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The Impact Of Subject And Learner Centred Designs Education Essay

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Published: 23, March 2015

PART A:

Introduction

Daniel Tanner (1980) de ned curriculum as


"the planned and guided learning
experiences and intended learning
outcomes. The curriculum is formulated
under the auspices of the school through the
systematic reconstruction of knowledge and
experiences, for the learner' to continuous
and willful growth in personal social
competence. Basically, there are three types
of curriculum designs; which are subjectcentred designs, learner-centred designs and
problem-centred designs.
Subject-centred curriculum focuses on the
content of the curriculum. The curriculum
design corresponds mostly to the textbook
written for the speci c subject, for instance
languages, mathematics, science, history,
arts and many others.

However, learner-centred curriculum focuses


on certain aspects of the learners
themselves. It may explore the learner's
surrounding environment. The main idea

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behind the practice is that learning is most


meaningful when topic are relevant to the
students themselves.

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The
problem-centred
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problems. The model focuses on the problem
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The essay in part A discusses the impact of 21 Pages
subject and learner-centred designs in
teaching and learning in two sections. The
rst section focuses on the type of subjectcentred designs and the impact of subjectcentred designs in teaching and learning. The
second section focuses on the type of
learner-centred designs and the impact of
learner-centred designs in teaching and
learning. We will discuss the impact of each
design from teachers, students, society and
material aspect.

What is Subject-centred
Designs?

In 1949, Ralph Tyler lay out the subjectcentred designs in his book Basic Principles of
Curriculum and Instruction. His book
becomes the foundation for the subjectcentred on learning and still using in many
countries. Subject-centred designs focus on
one subject a time, helping learners building
on the knowledge gained.

Type of Subject-centred
Designs
Five di erent approaches have been
proposed in the subject-centred designs;

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they are academic subjects design, discipline


based design, broad elds design, correlation
design and process design (Phillips, 2007).

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is the oldest and best known design.
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meaningful for them to study. There are a
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ideas and knowledge thru textbooks.
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Discipline based design

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In discipline design, the teaching of the


disciplines in its pure form is emphasized.
That is, a student who studies physics would
approach the subject as a physicist while
those who study music will study it as
musicians. This approach will narrow the view
and knowledge of students.
Broad elds design

This design is also known as the


interdisciplinary design. The design combines
two or more related subjects into a one
logical subject. For example, Biology,
Astronomy, Chemistry, Geology and Physics
were composed to form General Science.
Students may achieve a greater integration
of learning experiences but the knowledge
will be super cial.
Correlation design

This design model lies between the academic


design model and the broad eld design. This
design attempts to relate a subject to the
others while maintaining their identity as
subjects. For example, students read a novel
that relates to the same time period while
studying a period in history.
Process design

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Thinking processes such as critical and


creative thinking, problem solving are taught
under this design mode. The aim of the
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curriculum is to enhance process skills
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The Impact of Subjectcentred Designs in


Teaching and Learning

21 Pages

In a subject-centred classroom, it is
acceptable that the teacher who is an expert
in a subject be the person who impacts that
knowledge to the students. Teachers are in
control of the whole learning process,
planned instructional design and teaching
techniques. Every instruction is from
top-down, wherein knowledge is passed from
teachers to students via sharing, leaning
contents, transmits values, attitudes and
ideas. These make a teacher very
professional. Teachers attend a university to
receive a degree in their chosen eld and
then become an expert in that subject in
school. In this situation, students will not get
wrong information from the teacher.
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However, the situation isn't that anticipate in
our country. Some university students
attended a post graduate teacher training
course, KPLI (Kursus Perguruan Lepasan
Ijazah) or DPLI (Diploma Perguruan Lepas
Ijazah) to become a teacher after graduate.
They might be graduated with degree of arts
but end up become a language teacher after
the course. These teachers might be less
expertise compare to those who attend a
university to receive a degree in their chosen

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eld. This is happening not only due to the


teacher shortage issue but also because of
the curriculum design. Since there are bundle
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of teaching aids and references to support
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Subject-centred design lends
itself to mass
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has
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many resources for learners and teachers. 21 Pages


Teachers communicate the ideas and
knowledge of certain subjects in verbal form
in textbooks because it is easy to interpret in
textbooks and those textbooks are
commercially available support materials.
The curriculum reduces the content into
small components that are clearly de nable
and measurable. Students and teachers can
nd many workbooks that breakdown
reading or math into sub skills and processes.
This makes pros and cons to both students
and teachers. As I mentioned earlier, some of
the teachers nowadays are not really expert
on what he or she is teaching. This expertise
insu cient may cause students cut classes or
even skip school, especially in secondary
school because the student can attend
tuition class from an expertise teacher rather
than a teacher without professional
knowledge. Resources or books may also
lend to hastily of teachers in teaching.
However, the advantage of the mass
production is learners and teachers can
engage in self study or self improvement.
Subject-centred design is bene cial for
dedicated teacher. The teacher will be able to
guide the teaching and learning process in
the class with a good teaching plan. Teachers
will determine all teaching content. On the

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other side, students can acquire new


knowledge adequately during the whole
learning process. Teachers can also prepare
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confusing.
However, there also challenges for teachers
to teach under correlation design. Teachers
must at least know the relationship about the
material and content and ways to relate each
other while teaching. Teachers involve must
nd time to plan lesson cooperatively.
Most of us were educated under subject
centred design. This format of education is
more familiar and acceptable compare to
other curriculum designs. Teachers will know
well at which stage students are in their
learning at all times in the end of the course
when testing and evaluation of learning were
executed. Every course that is taught will
have to be evaluated. Standardized, multiple
choice, true-false, and comprehension tests
are used for evaluation (Ahara, 1995). If the
learning is subject-centred design, the rate of
learning is apparent, thus testing can be
executed at the appropriate time. By using
test score, a teacher can easily quantify and
justify the students' achievements. Scores
are also motivating students to achieve
better in the future evaluation.
If the scores achieved weren't as good as
anticipated, a teacher might do some
adjustments and alterations before the nal

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evaluation. The teacher can also provide


tutorial classes for those who are weak in the
subject. Special guidance might be given for
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slow learners in order for them to catch up
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use of the materials in everyday life to solve
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Even there are some arguments about the
ways of teachers tested students in this
curriculum design; we can't admit that
subject-centred design is easier for students
to remember information for future use.
Students can easily realize the important
knowledge that they have to learn during the
lesson. Results have shown that many
successful students have come from this
design through the years (Silvestri, 1997).

