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Linux
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Linux

Unix

Unix

Linux Unix

Linux

Fedora Core

Unix

1969 Bell Labs (AT&T). .


1973 Unix 16
AT&T
1978 Berkeley Software Distribution UNIX
(IBM, DEC, HP,
SCO) -
Unix Timeline (http://www.levenez.com/unix/)

(c) 2007,

Unix Way

Unix ,

(
)

(pipes)


(c) 2007,

GNU/FSF

GNU - (GCC, Emacs)

1985 - Free Software Foundation

GPL (1989,1991,2007), LGPL, BSD


. .
(, ,
, )
1990 ,

(c) 2007,

Linux (1)
From: torvalds@klaava.Helsinki.FI (Linus Benedict
Torvalds)
Newsgroups: comp.os.minix
Subject: What would you like to see most in minix?
Summary: small poll for my new operating system
Message-ID: <1991Aug25.205708.9541@klaava.Helsinki.FI>
Date: 25 Aug 91 20:57:08 GMT
Organization: University of Helsinki

Hello everybody out there using minix I'm doing a (free) operating system (just a hobby, won't be
big and professional like gnu) for 386(486) AT clones. This
has been brewing since april, and is starting to get ready.
I'd like any feedback on things people like/dislike in
minix, as my OS resembles it somewhat (same physical layout
of the file-system (due to practical reasons) among other
things).
(c) 2007,

Linux (2)

http://www.kernel.org/

2 1996

2.6

-
X.Y.Z.P
Z

<c_>.<_>.<>-<_>
[andrey@linux ~]$ uname -r
2.6.18-8.1.1.el5
(c) 2007,

Linux (GNU/Linux)

(c) 2007,

: SLES, RHEL, Mandriva


: Ubuntu, Debian, Slackware,
Fedora, OpenSUSE Linux,
: LFS, Knoppix, LSTP

(c) 2007,

Fedora Project

Red Hat
RH 9.0
2003
4-6

http://fedoraproject.org/
(c) 2007,

10

86

P-III

256

2-6

CD/DVD/USB/PXE

Debian 10
RHEL 7

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11

Linux

(ALT-F1..F6)
Xorg (ALT-F7)
/etc/inittab

(ssh, telnet, rsh...)


(c) 2007,

12

exit

logout

Ctrl-D

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13

GNOME

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14


GNOME

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15

Gnome Terminal

Applications ->
Accessories -> Terminal


VT
RPM nautilus-openterminal (Fedora Extras)
clear; reset
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16

Bourne Again Shell (Bash)

( sh;
GNU)

; ; ;
..
[1] [2] ... [n] [1] [2] ... [n] [;]
/

/etc/passwd; chsh; usermod


(c) 2007,

17

(1)

- - help h

man [<>] <>

1 - user commands
2 system calls
3 library calls
4 special files
5 file formats
6 games
7 Misc
9 Administrative commands
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18

(2)

man less

whatis

/usr/sbin/makewhatis; /etc/cron.daily/makewhatis.cron
man -k

info

/ n/N q PgUp PgDn

H ; ? -

/usr/share/doc
(c) 2007,

19

(3)

(Novell;
Red Hat; Mandriva...)

http://www.tldp.org/

http://www.linuxquestions.org/

http://www.opennet.ru/

http://www.linuxcenter.ru/

www.google.ru

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20


man, info, whatis

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