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Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements
For the award of the degree
______________________________ ENGINEERING

DEPARTMENT OF __________________________________


This is to certify that the dissertation work entitled KERS

is the work done by _________________________________________
______________ submitted in partial fulfillment for the award of BACHELOR
OF ENGINEERING (B.E) in _________________________

Engineering from

________ College of Engineering affiliated to ____________University,

The results obtained in this project have not submitted to any other University or
Institution for the award of any degree or diploma.

(Head of the department, M.E.)

(Assistant Professor)


The satisfaction and euphoria that accompany the successful completion of

any task would be incomplete without the mentioning of the people whose constant
guidance and encouragement made it possible. We take pleasure in presenting
before you, our project, which is result of studied blend of both research and
We express our earnest gratitude to our internal guide, Assistant Professor
______________, Department of ME, our project guide, for his constant support,
encouragement and guidance. We are grateful for his cooperation and his valuable
Finally, we express our gratitude to all other members who are involved
either directly or indirectly for the completion of this project.


We, the undersigned, declare that the project entitled KERS, being submitted in
partial fulfillment for the award of Bachelor of Engineering Degree in
_____________________ Engineering, affiliated to ________University, is the
work carried out by us.

The results embodied in this thesis have not been submitted to any other University
or Institute for the award of any diploma or degree.







Kinetic Energy Recovery System

KERS means Kinetic Energy Recovery System and it refers to the mechanisms that
recover the energy that would normally be lost when reducing speed. The energy is stored in a
mechanical form and retransmitted to the wheel in order to help the acceleration. Electric
vehicles and hybrid have a similar system called Regenerative Brake which restores the energy
in the batteries.The device recovers the kinetic energy that is present in the waste heat created by
the cars braking process. It stores that energy and converts it into power that can be called upon
to boost acceleration.

There are principally two types of system - battery (electrical) and flywheel (mechanical).
Electrical systems use a motor- generator incorporated in the cars transmission which converts
mechanical energy into electrical energy and vice versa. Once the energy has been harnessed, it
is stored in a battery and released when required.

Mechanical systems capture braking energy and use it to turn a small flywheel which can spin at
up to 80,000 rpm. When extra power is required, the flywheel is connected to the cars rear
wheels. In contrast to an electrical KERS, the mechanical energy doesnt change state and is
therefore more efficient.

There is one other option available - hydraulic KERS, where braking energy is used to
accumulate hydraulic pressure which is then sent to the wheels when required.

The first, mechanical, consisted of using a carbon flywheel in a vacuum linked via a CVT
transmission to the differential. This system stores the mechanical energy, offers a big storage
capacity and has the advantage of being independent from the gearbox. However, to be driven
precisely, it requires some powerful and bulky actuators, and lots of space.
Compared to the alternative of electrical-battery systems, the mechanical KERS system provides
a significantly more compact, efficient, lighter and environmentally-friendly solution.
The components within each variator include an input disc and an opposing output disc. Each
disc is formed so that the gap created between the discs is doughnut shaped; that is, the toroidal
surfaces on each disc form the toroidalcavity. Two or three rollers are located inside each toroidal
cavity and are positioned so that the outer edge of each roller is in contact with the toroidal
surfaces of the input disc and output disc. As the input disc rotates, power is transferred via the
rollers to the output disc, which rotates in the opposite direction to the input disc.
The angle of the roller determines the ratio of the Variator and therefore a change in the angle of
the roller results in a change in the ratio. So, with the roller at a small radius (near the centre) on
the input disc and at a large radius (near the edge) on the output disc the Variator produces a
low ratio. Moving the roller across the discs to a large radius at the input disc and
corresponding low radius at the output produces the high ratio and provides the full ratio sweep
in a smooth, continuous manner.
The transfer of power through the contacting surfaces of the discs and rollers takes place via a
microscopic film of specially developed long-molecule traction fluid. This fluid separates the
rolling surfaces of the discs and rollers at their contact points.
The input and output discs are clamped together within each variator unit. The traction fluid
in the contact points between the discs and rollers become highly viscous under this clamping
pressure, increasing its stickiness and creating an efficient mechanism for transferring power
between the rotating discs and rollers.
The second option, electrical, was to rely on an electrical motor, which works by charging the

batteries under braking and releasing the power on acceleration. This system consists of three
important parts:
1. An electric motor (MGU: Motor Generator Unit) situated between the fuel tank and the
engine, linked directly to the crankshaft of the V8 to deliver additional power.
2. Some latest generation ion-lithium batteries (HVB: High Voltage Battery Pack) capable
of storing and delivering energy rapidly.
3. A control box (KCU: KERS Control Unit), which manages the behavior of the MGU
when charging and releasing energy. It is linked to the cars standard electronic control
In essence a KERS systems is simple, you need a component for generating the power, one for
storing it and another to control it all. Thus KERS systems have three main components: The
MGU, the PCU and the batteries. They are simply laid out as in the diagram below:

Fig 1.0 Schematic Assembly Of KERS in a F1 car

2.1 MGU (Motor Generator unit)

Mounted to the front of the engine, this is driven off a gear at the front of the crankshaft.
Working in two modes, the MGU both creates the power for the batteries when the car is
braking, then return the power from the batteries to add power directly to the engine, when the
KERS button is deployed. Running high RPM and generating a significant Dc current the unit
run very hot, so teams typically oil or water cool the MGU.

Fig 1.1Marelli MGU as used by Ferrari

Fig 1.2 Marelli prototype PCU

2.2 Batteries
During the 2009 season only electrical batteries were used, although at least two flywheel
systems were in development, but unraced. We will focus on the arrays of lithium-ion batteries
that were raced. Made up of around 40 individual cells, these batteries would last two races
before being recycled. In McLarens case these were mounted to the floor in the sidepods
beneath the radiators. Other teams mounted them in a false bottom to the fuel tank area for safety
in the event of a crash. Being charged and discharged repeatedly during a lap, the batteries would
run very hot and needed cooling, this mainly took the form of oil or water cooling, and again
McLarens example had them pack water cooled with its own pump and radiator.

2.3PCU (Power Control Unit)

Typically mounted in the sidepod this black box of electronics served two purposes, firstly to
invert & control the switching of current from the batteries to the MGU and secondly to monitor
the status of the individual cells with the battery. Managing the battery is critical as the efficiency
of a pack of Li-ion cells will drop if one cell starts to fail. A failing cell can overheat rapidly and
cause safety issues. As with all KERS components the PCU needs cooling.

The FIA (Federation InternationaleL"Automobile) have authorized hybrid drivetrains in Formula
1 racing for the 2009 racing season. The intent is to use the engineering resources of the Formula
1 community to develop hybrid technology for use not only in motorsport but also eventually in
road vehicles. The hybrid systems specifications have been kept to a minimum, especially the
type of hybrid system. This was done purposely to lead to the study and development of various
alternatives for electrical hybrids which has been met with success.
The Flybrid Kinetic Energy Recovery System (KERS) was a small and light device designed to
meet the FIA regulations for the 2009 Formula One season.
The key system features were:

A flywheel made of steel and carbon fibre that rotated at over 60,000 RPM inside an
evacuated chamber

The flywheel casing featured containment to avoid the escape of any debris in the
unlikely event of a flywheel failure

The flywheel was connected to the transmission of the car on the output side of the
gearbox via several fixed ratios, a clutch and the CVT

60 kW power transmission in either storage or recovery

400 kJ of usable storage (after accounting for internal losses)


A total system weight of 25 kg

A total packaging volume of 13 litres

The layout of the device was tailored exactly to meet the customer's requirement resulting in a
truly bespoke solution that fitted within the tight packaging constraints of a F1 car.
The mechanical KERS system utilises flywheel technology developed by Flybrid Systems to
recover and store a moving vehicles kinetic energy which is otherwise wasted when the vehicle
is decelerated.
With a focus on safety, the FIA have specified a limit on both the power rating of the hybrid
system at 60kW and the quantity of energy transfer per lap at 400kJ. This translates into an extra
85bhp for just under seven seconds, which makes overtaking another vehicle on the track easier
and the race much more interesting.Thus although a 0.3s boost to laptimes, the system was
ultimately limited in its potential to improve laptimes. Thus no team could create a competitive
advantage from a more powerful system. Then the weight of the system created issues, At a time
when the wider front slick tyres demanded an extreme weight distribution of up to 49% weight
on the front axle, the 25+Kg of a KERS system mounted behind the Centre of gravity, the
handicapped teams being able to push weight forwards. Most teams dropping or not racing their
system cited weight as the main reason for its loss.
The 60kW/400kJ limits in Formula 1 will not apply to road cars. Road cars will safely have
more power and energy transfer due to their larger weight when compared with racecars, which
will provide them with significant benefits.
There is more than one type of KERS used in motorsports. The most common is the electronic
system built by the Italian company MagnetiMarelli, which is used by Red Bull, Toro Rosso,
Ferrari, Renault and Toyota. Although races have been won with this technology, KERS was
removed from the 2010 Formula 1 season due to its high cost.