Just because the subject-centred designs


corresponds mostly to the textbooks written
for speci c subjects and the commercial
production of books and sources, tutors
without much training can easily teach from
an existing curriculum. This circumstance is
well known as tuition classes in our country.
The ramp of tuition classes in our country has
gone beyond control. Parents who expect
high scores will send their children to several
tuition classes. Initially, tuition classes exist to

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help students which need more help than


others, but nowadays, even smart students
are attending tuition classes. Parents today
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are mostly working; they treat tuition classes
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By using the subject-centred design,
teachers
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will have better control in class where


21 Pages
students will not have a chance to disrupt a
classroom. According to Karen Silvestri
(1997), a disciplined classroom imparts a
sense of self-discipline. Experience has
shown in the last generation that children
who are raised in a disciplined framework in
school do indeed learn better throughout
their school life as well as having a balanced
approach to life in general.
However, this sense of self-discipline and
subject-centred design might omit the
importance of learner experiences (Scheidies,
1994). Subject-centred design requires a
learner to accept the information being
transmitted rather than challenge. Students
are passive in a subject-centred design
classroom, there are seldom learning noise.
Students will only believe in books and afraid
to ask questions beyond the frame. This
subject-centred curriculum will only foster
passivity about learning and knowledge.
Finally, students with lack critical and creative
thinking skills are well produced. Sadly, the
workplace nowadays does not require
individuals who are "walking encyclopedias".
Employees are complaining about our
graduates, particularly lack of analytical skill,
life management skills, cooperation skills,
interpersonal skills and so forth.

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Furthers, the subject-centred designs


depends upon a system of authority
(Scheidies, 1994). Students' needs are
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considered only in conjunction with type and
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1994). Subject-centred learning does not take
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wide range of options into account that will
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impact learning. Students have no right to
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time. The pro is, students can learn the
knowledge in adequate time but the con is
slow learners might have no choice but follow
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On the other hands, subject-centred
curriculum prevents students from
understanding the wider context of what they
are learning. Separate lesson on languages,
mathematics, sciences, history, arts and
music is taught without regard how one
subject impacts another subject. Students
may learn about history but they do not
know how history is in uencing our country
and culture. That is why we can often hear
the question "Why are we studying history?"
This kind of separation of subject-centred
curriculum make students feel bored and
di cult to understand when studying.
Di er with academic subject design, broad
elds design provide interdisciplinary or
cross-disciplinary studies. Students study a
subject combined from di erent subjects
which have linkages between each others.
Even the syllabus might not as depth as a
pure subject, this will indirectly help students
to determine their own interest. For instance,
a student study General Science which was

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The Impact Of Subject And Learner Centred Designs Education Essay

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composed from Biology, Astronomy,


Chemistry, Geology and Physics nd his
interest in Biology and thus further his study
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in that eld as his expert. Furthermore,
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breadth views about di erent subjects will at
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least wider a student's visual eld.
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As a conclusion, subject-centred curriculum


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designs
had
created
many
pros
and
cons
to
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learners. There are still many countries using
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this curriculum design, this
department in
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charge should monitor the progress
of the
/the-impact-of-subject-and-learner-centred-designs-education-essay.php
curriculum from time to time and make
21 Pages
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advisably modify to keep pace with the
society needs.
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What is Learner-centred
Designs?

According to Collins & O'Brien (2003), learnercentred instruction is an instructional


approach in which students in uence the
content, activities, materials, and pace of
learning. This learning model places the
student (learner) in the center of the learning
process. The instructor provides students
with opportunities to learn independently
and from one another and coach them with
the skills they need to do so e ectively. The
learner-centred instruction approach
includes such techniques as substituting
active learning experiences for lectures,
assigning open-ended problems and
problems requiring critical or creative
thinking that cannot be solved by following
text examples, involving students in
simulations and role plays, and using
self-paced and/or cooperative (team-based)
learning. Properly implemented of this design
can lead to increased motivation to learn,
greater retention of knowledge, deeper
understanding, and more positive attitudes

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towards the subject being taught. (Ibid.)

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Type of Learner-centred
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Learner-centre designs include three types of


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radical design and humanistic design.

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Child-Centred design
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Learners are actively participating in the
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teaching-learning process. The design


emphasizes on the needs and interests of 21 Pages
learners. Teachers and learners negotiate the
interest and content to be included in the
curriculum.
Radical design

Schools indoctrination learners into a


particular cultural view rather than educate
and emancipate them. This design greater
emphasize on reform society. Students need
to gain awareness, competencies and
attitudes to take control of their lives.
Humanistic design

The curriculum should be designed to


empower learners to be involved in the
process of becoming. Abraham Maslow and
his theoretical concept of self-actualization is
one of the key in uences of this particular
curriculum design.

