), 8.4.4.
(1953)* [2]. 50- ,
1892 ,
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* [3]. 1908
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1950-,

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- , - .
-
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1950- ,
Gaumont
.
Path
19601970- , EuropaCorp
, - ,
- , , Fidlit Productions

362
Advantage-studio
CiBy 2000
Le Film d'Art
Les Films du Poisson
StudioCanal

8.4.6. .
100




:
-
(.)

8.4.7.
Le Tour de France

()
- . 1972
kakoyfilmposmotret.ru

8.4.8.
[1] : , 14
[2]
[3] . // artanimation.ru

8.

9.1. Internet Movie Database


. 9, . ,
. IMDb, IMDb
, .
1998 IMDb
Amazon.com. IMDb - 1998 IMDb , IMDb.com - Amazon.com.
- IMDb (Apache, Perl .).
IMDb.
Amazon.com

IMDb.com. IMDb
9.1.1.
Amazon.com, ,
17 1990 , Usenet
IMDb Ltd , rec.arts.movies, ,
IMDb ,
FAQ,
.
23 10 ,
-,
IMDb (

) UNIX-
(. open source community).
. , IMDb ( )
. , -; rec.arts.movies movie database, Internet * [2]. IMDb Movie Database .

, . 1993


.
.
. 1996 - IMDb
Internet Movie Database, Ltd, , . - . , , - ,
, .
Internet Movie Database (IMDb, .
- )
- .
(
2013 ) 2 436 .
, ,
5 , ,
, , .* [1]

363

364

9.

9.1.2.

20. ( , 1954)

IMDb - 21. ( , 2002)


. 22. ( , 2014)
,
: 1 ( ) 10 () 23. ( , 1995)
. IMDb 250 , 24. ( , 1995)
100 . - 25. ( , 1991)
250 ,
. . , IMDb

. IMDb
, , , .
, .
IMDb
- 25 000 2012 3 25 4 2016 (, :
) 2 (
). 10 1. ( , 1994)
2012 230-
- 8,0.
2. ( , 1972)
10 3. 2 ( , 1974) 10 2012 (
1500 ):
4. ( , 2008)
5. ( ,
1994)

1. (1979) (1640
)

6. ( , 1993)

2. (1988) (2528 )

7. 12 ( , 1957)

3. , ! (19692005) (1856 )

8. , , ( , 1966)

4. (1973) (1792 )

9. : (
, 2003)
10. ( , 1999)

5. : (1981) (1508 )

11. : ( , 2001)

6. , ! (1975)
(3701 )

12. . V:
( , 1980)

7. (1929) (8232 )

13. ( , 1994)

9. (1985) (15232 )

14. ( , 2010)

8. (1976) (1798 )

10. (1966) (15156 )

15. ( , 1975)

10 10 2012 (
16. : ( , 1500 ):
2002)
17. ( , 1990)

1. (2002) (3624 )

18. ( , 1999)

2. (2003) (18648 )

19. ( , 1977)

3. (1994) (7722 )

9.1. INTERNET MOVIE DATABASE

365

4. (2002) (4686 )

Talk-Show (-)

5. (1997) (5643 )

Thriller ()

6. (2006) (4943 )

War ( )

7. 12 (2007) (8222 )

Western ()

8. 2 (2000) (4183 )
9. (1995) (1524
)

9.1.4.

10. (1998) (6226 )

2 2016 * [1] IMDb


:

9.1.3.

3 578 769 , :

IMDb ( ):
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Biography ( )
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9.1.5. Alexa Internet


Alexa.com 12 2012 ,
Internet Movie Database 36 , 8 , 16 , 20
, 25 153 * [3].

Horror ( )
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Musical ()

9.1.6. .
:

Mystery ( )
News ()
Reality-TV (-)
Romance ()
Sci-Fi (- )
Short ( )
Sport ( )

9.1.7.
[1] IMDb (.) ( 17
2013)
[2] IMDb Badges (.). Internet Movie Database. 19 2016.
[3] Imdb on Alexa. imdb.com. 27
2010. 25
2011.

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9.1.8.
Internet Movie Database (IMDb) (.)
IMDb (.)
IMDb (.)

9.2.
-,
.
, ,
, , , , , - : , , , , , , ,
.

2015 * [3].
2013
, 60 % , 40 %
Allocin
(.)* [4]. 15 2013
* [5]* [6].

9.2.1.

* [10]. , , . , . , * [10].
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, * [10]. -

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* [10].
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[21] kinopoisk.ru (.). Alexa Internet. 7 2015.

9.2.4.

10

,

10.1.
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%98%D1%81%D1%82%D0%BE%D1%80%D0%B8%
D1%8F_%D0%BA%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%B5%D0%BC%D0%B0%D1%82%D0%BE%D0%B3%D1%80%D0%B0%D1%84%
D0%B0?oldid=78412020 : , Egor, Anton n, Fedyq, HypeRaveR, Alex Smotrov, Stirh, Grisha1995, Vs64vs,
WW, Tandava, , Vlsergey, FarForNet, , , , Rubinbot, , Ace111, U-bot,
WindBot, Distdev, , Horim, Ripchip Bot, Valdis72, Arruabarrena, ZroBot, Wurzel91, Damien86, , Flipp999,
MGriBot, KrBot, MerlIwBot, Runner1616, Akela1101, Illustrator, Distant Sun, Addbot : 47
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%B5%D0%BC%D0%B0%D1%82%
D0%BE%D0%B3%D1%80%D0%B0%D1%84?oldid=78858266 : Oleg326756, Nashev, Wind, , Ctac, Monedula,
Maximaximax, Titiwiki~ruwiki, Torin, Ilana, Nikiforov, Paul Pogonyshev, Corvusman, HedgeBot, M5, Mixer~ruwiki, Bes island,
Sherlock, Obersachse, Panther, Ledokol, Vorash~ruwiki, Bascervill, Ustas, GranD, Yurik, Butko, Stassats, PCode, A.I., Okman,
, Rokur, PuzzletChung, CodeMonk, APTEM, ~ruwiki, Holmz, Eugrus, Som, Chobot, OckhamTheFox,
Roxis, Csman, Volkov, , Zimin.V.G., A5b, Fatal exception, Alex Ex, Vald, Aleksmot, Mercury, KR, Kink, MaxSem, Alghenius,
Fedyq, Aldis, AndyVolykhov, Sergzin, Smig, Kirill Skorobogat, VP, The Wrong Man, Razr, Yaleks, Asta~ruwiki, DR, Edwardspec
TalkBot, Vanuariy, Infovarius, Srtxg, 0nefineday, Esn, Gwinder, Yufereff, Gosh, Nejron, Esp, Gik~ruwiki, User101, Sasha l, Mingan,
AlexDybenko, Escarbot, Idot, , Alex Asp, JAnDbot, Futurix, MaulNet, Blacklake, Grenadine, EvgenyGenkin, Andrey
Kartashov, Raoul NK, Bakhteiarov~ruwiki, GlebN, Alex Smotrov, Beaumain, Plazik, Borisych-c, Dbg0, Bot-Schafter, VolkovBot,
Vlad2000PlusBot, Moloch~ruwiki, , , Deerhunter, Idioma-bot, Redmond Barry, Skydrinker,
, Timur Maisak, Al99999, Stirh, Nik Novan, NutBuster, GrafAS, WW, Vizu, Rlu, Newt, Lvova, Buzuchok, Synthebot, ZoAs,
SieBot, Peni, Loveless, , Testus, INSAR, AlleborgoBot, Vlsergey, EvilTeeth, Klimenok, Lockalbot, Dmitry Rozhkov, Ximik,
Artemka, Alexandr Matsakov, Marhorr, Jeka3000, Vermont's candle, Mmorto, , Musicien, ,
Shcootsn, , Ufim, Belerafon, Zmir, Asd-v, , Qkowlew, Fastboy, Saluton, Shpigl, Innv,
, Laim, Al Sulin, Player701, , Atia, Hworost, Pessimist2006, Iluvatar, Roadjack, Palarus, Valentin 178, Cherttod,
Samant, MstrBot, Insigne, GEOgraff, Harry Tolkiger, Alfarabi~ruwiki, Pieter Baas, Prokurator11, Romy1938, Putinru, Obersachsebot,
Skorp24, PITON8888, , InTravels, Sust, , GAndy, Dmitriy Smirnov, Web-team, , Nicrok, Sigwald,
AntiKrisT, WindBot, Skip01, Distdev, , , LimeBot, Tpyvvikky, Anaxibia, Krassotkin, Valery Lysenko, Dinamik-bot,
Convallaria majalis, StasR, Jojolara, , San Sanitsch, Claustro, Roman-21, Calibrux, Volshebniy, Distorted, Slava.kerner, EmausBot,
Polsok, Kalendar, Elinacka, Baltofficial, Centurion198, EugenG, Mg.bsv, OneLittleMouse, Sifflerzzz, El-chupanebrej, Alexdkx,
, LarBot, Hronist, Earl Aries, CocuBot, DariaS, Movses-bot, Agrianius, KrBot, Edvard Norton, Cthuttdbx, Zapshik, ZooroPatriot, WebCite Archiver, , Baden-Paul, RasJkeee, Goddess777, , Lightfairy, MerlIwBot, W2Bot,
MBHbot, U-leo, PlezzeR, Captain Ireland, Runner1616, , Anna Avtandilian, Stolbovsky, Martyn911, Alum5nium,
"" , Divik, AndreyBot, , Bacar, Fdgod123, Sskz, NekRS, Live to dead, WorkSudio, Artem Melashich,
Dimaniznik, ManFromNord, Mrkhlopov, Addbot, Sheek, Ofiel2012, MEGOGONET, Glovacki, Klinchanin, Meistaru 10, Arthoum,
Q-bit array, Muma ya, UFC111, Kuilsow, Kasperen, Rtgujoirtjgouth, Alex NB IT, Tazman2626rus, Imaginary Rainbow, Vakl33,
, Adam06111990, FsahaF : 350
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%B5%D0%BC%D0%B0%D1%
82%D0%BE%D0%B3%D1%80%D0%B0%D1%84_%D0%A1%D0%A8%D0%90?oldid=77944579 : YurikBot, CodeMonk,
JaroslavleffBot, Gato, Friedrich~ruwiki, Ghirlandajo, The Wrong Man, Altes, J110, Anton Khorev, Thijs!bot, MSBOT, , Andrey Kartashov, Funambule, Alex Smotrov, Celest, DorganBot, VolkovBot, Deerhunter, Idioma-bot, TXiKiBoT, Stirh, 1, Yury Chernavsky, Inziyul, Cantor, SieBot, Loveless, Fedor Yavorskiy, , WikiBotas, , PixelBot,
Alexbot, Shcootsn, Zmir, LatitudeBot, BotSottile, FRL, LaaknorBot, Amirobot, AVB, Luckas-bot, Rubinbot, EROY, Xqbot, Schrike,
Lxsb, , Chacric, SerYoga, Tpyvvikky, Dinamik-bot, Convallaria majalis, Vikeke, Das steinerne Herz, Smertrius,
, Nsha8591, Alpunin, Sultanna, ZroBot, Alrofficial, Byzantine, Cinemantique, KIRILL1995, KrBot, Akrav, Runner1616, Sealle,
DENAMAX, AndreyBot, Reactor777, Mrkhlopov, Addbot, BASant, Dhfuller, Glovacki, Wawe350 : 72
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9D%D0%B5%D0%B7%D0%B0%D0%
B2%D0%B8%D1%81%D0%B8%D0%BC%D1%8B%D0%B9_%D0%BA%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%B5%D0%BC%D0%B0%D1%
82%D0%BE%D0%B3%D1%80%D0%B0%D1%84_%D0%A1%D0%A8%D0%90?oldid=78338233 : Stassats, Kurochka,

368

10.1.