Fig 2.1.Flybrid Kinetic Energy Recovery System

Fig 2.2.A KERS flywheel

3.1. Ancillaries
Aside from these main components the KERS system also integrates with the FIA Security in
order to control and monitor the PCU. KERS has to be driver activated; this is achieved from a
steering wheel button. Although the drive has to initiate the KERS boost, the teams set the
system up such that the driver knows to engage the system out of specific corners, the system
then delivers the predetermined amount of boost specific to the demands of that section of track.
In practice the KERS systems is being charged and discharged to this preset map of activations,
which smoothens the balance between charging and discharging, so the system does not
overcharge above the regulatory limit. Again the SECU ensures no more than the capped amount
of energy is delivered each lap.


Fig 3. KERS Schematic

Sensors: boost button, brake sensor

Actuators: electric motor/generator unit, continuously variable transmission, flywheel,
electro-hydraulic system, clutch.
Data Communications: CAN Bus.
Manufacturers: Bosch Motorsport, Flybrid Systems, MagnetiMarelli, Williams Hybrid
Power, Zytek Group.


Advanced transmissions that incorporate hi-tech flywheels are now being used as regenerative
systems in such things as formula-1 cars, where they're typically referred to as kinetic energy
recovery systems (KERS).
The types of KERS that have been developed are:
4.1. Mechanical KERS
4.2. Electro-mechanical KERS
4.3. Hydraulic KERS
4.4. Electronic KERS
Of the three types of KERS units mechanical, electrical and hydraulic Formula 1
teams have decided to go for the mechanic one. The reasons behind this choice are quite
logical: less weight, better weight distribution, increased power boost and improved fuel

4.1. Mechanical KERS

The mechanical KERS system has a flywheel as the energy storage device but it does away with
MGUs by replacing them with a transmission to control and transfer the energy to and from the
driveline. The kinetic energy of the vehicle end up as kinetic energy of a rotating flywheel
through the use of shafts and gears. Unlike electronic KERS, this method of storage prevents the
need to transform energy from one type to another. Each energy conversion in electronic KERS
brings its own losses and the overall efficiency is poor compared to mechanical storage. To cope
with the continuous change in speed ratio between the flywheel and road-wheels, a continuously
variable transmission (CVT) is used, which is managed by an electro-hydraulic control system. A
clutch allows disengagement of the device when not in use.
As Li-ion batteries are still an expensive emerging technology, plus they have associated risks,
recycling and transport problems. The attraction of flywheel KERS is obvious, however no team

have raced such a system in F1. Flywheels can effectively replace the Li-ion batteries with in a
typical KERS system, the flywheel being mated to a second MGU to convert the power
generated by the primary MGU on the engine into the kinetic to be stored in the flywheel.
Williams are believed to have just such a system. However the simper flywheel solution is
connect the flywheel system via a clutched and geared mechanism.

4.2. Electro-mechanical KERS

In electro-mechanical KERS energy is not stored in batteries or super-capacitors, instead it spins
a flywheel to store the energy kinetically. This system is effectively an electro-mechanical
battery. There is limited space in a racecar so the unit is small and light. Therefore, the flywheel
spins very fast to speeds of 50,000 - 160,000 rpm to achieve sufficient energy density.
Aerodynamic losses and heat buildup are minimized by containing the spinning flywheel in a
vacuum environment. The flywheel in this system is a magnetically loaded composite (MLC).
The flywheel remains one piece at these high speeds because it is wound with high strength
fibers. The fibers have metal particles embedded in them that allows the flywheel to be
magnetized as a permanent magnet.
The flywheel will perform similarly to an MGU. As the flywheel spins, it can induce a current in
the stator releasing electricity or it can spin like a motor when current flows from the stator. This
flywheel is used in conjunction with an MGU attached to the gearbox which supplies electrical
energy to the flywheel from the road and returns it to the gearbox for acceleration at the touch of
a button. Not all flywheels used in the electro-mechanical KERS are permanent magnets.
Instead, these systems use two MGUs, one near the flywheel and another at the gearbox. Some
systems use flywheels and batteries together to store energy.