The Impact of Learnercentred Designs in


Teaching and Learning

Learner-centred designs are emphasizing the


needs of learners rather than the needs of
the teacher or the institution. The curriculum
gives students exibility on what, where,
when and how to learn. By using this

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curriculum design, learners become more


active on participants in their own learning.
They learn to construct knowledge by
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interacting with teachers and peers. Thus,
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skills via activities. A good communicator has
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learners might not learn from subjectService
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centred curriculum, where one way
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In traditional approaches, learners
receive
/the-impact-of-subject-and-learner-centred-designs-education-essay.php

the knowledge passively and shaping as well 21 Pages


as being shaped by experiences. However,
learner-centred designs encourage learners
to seek for knowledge. They are allowed to
explore, experiment and discover on their
own. Learners have the autonomy to direct
their learning. Learners are responsible for
the success of a lesson. Therefore, they tend
to feel more responsible for their learning
through trial and error. They began to accept
failure bravely and dare to take challenges.
Learners are highly motivated in learnercentred curriculum. They feel they have a real
stake in their own learning when they have a
chance to decide what is the most
meaningful to learn for them. Motivation and
con dence are gained by learning what they
need to know. Further, they can create higher
achievement with the motivation and
con dence when they attribute success to
their abilities and not to luck or help. These
will train learners as competent problemsolvers, which will impact not only in school
life but also working life.
The active nature of the learner-centred
approach helps students work and seek for
information rather than listen and stored.
Their brain can work and store them for a
longer period of time by working with the

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information. Activities can increase actual


learning and performance. During a language
class for example, a student can remember
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better how to use a sentence in real group
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Learners also work in collaboration with the


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other
learners
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learner-centred
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Learners think of creating and di erent ways
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learn to
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collaborate with the other learners
during the
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whole process. We can also see fast learner is21 Pages
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helped or leading slow learners. This isn't
only enhancing academic achievement but
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also promote the development of other
personal learning skills, such as critical
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thinking, problem solving, management skills
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and communicating skills. By working
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and learn from the others.
Leo Jones (2007) said that a student-centered
classroom isn't a place where the students
decide what they want to learn and what they
want to do. It's a place where we consider the
needs of the students, as a group and as
individuals, and encourage them to
participate in the learning process all the
time. Students may be working alone, in pairs
or in groups at di erent time. Students are
preparing ideas or making plans when
working alone. This will encourage them to
involve in learning and give opinions. Some
learners feel more secure and less anxiety
when working in groups; therefore, group
activities are a good place for them to voice
out their suggestions or views.
Learner-centred teaching is adaptable to
meet the needs of every student. In order to
design a lesson, a teacher must think of the
students, rather than the content. Teachers

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must design activities that let students take


initiative to discover the meaningful
information for their own lives. Teachers
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must also understand the students'
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training provided for teachers in these elds.
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Teachers nowadays are lack experiences in
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Some teachers tend to feel vulnerable using
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learner-centred approach, so they retreat to
the more familiar form of lecture at the end.
Teachers work as facilitator in learnercentred curriculum. But this does not take
away the overall responsibility of the teacher
but require the teacher to negotiate with
learner about the goals, content and
methodology adopted for learning. Teachers
have to provide guidance and support for
learners from time to time, especially
elementary students so that they can meet
speci c learning goals in a learner-centred
environment. The impact, teachers will feel
over work load working with each and every
process of learner-centred curriculum.

The other great impact on learner-centred


curriculum is class management. A class of
students might have di erent abilities,
di erent experience and di erent needs.
Teachers have to design a lesson based to
learners' needs. In a crowded classroom, it
seems to be di cult to have group activities.
A thirty minute lesson might end up busying
divided students into groups and giving
instructions. Teachers might not have a
chance to listen and guide every group. And
therefore, the learning objective of the lesson

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cannot be achieved. However, this type of


problem can be solved after several activities.
Students who used to the curriculum designs
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can easily group up and work together to
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For the mix-ability classes, the weak students
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activities.
In
this
situation,
teachers
should
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pair students with di erent ability. This will
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encourage stronger students
to teach or lead
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weak students while will motivate
weaker
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students share their suggestions and develop21 Pages
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con dence. Sometimes, teachers can design
di erent task for students with di erent
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ability. Simple and straight forward task for
weak groups; while multiple or critical task for
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to cope with the lesson but the con is the
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be wider.
A noisy classroom is another concern for
most of the teachers to undergo learnercentred approaches. Teachers have to accept
learning noise while using learner-centred
curriculum designs. Learners free to discuss
and talk with peers making the classroom
losing its control. But what worst is learners
might discuss something out of the topic.
Therefore, teachers must monitor the
learning process all the time and guide
learners to the correct information during
discussion. The seating of group members
can be closer so that they can talk softly
during discussion.
As a facilitator, the teacher might spend
times to interact with every group.
Consequently, timing is very important. If a
teacher fails to control the timing for an
activity, the planning for the whole material
might be interrupted. A teacher should well

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prepare and plan before running a learnercentred activity. Prudent with time but still be
exible to prolong an activity when students
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enjoy it or cut it short when the activity isn't
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going well is also a way to emerge a teacher's
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profession.
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The learner-centred curriculum will increase


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teachers
work
load
by
preparing
for
the
class
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and evaluate students' works. Elementary
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students need help and monitor
in access
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and process information. They
do not know
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how to seek for knowledge. The knowledge 21 Pages
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provided will at last transmitted to learners
by the traditional teaching and learning
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method. At the end, parents are doing the
task for their children and teachers are
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evaluating parents' assignment.
Parents and even society today needs
quantitative results. They want to know how
well a child can score to decide how
intelligent a child is. At last, teachers and
schools might back to the subject-centred
curriculum design to ful ll society needs. This
is all because the society still couldn't fully
accept learner-subject curriculum. However, I
suggest teachers to integrate learner
activities with teaching to attract attention
while students get used to the curriculum
design. These will also bring advantages to
the process of teaching and learning.
Student-centred curriculum implicates the
whole syllabus design. The process of
learning is very important. For this reason,
continuous and professional development in
this area is paramount. Good practice should
be identi ed. Nevertheless, the training for
teacher in teaching with student-centred is
precious little. The government might need
to spend for training and sources to carry out
the whole curricula.

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As we can see, the education ministry is


trying to integrate subject-learner curriculum
into the syllabus nowadays. The whole
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process might take up to several years, and
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Conclusions

Finally, both subject-centred and learner21 Pages


centred curriculums have their own
advantage and disadvantages. The
curriculum used will impact the whole society
anyway. But there isn't necessarily mutually
exclusive. Rather, subject-centred and
learner-centred curriculums can be
constituted a continuum. Teachers can give
lectures while making students interact more
actively with ideas and information, beyond
lecture. In this sense, task or problem-based
workshops and seminar which encourages
students to engage actively with one another
with a variety of information are encouraged.