369

CodeMonk, Gruznov, Eugrus, OckhamTheFox, Fatal exception, Alex Ex, Mercury, Kver, The Wrong Man, Aformos, Asta~ruwiki,
Anton Khorev, , SardarNL, JAnDbot, Andrey Kartashov, Celest, L90, HeatSink, -., Lubir, Shardam22, Dmitry
Rozhkov, Alessin, Keinelust sfi, Qkowlew, Orgorg, LaaknorBot, Gintaras8182, Amirobot, Luckas-bot, JackieBot, Ole Frsten, Schrike,
Galaser, Bopsulai, Slava.kerner, EmausBot, Manco~ruwiki, , , WikitanvirBot, CocuBot, Movses-bot, KrBot,
Kasirbot, BoBink, MerlIwBot, MBHbot, Runner1616, Ikarakum, DENAMAX, Flomru, Rotorol, Serpent Vlad, Col. Hans Landa, Addbot,
Yourokc, Senya Gangubas, Merdiginn : 56
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9D%D0%B5%D0%BC%D0%BE%D0%B9_%D0%BA%
D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%B5%D0%BC%D0%B0%D1%82%D0%BE%D0%B3%D1%80%D0%B0%D1%84?oldid=78160414 : YurikBot, , Fatal exception, Mercury, Ghirlandajo, The Wrong Man, Razr, Asta~ruwiki, Altes, Osaviahimmash,
Putnik, Abune, Thijs!bot, , Celest, Bot-Schafter, VolkovBot, , Aibot, Be nt all, Cartwheel, TXiKiBoT,
SieBot, Loveless, NBS, , Klimenok, VVVBot, Ximik, Rubin16, Vitaly87, PixelBot, Ilya Mauter, OKBot,
, A Wooden One, Shcootsn, Zmier, Zmir, LatitudeBot, Rudi, Dronaty, Zaqq, , Uragan. TT, Abiyoyo, AVB, Luckas-bot,
Valentin 178, Ptbotgourou, Rubinbot, Romy1938, EROY, ArthurBot, AndreiK, Xqbot, Wild Mushroom, Dynasha, ,
MastiBot, Daryona, AntiKrisT, . , WindBot, Chel74, TobeBot, KamikazeBot, Das steinerne Herz, Horim, EmausBot,
Gerard, AbiyoyoBot, OneLittleMouse, Abzr, Oleg Yunakov, H2Bot, Binc, KrBot, WebCite Archiver, MerlIwBot, 1m0neS, MBHbot,
Runner1616, AvocatoBot, , SunRaiser, MisterFirst, Makecat-bot, Dimaniznik, Addbot, Alessandro din,
: 39
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A4%D1%80%D0%B0%D0%BD%D1%86%D1%83%
D0%B7%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%B0%D1%8F_%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%B0%D1%8F_%D0%B2%D0%BE%D0%BB%
D0%BD%D0%B0?oldid=76600609 : Robbot, Maximaximax, Paul Pogonyshev, Obersachse, Al Silonov, CodeMonk, Alex
Ex, Ghirlandajo, The Wrong Man, George Shuklin, Esp, ZsergheiBot, , Thijs!bot, MSBOT, Grenadine, Rei-bot, Ekamaloff,
Shureg, VolkovBot, TXiKiBoT, SieBot, Loveless, Ilyan, SilvonenBot, Zorrobot, Michaello, LaaknorBot, Gintaras8182, Luckas-bot,
Paul.BW, Rubinbot, Romy1938, GnawnBot, ArthurBot, TaBOT-zerem, PITON8888, Xqbot, MondalorBot, RedBot, KamikazeBot,
Dinamik-bot, Das steinerne Herz, Smertrius, Slava.kerner, EmausBot, Rael3, GrouchoBot, Damien86, Nosachevd, WikitanvirBot,
1971, Baden-Paul, Grinski, MerlIwBot, , Addbot, Gabacha ru, Alexlapkin : 25
, : https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%90%D0%BD%D0%B4%D0%B5%D1%80%D1%81%D0%
BE%D0%BD%2C_%D0%9B%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%B4%D1%81%D0%B5%D0%B9?oldid=77372561 : Smig, Insider,
, Escarbot, PBot, Andrey Kartashov, CommonsDelinker, VolkovBot, TXiKiBoT, ShinePhantom, SieBot, Monfornot,
Shcootsn, VlsergeyBot, Dronaty, Qkowlew, Sinednov, Atia, Luckas-bot, Sudzuki Erina, Peterburg23, , ,
Shchebetenko, , Tockman, A.sav, Rael3, LhBot, ZroBot, IronSlave, LankLinkBot, Toothless, Movses-bot, KrBot, MerlIwBot,
MBHbot, Sealle, Klemm1, TemirovBot : 7
, : https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%91%D0%B5%D1%80%D1%82%D0%BE%D0%BB%
D1%83%D1%87%D1%87%D0%B8%2C_%D0%91%D0%B5%D1%80%D0%BD%D0%B0%D1%80%D0%B4%D0%BE?oldid=
76275782 : Maximaximax, Dodonov, HedgeBot, Sherlock, Dmitry Gerasimov, Bison~ruwiki, Serguei S. Dukachev, Yurik,
YurikBot, Butko, CodeMonk, CodeMonkBot, , JaroslavleffBot, Zimin.V.G., Fatal exception, Alex Ex,
, KR, Ghirlandajo, The Wrong Man, Koterpillar, Escarbot, Thijs!bot, JAnDbot, PBot, Andrey Kartashov, CommonsDelinker,
CategoryBot, Celest, DorganBot, VolkovBot, TottyBot, TXiKiBoT, Chath, SieBot, Loveless, BotMultichill, INSAR,
, EvilTeeth, Worobiew, , Ilyan, Zmir, VlsergeyBot, Redfighter, , Jenes, Borisich, EugeneKA, Luckas-bot,
Obersachsebot, ArthurBot, Satiksme, Peterburg23, Xqbot, Hairovich, P.NaZ, Stella Rose, Hovhannes, JuliaVictoria, VAP+VYK,
Horim, , Ggri, Ripchip Bot, Mvk608, EmausBot, Dianar, , Gerard, Rarik, VIbot, Max Guinness, GrouchoBot,
ZroBot, Alrofficial, Babk Akifolu, OneLittleMouse, H2Bot, StarDeg, KIRILL1995, KrBot, Rayn152, WebCite Archiver, Kasirbot,
Rubinbot III, W2Bot, MBHbot, , , , , Pafnutiy, Marykelz, Cinemafan, 762bot, Rafojan,
Ivanaivanova, NN21, Bertonsa, TheVovaNik, Addbot : 43
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%91%D1%80%D0%B0%D1%82%D1%8C%D1%8F_%D0%9A%D0%
BE%D1%8D%D0%BD?oldid=77877165 : YurikBot, Stassats, Amoses, Chobot, , Dolgan, Fatal exception, KR, Sasha
Krotov, Infermux, Smig, Ghirlandajo, The Wrong Man, Dima373, Lamerkhav, Infovarius, Sasha l, Omerta13, Lute88, Putnik, Max
Maximov~ruwiki, Thijs!bot, PBot, , Andrey Kartashov, CategoryBot, Simulacrum, , Rei-bot, VolkovBot,
Redmond Barry, Lohmatyi, TXiKiBoT, Parinov, Chath, Korvin fas, SieBot, Viktorianec, 2zh, , Iakov, Eugen11,
Mariluna, , Fuky duky, Destroyer ru, , BOTarate, Xtreamr, BodhisattvaBot, Oblam, UR3IRS, Alessin,
SilvonenBot, Alecs.bot, Levm, RealaNT, Atia, Muro Bot, AVB, Luckas-bot, Ptbotgourou, Riad.Bot~ruwiki, Rubinbot, JackieBot, Const
st, Vedya, Obersachsebot, ArthurBot, , Xplodr, Gaelic Storm, Velfr, Peterburg23, Xqbot, Etomonick, AntonST, , SerYoga, Sabunero, Dinamik-bot, Funkhauser, Horim, , EmausBot, Mr.Linderman, Vajrapani, Roboconvallaria, ,
Gerard, Rael3, Max Guinness, Alrofficial, CSR, LarBot, Illya Egorov, Jul-Ar, , 2323, KIRILL1995, KrBot, Ca7,
WebCite Archiver, W2Bot, MBHbot, Sealle, Sozertsatel, Sostav Vagonov, NiklemBot, Live to dead, RotlinkBot, INSIBAR, TheVovaNik,
Addbot, , , Engelberthumperdink, BASant, Q-bit array : 91
, : https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%92%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%B4%D0%B5%D1%80%D1%81%2C_
%D0%92%D0%B8%D0%BC?oldid=78142977 : Monedula, YurikBot, Butko, Stassats, JaroslavleffBot, Fatal exception, Alex
Ex, KR, Lite, Smig, The Wrong Man, Esp, Thijs!bot, JAnDbot, PBot, Andrey Kartashov, Celest, VolkovBot, Nikser, ButkoBot,
TXiKiBoT, Teodor, SieBot, , Vermont's candle, OKBot, , BOTarate, VlsergeyBot, Rudi, , Dr.mabuse,
Luckas-bot, Mischa G, Obersachsebot, Pyclanmap, Peterburg23, Serg Fr, Lori-m, Dlom, Igor Fedenko, Horim, , TjBot, V Borisov,
LhBot, LankLinkBot, , KIRILL1995, KrBot, WebCite Archiver, Vagobot, AvocatoBot, Dutcman, Sozertsatel, Jossian,
Makecat-bot, Col. Hans Landa, INSIBAR, Johncoltonsmith, EvRubot : 16
, - : https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%93%D0%BE%D0%B4%D0%B0%D1%80%2C_%D0%96%D0%
B0%D0%BD-%D0%9B%D1%8E%D0%BA?oldid=78082661 : YurikBot, Butko, Al Silonov, Amoses, Gruznov, Softy, Volkov,
Zimin.V.G., Zserghei, Fatal exception, Alex Ex, , Taurus, KR, VanHelsing.16, Lite, Grey horse, Poa, Ghirlandajo, The
Wrong Man, Frantony, , Infovarius, Omatosan, Esp, Anton Khorev, Escarbot, ZsergheiBot, , Thijs!bot, MSBOT,
JAnDbot, PBot, , CommonsDelinker, VolkovBot, Aibot, TXiKiBoT, Edwin33, Kinzer, SieBot, INSAR, , Dmitry Rozhkov, , OKBot, Alexbot, Shcootsn, BOTarate, BodhisattvaBot, Sotin, AlanNova, VlsergeyBot,
Sinednov, Jenes, Shavlovsky, Pessimist2006, Robokukla, Luckas-bot, WikiDreamer Bot, Igel B TyMaHe, Rubinbot, JackieBot, Jotterbot,
Paolo77, Springhead, , Peterburg23, Serg Fr, Xqbot, Schekinov Alexey Victorovich, , Ofcontrol, Stella Rose, Vita
kan, Ddd-www, Hovhannes, MondalorBot, SerYoga, TobeBot, Tditp, Horim, , TjBot, EmausBot, , Baccy, Max

370

10. ,

Guinness, Nosachevd, , H2Bot, Konsthar, Ernest Musin, KrBot, Calendar Man, Vladislav 133, AvocatoBot, Kareyac, Giulini,
Sozertsatel, Cinemafan, YFdyh-bot, Khazarsk, Live to dead, Addbot, Nataliagoryunova, BASant, NapalmBot : 41
, : https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%93%D1%80%D0%B8%D1%84%D1%84%D0%B8%D1%
82%2C_%D0%94%D1%8D%D0%B2%D0%B8%D0%B4_%D0%A3%D0%BE%D1%80%D0%BA?oldid=74834515 : Alma
Pater, Zimin.V.G., Ghirlandajo, Chakat Rimm, Osaviahimmash, JAnDbot, PBot, Blacklake, EvgenyGenkin, Andrey Kartashov, Vaya,
Celest, VolkovBot, Danmer, Idioma-bot, TXiKiBoT, Stirh, ShinePhantom, 1, SieBot, INS Pirat, Loveless, BotMultichill, , VVVBot, Shcootsn, Zmier, Zmir, VlsergeyBot, BotSottile, Dronaty, Zorrobot, Rubinbot, Obersachsebot, ArthurBot,
Xqbot, Asfarer, Nonexyst, Skip01, , BokimBot, Gizzatullin, RedBot, DDC, Dinamik-bot, Das steinerne Herz, Valdis72,
EmausBot, Racconish, Gerard, GrouchoBot, ZroBot, LankLinkBot, Dibot, Alexdkx, Dimanski, Byzantine, Stif Komar, KrBot, Sealle,
ERJANIK, Valdaec, Giulini, Jossian, YFdyh-bot, TheVovaNik, Addbot, Alessandro din : 14
, : https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%94%D0%B6%D0%B0%D1%80%D0%BC%D1%83%D1%88%
2C_%D0%94%D0%B6%D0%B8%D0%BC?oldid=78513690 : Monedula, Maximaximax, Paul Pogonyshev, YurikBot,
Sembler, Solon, Amakuha, Ilya78, Fatal exception, Alex Ex, KR, Lite, Poa, Pauk, The Wrong Man, , Asta~ruwiki, RuED,
Esp, , User101, Max Maximov~ruwiki, , Thijs!bot, JAnDbot, PBot, Andrey Kartashov, Rei-bot, Idioma-bot,
Shade, Aibot, TXiKiBoT, Lola Voss, Chath, Ingumsky, ShinePhantom, SieBot, Viktorianec, , Apsheronets, Worobiew,
, , Alexbot, , Zmir, SilvonenBot, VlsergeyBot, , Hard TON, Robokukla, Luckas-bot,
Body-Head, ArthurBot, Peterburg23, MerlLinkBot, Hairovich, 49er, , Jim Fitzgerald, Pavel.nps, Letoile85, Bunkar, Horim,
Nimbie95, Gerard, Max Guinness, ZroBot, LankLinkBot, OneLittleMouse, , KrBot, Wiki awer, Sealle, Sondra~ruwiki,
BattlePeasant, Morbus Reagan, Makecat-bot, Col. Hans Landa, Live to dead, RotlinkBot, INSIBAR, , Addbot : 27
, : https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%94%D0%B6%D0%B5%D0%BA%D1%81%D0%BE%D0%BD%
2C_%D0%9F%D0%B8%D1%82%D0%B5%D1%80?oldid=76173458 : Maximaximax, Thaliorne, YurikBot, Butko, , KokoBot~ruwiki, CodeMonk, Grinkod, AlexTsar, Winterheart, Fatal exception, KR, MaxSem, Ghirlandajo, The Wrong
Man, BotCat, Alex Usoltsev, Infovarius, Hellagood, Pahan, Escarbot, Putnik, ZsergheiBot, , Kei, Thijs!bot, PBot, DirectX,
Moscvitch, Alex Spade, CommonsDelinker, Alex Smotrov, Rei-bot, VolkovBot, Aleksandrit, Timur Maisak, Oleggins, Aibot, Anthonyfwwm, Chath, D-Gun, Lvova, -., SieBot, Majestik, Rigg, Frieze, AlleborgoBot, Worobiew, Mariluna, Bahatur, DragonBot,
Vermont's candle, RoadTrain, Ilya Mauter, DarkCherry, SilvonenBot, VlsergeyBot, Dronaty, AVB, Luckas-bot, WikiDreamer Bot,
Ptbotgourou, Rubinbot, Marina Pankova, ArthurBot, LasVegasBoy, Wikiarius, Sust, Peterburg23, Xqbot, ,
, D'ohBot, , Daryona, WindBot, Chel74, JuliaVictoria, SerYoga, Sabunero, VAP+VYK, Thecakeisalie.bot, El Mario,
Vikeke, Zombiyaic, Igor Fedenko, Horim, , Troy344, Mvk608, EmausBot, 09, Arbnos, Drakosh, , Gerard,
Rael3, Max Guinness, Alrofficial, LarBot, Byzantine, Alexxhn, WikitanvirBot, Lord Sedorf, Alexey2244, Movses-bot, KIRILL1995,
KrBot, WebCite Archiver, Kasirbot, , MerlIwBot, Dulat K, FantaZR, Matty Dean, Rosa M, Alex93~ruwiki, VladVD,
', , Dunadan Ranger, Makecat-bot, YFdyh-bot, Dubrovin S., , DvoreBot, Addbot, Realmad,
AlexanderVO, Citing Bot, Sc D, Ivanescence87, Imaginary Rainbow, Simplex91 : 83
, : https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%B0%D1%80%D0%BD%D0%B5%2C_%D0%9C%D0%
B0%D1%80%D1%81%D0%B5%D0%BB%D1%8C?oldid=78829018 : Butko, DeC, Qqshk, Smig, Ghirlandajo, , Escarbot, Thijs!bot, PBot, Mishustix, TXiKiBoT, Vs64vs, Loveless, Viktorianec, , , Shcootsn, Sotin,
Zmir, VlsergeyBot, , Milantony, LaaknorBot, Luckas-bot, Romy1938, Peterburg23, Serg Fr, Moscow Connection, Adavyd, Max
Guinness, OooRoSeooO, Damien86, , Haffman, KrBot, Kareyac, Giulini, Vigoshi, Llecco, Addbot, MarchHare1977
: 8
, : https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%B0%D1%80%D0%BF%D0%B5%D0%BD%D1%
82%D0%B5%D1%80%2C_%D0%94%D0%B6%D0%BE%D0%BD?oldid=78520445 : Snch, YurikBot, ,
CodeMonk, Softy, CodeMonkBot, KR, Cyr, Ilich, Esp, Escarbot, Putnik, Max Maximov~ruwiki, , Thijs!bot, INside, PBot,
Blacklake, , , Celest, VolkovBot, Redmond Barry, TXiKiBoT, Xatar, Int ft, Cantor, Rigg, BotMultichill,
, Dr Jorgen, BodhisattvaBot, VlsergeyBot, Johnnnyz, Uragan. TT, Eichel-Streiber, Peti610bot, Michaello, MystBot,
Luckas-bot, Ptbotgourou, Rubinbot, Mykola Granovskiy, Peterburg23, Xqbot, MerlLinkBot, Schekinov Alexey Victorovich,
, Nonexyst, Account Esp, JuliaVictoria, Kubik4ka, Anaxibia, Fauust, EmausBot, GrV, SpecialAdviser, Max Guinness, Polonium
o, ChuispastonBot, Alexey2244, KrBot, FreekNik, U.Steele, Rezabot, , MerlIwBot, Sealle, Godzira, Piper Kruger, Addbot,
., Sleepy-city, BASant, Domnight, NapalmBot : 20
, : https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D1%8D%D0%BC%D0%B5%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%
BD%2C_%D0%94%D0%B6%D0%B5%D0%B9%D0%BC%D1%81?oldid=78335856 : Fred, Snch, Sergei Frolov, Ilya
Voyager, YurikBot, Butko, CodeMonk, Boleslav1, Solon, CodeMonkBot, ID burn, Vald, KR, MaxSem, Doomych, DR, Insider,
MeaWr77, Esp, Tempus, Milton, Rodion 4000+, Escarbot, Saahov, Putnik, ZsergheiBot, , Idot, Thijs!bot, PBot, ,
Nickispeaki, Beaumain, Rei-bot, VolkovBot, Shade, Aibot, TXiKiBoT, RedAndr, Vs64vs, Chath, ShinePhantom, DmitTrix, Newt,
Hormold, SieBot, Dinamik, , INS Pirat, Loveless, Niklem, , VicTur, Romson, Mariluna, Versak, Sspeik,
DragonBot, , Alexbot, Andvik, Skazi, Kkk2007, VlsergeyBot, Dronaty, Alecs.bot, Xanten, Fractaler, Laim, Retimus,
Atia, Manscreed, LaaknorBot, AVB, VikLord, Luckas-bot, Alex Alex Lep, Rubinbot, JackieBot, Sergius1989, ,
WindEwriX, Sz-iwbot, -, Obersachsebot, RipleR, Mistery Spectre, , Vfcz, Devnetwork, Ace111,
Peterburg23, Xqbot, Chet Alex, Valka, Abzamo, P.NaZ, Schrike, , JuliaVictoria, , Serious Jack, SerYoga, VAP+VYK,
Maksa, TobeBot, Tpyvvikky, Biathlon, Convallaria majalis, Vikeke, Horim, , TjBot, Distorted, Andrey Case, Mystery train,
Jmurka, EmausBot, Roniro, Virusjam, NikalasG, 2, Gamliel Fishkin, Muy rico rico, Superdambldor, SpecialAdviser, Gerard,
Loki rain, Max Guinness, ZroBot, Michael Verevkin, Alrofficial, , Iloil, OneLittleMouse, Sifflerzzz, LarBot, Mullanur,
Toothless, , Wikifido, Den1980-, H2Bot, Alexey2244, , , Stopydov, KIRILL1995, KrBot, WebCite Archiver,
Roswell.Wiki, Sealle, AvocatoBot, FantaZR, Jusbonumque, Well-Informed Optimist, Oleg-ch, Zoname, Higimo, Pfr46, DimitriusNeus,
NiklemBot, Alexsandr99, Col. Hans Landa, Dubrovin S., DvoreBot, Kielfartas, Addbot, Smirnoff Oleg, Grirol, ,
., Animaloid, Citing Bot, , Adjanybekov, LeninVtumane, : 240
, : https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9B%D0%B8%D0%BD%D1%87%2C_%D0%94%D1%8D%D0%B2%
D0%B8%D0%B4?oldid=78876588 : YurikBot, Butko, PuzzletChung, Amoses, CodeMonk, Solon, Zwobot, Lupus~ruwiki,
Winterheart, , Homunculu, Dolgan, Fatal exception, ID burn, KR, VanHelsing.16, Pauk, Ghirlandajo, The Wrong
Man, Spanish loyalist, Alex Usoltsev, , Escarbot, ZsergheiBot, Max Maximov~ruwiki, N v g, Thijs!bot, BLISTHRV,
JAnDbot, PBot, Lt. Golan, Andrey Kartashov, Rei-bot, Redmond Barry, Shade, Lohmatyi, ButkoBot, TXiKiBoT, Grey Wanderer~ruwiki,

