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computers

&

o,=.c=(~o,.~T,

ELSEVIER

mathematics

with applications

www.elsevier .com/locate/camwa

N u m e r i c a l S i m u l a t i o n of

Spherical C o u e t t e Flow

HEYUAN WANG

D e p a r t m e n t of M a t h e m a t i c s a n d Physics

Liaoning I n s t i t u t e of Technology

Jin'zhou, 121001, P.R. C h i n a

and

School of Sciences, X i ' a n J i a o t o n g University

Xi'an, 710049, P.R. C h i n a

wangheyuan6400sina,

com

KAITAI LI

School of Sciences, X i ' a n J i a o t o n g University

Xi'an, 710049, P.R. C h i n a

A b s t r a c t - - A spectral method is used to study numerically flow between two concentric rotating

spheres. Analytical expressions of eigenfunctions of a Stokes operator in the spherical gap region

are presented, numerical experiments are carried out by applying these expressions to the spectral

approximation of spherical Couette flow, and numerical results are given. Q 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All

rights reserved.

K e y w o r d s - - N a v i e r - S t o k e s equations, Spherical-Couette flow, Stokes operator.

NOMENCLATURE

(r, ~b,O)

R1, R2

outer spheres

//2

r] = R--~I'wl, w2

inner and outer spheres

02

w = --, ~

wl

viscosity

Re = R~wl/v

Reynolds number

pressure

, ~

functions

1. I N T R O D U C T I O N

In this paper, we numerically study the stationary axisymmetric incompressible flow between

two concentrically rotating spheres. This flow is called the spherical Couette flow (SCF). In

many ways, spherical Couette flow resembles the well-known Taylor-Couette flow (TCF) between

Subsidized by the special funds for major basic research projects of China G1999032801-07 and NSFC (10101020).

0898-1221/04/$ - see front matter @ 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.camwa.2003.12.004

Typeset by .AA.~S-TEX

110

H. WANGA N D K. LI

two differentially rotating concentric cylinders, especially in the equatorial regions of the sphere

where the centrifugal force on the flow is the greatest. However, the number of vortices are always

confined to the equatorial regions in the TCF.

Please see the Nomenclature for definitions used throughout this paper.

At a low Reynolds number, the SCF is experimentally found to be both axisymmetric and

reflection symmetric about the equator [1]. Three types of the SCF that exist at medium gap

geometries (0.12 < ~7 <- 0.24) are characterized by zero, two, and four Taylor vortices on the

(r, 0) meridional plane, respectively. Marcus and Tuckerman [2,3] numerically examined previous

laboratory results using difference methods. Wimmer's laboratory experiments [4] were the first

showing that flows are not unique functions of 77 and Re and that the final equilibrium state of

the fluid depends also on the history of the fluid, particularly on the rate of acceleration of the

inner sphere wl during the transition to a final state.

Sawatski and Zierep [1], Zierep and Sawatski [5] and Wimmer [4] found that there exist critical

Reynolds numbers Rec. For Re < Rec, the fluid ftow is ~'almost" laminar; namely, flow is stable

and there are no Taylor vortices. When Re >_ Rec, the flow loses stability and Taylor vortices

appears. Schrauf [6] and Marcus and Tuckerman [3] discover that Reel = 645 + 0.05, Re~2 =

740 q- 0.05 [3,6] for ~7 = 0.18 from calculations using difference methods, for example, arc length

continuation methods with different method, pseudospectral methods, collocation methods, or

finite element-arc length continuations methods with conjugate gradient formulations, respectively.

In this paper, we numerically study flow between two concentric rotating spheres by using a

spectral method. Our main work is to present an analytical expression of eigenfunctions of a

Stokes operator in the spherical gap region, by applying eigenfunctions of the Stokes operator

to approximate flow of r and 0 directions, respectively, we examine previous experiment results

again, our results are in agreement with the results of Marcus and Tuckerman, and our spectral

method has an obvious physical meaning. In fact, if an eigenfunction of the Stokes operator is

regarded as basic flow (basic vortex), total flow is accumulation of various vortices.

The content of the paper is arranged as follows. First, we introduce a velocity-stream function

form of the Navier-Stokes equations in the spherical polar coordinates in Section 2. Second,

we discuss an eigenvalue problem of this Stokes operator in the Section 3, and eigenvalues and

eigenfunctions of the Stokes operator in the spherical gap region are given. Finally, we discuss a

computing scheme in Section 4, and we present numerical results in Section 5.