References

Ahara, K. (1995). Teacher-centered and childcentered pedagogical approaches in teaching


children's literature.Education,115(3),
332.
Brown J. Student-Centered Instruction:
Involving Students in Their Own
Education.Music Educators Journal[serial
online]. May 2008;94(5):30. Available from:
Publisher Provided Full Text Searching File,
Ipswich, MA. Accessed October 26, 2012.
Collins, J. W., 3rd, & O'Brien, N. P. (Eds.).
(2003). Greenwood Dictionary of Education.

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Westport, CT: Greenwood.

Cunningham, C. (1980). More about


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curriculum development. [Online] Retrieved
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Dale, L. (2012). Learner-Centered Activities
Service
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for the Classroom | eHow.com. [Online]
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classroom.html.

En.wikipedia.org (2009). Student-centred


learning - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
[Online] Retrieved from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Studentcentred_learning.

21 Pages

Fulcher, L. (2004). Learner-Centered


Outcomes in Subject-Centered Institutions:
Metaphors for Muggle Learning.Learning
and Teaching in Higher Education,1, 1-7.

Ils.unc.edu (2004). INLS 242: Curriculum


Issues - Notes on Curriculum2004. [Online]
Retrieved from: http://www.ils.unc.edu/daniel
/242/CurrNotes.html.
Jo Pulist, S. K. (2001). Learner-centredness: An
issue of institutional policy in the context of
distance education.Turkish Online Journal
of Distance Education,2(2), 39-47nes, L.
(2007). The Student-Centered
Classroom.Cambridge University Press.
Jones, L. (2007). The Student-Centered
Classroom. Cambridge University Press.

Lalwani, P. (2011). Curriculum design and


models. [Online] Retrieved from:
http://www.slideshare.net/PrincessLalwani
/curriculum-design-and-models.
Lee, H. (1998). Learning-Centered Syllabi.
[Online] Retrieved from:

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http://www.celt.iastate.edu/teaching
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Malhi, R. (2004). Open letter to the PM.The


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Ornstein, A., & Hunkins, F. (2008). Curriculum


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foundations, principles, and issues (5th Ed.).
url=https://www.ukessays.com/essays/education/the-impact-of-subject-and-learner-centred-designs-educationBoston: Allyn and Bacon.(https://m.reddit.com/submit?url=https://www.ukessays.com/essays/education
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Phillips, Ashley H. (Volume 4 No.
2, Fall
2005)The E ects of Student-centered,
21 Pages
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Technology-based Instruction on the intrinsic
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motivation of secondary students

Phillips, J.
(2007).Curriculum
Development. 2nd Ed.
Selangor: Open
University Malaysia,
pp.143-149

Prevedel, A. (2003). Values and Beliefs: The


World View Behind Curriculum. Focus on
Basics, 6 (C), pp.8-13.

Pulist, S. K. (2001). Learner-centredness: An


issue of institutional policy in the context of
distance education.Turkish Online Journal
of Distance Education,2(2), 39-47.
Scheidies, C. (1994). The Disadvantages of
Subject-Centered Curriculum | eHow.com.
[Online] Retrieved from:
http://www.ehow.com
/info_12000458_disadvantagessubjectcentered-curriculum.html.
Silvestri, K. (1997). Bene ts of TeacherCentered Learning | eHow.com. [Online]
Retrieved from: http://www.ehow.com

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PART B:

What is CIPP?

The CIPP model of evaluation was developed


by Daniel Stu ebeam and his colleagues in
the 1960s. CIPP is an acronym for Context,
Input, Process and Product. The CIPP model
is a comprehensive framework for guiding
formative and summative evaluation of
projects, programs, personnel, products,
institutions and systems (Stu ebeam, 2003).
The model is con gured for use in internal
evaluations conducted by an organization's
evaluator; self-evaluations conducted by
project teams or individual service provider;
and contracted or mandated external
evaluations (McLemore, 2009). Stu ebeam
(2003) claimed that the model has been
employed throughout the United States and
around the world in short-term and
long-term investigations both small and
large.
CIPP focuses on providing the foundations
for validating and deriving particular criteria
through an interactive relationship between
the evaluator and client. The CIPP model

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requires evaluators to operate on a


foundation of trust, showing respect to all
stakeholders, regardless of power, gender
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and cultural backgrounds. (Tan, Lee & Hall,
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According to Tan (2010), CIPP focuses on
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improvement of designs. The priority is given education-essay.php)


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to
the
planning
and
implementation
of
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development e orts. Evaluators must take
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into consideration the feasibility
of the
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project scope, safety for all users,
the
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signi cance of the impact that the evaluation21 Pages
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has on the project as well as project
outcomes, and equity for stakeholders and
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decision makers when undertaking the
evaluation study using CIPP. The
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and synthesis. (Ibid)
Below we will discuss a summary of the key
aspects of the CIPP model after review of four
articles on Stu ebeam's CIPP model (as
Appendix).

The Four Component of


CIPP

Context evaluation, input evaluation, process


evaluation and product evaluation are used
to guide evaluation of CIPP model. For each
of the components, CIPP asks speci c
questions pertaining to the current stage of
development within the evaluated process
(Tan et al, 2010).

Context Evaluation

Context evaluation is the stage for planning


decisions. It determines what needs are
addressed by a program and what the

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program already exist helps in de ning


objectives for the program. The aims of
context evaluation are to diagnose problems
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and assess needs. Decision makers need to
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information during context evaluation. It is
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objectives.

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The selection of problem components is also
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considered. For example,(https://m.reddit.com/submit?url=https://www.ukessays.com/essays/education
a context
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evaluation of a sport program/the-impact-of-subject-and-learner-centred-designs-education-essay.php
might involve

an analysis of the existing objectives of the 21 Pages


sport program, achievement test scores,
community and sta concerns, perceptions
and needs.
Methods are used for data collections during
context evaluation. According to Stu ebeam
(2003), the methods use to undergo context
evaluation include survey, literature review,
stakeholder interviews, secondary data
analysis, synthesis and many others.