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371

Anthony-fwwm, Mevo, Chath, Garik 11, Newt, Wormantson, SieBot, Ockhamite, Buzz Lightyear, Dmitry Rozhkov, Starless, , , Herzeleid usurped~ruwiki, , Shcootsn, Zmier, LatitudeBot, SilvonenBot, Bff, VlsergeyBot, Dronaty,
Almost famous, Letmedrown, AmphBot, Phoenix720, Luckas-bot, Wanwa, Nallimbot, Rubinbot, Obersachsebot, Tash Franko, NobelBot,
Peterburg23, Numba, Ole Frsten, P.NaZ, , Van Helsing, Agno~ruwiki, , 1212, Seryo93, , TobeBot, Horim, , EmausBot, V Borisov, Mikhail V., Max Guinness, Besprincipniy, RainbowUnicorn, Babk
Akifolu, AKBot, ChuispastonBot, Den1980-, H2Bot, WikitanvirBot, Cinemantique, Ra.ua, , KrBot, WebCite Archiver,
MBHbot, Sealle, Dutcman, Storm in heaven, Sozertsatel, Inversitus, , Col. Hans Landa, INSIBAR, TheVovaNik, RMEATme,
Nad.Chel, Addbot, , Olya Vlasova, Jdontfight, BASant, Citing Bot, RinzlerTron, Unherbalthing, Dmitriy Kulimanov AS
: 102
, : https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9B%D1%83%D0%BA%D0%B0%D1%81%2C_%D0%94%D0%
B6%D0%BE%D1%80%D0%B4%D0%B6?oldid=78920294 : Zanimum, Torin, YurikBot, Butko, A.I., PuzzletChung, Eugrus,
CodeMonkBot, OckhamTheFox, Winterheart, KR, MaxSem, Ghirlandajo, DR, Maxxicum, Putnik, Thijs!bot, JAnDbot, PBot,
, Alex Spade, REBOOTING, CommonsDelinker, Alex Smotrov, DorganBot, VolkovBot, Redmond Barry, Shade, SpadeBot,
Ashik, TXiKiBoT, 1, Conan the Barbarian, Homo Computeris, SieBot, Peni, Loveless, Frieze, Fidel1ty, BotMultichill, Riki
tiki tavi, Yakiv Gluck, AlleborgoBot, , Svin0, Tomahiv, , Alexbot, , Daradali,
Vovazl, LatitudeBot, SilvonenBot, VlsergeyBot, Dronaty, K.moroz, MelancholieBot, Longbowman, Peti610bot, Zorrobot, ,
Michaello, 001, AVB, Luckas-bot, Jotterbot, Yonidebot, Obersachsebot, ArthurBot, Petechet, Negent, Xqbot, GhalyBot, Stella
Rose, Aikr, Chel74, JuliaVictoria, , Vladimir Rychenkov, SerYoga, VAP+VYK, RedBot, Krassotkin, Inewsneg, Smiga big,
, Seryozha B, MotnahpBot, Tockman, EmausBot, Mr.Linderman, Drakosh, Gerard, Baccy, Max Guinness, , Arusland,
Bogobor, OneLittleMouse, , TatyanaR, , Maxtrayxer, Lady777, Movses-bot, KrBot, Okna Rosta,
Zooro-Patriot, WebCite Archiver, Kasirbot, Spillik, MBHbot, Sealle, , Olglagol, ERJANIK, RotlinkBot, DvoreBot, Addbot,
., Citing Bot, , Q-bit array, LeninVtumane, Imaginary Rainbow : 91
, : https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9C%D0%B5%D0%BB%D1%8C%D0%B5%D1%81%2C_%D0%
96%D0%BE%D1%80%D0%B6?oldid=71890906 : Robbot, Paul Pogonyshev, YurikBot, A.I., Okman, ,
CodeMonk, Softy, Imageman, CodeMonkBot, , Zimin.V.G., KR, Cyr, Ghirlandajo, The Wrong Man, Escarbot, Thijs!bot,
JAnDbot, PBot, CommonsDelinker, DorganBot, Abatishchev, VolkovBot, Idioma-bot, Shade, TXiKiBoT, Stirh, , SieBot,
YonaBot, Fedyakov, Samal, , Zet-l, Scream13, Saidaziz, Shcootsn, Zmier, Zmir, AlanNova, Bff, VlsergeyBot, Dronaty,
Uragan. TT, LaaknorBot, AVB, Roadjack, Luckas-bot, Rubinbot, JackieBot, Obersachsebot, Vasyatka1, Xqbot, Kolchak1923, Schrike,
D'ohBot, Daryona, , Gizzatullin, VAP+VYK, TobeBot, Poindexter, Horim, Movie-man, EmausBot, Letagur, Maximagic, Rarik,
Ecobux, Max Guinness, GrouchoBot, ZroBot, Brattarb, Hatch48, WikitanvirBot, , 22, StarDeg, KrBot, WebCite
Archiver, Hoursmary, Okorok, Philip J.1987qazwsx, MerlIwBot, MBHbot, Sealle, Dutcman, , , JYBot,
Addbot, Zolf J. Kimbli : 24
, : https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9D%D0%BE%D0%BB%D0%B0%D0%BD%2C_%D0%
9A%D1%80%D0%B8%D1%81%D1%82%D0%BE%D1%84%D0%B5%D1%80?oldid=78654137 : Salexey, Vlad2000Plus,
Ghirlandajo, Escarbot, Max Maximov~ruwiki, Thijs!bot, PBot, Blacklake, Alex Spade, VolkovBot, Timur Maisak, TXiKiBoT,
Vs64vs, Chath, SieBot, Yakiv Gluck, David.s.kats, DragonBot, , , VlsergeyBot, Dronaty, Luckas-bot, Nallimbot,
Ptbotgourou, Rubinbot, JackieBot, Vedya, Krupcheck, ArthurBot, Dirk~ruwiki, Vfcz, Xqbot, Timroll, Yahel~ruwiki, AntiKrisT, Chel74,
JuliaVictoria, Password, Denverus, Sabunero, TobeBot, Nogin, KamikazeBot, GreatMerlin, Vikeke, Horim, , Mrfett, Calibrux,
Troy344, Valdis72, EmausBot, Mr.Linderman, Gimme moaR, Duduziq, Keraunoscopia, AndreyIGOSHEV, Max Guinness, ZroBot,
Qenlum, LankLinkBot, OneLittleMouse, Toothless, Wikifido, ChuispastonBot, Alexxhn, Jul-Ar, Scanner62, Andsup97, Alexey2244,
Krylovech, , KrBot, WebCite Archiver, U.Steele, Minkhairov Arthur, , MerlIwBot, W2Bot, Spillik, Sealle,
Ikarakum, Romaniys, Rampion, Draa kul, Shal.george, Sozertsatel, Svkov2, Square enix, YFdyh-bot, Ilnurrifle, Col. Hans Landa,
Live to dead, Abdelporerkesha, ManFromNord, Holuwet96, Addbot, Aldyin265837, Commandos-rus, PTomchik91, Sleepy-city,
Robingoodrussia, , Coolik08, AveTory : 121
, : https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9F%D1%80%D0%B5%D1%81%D1%81%D0%B1%
D1%83%D1%80%D0%B3%D0%B5%D1%80%2C_%D0%AD%D0%BC%D0%B5%D1%80%D0%B8%D1%85?oldid=76425689
: Ghirlandajo, PBot, , Abatishchev, TXiKiBoT, Vs64vs, 1, , Worobiew, Shcootsn,
VlsergeyBot, LaaknorBot, Luckas-bot, TwoPizza, Dlom, JuliaVictoria, EmausBot, VIbot, GrouchoBot, Mcowkin, StarDeg, KrBot,
WebCite Archiver, Wiki awer, W2Bot Llecco
, : https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A0%D0%B5%D0%BD%D1%83%D0%B0%D1%80%2C_%D0%96%
D0%B0%D0%BD?oldid=78830437 : YurikBot, Al Silonov, DeC, CodeMonkBot, Zimin.V.G., Pls, KR, Smig, Escarbot, Max
Maximov~ruwiki, Thijs!bot, PBot, CommonsDelinker, CategoryBot, Rei-bot, Timur Maisak, Newt, TarzanASG, SieBot, Loveless,
Viktorianec, AlleborgoBot, , DragonBot, OKBot, , Alexbot, Shcootsn, Zmier, Zmir, VlsergeyBot,
Dronaty, Dr.mabuse, Luckas-bot, 70, Obersachsebot, ArthurBot, Botaurus, Qweedsa, Serg Fr, Convallaria majalis, Vikeke, ,
Tockman, EmausBot, Skryabin-ua, Max Guinness, ZroBot, Damien86, JeanneMish, Emelya1966, ChuispastonBot, StarDeg, KrBot,
Sealle, OldDragon, Vigoshi, , Addbot, Ser-Lag, : 10
, : https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A0%D0%B8%D1%87%D0%B0%D1%80%D0%B4%D1%81%
D0%BE%D0%BD%2C_%D0%A2%D0%BE%D0%BD%D0%B8?oldid=76830740 : Robbot, Solon, Volkov, Vald, KR, Insider,
Esp, Thijs!bot, PBot, , Celest, Rei-bot, Shureg, VolkovBot, Chath, SieBot, INS Pirat, Loveless, Viktorianec,
AlleborgoBot, Victor-435, PinkPanther, VlsergeyBot, Sinednov, Maxim Mironenko, Rubinbot, Obersachsebot, Peterburg23, Serg Fr,
Broadbot, Stella Rose, LucienBOT, Fanikuler, JuliaVictoria, Shchebetenko, , Dead Mars, , Mvk608, Max Guinness, ZroBot,
Alrofficial, Ilovke, StarDeg, KIRILL1995, KrBot, Valdaec, Dutcman, YFdyh-bot, , Addbot, : 10
, : https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A0%D0%BE%D0%B4%D1%80%D0%B8%D0%B3%D0%B5%
D1%81%2C_%D0%A0%D0%BE%D0%B1%D0%B5%D1%80%D1%82?oldid=78677742 : Obersachse, YurikBot, Butko,
Alma Pater, Okman, Chobot, OckhamTheFox, Cheops, Skripov, Vald, KR, Fireman, The Wrong Man, Partizan bosnuk, Andrei
G Kustov, Danvintius Bookix, Putnik, ZsergheiBot, Idot, Thijs!bot, PBot, , Blacklake, BetBot~ruwiki, Rei-bot,
VolkovBot, Redmond Barry, Shade, Aibot, TXiKiBoT, Chath, Vdbv, 1, SieBot, Peni, Loveless, BotMultichill, AlleborgoBot,
Ockhamite, , , GreenStork, VlsergeyBot, Drummer, Xanten, , , Michaello,
Atia, Luckas-bot, Rubinbot, ArthurBot, TaBOT-zerem, PITON8888, Mykola Granovskiy, Xqbot, Nemesismax, , SerYoga,
LingertonShagwell, Kelv~ruwiki, Moosin, , Paul A., GreenStorks bot, TjBot, Valdis72, Johny-sam, EmausBot, Fay2005,