4.3. Hydraulic KERS

A further alternative to the generation and storage of energy is to use hydraulics. This system has
some limitations, but with the capped energy storage mandated within the rules the system could

see a short term application. Separate to the cars other hydraulic systems, a hydraulic KERS
would use a pump in place of the MGU and an accumulator in place of the batteries. Simple
valving would route the fluid into the accumulator or to the pump to either generate or reapply
the stored power. Hydraulic accumulators are already used in heavy industry to provide back up
in the event of failure to conventional pumped systems.

Using filament wound carbon fibre casing, an accumulator of sufficient capacity could be made
light enough to fit into the car. They might be capped in terms of practical storage with in the
confines of an F1 sized system, but McLaren had prepared just such an energy recovery system
back on the late 90s, but it was banned before it could race. With the relatively low FIA cap on
energy storage, just such a system could be easily packaged, the hydraulic MGU would be sited
in the conventional front-of-engine position and the accumulator, given proper crash protection
fitted to the sidepod. Saving space would be minimal control system (equivalent to the PCU) as
the valving to control the system could be controlled by the cars main electro hydraulic system.
McLaren have recently been quoted as saying the 2011 KERS would be more hydraulic and less
electronic giving rise to speculation that a hydraulic storage system could be used.
An older technology than that of the kinetic steering wheels and batteries to create KERS for
trucks: A hydraulic fluid.
The HLA (Hydraulic Launch Assist) developed by Eaton is located between the transmission and
the back axis of the truck. When the driver steps on the brake, it uses the movement of the
wheels to compress hydraulic fluid, thus reducing the trucks speed. When the truck accelerates
again, the energy returns to the wheels. This is a hydraulic recovery system. The principle behind
hydraulic KERS units, by contrast, is to reuse a vehicles kinetic energy by conducting
pressurized hydraulic fluid into an accumulator during deceleration, then conducting it back into
the drive system during acceleration
This system can save up to 30% on fuel in trucks that make numerous stops such as garbage
trucks. In addition brakes have a larger life span, five times more than a simple diesel-electric
hybrid, which increases the weight of the truck by about half a ton. But there are some
fundamental problems here as well. One is the relatively low efficiency of rotary pumps and

motors. Another is the weight of incompressible fluids. And a third is the amount of space
needed for the hydraulic accumulators, and their awkward form factor. None of this matters too
much in, say, heavy commercial vehicles but it makes this option unsuitable for road and racing

Fig 4.1.Carbon Fibre Hydraulic Accumulator

Fig 4.2. HLA (Hydraulic Launch Assist)

4.4. Electronic KERS


In electronic KERS, braking rotational force is captured by an electric motor / generator unit
(MGU) mounted to the engines crankshaft. This MGU takes the electrical energy that it converts
from kinetic energy and stores it in batteries. The boost button then summons the electrical
energy in the batteries to power the MGU. The most difficult part in designing electronic KERS
is how to store the electrical energy. Most racing systems use a lithium battery, which is
essentially a large mobile phone battery. Batteries become hot when charging them so many of
the KERS cars have more cooling ducts since charging will occur multiple times throughout a
race. Super-capacitors can also be used to store electrical energy instead of batteries, they run
cooler and are debatably more efficient.


Since kinetic energy is the energy of motion, you could probably guess that cars create lots of it.
Capturing some of that kinetic energy for the sake of fuel efficiency in a hybrid car is a little
tricky, but regenerative braking is one common method employed by many automakers.
On a non-hybrid car during a routine stop, mechanical braking slows and then stops the vehicle.
For instance, if your vehicle has disc brakes, the brake pads clamp down on a rotor to stop the
car. If your car has drum brakes, the brake shoe pushes the brake lining material outward toward
the brake drum surface to slow or stop the car. In both cases, most of the kinetic energy in the
spinning wheels is absorbed by the pads or the drums, which creates heat.
On a hybrid car that uses regenerative braking, the electric motor is used to slow the car. When
the motor is operating in this mode, it acts as a generator to recover the rotational kinetic energy
at the wheels, convert it into energy and store it in the car's batteries. When the driver of the
hybrid car takes his or her foot off of the accelerator pedal, the resistance provided by the
generator slows the car first and then the mechanical brake pads can be applied to finish the job.
Of course, the mechanical brake pads can also be engaged immediately in an emergency braking
The car uses the energy stored in the battery to power the electric motor which drives the car at
low speeds. Depending on the type of hybrid, the electric motor can either work alone to move