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The representative questions for context


evaluation include:

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What content will be included in the


program?

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Should the program be o ered?

What is the background of the program?


What are the program aims?

Is there a need for the program?

Input Evaluation

During input evaluation, structuring decisions


that decide how we should do are made.
Structuring decisions are important to nd
where there is the most support for change,
to nd out which solutions are most feasible
and cost-e ectiveness for achieving planning

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objectives. Decision makers considered the


steps and resources needed to meet the new
goals and objectives.

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of input evaluation is to

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and critically examining potentially
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relevant approaches. Then, is to inform
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approach
chosen.
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url=https://www.ukessays.com/essays/education/the-impact-of-subject-and-learner-centred-designs-educationGenerally, decision makers setting up and
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con rming plans and budget at this stage.
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This evaluation also helps the broad group of


users to judge the program performance and21 Pages
interpret the outcomes. The aim of input
evaluation should support the choosing of
resources.
The method uses in this evaluation are such
as task reports, feedback meeting, literature
review, visit to other programs, advocate
teams, comparative or experimental design
studies.
Sample of questions regardless of input
evaluation is:
Are the objectives suitable?

How to implement the instruction?


Which material should we use?
What resources are available?

What is the motivation of the target?

What regulations relate to the program?

Relevant criteria such as cost, potential


e ectiveness, administrative feasibility,
responsiveness to assessed needs and
potential impacts are used to assess whether
potentially acceptable solution strategies
exist.

Process Evaluation

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Process evaluation assesses the


implementation of plans to help sta carry
activities. The design has been structured
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and put on trial at this stage. It is an ongoing
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documentation of the process. Based upon
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decision-makers will know how well the
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program is being implemented.
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According to Tseng (2010),
process evaluation
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provides information for decisions,
to assure
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the procedure of plans and to forecast the 21 Pages


mistake of designing. Sta s are guided to
improve the procedures and budgetary plan
appropriately in this stage. Evidences and
feedback are collected while monitoring. This
evaluation provides important data which
can be used to interpret the impact of
change.
Stu ebeam (2003) laid out that, a process
evaluation contrast activity and expenditures
with the plan and budget. In this stage,
decision-makers learn can understand the
process of the plans, strengths and
weaknesses of materials, con icts, change of
plans and achievement. The evaluation also
describes implementation problems while
monitoring sta in addressing problems. It is
documented and analyze the e orts' cost
before reporting to the observers and
participants.
For process evaluation, results are obtained
from surveys, document literature, on-site
observer, stakeholder interviews,
photographic record or nal report.
The evaluator will ask questions such as
during the evaluation process:
How well are the clients performing?

What are the cost associated with the

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program?

Are the budget cost well implemented?

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What is the problems meeting when


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How is disciplined maintained?
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Product Evaluation

The aim of product evaluation is to nd out


whether the instructional program or idea
actually made a di erence. It identi es and
asses intended and unintended outcomes.
The data short term and long term help
stakeholders keep an enterprise focused on
achieving important outcomes. The process
evaluation will help the broader group of
users gauge the e ort's success in meeting
target needs (Stu ebeam, 1999).

21 Pages

For example in evaluating students' change


in a curriculum. Product evaluation measure
changes in performance compared with the
old curriculum. The range of evaluation
included the improvement of students from
knowledge and personal skills, compare
outcomes, side e ects and needs.

In product evaluation, decision maker should


decide whether the changes should be
continued, terminated or modi ed. It also
could evaluate the output of the program.
Based upon the information gathered from
every evaluation stage, it refers to comparing
the di erence between the outcomes and
predetermined standard or absolute
standard.
There are several methods used in executing

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process evaluation, such as visits to other


program, survey, database, interviews,
feedback meetings, document review or
whatever methods necessary and useful.

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process evaluation is listed as below:
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How satis ed are the client with the
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program?
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Is the program e ective?

Should the program be continued?


What is the merit of the program?

21 Pages

Conclusion

With the combination of rigorous


instructions, CIPP provides evaluator to
adapt it according to program purpose with a
versatile framework. The aims of CIPP model
is to improve instead of proving a study.
However, there are strengths and limitation
of CIPP model. Formative and summative
reports can be used in an evaluation study.
Formative evaluations are interim reports
sent at di erent stage of an evaluation study
to inform clients and stakeholders while
summative evaluation is retrospective
comparison and sum up of the program's
merit. Formative reports are important for
improvements and revisions. Summative
reports are used to determine the
accountability for success and failures.
Input and process evaluations tend to
provide formative evaluation and product
evaluation is helpful in the summative
evaluation. According to Stu ebeam (2003),
there is not necessary to conduct all four
components of a CIPP model, as the model

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treats evaluation design as a cyclical process


of continually identifying and employing the
appropriate means.

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Critics of the CIPP model said that the


top-down and managerial model practice in 21 Pages
the model required some collaboration. The
process of evaluation can be slow, costly and
complex to gather information and evidence
provided for all stakeholder groups. The
politics occurred within and between
departments and organizations also a ecting
the evaluation to run smoothly.
Finally, CIPP model is a simple but not
infallible system model applied to program
evaluation. The responsibility and accuracy is
determined by the decisions of the
organization conducting. However, CIPP
helps to provide a way to gain
evidence-based data to develop a clearer
understanding of the process and the
problems occurred to improve the plan.

References

Cronbach, L. J. 1982. Designing Evaluations of


Educational and Social Programs. San
Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
McLemore, A. (2009). The CIPP Model

Robinson, B. (2002). COLLIT project: A


background note from Bernadette Robinson.
Stu ebeam, D. (1999). Foundational models
for 21st century program evaluation.