372

10. ,

Mr.Linderman, Luther Selecta, , Max Guinness, ZroBot, , LarBot, Oleg Yunakov, Wikifido, Den1980-, JulAr, AntonSafronov, , KrBot, , (1989) , Dutcman, 200, Col. Hans Landa, Mellentin, Addbot,
Sleepy-city, 1983, Citing Bot, Q-bit array, DiTro : 58
, : https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A1%D0%BA%D0%BE%D1%80%D1%81%D0%B5%D0%B7%
D0%B5%2C_%D0%9C%D0%B0%D1%80%D1%82%D0%B8%D0%BD?oldid=78781057 : Komap, , Obersachse,
YurikBot, , Egor, CodeMonk, CodeMonkBot, OckhamTheFox, Volkov, Zimin.V.G., Fatal exception, Vald, KR,
Neko~ruwiki, Batareikin, Alex Kassarin, Ghirlandajo, The Wrong Man, Esp, Mona, Escarbot, ZsergheiBot, , Thijs!bot,
JAnDbot, PBot, Moscvitch, Andrey Kartashov, , Alex Smotrov, Celest, Rei-bot, Nick F0x, Massalim, VolkovBot,
Shade, TXiKiBoT, Chath, , Synthebot, SieBot, YonaBot, Peni, Frieze, Shardam22, Niklem, , Svin0,
Bortorix, DragonBot, , Vermont's candle, DamiRRR, Ilya Mauter, OKBot, Mozenrath, , , Blackguardfenix, Darkicebot, LatitudeBot, Alessin, Dec16, SilvonenBot, VlsergeyBot, Dronaty, MelancholieBot, Track13,
Longbowman, Vanuan, Zorrobot, Michaello, AVB, Luckas-bot, Zeugene, Rubinbot, JackieBot, EROY, Obersachsebot, Red ball,
Peterburg23, AAT, Xqbot, DumZiBoT, D'ohBot, Umka2002, Borodun, , , Bondar-rossoneri, Sermal, , SerYoga, VAP+VYK, RedBot, Levon13, Lrk2005, Vikeke, Fauust, Letzte*Spieler, Horim, , TjBot,
Valdis72, Tockman, EmausBot, Mr.Linderman, Nyura, Jazzfan777, Gerard, 10, Rael3, Max Guinness, Alrofficial, Brattarb,
Centurion198, LankLinkBot, Ilovke, MGriBot, Wikifido, Andrybak, , Movses-bot, 4.20, HovhannesKarapetyan,
KIRILL1995, KrBot, Natalia.Marti, MBHbot, Yurassic, Vagobot, Sealle, Klemm1, Dorrisday, Dutcman, Flomru, Vokrug-tv, Tite mof,
200, Square enix, NiklemBot, , Live to dead, !, , INSIBAR, Dubrovin S., Vito
Buenaventura, Aaleksanyants, Addbot, Citing Bot, , TemirovBot : 100
, : https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A1%D0%BF%D0%B8%D0%BB%D0%B1%D0%B5%D1%80%
D0%B3%2C_%D0%A1%D1%82%D0%B8%D0%B2%D0%B5%D0%BD?oldid=78912266 : AntonioK, YurikBot, Butko,
, CodeMonk, Bepa, Zwobot, CodeMonkBot, Winterheart, Nzeemin, Homunculu, Arruah, Vald, Edricson, KR, MaxSem,
Vlad2000Plus, Doomych, Yaleks, BotCat, Ace^eVg, , , IndianaJones, Esp, Tempus, Milton, Yury
Romanov, Escarbot, Bertow, Kei, Thijs!bot, Spy1986, Aps, PBot, CV, , Tigga, CommonsDelinker, CategoryBot,
QualinToron, Simulacrum, SJaguar, Alex Smotrov, Celest, VasilievVV, VolkovBot, Idioma-bot, Redmond Barry, Shade, DeerChum,
SpadeBot, Minia~ruwiki, Aibot, ButkoBot, TXiKiBoT, KENT light, Vs64vs, Vladimir Ivanov, Chath, Conan the Barbarian, SieBot, INS
Pirat, Loveless, Gerakibot, Rigg, Frieze, Testus, Fidel1ty, BotMultichill, Yakiv Gluck, Frommy, Delog, Super Bionic, Niklem, , Agent001, Mariluna, Ehlzas, Rubin16, DENker, , Vermont's candle, RoadTrain, OKBot, Skazi, GreenStork,
SiPlus, LatitudeBot, , VlsergeyBot, Nick Korotya, Dronaty, MelancholieBot, Laim, WorkedOut, Deinocheirus, , , Michaello, Atia, Pessimist2006, LaaknorBot, 001, AVB, Roadjack, Luckas-bot, Paul.BW, 70,
Andrew1994, Rubinbot, Lazyhawk, , , Vedya, Roman Lagunov, ArthurBot, Gromolyak, Qo.0p, Alex Levy,
Dewaere, Devnetwork, Peterburg23, AAT, Serg Fr, Xqbot, SassoBot, , Schekinov Alexey Victorovich, Tutaishy,
P.NaZ, Alexkaruk, N13n13, D'ohBot, Sigwald, TwoPizza, Vigilait, WindBot, JuliaVictoria, Pericluss, , Maloy94, ,
SerYoga, VAP+VYK, Vx68, Krassotkin, , Convallaria majalis, Winnyara, Vikeke, JenVan, Yarosx, Horim, , Ripchip
Bot, Wikidrakon, Tockman, EmausBot, Arbnos, Mr.Linderman, Iamromanov, Kalendar, Jazzfan777, Gerard, Max Guinness, ZroBot,
Helgi-S, Alrofficial, , LankLinkBot, LarBot, , Toothless, Vyacheslav Basko, MGriBot, Wikifido, , H2Bot, Byzantine, Andrybak, Berionar, Jul-Ar, Alexey2244, , 2323, CocuBot, Phoenixlive,
Movses-bot, KIRILL1995, KrBot, Nmalevich, Mauser98k, Zooro-Patriot, Rayn152, WebCite Archiver, Baden-Paul, ,
Ruw, -, Rubinbot III, Vagobot, D7eamer, Sealle, Saint Johann, DENAMAX, ERJANIK, , Without imagination,
Makeev1, ZomBear, Emilianka, , , Vt-808, 200, Alexsandr99, Alexxsun, I.G.I.cool, ManFromNord,
DvoreBot, Mellentin, Addbot, Jane Scholar, ., Xiphactinus88, EdikRyabinin, , MarchHare1977, Hlundi,
Citing Bot, , Q-bit array, , Alex NB IT, LeninVtumane, , Imaginary Rainbow,
: 276
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A2%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%B5%D1%86_%D0%9B%D0%
BE%D0%B8_%D0%A4%D1%83%D0%BB%D0%BB%D0%B5%D1%80?oldid=78266712 : Vs64vs, Ufim, Zmier, Kinoadmirer, . , Varlaam, Valdis72, EmausBot, , , , Runner1616, Addbot, SergeyBot, Cap1000 :
4
, : https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A2%D0%B0%D1%80%D0%B0%D0%BD%D1%82%D0%
B8%D0%BD%D0%BE%2C_%D0%9A%D0%B2%D0%B5%D0%BD%D1%82%D0%B8%D0%BD?oldid=78778151
:
Maximaximax, Dodonov, Paul Pogonyshev, Obersachse, Skor, Acpavel, Yantar, JukoFF, YurikBot, Butko, Stassats, A.I., Alma Pater,
, Mr. Bot, KokoBot~ruwiki, APTEM, Solon, Zwobot, AnnI, CodeMonkBot, , Exlex, Alex Ex, Vald, KR,
Ghirlandajo, The Wrong Man, Vow, Sniukashch, Alex Usoltsev, I1481, , Predator~ruwiki, Sasha l, , Putnik,
ZsergheiBot, Max Maximov~ruwiki, , Thijs!bot, MSBOT, , , JAnDbot, PBot, ,
Blacklake, BetBot~ruwiki, SinkenGata, Alex Smotrov, Bot-Schafter, VolkovBot, DodekBot~ruwiki, Idioma-bot, Shade, TXiKiBoT,
Edwin33, Chath, 1, Deerstop, SieBot, Evermore, Peni, UncleMartin, Zorg 4ever, Nwchades, BotMultichill, Dubbase, Niklem,
, Tomahiv, Agent001, Dmitry Rozhkov, Mariluna, , Eugene M, 416C74, Mosn, ToePeu.bot, DragonBot,
, Saidaziz, Sociopat, , Bitobor, GreenStork, Green-57, Grock, BlackPahan, Bff, VlsergeyBot, Drummer,
Dronaty, Keinelust sfi, Xanten, Tass-ural, Andreykor, Hammunculs, S.Serous, , Almost famous, Orlovivan, Michaello,
LaaknorBot, Luckas-bot, Paul.BW, Alex Alex Lep, , 70, Kelisa, Postoronniy-13, Pieter Baas, Romy1938, WindEwriX,
Springhead, Vedya, Obersachsebot, Gromolyak, PITON8888, Bechamel, , LordPS, Perituss, Zlatane, Xqbot, LimeHat,
GAndy, Tutaishy, Dynasha, GRB080, Hate And War, , Wherehardcase, D'ohBot, Astamur, Sigwald, StVit, Wild Child, Fanikuler,
Aleksandr N. Natarov, Dr.AMik, WindBot, Chel74, , Kinofan33345, , SerYoga, , Anaxibia, Krassotkin,
Sergeisemenoff, Mr.White, Dinamik-bot, , Convallaria majalis, Vikeke, Igor Fedenko, San21212, Fauust, Horim, Movie-man,
JJJuliaD, , Paul A., , TjBot, Nazgul m, Valdis72, EmausBot, Mr.Linderman, Luther Selecta, Skryabin-ua, Grdesu,
, ScUm, HarDNox, Gerard, Baccy, , Max Guinness, Alrofficial, , ,
Mr Jefferson, OneLittleMouse, , , , H2Bot, , Alexey2244, ,
Movses-bot, Ernest Musin, Denissimo78, KIRILL1995, KrBot, WebCite Archiver, Baden-Paul, Okorok, MBHbot, Ragnwald, Rut ks,
, Sealle, Ikarakum, Saint Johann, Alexey Chitsyn, DENAMAX, Dutcman, V4711, , 200, Dexbot,
, Godzira, , Fodderstomp, Col. Hans Landa, Live to dead, RotlinkBot, Quaerite, Dubrovin S., Abdelporerkesha,
DvoreBot, Mellentin, TheVovaNik, , Vik1n, Wortygtis, , Smirnov Oleg1997, , Olya Vlasova,
, Tsoytimofey, Sleepy-city, 1983, Citing Bot, Olya1789, , Alex NB IT, Kerrazzy, Ant74,
Voves Swift, Esp rus4 : 273

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, : https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A2%D1%80%D1%8E%D1%84%D1%84%D0%BE%2C_
%D0%A4%D1%80%D0%B0%D0%BD%D1%81%D1%83%D0%B0?oldid=78239345 : Robbot, Maximaximax, Torin,
Yegorm, HedgeBot, Kaganer, Ornil, Obersachse, Hashar, Allexander, Yurik, YurikBot, Butko, Al Silonov, Okman, ,
CodeMonk, Knyazhna, CodeMonkBot, Zimin.V.G., Zemleroi, Fatal exception, Alex Ex, KR, KWF, Poa, Ghirlandajo, Shakko, BotCat,
Infovarius, Pahan, , Thijs!bot, PBot, , Wybot, CategoryBot, Vosnik, DodekBot~ruwiki, SpadeBot, Aibot,
TXiKiBoT, Chath, Teodor, Shockwave, SieBot, Loveless, BotMultichill, , Worobiew, Eugene M, Aurelliana, , Vermont's candle, Alexbot, Zmier, VlsergeyBot, Alecs.bot, , Sinednov, LaaknorBot, Luckas-bot, Nallimbot,
Ptbotgourou, 70, Rubinbot, Romy1938, AlexNet88, Peterburg23, Serg Fr, Abzamo, IGW, VAP+VYK, Figure19, Mishae, ,
Slava.kerner, Tockman, EmausBot, Max Guinness, ZroBot, Magiyas, Damien86, HAL9000, Oleg Yunakov, StarDeg, KIRILL1995,
KrBot, SerjHL, Dutcman, Llecco, Live to dead, INSIBAR, ManFromNord, Addbot, Vuandmu, Ser-Lag : 36
, : https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A5%D0%B8%D1%87%D0%BA%D0%BE%D0%BA%2C_
%D0%90%D0%BB%D1%8C%D1%84%D1%80%D0%B5%D0%B4?oldid=78515064 : Suisui, Romanm, Robbot, Wind,
Maximaximax, Torin, Nikiforov, Green fr, HedgeBot, Kaganer, Obersachse, Yantar, YurikBot, Butko, , Mr. Bot, KokoBot~ruwiki,
CodeMonk, CodeMonkBot, Lupus~ruwiki, Bektour, , Volkov, , Zimin.V.G., Gpvos, Alex Ex, Vald,
KR, V1adis1av, Ghirlandajo, Shakko, The Wrong Man, Member 0211, Digr, RuED, Sasha l, ZsergheiBot, Max Maximov~ruwiki,
, Thijs!bot, BLISTHRV, JAnDbot, PBot, , Alex Spade, CommonsDelinker, Celest, Bot-Schafter,
Ekamaloff, DorganBot, VolkovBot, Pk boot, Markusha, Idioma-bot, Aibot, TXiKiBoT, Sprinter12, WW, VVVBot-temp, SieBot,
Dinamik, Peni, Loveless, INSAR, Yakiv Gluck, Vlsergey, Niklem, Melly, Cycneavox, , , Saidaziz, ,
OKBot, Caiaffa, Alexbot, Dom1, Author23, Kubatoriy, Shcootsn, GreenStork, DarkCherry, Zmier, AlanNova, VlsergeyBot, Dronaty,
Qkowlew, Sinednov, MelancholieBot, Dk2000, Vadimmus, AlnoktaBOT, Orlovivan, , Michaello, LaaknorBot, AAA333,
Robokukla, Luckas-bot, Juggler2005, Ptbotgourou, Krogoth, Glorfindel~ruwiki, Rubinbot, Romy1938, TaBOT-zerem, DSisyphBot,
Peterburg23, Xqbot, , GhalyBot, V2k, Ole Frsten, Etomonick, LucienBOT, , Borodun, Odessey,
WindBot, Kostius, , , Firsto, TobeBot, AcidDJDennis, Adashio, Newagno, Friday1976, Horim,
JJJuliaD, Krokusse, Valdis72, EmausBot, Voffk, Historianic, GrouchoBot, , DP28, LankLinkBot, , ChuispastonBot,
H2Bot, , StarDeg, KIRILL1995, KrBot, Paulaner-2011, Zooro-Patriot, WebCite Archiver, Lizapiu, MBHbot,
, , Sozertsatel, , Jeka5892, PhilAfan, , Alexey Timatkov, Addbot, Sleepy-city, Glovacki,
Lera041225, Alex NB IT : 102
, : https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%AD%D0%B9%D0%B7%D0%B5%D0%BD%
D1%88%D1%82%D0%B5%D0%B9%D0%BD%2C_%D0%A1%D0%B5%D1%80%D0%B3%D0%B5%D0%B9_%D0%9C%D0%
B8%D1%85%D0%B0%D0%B9%D0%BB%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%B8%D1%87?oldid=78869664 : Ramir, Maximaximax,
Torin, Nikiforov, , HedgeBot, St0rm, Ornil, Obersachse, Ustas, Mitrius, Yurik, YurikBot, Butko, Stassats, Phe,
Alma Pater, Rokur, Roboto de Ajvol, Maestro~ruwiki, CodeMonkBot, Winterheart, Homunculu, , Zimin.V.G., Fatal exception,
KR, Sasha Krotov, Valodzka, Kamelot, Vlad2000Plus, Smig, Ghirlandajo, The Wrong Man, Razr, Mashiah Davidson, Sins We Can't
Absolve, Ilich, BotCat, 20, I1481, , , Infovarius, MeaWr77, Altes, Esp, ,
User101, Sasha l, Pahan, Max Maximov~ruwiki, , Typhoonbreath, Thijs!bot, Kartmen, JAnDbot, PBot, , Mir76,
CommonsDelinker, Simulacrum, Rdfr, , Ingwar JR, Alex Smotrov, Nomad nomad, Radziun, DorganBot, VolkovBot,
Victoria, , , Glossologist, Idioma-bot, Redmond Barry, Al99999, Be nt all, TXiKiBoT, G-Max, Vizu, Chath, Seraphita~ruwiki,
Rlu, CheloVechek, SieBot, , NVO, Peni, Loveless, 1e0nid, Yakiv Gluck, AlleborgoBot, Vlsergey, Moreorless,
Ivan the Knight, Monegasque~ruwiki, Agent001, Mariluna, , , , ,
, , , , , , ,
.., , , , , .. , , , Kodokanclub, ,
, , , , Peace museum, Wayne High School, Chinese Warty Newt, Band saw, Girouxville, Wachenroth,
A5112 road, - , FlrnBot, , DragonBot, DENker, PixelBot, Stypex, OKBot, Sergey Polevich,
Burivykh, Pirags, Shcootsn, Zmier, Antonio-vivo, Bubelka, VlsergeyBot, Dronaty, Alecs.bot, MelancholieBot, Laim, Dmitrij1996, Slur,
Michaello, Robokukla, Luckas-bot, Ptbotgourou, 70, Meteor126, Worldkeeper, Lazyhawk, Vladimir OKC, JackieBot, Jotterbot,
Romy1938, GennadyL, Dmitrij96, Al.Neuland, Obersachsebot, ArthurBot, Okras, Alex Levy, , DSisyphBot, AndreiK,
, Peterburg23, Xqbot, GhalyBot, DumZiBoT, Sirartemcamelot, Aia philosophia, D'ohBot, Pallpersen Good, Arashonak,
, , , TobeBot, , , 4, Horim, , EmausBot,
Fonticulus, Kalendar, Baccy, Rael3, Nata83, Max Guinness, , Damien86, Maks Stirlitz, AbiyoyoBot, HAL9000, Babk Akifolu,
Y-barton, Berg777, Morgensterner, Alexdkx, , Infamoustill, , 22, , Marina100,
KrBot, WebCite Archiver, , MerlIwBot, V. Turchaninov, W2Bot, , MBHbot, White8night, Sealle,
, , ERJANIK, Simba16, What'sGoingOn, Dutcman, Flomru, Art-and-Air, , Russian
avant-garde, , 762bot, Fil0saf, Aleks Makeev, Dimaniznik, Addbot, Kalnroze, Vladis13, EvRubot, , DimaBot,
Jummals, Saramag, Citing Bot, Volgavs, Alexis-str, Maxound, AveTory, TextworkerBot, Neplui : 97
(, 2009) : https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%90%D0%B2%D0%B0%D1%82%D0%B0%D1%80_(%D1%
84%D0%B8%D0%BB%D1%8C%D0%BC%2C_2009)?oldid=78459726 : Kneiphof, Fred, Ssr, Snch, Dirl, Egor, Bezik, , Kurochka, Ququ, Varnav, Eugrus, MikhailGusarov, Zimin.V.G., Gruzd, Vladimir Solovjev, Mercury, NStorm, Ghirlandajo,
Sergei, Dstary, DR, BotCat, Ase, , Infovarius, Levg, Insider, Gosh, Shura007, CopperKettle, Idot, Thijs!bot, MSBOT,
, Monk alone, CommonsDelinker, , , Alex Smotrov, Loyna, Beaumain, Celest, VolkovBot, Victoria, ,
Deerhunter, Idioma-bot, Aleksandrit, Redmond Barry, Shade, ButkoBot, TXiKiBoT, Vs64vs, Mevo, Vizu, Vdbv, ShinePhantom, 1, Rodos, Jackkazh, Deerstop, Cantor, CheloVechek, Alex.ryazantsev, , Incodev, Peni, Pianist, , 1e0nid, Yaroslav
Blanter, Divine Moments Of Truth, Jarash, David.s.kats, Fox89, IVSd, , , Dmitry Rozhkov, , Linnear, Rubin16, Sspeik, Omeganian, , Marhorr, Terranston, Scorpion-811, Eleferen, RoadTrain, Gik, Ilya Mauter,
KaVc, , Njarlatotep, Alexbot, Dr Jorgen, Petrov Victor, Skazi, , Eugenius Magnus, Darkicebot, Azgar,
Afanasovich, Klimashkin, Zoe Leon, Divot, SilvonenBot, Bff, VlsergeyBot, Alecs.bot, , Xanten, Techno01, Generous, Transcend
(rus), BuHHu nyx, NeD80, Cyberaptor~ruwiki, Track13, Laim, Dk2000, Panfily, LL99, Uragan. TT, Abiyoyo, El barroco,
, Pnik87, Nibiru, Koenig Dragon, WombatNoir, , FRL, Onix GCI, Pessimist2006, Manscreed, LaaknorBot,
Bllizard9536, AVB, VikLord, Luckas-bot, Andy Spb, Fibonachi, , Dobryi Den, Veinarde, Ptbotgourou, Tumkir,
Thebit, Peter Porai-Koshits, Sq!m, , FreeXel, Rudamak, Zoe Castillo, , Zboris, Sz-iwbot, Kaigorodov A.V., Vedya,
ArthurBot, MindfulOfTheGoal, Gromolyak, Skorp24, Andreasstolz, Luch4, Photograf, Mistery Spectre, Vasyatka1, ., IG0R
Z, Zinaida Prokofievna, Okras, Topilsky, Fatally, Diadya vova, Kirill V. Matavkin, AtzzkiySotona, VladimirReshetnikov, Wikiarius,
, , Indeps, Ace111, Almabot, Xqbot, Tutitkuni, Migdal-or, Ninelon, LittleDrakon, Tutaishy, V2k, Ole