the car or it can work in concert with the car's gasoline-powered engine. So regenerative braking,
coupled with eco-friendly driving techniques like slow starts and slower overall vehicle speeds,
is an important feature on some of some of the most fuel-efficient vehicles on the road today.
Regenerative brakes may seem very hi-tech, but the idea of having "energy-saving reservoirs" in
machines is nothing new. Engines have been using energy-storing devices called flywheels
virtually since they were invented.
The basic idea is that the rotating part of the engine incorporates a wheel with a very heavy metal
rim, and this drives whatever machine or device the engine is connected to. It takes much more
time to get a flywheel-engine turning but, once it's up to speed, the flywheel stores a huge
amount of rotational energy. A heavy spinning flywheel is a bit like a truck going at speed: it has
huge momentum so it takes a great deal of stopping and changing its speed takes a lot of effort.
That may sound like a drawback, but it's actually very useful. If an engine (maybe a steam
engine powered by cylinders) supplies power erratically, the flywheel compensates, absorbing
extra power and making up for temporary lulls, so the machine or equipment it's connected to is
driven more smoothly.
The heavy metal flywheel attached to this engine helps to keep it running at a steady speed. Note
that most of the heavy metal mass of the flywheel is concentrated around its rim. That gives it
what's called a high moment of inertia: it takes a lot of energy both to make it spin fast and slow
down. It's easy to see how a flywheel could be used for regenerative braking. In something like a
bus or a truck, you could have a heavy flywheel that could be engaged or disengaged from the
transmission at different times. You could engage the flywheel every time you want to brake so it
soaked up some of your kinetic energy and brought you to a halt. Next time you started off, you'd
use the flywheel to return the energy and get you moving again, before disengaging it during
normal driving. The main drawback of using flywheels in moving vehicles is, of course, their
extra weight. They save you energy by storing power you'd otherwise squander in brakes, but
they also cost you energy because you have to carry them around all the time.


Advanced transmissions that incorporate hi-tech flywheels are now being used as regenerative
systems in such things as formula-1 cars, where they're typically referred to as kinetic energy
recovery systems (KERS).

5.1. KERS dissimilar from Regenerative Braking

Traditional hybrids acquire electrical energy from braking in a similar way that electrical KERS
equipped vehicles do but the difference lies in how the energy is reused. While KERS quickly reinjects the energy back into the powertrain to provide additional power boost in conjunction with
the engine, the traditional hybrid saves the energy to power the electric power train. KERS is
different from traditional hybrids in that the stop start functionality is not a prime goal of the
system. KERS work very well in conjunction with engine mounted Stop/Start systems, or it can
be engine mounted and used for stop start functionality. The KERS hybrid system cannot be
"charged" by the engine directly, which is the requirement that has lead to its name, "KERS".


6.1. Porsche
At 2011 North American International Auto Show Porsche unveiled a RSR variant of their
Porsche 918 concept car which uses a flywheel-based KERS system that sits beside the driver in
the passenger compartment and boosts the dual electric motors driving the front wheels and the
565 BHP V8 gasoline engine driving the rear to a combined power output of 767 BHP.
The electric motors are not powered by a set of batteries, as in a traditional hybrid, rather they
take their power from an inertial flywheel mounted where the passenger seat would be on a road
car and spinning at up to 36,000rpm. That's spun up by momentum when the car brakes and,
when the driver hits a button, that momentum is converted to give an acceleratory boost.


Fig 5.1. Porsche 918 RSR Concept Car

Fig 5.2. Ferrari Vettura Laboratorio HY-KERS

6.2. Ferrari
The HY-KERS vettura laboratorio (experimental vehicle) is an example of how Ferrari is
approaching the development of hybrid technology without losing sight of the performance traits
and driving involvement that have always exemplified its cars.
Weighing about 40 kg, the compact, tri-phase, high-voltage electric motor of the HY-KERS is
coupled to the rear of the dual-clutch 7-speed F1 transmission. It operates through one of the
transmissions two clutches and engages one of the two gearbox primary shafts. Thus power is
coupled seamlessly and instantaneously between the electric motor and the V12. The electric
motor produces more than 100 hp as Ferraris goal was to offset every kilogram increase in
weight by a gain of at least one hp.
Under braking the electric drive unit acts as a generator, using the kinetic energy from the
negative torque generated to recharge the batteries. This phase is controlled by a dedicated

electronics module which was developed applying experience gained in F1 and, as well as
managing the power supply and recharging the batteries, the module also powers the engines
ancillaries (power steering, power-assisted brakes, air conditioning, on-board systems) via a
generator mounted on the V12 engine when running 100 per cent under electric drive. It also






This experimental vehicle thus maintains the high-performance characteristics typical of all
Ferraris while, at the same time, reducing CO2 emissions on the ECE + EUDC combined cycle
by 35 per cent.