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Stu ebeam, D. (2003). The CIPP Model for


Evaluation: An update, a review of the
models development, a checklist to guide
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implementation. Paper read at Oregon
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education-essay.php)
Dissertation (https://twitter.com/intent
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Tan,
S.,
Lee,
N.,
Hall,
D.,
Andrews,
T.,
Dixon,
J.,
Service
/tweet?text=The%20Impact%20Of%20Subject%20And%20Learner%20Centred%20Designs%20Education%20Essay&
Tout, D., & du Toit, L. (2010). CIPP as a model
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essay.php&via=ukessays)
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for evaluating learning spaces.Unpublished
Service
manuscript. Swinburne University
of
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Technology, Australia. www. swinburne. edu.21 Pages


au/spl/learningspacesproject.
Tseng, K. et al. (2010). Using the Context,
Input, Process and Product model to assess
an engineering curriculum.World
Transactions on Engineering and Technology
Education, Vol.8 (No.3).

PART C:

Using the Context, Input,


Process and Product
Model to Assess Primary
School Standard
Curicculum (KSSR)
Introduction

Essentially, curriculum evaluation is a process


of nding the value of a curriculum. Thus, the
evaluation has to be objective-based and
continuous. The essay below discusses about
the Primary School Standard Curriculum
(Kurikulum Standard Sekolah Rendah, KSSR)
based on the CIPP model. We advocate that
CIPP model evaluation is not only useful in
providing a framework conducting and
reporting evaluations but also the

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assessment of di erent aspects of the


curriculum as it is planned and implemented.

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This essay expands on the above claims in


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four
The rst section focuses on the
background,
aims and intent of Primary
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School Standard Curriculum (Kurikulum
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section
analysis
the
curriculum
based
on
the
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components of the CIPP model. The third
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section discusses about the
strength of the
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curriculum. Finally, the last section
suggests
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possible areas of improvement of the
21 Pages
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curriculum.

What is KSSR?

In 2011, a new primary school curriculum,


Primary School Standard Curriculum
(Kurikulum Standard Sekolah Rendah, KSSR)
was introduced under review of the national
curriculum. According to National Philosophy
of Education, "Education in Malaysia is an
on-going e ort towards further developing
the potential of individuals in a holistic and
integrated manner, so as to produce
individuals who are intellectually, spiritually,
emotionally and physically balanced and
harmony, based on a rm belief in and
devotion to God. Such an e ort is designed
to produce Malaysian citizens who are
knowledgeable and competent, who possess
high moral standards and who are
responsible and capable of achieving a high
level of personal well-being as well as being
able to contribute to the harmony and
betterment of the family, the society and the
nation at large". The review of national
curriculum is to ensure a holistic curriculum
which provides knowledge, skills and values
that relevant to a balanced human capital to
enable students to handle current and

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challenges of the 21st century.

The concept of KSSR was based on the


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National Philosophy Of Education Malaysia
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and
the KBSR.
The Integrated Primary School
Curriculum
(Kurikulum Baru Sekolah Rendah,
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KBSR) was implemented in primary school
/share?url=https://www.ukessays.com/essays/education/the-impact-of-subject-and-learner-centred-designssince 1983. The transformation is no only
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focus
on
the
skills
of
writing,
reading
and
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arithmetic but also reasoning skills, creativity
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and innovation, entrepreneurial,
information
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and communication technology.
KSSR aims
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to produce students with a balanced, creative21 Pages
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thinking, critical and innovative throughspinal cord communication, science and
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technology, physical and aesthetic
development, humanity and spirituality,
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attitudes and values and personal skills.
Beside maintaining all the principles of KBSR,
KSSR also focus on an integrated approach. It
ensures that every subject catering to the
intellectual, spiritual, emotional, physical and
social element for development of a
comprehensive individual. KSSR also provides
broad and fair opportunity for all students to
obtain knowledge and skills that are
comprehensive and balanced. This equitable
education concept gives chances and time for
the slow learners to explore. Lifelong
education in KSSR provides the knowledge
and skills needed by all students as a basis
for take challenges of daily life and lifelong
learning.
Six interrelated and integrated key areas
were identi ed under this Primary School
Standard Curriculum. There are
communication, science and technology,
physical development and aesthetic, spiritual,
attitude and values, humanitarian and
personal skills. Communication enables
students to use oral language skills in verbal

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and non-verbal form during in interacting.


Science and technology emphasis on
scienti c knowledge, skills and scienti c
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attitudes, knowledge, skills and values in
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based skills. Physical development and
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well-being while fostering imagination,
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creativity, talent and appreciation.
url=https://www.ukessays.com/essays/education/the-impact-of-subject-and-learner-centred-designs-educationSpirituality, attitudes and values foster
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students to appreciate religious practices,
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beliefs, attitudes and values. Humanitarian
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encourages students to share knowledge and21 Pages
practices of the local community and the
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environment, national and global. The
humanitarian in KSSR also focus on foster
patriotism and unity. Finally, students are
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curricular activities in personal skills.
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Elements Cross Curriculum (EMK) was
introduced via Primary School Standard
Curriculum. These elements have to apply in
teaching and learning process. Beside the
original elements, thecreativity and
innovation,entrepreneurs, and information
and communication technologyare
identi ed as complementary e orts to
enhance the quality of implementation of the
new curriculum.
In Primary School Standard Curriculum,
subjects were organized in two di erent
levels. There are three modules in the rst
level and two modules in the second level.
Basic core module, themes core module and
elective module are included in Level One
(Year One to Three). Basic core module
compulsory students to cover the basic
learning module consisting of English,
Mathematics, Physical Education and Health
Education. Muslim students must study

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Islamic education while non-Muslim students


must study Moral Education. The core
thematic module consists World of Visual Art,
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World of Music and World of Science and
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help students to master other languages. The
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SK, Tamil SK, Bahasa Iban or Kadazan
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language to implement in Elective Module by
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infrastructure. In Level Two (Years Four to
21 Pages
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Six), the subjects will be based
communication, science and technology,
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physical and aesthetics, spiritual attitude and
values and humanitarianism.