374

10. ,

Frsten, Durak Durakov, U-bot, , Vladimir.frolov, GreenZmiy, Dynasha, Florstein, DumZiBoT, Gufido, Penamarth, Totalserg,
Zhangmoon618, Schrike, Basus Ius Group, Ghuron, Alexandre Gilbert, Qwerty-mail, HolyZzz, Sigwald, Neeter, , , AntiKrisT, Bavaev, WindBot, Password, Betakiller, BeMaL, MondalorBot, Distdev, , TenBaseT, Serious Jack, Rashikov,
He-l-en1959, , Kobac, Ereocero, SerYoga, LEOBEAR, Sabunero, Kubik4ka, Maksa, RedBot, Dynastes, TobeBot, Nogin,
Moscow Sokol, AL13NTX, Alexis Mane, Bahruz Djafarov, , Kauruk, Klasky-Csupo, Anaxibia, Krassotkin, Dinamikbot, Wtigga, AKey, Ser1375, Convallaria majalis, TheStrayCat, Hetane, Zombiyaic, Smiga big, AVATARia, Kotian, Xakepmega,
Fauust, Emembergin, JenVan, Onliner~ruwiki, Horim, San Sanitsch, Sirinox, TimonandPumbaaFan, JJJuliaD, Smertrius, , Laodike,
Artli, , , Nazgul m, Genesiser, Reggison, Gabarit007, Yesman94, Valdis72, Belfagor~ruwiki,
Sunriser~ruwiki, Virabhadra, Aceko, George Avatar, EmausBot, Slimgur, Virusjam, micier Dzikaski, , Mr.Linderman, Luther
Selecta, Iamromanov, Lentyn Totalis, Eternal Triangle, VlaDzh, 2, Kovako-1, Jess1k, Horas~ruwiki, Ang15, 1979, Kalendar,
, , Kerard, Dianar, EleferenBot, Sserg89, Kaygees, Aniretakk, CoValent, Zomgcorp, SenchenkoVladimir, HarDNox,
Animal-wiki, McNice, Garden Radish, , Baccy, , Avm74-BC-, D.July, Katykatenok, ,
ZroBot, , , HRoestBot, ArtTrapeza, KRenK82, Helgi-S, INet86, , Buntaro, Christian Valentine,
Qenlum, Hfk, Courcelles, LankLinkBot, OneLittleMouse, Shleykov, Kot-Filip, LarBot, , Wikifido, ChuispastonBot, , H2Bot, Byzantine, , --, WikitanvirBot, , Jul-Ar, , Gareev,
Darkir, Movses-bot, , Forwhomthebelltolls, KIRILL1995, KrBot, Avatararim, Bugaevc, Serg1980, Shagrad, WebCite Archiver,
Kotokot82, Erbol12, Karachun, ADDvokat, Philip J.1987qazwsx, MerlIwBot, , TEXHNK77, MBHbot, Sealle, Yerzhan28,
Sidorovd, FantaZR, Timonchik1996, Aleksey ecrivain, Pro100SOm, What'sGoingOn, Dobby~ruwiki, Zoname, SingaW, Sozertsatel,
, Rotorol, 91.197.junr3170, OpossumK, Ferdinandus, Grimnir11, StanTRC, Amadesik, Justincheng12345-bot, Gplover,
I.G.I.cool, Megra, Fil0saf, Live to dead, ManFromNord, Malinacard, TheVovaNik, Addbot, Novikov16, 666TheJoker666, .,
Vladis13, , Spartka, , LeninVtumane, Diana Khitrikova, , Pojhirator
of bad ideas : 546
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9F%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%B1%D0%BB%
D0%B5%D0%BC%D0%B0%D1%82%D0%B8%D0%BA%D0%B0_%D1%84%D0%B8%D0%BB%D1%8C%D0%BC%D0%B0_
%C2%AB%D0%90%D0%B2%D0%B0%D1%82%D0%B0%D1%80%C2%BB?oldid=74755795 : Ilya Mauter, EmausBot,
Arbnos, ., Movses-bot, KrBot, WebCite Archiver, Lesless, Sealle, Nachyn, Gplover : 5
(, 1902) : https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9F%D1%83%D1%82%D0%B5%D1%
88%D0%B5%D1%81%D1%82%D0%B2%D0%B8%D0%B5_%D0%BD%D0%B0_%D0%9B%D1%83%D0%BD%D1%83_(%D1%
84%D0%B8%D0%BB%D1%8C%D0%BC%2C_1902)?oldid=78058307 : Kneiphof, Nashev, Obersachse, Mirth, YurikBot,
Butko, , CodeMonk, , CodeMonkBot, Zimin.V.G., KR, Edwardspec TalkBot, HypeRaveR, Infovarius, Escarbot,
Thijs!bot, JAnDbot, Blacklake, Wybot, CommonsDelinker, Rei-bot, Redmond Barry, Kv75, 1, Newt, SieBot, Artur1917,
Loveless, XBot, , , Ficbot, DragonBot, FanFM, Bilderling, Wohilem, Zmier, Zmir, Sergey-Master,
VanBot, SilvonenBot, Betacommand, Vanuan, AmphBot, AVB, Luckas-bot, WikiDreamer Bot, Nallimbot, Rubinbot, Xqbot, Tretyak,
. , WindBot, Michgrig, , Dinamik-bot, POLIGON, Laodike, Valdis72, EmausBot, Racconish, , Gerard,
Baccy, GrouchoBot, ChuispastonBot, Okorok, MerlIwBot, Jaceksoci68, , MBHbot, Vagobot, AvocatoBot, Mishuten, TheVovaNik,
Addbot, SergeyBot : 27
16- : https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/16-%D0%BC%D0%BC_%D0%BA%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%BE%
D0%BF%D0%BB%D1%91%D0%BD%D0%BA%D0%B0?oldid=78878834 : Victoria, , , Kalendar, Andshel
Runner1616
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%91%D0%BB%D1%83%D0%B6%D0%B4%D0%B0%D1%
8E%D1%89%D0%B0%D1%8F_%D0%BC%D0%B0%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%B0?oldid=77882283 : Mercury, Ain92,
Tatewaki, Runner1616, Glovacki : 3
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%97%D0%B0%D1%85%D0%B2%D0%B0%D1%82_%D0%B4%
D0%B2%D0%B8%D0%B6%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%B8%D1%8F?oldid=78602012 : Robbot, Snch, CheFF, Mercury,
Mcusheff, Quantum, Stansult, Silent lesch, Jeron, Br@t, Bunker by, VolkovBot, Idioma-bot, TXiKiBoT, Newt, Lvova, Deerstop,
Loveless, EvilTeeth, Romson, GreenStork, , Qkowlew, Orgorg, Longbowman, , LaaknorBot, Luckas-bot,
Denisab85, Rubinbot, ArthurBot, Wikiarius, Xqbot, , Pavel.nps, Advancer, Ignatus, EmausBot, , GrouchoBot, Mocap
tech, LankLinkBot, OneLittleMouse, ChuispastonBot, WikitanvirBot, KlGleb, MBHbot, Runner1616, Belikal768, DENAMAX, Frstrtr,
Primavera05, Addbot, Rpf 81, , Eraldev, : 43
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%97%D0%BE%D0%BB%D0%BE%D1%82%D0%BE%D0%B5_
%D1%81%D0%B5%D1%87%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%B5?oldid=78088112 : Suisui, Ctac, Tosha, Maximaximax,
, Nikiforov, Paul Pogonyshev, Maxal, HedgeBot, Ornil, Bes island, Maxim Razin, Snch, YurikBot, Halyavin,
SAn, Egor, Mr. Bot, Softy, Zwobot, Roxis, Incnis Mrsi, Alexandrov, Mercury, MaxSem, Sphayros, Vip, , Mashiah
Davidson, Infovarius, Vadmamed, Tempus, Qwertic, Rasim, Sasha l, Escarbot, Peacefool, ZsergheiBot, Thijs!bot, ,
EvgenyGenkin, Sergey371, Raoul NK, Alexei Kopylov, Jemand, Svetloyar, Soul Train, Alex Smotrov, Veikia, VolkovBot, Pikryukov,
TXiKiBoT, RedAndr, Vs64vs, , Vallombrez, TarzanASG, Elendili, Synthebot, Cantor, SieBot, Broderix, San-iaSoone, UncleMartin, Jack who built the house, Viplux, Moreorless, Seon, Atr2006, Ausweis, Afr0dizziack, , Marhorr,
Schetnikov, SolitaryDreamer, DeLZeX, LGB, Sivanov87, YCon, Keinelust sfi, Fractaler, MelancholieBot, Mephistopheies, , Ivan E-One is only one, CarsracBot, Mslm, Michaello, LaaknorBot, Luckas-bot, BD2412, Nallimbot, Ptbotgourou, Rubinbot,
Postoronniy-13, Alexey ND, Yonidebot, ArthurBot, TaBOT-zerem, Avosco, Mosuket, Safmohd, Xqbot, , , Radz~ruwiki,
DumZiBoT, LucienBOT, Ve7er, X7q, D'ohBot, Tretyak, WindBot, , Doktorweber, , Zara-arush, ToshaBOT,
Sabunero, Maksa, RedBot, TobeBot, Tpyvvikky, , Jurhard, EmausBot, Arbnos, Temi4-hik, 2, Drakosh, Shum96, ZroBot,
Centurion198, Bums, El-chupanebrej, Arth, WikitanvirBot, 1967, STARSHIP TROOPER, KrBot, MerlIwBot, MBHbot,
Gliush, Vagobot, Reinstall, Addaline, Shal.george, Sonic86, AlexanderPletnev, VladVD, Mihail Haritonov, , YFdyh-bot, Tihon
Asdop, MagnusFit, RotlinkBot, , Quaerite, Addbot, SergLyashuk, Kurkvil, Capitolium4025, Stannic, Ve77er, DimaBot,
Karraul8, De Riban5, 1234qwer1234qwer4, Citing Bot, StabPlat, Alex NB IT, Victor Manohin, Helen Vick, Vanlech, Tamtam90,
Ukraroad, SmartXT : 201
() : https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%B0%D1%81%D1%81%D0%B5%D1%82%
D0%B0_(%D0%BA%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%B5%D0%BC%D0%B0%D1%82%D0%BE%D0%B3%D1%80%D0%B0%D1%84)
?oldid=73612588 : Infovarius, Andshel, Okorok Runner1616

10.1.