2. THE

WITH

NAVIER-STOKES

VORTICITY-STREAM

EQUATION

FORM

The Navier-Stokes equation between two concentric rotating spheres are given by

0_~u

+ (u. V)u + Vp - 1 V 2 u = 0,

0t

V . u = 0,

(i.i)

(1.2)

u[~=l ----sin 0g,

u],.= n = w r I sin

0g,

where (~'~, fie, g0) is a local coordinate frame of the spherical polar coordinates.

By applying the identity

1 gradlu[ 2

2

(1.1) can be rewritten by

Ou

Ot

u (V u) + (u. V)u,

(1.3)

Numerical Simulation

111

iv

57 - v x (~ x ( v x u)) - Re

x (V~)

0.

Since u = u . ~' and ( = ( . ~', by axisymmetry, we obtain the equation for the C-components

of velocity and vorticity

Ou

&

(u x ). ~ - ~eV2U . fie = O,

1

a,pat v x (~ ). ~',~ - -fi-Tev

x (V2u) fie

(1.4)

O.

(1.5)

(r sin 0~).

(1.6)

One can define the stream function such that the meridional flow is

-1

uo - r sin 0

-1

O

I

O

- 0 0-~(rsin0u),

0 - rsin00-r (rsinOu)'

(~ r 2-sin

where

( = L2'

(1.7)

-2~( r ' ) r

Substituting (1.6) and (1.7) into (1.4) and (1.5), we obtain the vorticity-stream function formulation of the Navier-Stokes equation with axisymmetry

Ou

1 2

1

O(r sin Ou, r sin 0~)

0t

~ee L u + r3

~ sin2

O(r, 0)

= 0,

(1.8)

Ot

1

O(r sin O(, r sin O )

+-2 (e+u*) Y ( U + u * e ) + 2 ( Y - ~ - n 2 (

r 3 sin 20

O(r, O)

= 0,

L2 = ,

where N = (cot O/r) - (l/r2) .

(1.9)

(1.10)

u]~=l = sin0,

u[~=~ = r]wsin0,

0l

10=o =

=0,

V-,Io=.

(1.11)

= 0.

In order to obtain the Navier-Stokes equations with the homogeneous boundary condition, we

introduce the Stokes flow u*,

u . = . ue,

. .

u = ( o~r+/3 r-2 ) sinO,

where c~ = (@w - 1)/(~ 3 - 1) and/3 = r~3(1 - w)/(~ 3 - 1).

Let u = U + u~, then u~ satisfies

~;1~=, = sin0,

~;1~=,= r/wsin0,

0__UU+ 1

Ot

0L2

Ot

_ _

r 2 sin 0

0 ( r sin0 (U + u ; ) , r sin 0)

?-3 sin 2 0

O(r, O)

1 L2 U = O, (1.12)

Re

O(r, O)

where

The homogeneous boundary conditions are given by

U[~=I = U[,-=, = O,

a

P=1 = b7

~=1

= tr=, = ~

r=,

= O.

(1.14)

112

H. WANGANDK. LI

3. E I G E N V A L U E S

AND EIGENFUNCTIONS

OF STOKES

OPERATOR

In this section, we study the following eigenvalue problem of the Stokes operator: find (i, U, ~)

E R x H01(ft) x H3(fl ) such that

1

L 2 U = ~U,

Re

U[o~ = O,

= AL2,

ReL4

(2.1)

C[oa = 0-~r~oa = 0,

where f~ = {(r,,0); 1 < r _< , , 0 _< < 27r, 0 < 0 < 7r}. Eigenvalue problem (2.1) can be written

as follows: find (A, U,~;)e R x H~([})x H2(~)such that

L 2 U + AU = 0,

(2.2)

U[o~ = 0,

and

L4 q- IL2 = O,

{ o ~ = -~r

0 o~ = 0,

(2.3)

where A = Re .A.

Below, we discuss eigenvalue problems (2.2) and (2.3).

Let U = w(r)O(O), then problem (2.2) is decomposed into the following Sturm-Liouville problem:

1 d2rw

w

r ----5dr + Aw - tt~-~ = 0,

(2.4)

wlr=l = wlr= ~ = O,

and

d--O

(sin 00)

+ # 0 = O,

(2.5)

0[o=o < + o o .