The Application of CIPP


Model In Primary School
Standard Curriculum
(KSSR)
Context Evaluation

Stu ebeam(2007) said that context


evaluation assesses needs, assets, and
problem within a de ned environment. The
purpose of context evaluation is to identify
the appropriate of the environment in order
to achieve the focus, goals and curriculum
objective. The aim of Primary School
Standard Curriculum is to to produce
students with a balanced, creative thinking,
critical and innovative communication,
science and technology, physical and
aesthetic development, personal skills,
humanity and spirituality, attitudes and
valuesbased on the National
Philosophy Of Education Malaysia.

The previous curriculum, New Primary School

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Curriculum (Kurikulum Baru Sekolah Rendah,


KBSR) was reviewed in order to produce
students which is able to meet current and
REFERENCE THIS
future challenges. The new curriculum is
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learning, critical and creative thinking,
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Information and Communication Technology
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(ICT) literacy.
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In the 21st century, people
are compelled to
Service
become better at absorbing, processing
and
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combining information. Innovative thinking 21 Pages


skills, higher-order cognitive skills, cultural
awareness, sophisticated communication
and collaboration skills are demanded in the
future working environment. The four pillars
of education in the 21st century were
becoming learning to know, learning to do,
learning to be and learning to live together.
Thus, a change of curriculum in our country is
a great urgency.
The Education Ministry's Curriculum
Development Division (BPK) had
benchmarked against the United Kingdom,
Singapore, Hong Kong, New Zealand,
Australia and Scandinavian countries before
launching Primary School Standard
Curriculum in our country.

According to the deputy director of The


Education Ministry's Curriculum
Development Division, Dr. Lee Boon Hua, a
pilot test involving 500 schools was carried
out throughout the country and they receive
positive feedback from the teachers, pupils
and parents involved. This less-exam
oriented curriculum makes learning more fun
and interactive.
The Education Ministry's Curriculum
Development Division (BPK) had identi ed
and investigate Primary School Standard

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Curriculum (KSSR) as a model for the


contemplated program. Three new Cross
Curriculum Elements (EMK) were added
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followed by English, Science and
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Technology,Environmental
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Education,ValuesandPatriotism.
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Innovation,Entrepreneurship, and
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Information and Communication Technology.
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Besides, special education
is also highlighted
Service
under this new curriculum. Students
with
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learning disabilities, hearing problem and


vision problem are going to obtain
knowledge under special care.

21 Pages

Input Evaluation

Input evaluation assesses competing


strategies and the work plan and budgets of
the new curriculum in this essay. Therefore,
the teacher skill and knowledge, Cross
Curriculum Elements (EMK), workshops,
equipment, time schedule, principal nancial
allocation are emphasized.

Assessment, teacher training, monitoring and


teaching and learning approaches were
changed under the new curriculum. In order
to prepare teacher about the curriculum,
training and camp motivation were planned.
With the change of the new curriculum,
teachers should always alert to the new
requirement and teaching techniques.
Therefore, trainings are necessary from time
to time.
The teacher training in the Primary School
Standard Curriculum (KSSR) is based on the
cascade model. Master trainers for all
subjects have been trained before training
teachers in the respective states. During the
training session, background and
introduction about Primary School Standard

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Curriculum (KSSR) were also given followed


by interrupting Cross Curriculum Elements
(EMK) in every subject.

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and teacher skill is an

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are also given to lecturers from teachers
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Elements
(EMK)
are
conducted
for
new
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teachers. Talks are given to teachers in the
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school about Cross Curriculum
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teaching
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and learning e ectively. Programs operated 21 Pages
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aims to increase the teachers' ability in order
to ful l teachers with skills and good values
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knowledge in keeping the curriculum
requirement.
To support the syllabus and curricula of
Primary School Standard Curriculum (KSSR),
new textbooks have been distributed to the
school. Creativity handbooks and supported
materials are also provided to teachers so
that they enhance their teaching knowledge.
Besides that, courses and talks about Primary
School Standard Curriculum were also given
to the board of management and teachers in
order for them to comprehend the
curriculum activities, plans, budget,
management and ling procedures.

Under the new curriculum design, students


spend 1380 minutes a week in school. Subject
are redesigned either by combining two or
more disciplines of knowledge into one
subject. Therefore, there are new subjects
replacing Living Skills, Civics and Citizenship
Education and Local Studies. The new
subjects introduced in the new curriculum
included Design and Technology/Information
and Communication Technology, Visual Arts
and Music and History/Malaysia Negaraku.
Media such as news, press releases, public

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transports, talks, carnivals and exhibitions


are also carried out around the country in
promoting the strategies and work plans of
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Primary School Standard Curriculum (KSSR)
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School Standard Curriculum
(KSSR). All the
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manual about the ling system
has been
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given and monitoring is conducted from the 21 Pages


Education Ministry's Curriculum
Development Division (BPK). O cers from
the division will visit the school to ensure that
the school achieve the new curriculum
requirements while solving problems met.
Furthermore, schools and teachers are
encouraged to utilize the infrastructure
available in schools, such as computer lab,
laptops and LCD projectors during World of
Science and Technology. Administrators
should also ensure that all the facilities are in
good condition can access during school
hours.

Process Evaluation

Process evaluation relates to the


implementation of teaching, ways to evaluate
students and courses that teachers attended.
The process evaluation is important to
describe the student's need in order to
reconstruct the program.
In Primary School Standard Curriculum
(KSSR), teachers need to begin the basic
literacy skills in order to build a strong
foundation of language skills. As a way to
strengthen the command of Bahasa Malaysia
and English among primary school students,
the Bahasa Malaysia and English periods

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have increased. Students are also guided in


the right way to hold a pencil properly under
penmanship.

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open-minded to students'
needs. This is
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coherent with the student-centred
concept of
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the Primary School Standard Curriculum
21 Pages
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(KSSR). The training for teacher in every
subject is carrying on a phrase by phrase
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until 2015, where the rst badge of Year 6
students in the Primary School Standard
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Curriculum (KSSR) are in 2016.
In schools, panels from every subject
undergo meeting. During the meeting,
committees will plan and decide the
allocation of the budget provided. Basically,
the budget are plans in purchase teaching
materials, stationery and learning tools.
Material bought will distribute to teachers
accordingly for uses in classroom activities.