375

: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%B5%D1%82%D0%BE%D1%81%D0%
BA%D0%BE%D0%BF?oldid=74532546 : CodeMonk, EmausBot, Highlander27, Runner1616 : 2
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%BA%D0%
BE%D0%BF%D0%B8%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%B0%D0%BB%D1%8C%D0%BD%D1%8B%D0%B9_%D0%B0%D0%
BF%D0%BF%D0%B0%D1%80%D0%B0%D1%82?oldid=75824109 : Obersachse, ArtTrapeza, H2Bot, Andshel, WebCite
Archiver, Okorok, Runner1616, Aats88, Addbot, Glovacki : 2
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%BF%D0%BB%D1%91%D0%
BD%D0%BA%D0%B0?oldid=78100368 : Monedula, Panther, Sergei Frolov, CodeMonk, APTEM, KVK2005, Zimin.V.G.,
The Wrong Man, , , CommonsDelinker, Rdfr, CraigFatman, Timur Maisak, Yuniq, Jimbo Jones~ruwiki,
, Qkowlew, Fastboy, Deinocheirus, CarsracBot, Forajump, AVB, Rheinmetall~ruwiki, Luckas-bot, Yaroslav Kontsevoy,
Ptbotgourou, Rubinbot, Tretyak, Boodjoom85, TeddySk, , , , Zanka, Maximov, Gerard, Nata83,
DmitryKo, LankLinkBot, Alexdkx, H2Bot, Andshel, Sergoman, KrBot, WebCite Archiver, Okorok, MBHbot, Runner1616, Draa kul,
What'sGoingOn, Dutcman, , AndreyBot, Fatacom, Khazarsk, Addbot, Kandi01, Q-bit array, Saharkino : 34
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%BF%D1%80%D0%
BE%D0%B8%D0%B7%D0%B2%D0%BE%D0%B4%D1%81%D1%82%D0%B2%D0%BE?oldid=78060480 : Bibikoff,
Roboto de Ajvol, JAnDbot, , Yols, DorganBot, VolkovBot, Stirh, Shockwave, SieBot, Peni, 1e0nid, David.s.kats, ,
Lockalbot, 3dcooking, Louperibot, V0d01ey, Luckas-bot, Samant, Gestumblindi, Rudamak, ArthurBot, Xqbot, Broadbot, Sigwald,
Dinamik-bot, Das steinerne Herz, EmausBot, MorganBot, Dimusyan, OneLittleMouse, Alexdkx, LarBot, AlWisher, KrBot, WebCite
Archiver, MBHbot, Runner1616, Sealle, Xenohunter, , YFdyh-bot, Addbot, Dotop, Elena Prynova : 28
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%BE%D1%82%D0%B5%D1%85%D0%
BD%D0%B8%D0%BA%D0%B0?oldid=77737147 : Robbot, , Peni, INSAR, Ariely, Ximik, Andrew M.
Vachin, Qkowlew, Obersachsebot, Ole Frsten, AshikBot, Oldcolor, WindBot, Tpyvvikky, Timofeyg, Ain92, WebCite Archiver,
Runner1616, Olglagol, Addbot, TextworkerBot : 5
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%BE%D1%83%D1%81%D1%82%
D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%BA%D0%B0?oldid=78114788 : Engine9, Qkowlew, Rubinbot, MotnahpBot,
AbiyoyoBot, Okorok, Runner1616, TextworkerBot : 1
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9C%D0%B8%D0%BA%D1%88%D0%B5%D1%80%D0%
BD%D1%8B%D0%B9_%D0%BF%D1%83%D0%BB%D1%8C%D1%82?oldid=78604037 : Liilliil, ,
AntonioK, YurikBot, Bezik, Cheops, Redline, Sergei, Isoliom, AntonR, Thijs!bot, JAnDbot, LionDoc, CommonsDelinker, Idioma-bot,
Aibot, Sonik, SieBot, Loveless, Divine Moments Of Truth, Zaqq, Michaello, ArthurBot, Xqbot, Xelx, 4eptoBcku, Sigwald, , Tjmoel, Tucvbif, DixonDBot, EmausBot, GrouchoBot, OneLittleMouse, Iliya Petychov, WikitanvirBot, MerlIwBot, MBHbot,
AvocatoBot, Dahrah, , Alex NB IT, KurchanovD : 29
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9C%D0%BE%D0%BD%D1%82%D0%B0%D0%B6?oldid=78879183 : Drbug, Obersachse, YurikBot, CodeMonk, Solon, K-f, A5b, Vlad2000Plus, Mashiah Davidson, Gwinder, Helgus, AbrWabr,
Thijs!bot, Droog Andrey, LionDoc, AVRS, Rei-bot, ButkoBot, TXiKiBoT, TarzanASG, Buzuchok, SieBot, Loveless, 2zh, Vlsergey,
Tim474, SilvonenBot, Alecs.bot, Qkowlew, Pavel Leman, Rambalac, Muro Bot, Raise-the-Sail, Maksim-Kaa, Luckas-bot, Rubinbot,
Obersachsebot, Xqbot, , Mitsa~ruwiki, Tutaishy, U-bot, Jcross, Mykhailo Gorbachov, RedBot, Fameowner, Krassotkin,
Dinamik-bot, JenVan, Ripchip Bot, ZroBot, MargaritaM, Morganvolter, OneLittleMouse, Vitaly1973, LarBot, Vital73, WikitanvirBot,
Pintg, Andshel, MerlIwBot, Starfer, Runner1616, Sealle, Apostal729, Arenukvern, , Vasily p, Addbot, Srostki,
: 51
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9C%D0%BE%D0%BD%D1%82%D0%B0%D0%B6%D0%BD%
D1%8B%D0%B9_%D1%81%D1%82%D0%BE%D0%BB?oldid=78883080 : Nzeemin, Qkowlew, Rubinbot, Gogikonan,
EmausBot, ZroBot, Okorok, Runner1616 Addbot
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9E%D0%BF%D0%B5%D1%80%D0%B0%D1%82%D0%
BE%D1%80%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%B8%D0%B9_%D0%BA%D1%80%D0%B0%D0%BD?oldid=72421459 : , CommonsDelinker, Bilderling, Ivan A. Krestinin, D.bratchuk, Dinamik-bot, Calibrux, KKKair, ChuispastonBot, Andrybak,
WebCite Archiver, Runner1616, Gipoza, Well-Informed Optimist, Addbot, Pavelsamuta : 3
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9F%D0%B0%D0%B2%D0%B8%D0%BB%D1%8C%D0%BE%D0%BD?
oldid=77077537 : Roboto de Ajvol, Mercury, Digr, Insider, Gosh, Escarbot, Thijs!bot, Crooner, JAnDbot, Solarapex, VolkovBot,
, TXiKiBoT, Art-top, GrinD, SieBot, Moreorless, Apr1, Jackie, SilvonenBot, VlsergeyBot, , Bandar Lego, 9xl,
LaaknorBot, Amirobot, Luckas-bot, Laurion, Obersachsebot, Tura8, LucienBOT, D'ohBot, Dana smk, Thecakeisalie.bot, , Ripchip
Bot, EmausBot, LarBot, Wikifido, WikitanvirBot, Movses-bot, MBHbot, Runner1616, Addbot, Glovacki, . : 12
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A1%D0%B2%D0%B5%D1%82%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%BE%
D0%B9_%D0%BF%D0%B0%D1%81%D0%BF%D0%BE%D1%80%D1%82?oldid=69753454 : Andshel, WebCite Archiver,
Runner1616 : 1
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A1%D0%BE%D0%BE%D1%82%D0%BD%
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D0%BA%D1%80%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%B0?oldid=77606311 : Nikiforov, CodeMonk, Fedyq, , Mnavi,
VPliousnine, , Zac Allan, Alex Asp, LionDoc, DrTr0jan, BetBot~ruwiki, Chath, Deerstop, Lexicon~ruwiki, ZHirnov Maxim,
Ufim, Andrew M. Vachin, Qkowlew, Potekhin, Rubinbot, Yurij Karcev, DenisKrivosheev, Coll, Convallaria majalis, MetaRex, Nata83,
67, Mels98, , Yetimist, Sergoman, Movses-bot, Eyemo, WebCite Archiver, MerlIwBot, Misc Edit, ELeschev,
PashaTarsius, Runner1616, What'sGoingOn, Well-Informed Optimist, DmitryVilunos, WWBM, Scaina, , 2013god,
Addbot, , Glovacki, TemirovBot, YiFeiBot, Alex NB IT, Timleb880 : 40
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A1%D0%BF%D0%B5%D1%86%D1%8D%D1%84%D1%84%D0%
B5%D0%BA%D1%82?oldid=76461078 : Tetromino, , CodeMonk, Imageman, A5b, Ntropy, Mercury, BotCat,
Sithoid, , Thijs!bot, JAnDbot, EvgenyGenkin, Dagon, AVRS, Rei-bot, VolkovBot, Deerstop, Int ft, SieBot,
Loveless, NBS, GlaDooo, Saidaziz, Stypex, OKBot, Qkowlew, Fastboy, BuHHu nyx, Longbowman, Vanuan, Luckas-bot, Smser,
Nallimbot, Igel B TyMaHe, LEMeZza, Rubinbot, Xqbot, GAndy, , Wizards, Red Shuhov, SerYoga, RedBot, Tpyvvikky,

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Anaxibia, JenVan, EmausBot, Bobkov, Nata83, NimirOFF, OneLittleMouse, Vitaly1973, El-chupanebrej, Andshel, KrBot, WebCite
Archiver, Runner1616, , , Hint000, Addbot, , Gchepuha, Grchepuha, TemirovBot, : 58
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A2%D0%B5%D0%BB%D0%B5%D0%B2%D0%B8%D0%B7%D0%
B8%D1%80?oldid=77356283 : Ivan A. Krestinin, Movses-bot, KrBot, Runner1616 Glovacki
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A5%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%BC%D0%B0%D0%BA%D0%B5%D0%B9?
oldid=78606029 : Robbot, Serguei S. Dukachev, Winterheart, Mercury, Lite, JAnDbot, VolkovBot, , Yury Chernavsky, Deerstop, Romson, Starless, , Saidaziz, Bilderling, Zaqq, MelancholieBot, Luckas-bot, Rubinbot,
Mistery Spectre, Wikiarius, Xqbot, , EmausBot, Baccy, WikitanvirBot, KrBot, MerlIwBot, Runner1616, Sonkam, Illustrator,
Derpy Hooves, "" , , DvoreBot, Addbot, Maxound, Likaangelika94 : 20
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A6%D0%B2%D0%B5%D1%82%D0%BD%D0%BE%
D0%B9_%D0%BA%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%B5%D0%BC%D0%B0%D1%82%D0%BE%D0%B3%D1%80%D0%B0%D1%84?
oldid=77921241 : Tpyvvikky, Mvk608, WebCite Archiver, MerlIwBot, Runner1616, , , Addbot
: 1
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A6%D0%B8%D1%84%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%B2%D1%
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: Infovarius, JAnDbot, CommonsDelinker, , Andreykor, , KamikazeBot, Calibrux, EmausBot, Alpunin,
Moynik, MerlIwBot, Nsemenoff, MBHbot, PaschaP, Minsbot, Vitalijchik, Citing Bot : 4
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A8%D1%83%D0%BC%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%B8%D0%BA?oldid=
76962565 : Mercury, SieBot, Qkowlew, Ptbotgourou, Rubinbot, Xqbot, , Alpunin, Addbot : 1
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%93%D0%B8%D0%BB%D1%8C%D0%B4%D0%
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BC%D0%B5%D1%80%D0%B8%D0%BA%D0%B8?oldid=78016761 : 1, TwoPizza, Alrofficial, 67
: 1
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%94%D1%83%D0%B1%D0%BB%D0%B8%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%
B2%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%B5?oldid=77087809 : Maximaximax, Egor, Amire80, Baldin Ivan, Infovarius, Tempus,
Thijs!bot, XFI, Beaumain, Veikia, Art-top, Berserkerus, Peni, , 1e0nid, Viplux, AndreyA, Alexulter, Romson, Marhorr, JuliaRudy,
, Alexbot, GreenStork, Marimarina, , Keinelust sfi, , Potekhin, Mamai2010, Zorrobot,
, HerculeBot, Luckas-bot, Alex Alex Lep, Rubinbot, Obersachsebot, ArthurBot, Benda, Clockwork, Stitchix, Xqbot, UseFx,
, LucienBOT, MastiBot, Petit brie, Kobac, VAP+VYK, MetaRex, McSaks, Dewww, Ripchip Bot, EmausBot, Slame, Vitalycom,
Gerard, D0wN b0i, ZroBot, Gregory Bookia, , Mari-lance, , Mentibot, ChuispastonBot, WikitanvirBot,
CRAZY41, Tatewaki, KrBot, WebCite Archiver, MerlIwBot, Runner1616, Sealle, Aghia7, , Mailin, ,
Without imagination, Hinote, Wwane, Kopiersperre, , , Telefoton, Sskz, NightShadow23, I.G.I.cool,
Borovychok, , Denamadia, Addbot, Urra2013, 72185, , , Milez189, Sasha1550,
Q-bit array, , Kulbash, QBA-bot : 122
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%B4%D0%B8%D1%
81%D1%82%D1%80%D0%B8%D0%B1%D1%8C%D1%8E%D1%82%D0%BE%D1%80?oldid=71584477 : Bilderling, , Movses-bot, KrBot, , Bogdanov-62, Vcohen Elena Prynova
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%BE%D1%81%D1%82%D1%83%D0%
B4%D0%B8%D1%8F?oldid=77844125 : Amoses, OckhamTheFox, Maksim-bot, Smig, Mashiah Davidson, Edwardspec
TalkBot, MeaWr77, Vmenkov, A1, , Rodos, Anthonyclifton, Godspace, Vadimr, , Lightfairy,
MerlIwBot, Runner1616, Makecat-bot, Addbot, , : 10
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%BE%D1%84%D0%B5%D1%81%
D1%82%D0%B8%D0%B2%D0%B0%D0%BB%D1%8C?oldid=78375732 : , YurikBot, CodeMonk, Volkov, Cheops,
Fatal exception, , Vald, , Smig, The Wrong Man, Gve, Infovarius, And riy, Thijs!bot, MSBOT, JAnDbot, Andrey
Kartashov, Taron Saharyan, DodekBot~ruwiki, Idioma-bot, Redmond Barry, Newt, Loveless, AlleborgoBot, Kpi-ok, Jasminkaa, , Serg2, , KeNdA, Bff, , Alabanco, Metsavend, Dk2000, Phoenix720, AVB, Luckas-bot,
Dim, Romy1938, GennadyL, Krupcheck, Wikiarius, , Dsds55, D'ohBot, , Kin kuma, Wiki93, Amigovip,
Zara-arush, Tour de Film, Guitsuper, Tpyvvikky, MaMaMax, Kry, Ripchip Bot, EmausBot, Kalendar, Koleha, Neolit, OneLittleMouse,
, Oleg Melnychuk, WikitanvirBot, 13, Kasirbot, Grinski, Videotandem, MerlIwBot, Filmfest, , Vagobot,
User7777, YFdyh-bot, Addbot, NapalmBot : 34
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%BE%D0%BC%D0%BF%D1%8C%D1%8E%
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oldid=78907716 : Monedula, Maximaximax, , Obersachse, Exceeder, Iws, Ilya Voyager, YurikBot,
Vladimirovich, Halyavin, Los~ruwiki, . ., Boleslav1, Solon, Holmz, Zwobot, OckhamTheFox, Nzeemin, SergeyPosokhov, MaxSem,
Shattered, T-piston, Sergei, Leksey, AGGreSSor, , BotCat, Vovkss, Infovarius, , ,
, Dipsy, AntonR, , Shiru, JAnDbot, PBot, Alex Spade, Umbrella Corporation, AVRS, Blu, Alex Smotrov,
Loyna, VolkovBot, Wanderer777, KleverI, Aliciawoo~ruwiki, Kulagin, , Be nt all, TXiKiBoT, Vizu, Ivan3dgr, Newt, Lvova, Yury
Chernavsky, Deerstop, SieBot, Taisiya, Lockalbot, DragonBot, Jeka3000, ICube, OKBot, Burivykh, APh, , EvgenyGenkinBot,
BOTarate, BodhisattvaBot, LatitudeBot, Voloshin S, Bff, VlsergeyBot, Fractaler, Specialist 1, Tasty, El barroco, Deineka, Michaello,
Pessimist2006, Tauraloke, Luckas-bot, Nallimbot, Igel B TyMaHe, Ptbotgourou, LEMeZza, Rubinbot, Reneval, PhilAnG, Obersachsebot,
4th-otaku, Watch-maker, Xqbot, Z-Gleb, DumZiBoT, X7q, Taivo, , Pavel.nps, VAP+VYK, RedBot, Tucvbif, Tpyvvikky,
Convallaria majalis, Amishaa, San Sanitsch, A.German, EmausBot, Tolnik, Ll0l00l, Alexander Roumega, Salewan, HRoestBot, Ivan-94,
Ermishin, Oloddin, Centurion198, HAL9000, EugenG, OneLittleMouse, MaxBioHazard, , Wikifido, WikitanvirBot, Tookser,
KrBot, MBHbot, KPu3uC B Poccuu, Rublogger, DatkoTania, Higimo, , 762bot, Yanpas, Hint000, IntKecsk, Citing Bot, Q-bit
array, POVELITELSCHETA1986 : 155
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D0%B9?oldid=78922542 : Egor, , Ivan A. Krestinin, , Tucvbif, Ante, KrBot, MerlIwBot, MBHbot,
DENAMAX, , , Glovacki : 11

10.1.