It is well known that problem (2.5) has a nonzero solution Ol(O) = Pzl(cosO) if and only if

= z(1 + 1), l = 1 , 2 , . . . ,

w h e r e p ~ ( x ) = (1 - x 2 ) 1 / = ~ ; ~ ( ~ )

2 - 1) ~ is

a general Legendre polynomial. Substituting tt = l(1 + 1) into (2.4), according to the general

solution theory of the Sturm-Liouville problem [7], we obtain a special solution of equation (2.4)

as follows:

~z(~,r) =

where j l ( z ) = ~ J t + , / 2 ( z )

and yz(z) = ( - 1 ) ~ + l ~ J - z - 1 / 2 ( z )

are the first kind and

second-kind spherical Bessel's function, respectively, and J~+l/2(z) is Bessel's function of halfinteger order.

Together with the boundary condition of (2.4), we have

bz(l, 1) = 0

(2.6)

while eigenvalues oil, n (l, n = 1, 2,... ) of (2.2) are the roots of problem (2.6) and satisfy [7]

~t,n > 0,

(2.7)

Numerical Simulation

113

bl,,~(r) = {)l(al,n, r), l, n = 1, 2 , . . . , then eigenfunctions of (2.2) corresponding to the eigenO~l,n are

U~,,~ = b~,,~(r)O~(O),

l, n = 1 , 2 , . . . .

(2.8)

Let

values

Assuming t h a t 4 = w(r)@(O), problem (2.3) m a y be decomposed into the following equation:

G4w = AG2w'

(2.9)

d2

and problem (2.5), where G2w = -(1/r)-aT~

(rw)

special solution of problem (2.9) is obtained:

fll

?~--I--1

jl ( x/-f?~)

Rl(~, ~) =

'

Eigenvaiues/31,n (t, n = 1, 2 , . . . ) of (2.3) are the roots of the following equation:

R~(~, 1) = 0

(2.10)

~z,,~ > 0,

~l,,~+i >/~l,,~-

(2.11'.I

Let Rt,n(r) = Rz(/3l,n, r), 1, n = 1, 2 , . . . , then eigenfunctions of eigenvalue problem (2.3) corre-sponding to the eigenvalues/~l,~ can be written by

Cz,,~ = Rt,~(r)6)l(O),

4.

THE

l, n = 1, 2 , . . . .

COMPUTING

(2.12)

SCHEME

Let

Lo

No

Lo

No

i=1

i=1

i=1 i=1

Now, we discretize (1.12) and (1.13) in time, then we obtain

U ~+1 - U ~

1

At

- t r a sin2 0

[O(~rrsinOU'~+l,rsinOg2 ~)

.

o(r, o)

O(rsinO((1-a)U'~+u*,rsinO~bn+l)l

+

o(r, o)

L2 n

At

r 2 sin e

O(r, O)

+2 ((Un-l-u *) Nun+1-l-2Un+1Nu*+L24n+lN~,bn ) -R----~L4~n+l=f,

L24 n+l -

1 L2U.+I

(3.21)

~0~

(3.3)

n=O, 1, 2,...,

where cr is a parameter, 0 < a < 1, and the superscript n represents the solution of t =

When n = 0, U and 4 represent the initial conditions in this problem, we take

U = V(0) = 0,

40 = 4(0) = 0,

L0 = 48,

nat.

N0 = 5.

In the steady-state case, the first term of (3.2) and (3.3) will not occur. In this case, the

superscript n represents the solution of the iteration n t h step. Existence and uniquence of the

solution of problem (3.2) and (3.3) have been proven in [8].

114

H. WANGAND K. LI

5. N U M E R I C A L

RESULTS

In this section, we present the numerical results of the axisymmetric 0-vortex flow and 1-vortex

flOWS.

(a)

(b)

Figure 1 depicts the three-dimensional 0-vortex flow at Re = 600, ~ = 1.18, and w = 0. Both

figures are two-dimensional projection of the flow on to (r, 0)-plane at fixed .

In these figures (and all other figures of (r, 0)-projections in this paper), the gap width between the inner and outer spheres is exaggerated for clarity of the features (the radial interval

[1,1.18] is mapping linearly to [1,2]). Figure l a shows the streamlines of the meridional flow (or

(r, 0)-component of the flow), i.e., contours of constant r sin t~(r, t?). The meridional velocity is

everywhere tangent to these contours. The flow is clearly reflection-symmetric about the equator.

Two streamlines locating exactly at the equator are the outflow boundary between the two large

vortices.