Other than that, a group of committee from


every school will record the internal training
for teachers regarding to the Primary School
Standard Curriculum (KSSR) for respective
subjects and report to the District Education
Department. After collecting reports and
feedback from schools, the State Educational
Department will then report and feedback to
the ministry. The community members,
including the educators and parents will
comprehend the progress of the curriculum.
In order to practice the learner-centred
approach, contextualized and purposeful
activities are promoted to allow students
learning by doing in fun- lled activities.

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Besides recording the re ection of every


lesson, teachers may also discuss their
problems with their committee members
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during division meetings. Teaching
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standard speci c about what
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the knowledge, skills and values. Standard of21 Pages
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learning is a set of criteria or indicators where
the quality of learning and achievement can
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be measured for each content standard.
Since the Primary School Standard
Curriculum (KSSR) implemented in 2011,
there are some changes of plan. For instance,
the changes and improvements of
description of the School Based Assessment
in certain subjects. These are necessary to
follow the needs of students and society in
developing critical, creative and innovative
thinking skills. Besides, the redesigning also
includes benchmarking its learning and
content standards against other country such
as Finland. Changes are important to ensure
the curriculum is aligned and e ective with
the breadth and depth content covered.

Product Evaluation

Product evaluation focus to the result of the


program that provide a reasonable
explanation and consultation for decisionmaking. For this study, product evaluation is
the assessment of teaching outcomes. The
product evaluation could determine whether
the curriculum should be modi ed, upgraded
or terminated. Product evaluation also
evaluates the output of the curriculum

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activities. Product evaluation compares the


di erence between the outcomes and a
predetermined standard or absolute
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standard based on the feedback and
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Curriculum
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skills achieved or gain in daily
life up until
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Curriculum (KSSR) allows students to
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communicate and learn in fun ways. Students
showed more interested in classroom
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compare with last time. The policy which
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Students become more creative and
innovative. Opportunities to explore and test
students' hypotheses and ideas to help
students identify their needs and interests.
The formative assessment from school-based
assessment will inform teachers on suitable
remedial or enhancement treatments for
pupils. It will also help teachers to identify
and plan salient and e ective classroom
strategies.
To systematic and validate student
performance, the Primary School Standard
Curriculum (KSSR) proposes the
implementation of schools-based
assessments. The teachers have to do
internal school based assessment (PBS) to
evaluate students' achievement and gauge
students' potential. The School Based
Assessment (PBS) is holistic and evaluate

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students with cognitive (intellectual), a ective


(emotional and spirituality) and phsycomotor
(health) concurrent with the National
Philosophy of Education.

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The assessment
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teaching and learning process
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assessment. For certain schools, there is also21 Pages
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a nal exam at the end or several exams
during the whole year. This uses for the
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school for convergence. However, schools
are not encouraged to converge under the
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Primary School Standard Curriculum (KSSR).
The formative result from school-based
assessment is well suited for guiding
curriculum-framing. Teachers can determine
whether students learn a particular concept
or knowledge skills from the descriptors.
During the end of every year, the school will
have a speech day for parents to understand
their children's performance in schools.
Summative result from the school-based
assessment allows parents and teachers to
overview the quality of the curriculum
produced.

A student's performance is benchmarked in


six levels in the school-based assessment.
Students were acknowledged to achieve each
standard with respective evidences as
described on descriptions. The Ministry Of
Education claimed that this School Based
Assessment (PBS) is holistic, integrated,
balance and exibility. There is no longer
exam-oriented under the Primary School
Standard Curriculum (KSSR). The internal
assessment evaluation system encourages

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slow-learners to gain knowledge according to


their capability.

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The Primary School Standard Curriculum


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(KSSR) emphasis on holistic development of
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Curriculum (KSSR) encompasses
new
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elements such as grooming of creativity and 21 Pages
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innovation, entrepreneurship, and
integration of Information and
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Communication Technology (ICT).
The transformation of the curriculum is
important to ensure a holistic curriculum and
is relevant for a balanced human capital that
can handle current and future challenges.
The whole process involves changing the
form, organization, content, pedagogy,
assessment methods, time allocation,
material and curriculum management in
schools. The lifelong learning process
ensures students have basic skills for
everyday life. At the end of the primary
education, students will master the reading,
writing and arithmetic skills. They will also
expert in reasoning skills, creative and
innovative in daily life. The Health and
Physical Education practiced will also create
generations that awareness of well-being, no
matter in the physical or mental eld. The
generation from the Primary School Standard
Curriculum (KSSR) will also practice good
values, honor, trust God, full with self-esteem
and patriotism. They can also understand
and appreciate the national culture.
Compared with KBSR, Primary School
Standard Curriculum (KSSR) focuses on six

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key aspects, which are communication,


spiritual attitude and values,
humanitarianism, literacy in science and
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technology, physical and personal
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The Language Arts Module
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ective

learning is conducted through singing, choral21 Pages


speaking, drama, jazz chants, music and
others.
The less exam-oriented curriculum
encourages students to learn and gain
knowledge in a fun and interesting
environment. Students were given
opportunities to explore and communicate
with others during the lesson. The cord skills
in the Primary School Standard Curriculum
(KSSR) ensure students are educated and
guided to a leadership and personal
development through the curriculum and
co-curricular activities. Students are also
taught about the basic ICT skills. These basic
skills will enhance their usage in every
subject.
The continuous following and monitoring of
teachers implemented in the school based
assessment ensure the students nally
achieve the prescribed standard. School
based assessments also allow teachers to
understand the standard of their students
and the e ectiveness of teachers' teaching
skills. The assessment is diverse and can be
done through observation, verbal or written
form. The re ection will indirectly enhance
creativity and motivation of teachers to plan
further reinforcement concerning students'

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achievement and the teaching process.

Every human has their own intelligence area.


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Through the Primary School Standard
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History subject introduced under the Primary


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patriotism and nationalism. Furth

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