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oldid=78668138 : CommonsDelinker, EmausBot, ZroBot, Alexdkx, ChuispastonBot, H2Bot, WebCite Archiver, Okorok,
MBHbot, Runner1616, Addbot : 2
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9E%D0%B7%D0%B2%D1%83%D1%87%D0%B8%D0%B2%D0%
B0%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%B5?oldid=78814641 : AKA MBG, Mercury, Sergey Khantsis, VP, Toyota prius 2, Infovarius,
Qsecofr, Stirh, , Mariluna, JuliaRudy, Rubinbot, Gromolyak, Sergey82-276, Maykel, Skip01, Alpunin, Helgi-S,
OneLittleMouse, Bugaevc, Lesless, Runner1616, Sealle, Divik, Aeretrew, Diplobiont, Arina9786145 : 18
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9F%D1%80%D0%B5%D0%B4%D0%BF%D1%80%D0%BE%
D0%B8%D0%B7%D0%B2%D0%BE%D0%B4%D1%81%D1%82%D0%B2%D0%BE?oldid=78735533 : Vs64vs, INS Pirat,
Jack who built the house, Dr Jorgen, , Rubinbot, JackieBot, , Tpyvvikky, Exsabuta, Dead Mars, SergeyKuzmichev,
Alpunin, Dibot, LarBot, ChuispastonBot, KrBot, , Addbot, Sheek : 6
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A0%D0%B0%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%B0%D0%B4%D1%80%D0%
BE%D0%B2%D0%BA%D0%B0?oldid=76022049 : Drbug, Maximaximax, Butko, , Roboto de Ajvol, Chobot, , Mercury, The Wrong Man, Escarbot, Yols, Rei-bot, VolkovBot, Vlad2000PlusBot, Buzuchok, SieBot, Loveless, Viplux,
, T0NY hAMStER, , Anthonyclifton, MelancholieBot, LaaknorBot, Luckas-bot, Sz-iwbot, ArthurBot, GenOrl, Das
steinerne Herz, EmausBot, ZroBot, DrSauron, Alex Ve, OneLittleMouse, WikitanvirBot, KrBot, Addbot, Conscim : 14
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A0%D0%B5%D0%B6%D0%B8%D1%81%D1%81%
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D0%B9?oldid=78922536 : Dmitri Lytov, , , KrBot, MerlIwBot, MBHbot, Runner1616, Sealle, DENAMAX,
, Glovacki : 2
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A1%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%BC%D0%B5%D1%
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BC%D0%BC%D0%B0?oldid=77571899 : Runner1616, Olglagol YiFeiBot
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A1%D1%82%D0%B5%D1%80%D0%B5%D0%BE%D0%
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BPK, Lvova, Eugeny1988, Cantor, SieBot, INSAR, Niklem, Pe3ak, , Petrov Victor, Dyukha, Dunno, ,
Fractaler, LaaknorBot, AVB, MystBot, Luckas-bot, Vidocq, Izadmin, Vladromanenko, Astron70, Pretenderrs, Xqbot, ,
U-bot, Zofo, D'ohBot, WindBot, Dmitry Bagroff, Nikita Kozyrev, RaySys, Zrkadlo, SerYoga, RedBot, TobeBot, Tpyvvikky,
, Zin409, Dinamik-bot, Shtegman, Ignatus, EmausBot, Vlad Akila, Mixabest, Kovako-1, .., Baccy, OneLittleMouse,
Nekrom silent, El-chupanebrej, Toothless, ChuispastonBot, Byzantine, Cinemantique, Andshel, Stas000D, WebCite Archiver,
AndreSokol, MerlIwBot, 1yurok, Runner1616, User7777, Vcohen, Andrey isp, Makecat-bot, Ozpi2007, Addbot, Bina-9,
: 83
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SieBot, 1e0nid, Alexbot, Alaall, Tar-ba-gan, SilvonenBot, Laim, , Luckas-bot, MHTS, Bechamel, X7q, AntonST,
, Tpyvvikky, Bis.ser, WikitanvirBot, Blogmaster, MerlIwBot, Ruw, Addbot, : 15
() : https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A1%D1%8A%D1%91%D0%BC%D0%BA%D0%B0_
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OneLittleMouse, El-chupanebrej, WikitanvirBot, Musiyaka, Runner1616, , Addbot, Xasers, Chainick : 10
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A2%D0%B5%D0%BB%D0%B5%D1%84%D0%B8%D0%BB%D1%
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BotMultichill, Jack who built the house, AlleborgoBot, Super Bionic, Alexbot, Shcootsn, GreenStork, SilvonenBot, StigBot, Luckas-bot,
JackieBot, Xqbot, D'ohBot, WindBot, Tpyvvikky, Vikeke, EmausBot, ZroBot, Alrofficial, ChuispastonBot, Cinemantique, WebCite
Archiver, W2Bot, Runner1616, , Illustrator, Degrassy, Addbot, Vladis13, Glovacki : 2
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A2%D0%B8%D1%82%D1%80%D1%8B?oldid=78481413 : Green fr,
Alexandrov, Massarkasch, Infovarius, Vmenkov, ZsergheiBot, , Phd ru, INSAR, Zmier, Zmir, Maintitle, Meany, Rubinbot,
Ke5ha93, GadZZillA, VIbot, Fleur-de-farine, Addbot : 16
- : https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A4%D0%B8%D0%BB%D1%8C%D0%BC-%D1%80%D0%B5%
D0%BA%D0%BE%D1%80%D0%B4%D0%B5%D1%80?oldid=76572975 : Nzeemin, Romnet, KrBot, WebCite Archiver,
MBHbot, Runner1616, !, Addbot
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A6%D0%B8%D1%84%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%BE%
D0%B5_%D0%BA%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%BE?oldid=78712657 : AVRS, WW, Deerstop, Yaroslav Blanter, ,
Atia, Luckas-bot, Rubinbot, Eugene V, Xqbot, U-bot, Structor, Schrike, Charamel, Kostius, , Timofeyg, , Oleg
Yunakov, ChuispastonBot, H2Bot, WikitanvirBot, CocuBot, Movses-bot, WebCite Archiver, Runner1616, What'sGoingOn, Addbot,
Leluche001 : 15
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%92%D1%82%D0%BE%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%B9_%D1%
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Vs64vs, , Zabaznov, , , Allamaso, Ante, LarBot, Alexander Shatulin, WebCite Archiver, Okorok,
MerlIwBot, Sealle, Xenohunter, Live to dead : 3
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%BE%D0%BF%D0%B5%
D1%80%D0%B0%D1%82%D0%BE%D1%80?oldid=75824205 : Bibikoff, Roboto de Ajvol, Zimin.V.G., Neon, Mercury,
Vlom, Muchok, Vlad2000Plus, The Wrong Man, Putnik, Thijs!bot, , JAnDbot, Andrey Kartashov, SieBot, --Dark Mage, Viplux,
Jasminkaa, Bilderling, Alexbot, SilvonenBot, Deineka, Luckas-bot, Dim, Rubinbot, ArthurBot, Xqbot, GAndy, ,
, , Biathlon, Dinamik-bot, EmausBot, ChuispastonBot, WebCite Archiver, Okorok, MerlIwBot, ,
, MBHbot, Runner1616, Elena Prynova, Glovacki, BookBoy77, YiFeiBot : 17

378

10. ,

: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%BF%D1%80%D0%BE%
D0%B4%D1%8E%D1%81%D0%B5%D1%80?oldid=76907339 : Wind, Ghirlandajo, Infovarius, Escarbot, Putnik, Thijs!bot,
Alex Smotrov, DorganBot, Tv0r0g, Stirh, SieBot, INS Pirat, Francois, Ursa, Tutaishy, Farary, WindBot, VAP+VYK, MerlIwBot,
Illustrator, Inversitus, Kaupix, Addbot : 17
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%BF%D1%80%D0%BE%
D1%84%D0%B5%D1%81%D1%81%D0%B8%D0%B8?oldid=78711003 : Eugrus, Cheops, Vladimir Solovjev, UncleMartin,
2zh, , , Saluton, Atia, Ursa, Clockwork, AnCorax, WindBot, , Arbuzikov, Helgikroha, Nata83,
, Okorok, MBHbot, Runner1616, Sealle, FantaZR, , Elena Prynova, Killgokill : 30
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%BE%D1%80%D0%B5%D0%B6%
D0%B8%D1%81%D1%81%D1%91%D1%80?oldid=75824215 : Bibikoff, Butko, Al Silonov, , CodeMonk,
OckhamTheFox, Wars, Fatal exception, Alex Ex, Maksim-bot, Dipsy, Max Maximov~ruwiki, , 1, Yanachka,
2zh, Dmitry Rozhkov, Tar-ba-gan, LatitudeBot, UR3IRS, Kontur, , , Allamaso, Horim, Distorted, Helgi-S,
67, OneLittleMouse, Alexdkx, LarBot, MerlIwBot, Sealle, Dambler, DENAMAX, , Giulini, BuIlDaLiBlE,
Addbot, OctraBot, Glovacki, YiFeiBot : 13
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A0%D0%B5%D0%B6%D0%B8%D1%81%D1%81%D1%91%D1%80?
oldid=77727011 : Torin, , Murtasa, Skor, YurikBot, Butko, PCode, , Amakuha,
OckhamTheFox, AKA MBG, Zimin.V.G., , Doomych, Kangaroo, Alex Smotrov, Chath, Rodos, Newt, Yanachka,
Yury Chernavsky, GiN 8-bend, Daphne mesereum, Rubin16, O zanni, Shcootsn, Zmir, , Amin2, , WindBot,
Andrey Yu, , SerYoga, Vort, VAP+VYK, Lrk2005, Igor Fedenko, Sensei 2105, JenVan, VIbot, Nata83, , Oloddin,
2736, , LarBot, Wikifido, KrBot, MerlIwBot, DENAMAX, Giulini, 23, Live to dead, Fleur-de-farine,
Addbot, Smirnov Oleg1997, Mikhail Ry, Vladis13, Glovacki : 30
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A1%D1%86%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%B0%D1%80%D0%B8%D1%
81%D1%82?oldid=77075497 : DaeX, Roboto de Ajvol, CodeMonk, Zimin.V.G., Fatal exception, Sasha Krotov, Smig, Pauk,
Edwardspec TalkBot, Infovarius, Y~ruwiki, VolkovBot, Yanachka, Peni, Yaroslav Blanter, Jackie, TwoPizza, Alexei Zverev, Kosta1986,
Krassotkin, EmausBot, Letagur, OneLittleMouse, MerlIwBot, Bivert, Ruswun, Illustrator, Vishnyakov85, Addbot, BASant : 7
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A1%D1%8A%D1%91%D0%BC%D0%BE%D1%87%D0%
BD%D0%B0%D1%8F_%D0%B3%D1%80%D1%83%D0%BF%D0%BF%D0%B0?oldid=73402746 : 2zh, Qkowlew, U-bot,
Dinamik-bot, ArtTrapeza, Alexdkx, Wikifido, ChuispastonBot, WebCite Archiver, Okorok, Runner1616, FantaZR, Xenohunter,
Adamjason, YFdyh-bot, Addbot, Elena Prynova : 15
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A2%D0%B5%D0%B0%D1%82%D1%80%D0%B0%
D0%BB%D1%8C%D0%BD%D1%8B%D0%B9_%D1%80%D0%B5%D0%B6%D0%B8%D1%81%D1%81%D1%91%D1%80?
oldid=78844982 : Alma Pater, Zimin.V.G., Amin2, Vort, EmausBot, WebCite Archiver, MerlIwBot, Sealle, Giulini, ,
Fleur-de-farine, TemirovBot, Ryszardczubak, Santispace : 5
() : https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%91%D0%BE%D0%B5%D0%B2%D0%B8%D0%BA_(%D0%
BA%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%B6%D0%B0%D0%BD%D1%80)?oldid=77832989 : Torin, Ilana, Obersachse,
YurikBot, CodeMonk, Juras14, Zimin.V.G., The Wrong Man, Koterpillar, Altes, Sasha l, Escarbot, , Thijs!bot, JAnDbot,
Alex Spade, Sasha1024, , TXiKiBoT, Parinov, WW, Newt, Deerstop, SieBot, YonaBot, Dinamik, Loveless,
WikiBotas, Lockalbot, ToePeu.bot, OKBot, Shcootsn, Qkowlew, Luckas-bot, Ptbotgourou, Benda, Berillium, Xqbot, Master Shadow,
Ole Frsten, SerYoga, Night001, EmausBot, Mr.Linderman, Baccy, ZroBot, HRoestBot, S-lavrik, Centurion198, OneLittleMouse,
Mentibot, Ebrambot, Habilis, Movses-bot, Calendar Man, MerlIwBot, Jusbonumque, "" , , LioN vlad,
, I.G.I.cool, Krotovv, Addbot, Facenapalm, Meafmira, , Milez189, : 98
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%94%D0%BE%D0%BA%D1%83%D0%BC%D0%B5%D0%
BD%D1%82%D0%B0%D0%BB%D1%8C%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%B5_%D0%BA%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%BE?oldid=78114894
: Hayk, YurikBot, CodeMonk, ~ruwiki, Zwobot, AlexeyV, Ilya78, Alex Ex, , Ghirlandajo, The Wrong
Man, Ybelov, DR, Tempus, Wilder, , Thijs!bot, JAnDbot, Blacklake, Botev A., Vicpeters, CommonsDelinker, Rei-bot,
Elefante bianco, VolkovBot, , TottyBot, Deerhunter, Blacknov, TXiKiBoT, Lvova, SieBot, YonaBot, Loveless,
Klimenok, Agent001, Dmitry Rozhkov, Ximik, DragonBot, Jeka3000, Krotkov, Te35b, OKBot, BOTarate, Stimpack, BotSottile,
Qkowlew, Dk2000, Andreykor, , Shavlovsky, Pessimist2006, Alogrin, AVB, Luckas-bot, Valentin 178, JackieBot, EROY,
Springhead, Obersachsebot, DSisyphBot, Xqbot, Albessonov, Dynasha, LucienBOT, ChenzwBot, Schrike, X7q, Pasteurizer, Maykel,
La Strategia Del Ragno, Krilykki, DrCulture, Gryllida, TobeBot, Tpyvvikky, Das steinerne Herz, Notnna, JJJuliaD, Smertrius, ,
Ripchip Bot, Arbnos, 19, EleferenBot, Anonimus Vulgaris, Proq, GrouchoBot, 7, G.loginov, Tar-Mairon,
, Kostyaaaaaaaaan, LankLinkBot, OneLittleMouse, Sin4ez, MaxBioHazard, Vadimvad, ChuispastonBot, WikitanvirBot,
Nicetry el, Movses-bot, KrBot, SpaceRu, MerlIwBot, Bivert, MBHbot, , Amarwain, Runner1616, ,
Illustrator, Dutcman, DmitryVilunos, Vil123, Greatta, Sozertsatel, User7777, Icefilm, Dimaniznik, Fleur-de-farine, Addbot, FillippGost,
Adam-Yourist, , Ioanradostniy, Q-bit array : 98
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%BE%D1%84%D0%B0%D0%BD%
D1%82%D0%B0%D1%81%D1%82%D0%B8%D0%BA%D0%B0?oldid=78486335 : Kneiphof, Robbot, Maximaximax,
Kuda, Kaganer, Snch, Butko, Okman, , , CodeMonk, Winterheart, Imrek, Zimin.V.G., Cheops, A5b,
Vald, Cyr, Alex Usoltsev, Infovarius, Insider, Tempus, Sasha l, Pahan, , Idot, Thijs!bot, JAnDbot, Blacklake, Andrey Kartashov,
CommonsDelinker, , Beaumain, Rei-bot, Molydeus, Ekamaloff, VolkovBot, Vlad2000PlusBot, , Hair Fly, Idioma-bot, Timur Maisak, Parinov, Art-top, Elmor, Newt, Narutix, -., Cantor, SieBot, , Alex.ryazantsev, Arowan, Che13, Tirthika, Avenger911, Agent001, $talker (SS), NewAgeBoy, LA2-bot, PixelBot, , Darkicebot, LatitudeBot, PinkPanther, Fractaler, Vanuan, , Iluvatar, AVB, , XClear, Graf1984, DSisyphBot,
Xqbot, SassoBot, Ilkin93, Vi4ett, AntiKrisT, Ljrfnfvfhe, SerYoga, Tpyvvikky, KamikazeBot, Vikeke, Igor Fedenko, Rzuwig, Calibrux,
Volshebniy, EmausBot, Arbnos, Gron2s, GrV, Lilamaya Weisberg, Baccy, Kosta10, , OneLittleMouse,
Kurai31, Riv-ks1, GutorovIV, AktiNo, Razor608, MerlIwBot, IluvatarBot, AlexMerser2721, 27, Vyacheslav84, TheVovaNik,
Addbot, KonstantinSer, Glovacki, , : 71
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%BE%D1%80%D0%BE%D1%82%D0%
BA%D0%BE%D0%BC%D0%B5%D1%82%D1%80%D0%B0%D0%B6%D0%BD%D1%8B%D0%B9_%D1%84%D0%B8%D0%
BB%D1%8C%D0%BC?oldid=77583379 : Fatal exception, Timur Maisak, NBS, Khitrenovich, Lavrenkov, Gipoza,
, Addbot, Meir, , : 7

10.1.