The qualitative behaviour of the flow in Figure 1 can be understood physically by considering

the flow near the poles, where the geometry resembles that between the parallel differentially

rotating disk (inner sphere) and pulled from the centre of the stationary disk (outer sphere).

This motion forms the inflow radial boundary jets at the poles. The fluid moving down from

the north pole along the inner sphere meets fluid moving up from the south pole at the equator

and forms the equatorial radial outflow boundary. The fluids in the northern and southern

hemispheres do not mix.

Figure lb shows the contours of constant angular velocity u/(r sin 8) for the flow in Figure la.

The angular velocity decreases monotonically from the inner to the outer spheres. For low Re

flows, the contours of constant angular velocity are nearly parallel to the spherical boundaries.

In fact, they are nearly equal to the angular velocity contours of the Stokes flow, but we can see

the slight wiggles of the contours near the equator in Figure lb.

As the Reynolds number increases, the basic flow develops what Bonnet and Alziary de Roquefort (1976) have called a pinching of streamlines. This pinching is illustrated in Figure 2a which

is a plot of the meridional streamlines in the (r, 0)-plane (using the conventions of Figure 1) of

our numerically calculated flow at Re = 650, U = 1.18, and ~ = 0. The pinching is characterized by a stagnation point (i.e., crossing of streamlines) in the (r, 0)-component of the velocity.

Although it is not explicitly shown in Figure 2a, it is obvious that there must be a crossing of

streamlines in each hemisphere somewhere the closed streamlines of the large basic vortex and

the closed streamline of the small diameter situated in the pinched part of the flow near the

Numerical Simulation

(a)

115

(b)

angular azimuthal velocity.

(a)

(b)

angular azimuthal velocity.

equator. In a pinched 0-vortex flow, there are at least two local maxima in the stream function

in each hemisphere, but the circulation in the closed streamlines of the 0-vortex pinch always has

the same sign as that in the large basic vortex, because it is not separated from the large basic

vortex by an inflow or outflow boundary that extends from the inner to the outer sphere and it

is not a Taylor vortex.

We have numerically found that pinches occur for 650 _( Re ~ 750 and that their development

is not accompanied by large abrupt changes in any physical properties of the flow, and as the

Reynolds number increases, the pinches only become deeper. Figure 2b shows the azimuthal

angular velocity contours of the pinched flow in Figure 2a. The wiggles at the equator have

increased in amplitude. The inward and outward bending of azimuthal contours correspond to

meridional flow in the pinch which is radially inward or outward, respectively.

As the Reynolds number becomes large (about Re _> 750), the basic vortex in the 0-vortex flow

develops a pinch. Figure 3a depicts the flow at Re --- 750, ~/= 1.18, and w -- 0. It shows that

the Taylor vortices are separated from the large basic vortices by nearly straight radial streams

(an outflow boundary) that extends from the inner to outer sphere. Figure 3b shows that the

116

H. WANG AND K. LI

equatorial wiggles in the contours of the azimuthal velocity are more pronounced

the pinched 0-vortex flow in Figure 2a.

than those of

REFERENCES

1. O. Sawatzki and J. Zierep, Das Stromfeld in Spalt Zwischen Wei Konzentrischen Kugelfiacechen von Denen

die Innore Rotiert.~ Acta Mechanica 9, 13-35~ (1970).

2. P.S. Marcus and L.S. Tuckerman, Simulation of flow between two concentric rotating spheres. Part 1. Steady

states, J. Fluid Mech. 185, 1-30, (1987).

3. P.S. Marcus and L.S. Tuckerman, Simulation of flow between two concentric rotating spheres. Part 2. Transitions, Y. Fluid Mech. 185, 31-66, (1987).

4. M. Wimmer, Experiments on a viscous fluid flow between two concentric rotating spheres, 9'. Fluid Mech.

73, 371-335, (1976).

5. J. Zierep and O. Sawatzki, Three dimensional stabilities and vortices between two concentric rotating spheres,

In the Eighth Syrup. Naval Hydrodyn., pp. 275-288, (1970).

6. G. Schrauf, Branching of Navier-Stokes equations in a spherical gap, In Proc. Eighth Intl. Conf. Numerical

Methods in Fluid Dyn., pp. 474-480, Springer, Aachen, (1983).

7. S. Liu and S. Liu, The Special Function, pp. 202-203, Atmosphere Press, Beijing, (1988).

8. W. Feng and K. Li, The existence and uniquence of weak solution of flow between two concentric rotating

spheres, Applied Mathematics and Mechanics 21 (1), 61-66, (2000).

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