6.3. Volvo
Volvo is experimenting with a Formula 1 style drive system which is claimed to cut fuel
consumption by up to 20 per cent. The Swedish car maker is about to start road trials using a
vehicle fitted with a kinetic energy recovery system, or KERS. Volvo is using the technology not
only to improve performance but also to aid fuel economy.
It uses a flywheel fitted to the rear axle which captures energy from the car under braking. The
flywheel spins at up to 60,000rpm and when the car moves away the stored energy is released to
drive the rear wheels via a special transmission. Volvo says that when allied to stop/start systems
which switch off a car's engine when it comes to rest in traffic, the Flywheel KERS reduces fuel
urban fuel consumption by some 20 per cent.
Volvo aims to develop a complete system for kinetic energy recovery. Tests in a Volvo car will
get under way in the second half of 2011. This technology has the potential for reducing fuel
consumption by up to 20 per cent. What is more, it gives the driver an extra horsepower boost,
giving a four - cylinder engine acceleration like a six-cylinder unit. They claim that the system
can have the effect of adding an extra 80 horsepower to an engine which could significantly
improve acceleration.
They are not the first manufacturer to test flywheel technology, but nobody else has applied it to
the rear axle of a car fitted with a combustion engine driving the front wheels. The Swedish


carmaker expects cars with flywheel technology to reach the showrooms within a few years if
the tests and technical development go as planned.

Fig 5.3. Volvo Flywheel KERS System Layout

6.4. Jaguar
A consortium led by a Jaguar Land Rover is developing a flywheel-hybrid system that it says
boosts performance by 60 kilowatts (about 80 horsepower) while improving fuel efficiency 20
percent. The consortium, which includes automakers like Ford and engineering firms like
Prodrive, sees a market for flywheel hybrids among luxury automakers.
During braking, a small continuously variable transmission (CVT) mounted on the rear
differential transfers the kinetic energy to a flywheel. When the driver applies the accelerator, the
flywheel returns the energy through the CVT to the wheels, providing a boost of 60 kilowatts for
around 7 seconds. The flywheel spins at up to 60,000 rpm.
Jaguar is testing its purely mechanical flywheel system, which reportedly weighs 143 pounds, in
an XF sedan. Jaguar says it is superior to battery-electric hybrid systems because flywheels are

smaller, cheaper and more efficient. Instead of converting kinetic energy into electricity that is
stored in a battery, the CVT transfers the energy directly to the flywheel and then back to the

1 Project base = 12 inch x 18 inch
2 Project height = 24 inch
3 flywheel diameter = 30 cm
4 Flywheel weight = 4kg
5 Worm gear dia = 7cm
6 Spur gear dia = 7cm
7 material used = Cast iron
8 Spring used = Helical spring of wrought iron
9 Connecting rod = 24 inch 2mm dia


By adopting the cheaper and lighter flywheel system (the ideal solution if it could be made to fit
into the no-refueling era cars), a more powerful boost, and limiting the number of activations in a
race it would cover all the bases it needs to. It would be affordable for the all the teams, deliver
performances as well as being a more interesting race variable. The sidepod solution is quite
unique, and has given us a new envelope to try to drive performance to the rear of the car. We
need to keep thinking out-of-the-box. Compared to ten or 20 years ago, it's really quite
staggering what can be delivered given the restrictions we have now it's a tribute to imaginative

Thus we are coming to the end of the elaborate study of KERS going through their advantaged
limitation relevance and finally to the modification. To sum up this seminar we have gone
through sophisticated concept which will surely be much raved in coming days.
Also it would be a great showcase of technology which could have a major impact on the car
industry in years to come. In the future the technology could also be used on buses, trains, and
wind power generation.



1. www.howstuffworks.com/KERS.htm
2. www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kinetic_Energy_Recovery_Systems
3. www.flybridsystems.com/F1System.html
4. www.ferrari.com/KERS/HY-KERS-Experimental-Vehicle.aspx
5. www.scarbsf1.wordpress.com/2010/10/20/kers-anatomy
6. www.wired.com/autopia/2010/10/flywheel-hybrid-system-for-premium-vehicles
7. www.gizmag.com/mechanical-kers-technology-for-road-cars