379

: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A1%D0%B0%D1%81%D0%BF%D0%B5%D0%BD%D1%81?oldid=
78337293 : YurikBot, Roboto de Ajvol, CodeMonk, A5b, Maksim-bot, The Wrong Man, Tempus, INside, DodekBot~ruwiki,
Lvova, INSAR, NeuLex, Emaus, Gizzatullin, EmausBot, ZroBot, Helgi-S, Wikifido, Tookser, MerlIwBot, Weiss M, Addbot :
18
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A4%D0%B8%D0%BB%D1%8C%D0%BC_%D1%83%D0%B6%
D0%B0%D1%81%D0%BE%D0%B2?oldid=78898049 : LA2, Maximaximax, Ledokol, AntonioK, YurikBot, , CodeMonk, Holmz, OckhamTheFox, A5b, Xiena, Fatal exception, ID burn, Cyr, Maksim-bot, Grey horse, The Wrong Man,
BotCat, Lance~ruwiki, Altes, Tempus, Andrei G Kustov, Sasha l, Itrid, Gary Cooper, , , Player, Ivan Pozdeev,
, INside, JAnDbot, AnTv, Shadowserg, Vicpeters, CommonsDelinker, Jazz, Alex Smotrov, Beaumain, Celest, Nick F0x,
Ekamaloff, DorganBot, Al99999, Ashik, ButkoBot, Vs64vs, Xatar, Narutix, -., Peni, UncleMartin, Rigg, INSAR, Nikit,
Jack who built the house, VicTur, . , God Pan, , Te5, Johndogget, Ameshavkin, Vprisivko,
Hannibal Lecter, Adrogenius, Pefl, Fractaler, NA USSR, Track13, Kate2and2kate, 007master, , Michaello, AVB, Body-Head,
Rubinbot, Joltd, , Obersachsebot, Alexeybru, Mistery Spectre, Qweedsa, Berillium, Laviofan, DenisKrivosheev,
P.NaZ, Thenuclear, AshikBot, Kino-admirer, Antoxin56, Sigwald, Rasmus1, Flint1972, Ukfif, , , LimeBot,
Nkvd89, X ColdDeath x, Anaxibia, Night001, , Diablerie, Moroka, Akronimo, DefTone, Vikeke, Das steinerne Herz, Dead
Mars, Swjatoy, San Sanitsch, Smertrius, Volshebniy, Valdis72, EmausBot, Arbnos, A.sav, Le Traceur Snork, Animal-wiki, VeraNick,
VIbot, Grasshoper~ruwiki, , RainbowUnicorn, Nature Protector, Katrin Kent, Natkabrown, OneLittleMouse,
, LarBot, Byzantine, Shne~ruwiki, , Cinemantique, , STARSHIP TROOPER, Movses-bot,
WebCite Archiver, Lizapiu, Stenmiller, MerlIwBot, Nastee11, MBHbot, Dulat K, LesStroud2011, FantaZR, Margeroone, , Terminotor,
Singul, Llecco, Vcohen, CrimsonQueen~ruwiki, , Shunt22, YFdyh-bot, Ashley0000, , RotlinkBot, Addbot, ,
Ovsyanaya kascha, Valerylebedenko, Mikkim022, D-baytserova, , , Mirandesan, Zahar1211,
, NickBrosssMan : 246
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%B5%D0%BC%
D0%B0%D1%82%D0%BE%D0%B3%D1%80%D0%B0%D1%84_%D0%92%D0%B5%D0%BB%D0%B8%D0%BA%D0%BE%
D0%B1%D1%80%D0%B8%D1%82%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%B8?oldid=78098985 : Alma Pater, Zimin.V.G.,
Cheops, StraSSenBahn, Alex Smotrov, VolkovBot, Cantor, SieBot, Zmier, Zmir, Dronaty, Qkowlew, SpBot, Atia, ,
EROY, Amin2, Wild Mushroom, , LucienBOT, , Vikeke, Das steinerne Herz, Slava.kerner, LankLinkBot, MerlIwBot,
MBHbot, Akrav, Mrkhlopov, Addbot : 9
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%B5%D0%BC%D0%
B0%D1%82%D0%BE%D0%B3%D1%80%D0%B0%D1%84_%D0%93%D0%B5%D1%80%D0%BC%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%
B8%D0%B8?oldid=78886025 : Wind, Panther, Roboto de Ajvol, Zimin.V.G., Alex Ex, Ghirlandajo, The Wrong Man, Esp,
Hellagood, Blacklake, Andrey Kartashov, ButkoBot, . , SieBot, Ob ivan, Shcootsn, MosGMikh, Dr.mabuse, Atia,
Luckas-bot, Trim, EROY, Berillium, Ghuron, . , Dinamik-bot, Das steinerne Herz, Alpunin, ZroBot, TuHan-Bot,
, LarBot, Cinemantique, Movses-bot, Paulaner-2011, Lizapiu, Akrav, , Mrkhlopov, Addbot, Glovacki, NapalmBot
: 15
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%B5%D0%BC%D0%
B0%D1%82%D0%BE%D0%B3%D1%80%D0%B0%D1%84_%D0%98%D1%82%D0%B0%D0%BB%D0%B8%D0%B8?oldid=
78834025 : YurikBot, Okman, . ., Zimin.V.G., Zserghei, Fatal exception, Friedrich~ruwiki, The Wrong Man, Thijs!bot,
Blacklake, Andrey Kartashov, VolkovBot, , Ketevan~ruwiki, Xatar, Synthebot, SieBot, Loveless, Anahoret, Albert Krantz,
VlsergeyBot, Qkowlew, Atia, Luckas-bot, XZeroBot, Xqbot, PVasili, IGW, Pancar, Kin kuma, Tpyvvikky, Vikeke, Das steinerne Herz,
Smertrius, Slava.kerner, Tockman, EmausBot, , Alex469, ZroBot, 67, JeanneMish, WebCite Archiver, Grinski, MerlIwBot,
MBHbot, Akrav, , Dutcman, , StanTRC, Iriskin0, Mrkhlopov, Addbot, Glovacki : 19
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%B5%D0%BC%D0%B0%
D1%82%D0%BE%D0%B3%D1%80%D0%B0%D1%84_%D0%A4%D1%80%D0%B0%D0%BD%D1%86%D0%B8%D0%B8?
oldid=78590119 : Maximaximax, Green fr, Dbf, CodeMonk, Zimin.V.G., A5b, Alex Ex, The Wrong Man, Asta~ruwiki,
Edwardspec TalkBot, Tempus, Thijs!bot, Andrey Kartashov, Funambule, VolkovBot, NoirLaw, Cantor, SieBot, Loveless, Vlsergey,
, PipepBot, GlaDooo, PixelBot, Shcootsn, Johndogget, Zmir, Marimarina, VlsergeyBot, Abiyoyo, Zorrobot, Atia,
Luckas-bot, Ptbotgourou, EROY, Obersachsebot, DSisyphBot, Serg Fr, Dsds55, Skip01, Tpyvvikky, Moscow Connection, Das steinerne
Herz, Slava.kerner, EmausBot, Alpunin, ZroBot, WikitanvirBot, Yavers, Movses-bot, Lizapiu, Grinski, Akrav, Lily Cristine, ,
Fleur-de-farine, Mrkhlopov, Addbot, Tommy tonclap : 17
Internet Movie Database : https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_Movie_Database?oldid=78765738 : Kneiphof,
Robbot, Wind, Salexey, Sergei Frolov, Ustas, YurikBot, Butko, A.I., CodeMonk, Boleslav1, Wassily, Solon, Fuxx, Zwobot, Eugrus,
JaroslavleffBot, A5b, Fatal exception, Abolen, Friedrich~ruwiki, Minus, The Wrong Man, , Ilich, Edwardspec TalkBot,
Axarion, Infovarius, Levg, Esp, Gero, Jeron, Escarbot, Fanny, Thijs!bot, JAnDbot, Claymore, Moscvitch, Alex Spade, DonRumata,
SJaguar, Celest, DorganBot, VolkovBot, Stonedhamlet, Alik Kirillovich, Vlad2000PlusBot, DodekBot~ruwiki, Deerhunter, Klip game,
, TXiKiBoT, RedAndr, Csahes, Grisha1995, Dimastij, ShinePhantom, Glukokorticoid, Rlu, , SieBot, YonaBot, INS
Pirat, DaBot~ruwiki, Botman, BotMultichill, Jack who built the house, AlleborgoBot, Vlsergey, GrigorevMN, Hartman,
robot, ToePeu.bot, Anton Diaz, DragonBot, GlaDooo, Marhorr, Mister SER, , Winterpool, Wladuszka, OKBot, Dreadline,
Alexbot, Shcootsn, BodhisattvaBot, Vprisivko, LatitudeBot, Dmitry Petelin, SilvonenBot, Bff, Saluton, BuHHu nyx, MelancholieBot, Al
johnson, Deinocheirus, Fotisgrek, Le1m, AlnoktaBOT, Zorrobot, , Amirobot, AVB, Luckas-bot, MadJager, Tumkir,
Kashtan, Rubinbot, Zoe Castillo, Vedya, Obersachsebot, Kroschka Ru, ELO1998, PITON8888, Rainaldo Rossi, AndreiK, Xqbot,
GAndy, Nikzsoundjunkie, DenisKrivosheev, Structor, ChenzwBot, Basus Ius Group, A Looker, Ryadinsky Eugen, Emaus, Altoing,
Alexei Zverev, 8 dark side, , , Varlaam, Norderg, VAP+VYK, RedBot, TobeBot, Nogin, KamikazeBot, Valfed-master, Sergeisemenoff, POLIGON, San Sanitsch, TjBot, EmausBot, Marko Redfeather, ZroBot, ArtTrapeza, , Alrofficial,
Topis, Wikifido, ChuispastonBot, Den1980-, WikitanvirBot, Tatewaki, WebCite Archiver, MerlIwBot, N-k90, 5-,
, Live to dead, Crazynimb, Addbot, Doni Vntersenz, Mattmiller3, 1234qwer1234qwer4, Milez189, Fenikals, Daketor
: 102
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%9F%D0%BE%D0%B8%D1%
81%D0%BA?oldid=78707580 : Torin, GreyCat, A5b, Shakko, The Wrong Man, Leksey, Ilich, Infovarius, Fanny,
, , Blacklake, Vicpeters, Pavelegorov, CommonsDelinker, VolkovBot, Bmtshnik, Fnaq, Zimak, Minia~ruwiki, Csahes,
Chath, Teodor, ShinePhantom, Deerstop, , Jack who built the house, Yakiv Gluck, Vlsergey, Agent001, Dmitry Rozhkov, Dimitris,

380

10. ,

Bilderling, RoadTrain, , Voix13, NeD80, Akim Dubrow, Track13, Fotisgrek, Zero Children, , AVB,
Juggler2005, DARK Vovich, Ivan A. Krestinin, GennadyL, XClear, RipleR, Mistery Spectre, BURF, D.bratchuk, , Apo100ol,
, Master Shadow, Cuba77, Ole Frsten, Etomonick, BasikBaskoni, Mutari, , Altoing, 8 dark side, WindBot,
777, , , Nogin, Anaxibia, Val-fed-master, Sergeisemenoff, Antara-2009, Mogwaika, TjBot, Ignatus, EmausBot,
Alpunin, , Gerard, 5ergey sakha, AntonioMontana13, ZroBot, Racer009, Sasha Chhh, , Panchomoscow,
Maxtirdatov, , CityOff, Ze-dan, LankLinkBot, OneLittleMouse, Romanika, W2, Wikifido, Den1980-, Antara.2010, KrBot,
WM5000, Maxic768, WebCite Archiver, BorisVM, W2Bot, Daniil Dudkin, , Alum5nium, , V4711,
Sozertsatel, Sumsinsky, Tralyalya, , Kinolay2, , VladislavKozonin, Telefoton, , Sebranik, Alexxsun,
Live to dead, , WebAnalyticsBot, WikiMan2010, Rapunzel2014, Commandos-rus, Meir, Granatyc1999, Q-bit array,
WikiFan193, , WalkDark, Sun-and-olive, Cat Fortune : 97

10.2.
:1"_C_format_tape_recoders_(6498646655).jpg : https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/72/1%22_C_
format_tape_recoders_%286498646655%29.jpg : CC BY-SA 2.0 : 1C format tape recoders : DRs
Kulturarvsprojekt from Copenhagen, Danmark
:16mm_Movie_Film_3.jpg : https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/77/16mm_Movie_Film_3.jpg : CC BY-SA 3.0 : : Runner1616
:16mm_and_super16.png : https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/16mm_and_super16.png : Public domain : : Myself (Max Smith)
:16mm_film_4.jpg : https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d2/16mm_film_4.jpg : CC BY-SA
3.0 : : Runner1616
:1912_Path_KOK_28mm_Projector.jpg : https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c3/1912_Path%C3%
A9_KOK_28mm_Projector.jpg : CC BY-SA 4.0 : : YellowFratello
:2009-06-23-flemming-by-RalfR-13.jpg
:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f1/
2009-06-23-flemming-by-RalfR-13.jpg : GFDL 1.2 : ; de:User:Ralf Roletschek,
Fahrradmonteur.de : Ralf Roletschek (<a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:Ralf_Roletschek' title='User
talk:Ralf Roletschek'>talk</a>)
:2009-06-23-flemming-by-RalfR-22.jpg
:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/56/
2009-06-23-flemming-by-RalfR-22.jpg : GFDL 1.2 : ; de:User:Ralf Roletschek,
Fahrradmonteur.de : Ralf Roletschek (<a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:Ralf_Roletschek' title='User
talk:Ralf Roletschek'>talk</a>)
:35mm_film_audio_macro.jpg : https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1d/35mm_film_audio_macro.
jpg : CC-BY-SA-3.0 : en:Image:35mm_film_audio_macro.jpg : Rotareneg
:35mm_film_format_with_optical_soundtrack-ru.svg
:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/
0/01/35mm_film_format_with_optical_soundtrack-ru.svg : CC BY-SA 3.0 : , : <a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:
35mm_film_format_with_optical_soundtrack.svg' class='image'><img alt='35mm film format with optical soundtrack.svg'
src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/16/35mm_film_format_with_optical_soundtrack.svg/30px-35mm_
film_format_with_optical_soundtrack.svg.png' width='30' height='20' srcset='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/
thumb/1/16/35mm_film_format_with_optical_soundtrack.svg/45px-35mm_film_format_with_optical_soundtrack.svg.png
1.5x,
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/16/35mm_film_format_with_optical_soundtrack.svg/59px-35mm_film_
format_with_optical_soundtrack.svg.png 2x' data-file-width='539' data-file-height='365' /></a> 35mm film format with optical
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Public
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jpg : Public domain : scanned by User:Davepape : Edison Manufacturing Company
:Opticalprinter.jpg : https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/20/Opticalprinter.jpg : Public
domain : Wikipedia English version, en:Image:Opticalprinter.jpg. : Photo by J-E Nystrm, "Janke" * Talk Gallery
:Orc.svg : https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/72/Orc.svg : Public domain : ? : ?

10.2.

389

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:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b3/Order_BritEmp_
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class='image'><img alt='Order BritEmp rib.png' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/83/Order_BritEmp_
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Order_BritEmp_rib.png: J a1 & Wiki Romi
:Order_badge_of_honor_rib.png : https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/90/Order_badge_of_honor_
rib.png : Public domain : No machine-readable source provided. Own work assumed (based on copyright claims). : . Zscout370 (
).
:Order_of_Lenin_ribbon_bar.png
:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d7/Order_of_Lenin_
ribbon_bar.png : Public domain : ? : ?
:Order_of_New_Zealand_ribbon.png : https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/92/Order_of_New_
Zealand_ribbon.png : CC BY-SA 2.5 : en.wikipedia . :
PalawanOz
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Borodun* talk
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:P_culture.svg : https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4f/P_culture.svg : CC-BY-SA-3.0 : ? : ?
:P_vip.svg : https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/69/P_vip.svg : Public domain : ? : ?
:Paper_cinema_ticket.jpg : https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/60/Paper_cinema_ticket.jpg : Public domain : Personal collection : Tangopaso
:Paris1909.jpg : https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/ru/2/22/Paris1909.jpg : ? :
!
( )
4 10. :

:Passport.svg : https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/03/Passport.svg : CC BY-SA 3.0 : : Runner1616


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https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1a/Penrose_Tiling_
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:Pentagram-phi.svg : https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/30/Pentagram-phi.svg : Public
domain : en.wikipedia . : Jamiemichelle
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Flickr : midiman
:Portal.svg : https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c9/Portal.svg : CC BY 2.5 :
Portal.svg
: Portal.svg: Pepetps

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https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/54/
Presidential_Medal_of_Freedom_%28ribbon%29.png : CC BY-SA 3.0 : : File:Presidential-medal-of-freedom.jpg : <a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:ANGELUS' title='User:
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:Rodriguez_and_Tarantino,_2007.jpg : https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5c/Rodriguez_and_
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Hollywood, USA
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Public domain : ? : ?
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:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2e/
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Ysangkok
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https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/26/Sergei_Eisenstein_03.jpg
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https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/92/Sigourney_Weaver_
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: Sean Devine at http://picasaweb.google.com/seanmdevine

10.2.

391

:SpielbergGraumansChinese.jpg
:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/93/
SpielbergGraumansChinese.jpg : CC BY-SA 2.0 : Steven Spielberg : einalem from Leeds
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: DRs Kulturarvsprojekt from Copenhagen, Danmark
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: DRs Kulturarvsprojekt from Copenhagen, Danmark
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: DRs Kulturarvsprojekt from Copenhagen, Danmark
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https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/
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