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Note Names

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Music is written down on 5 lines and 4 spaces called a staff or stave

At the beginning of each stave, a sign called a treble clef is written. This tells
the musician where on their instrument they are supposed to play the notes.
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Notes are written on the stave, on the lines and in the spaces.

Notes on the lines

E G B D F

An easy way to remember this is by using the phrase

Every Good Boy Deserves Football

Notes in the spaces

F A C E

The notes in the spaces spell out the word FACE (which rhymes with space!)

It is very important to draw the notes carefully onto the stave – if the note is
meant to be on a line, the line should run exactly through the middle of the note.
If it is meant to be in a space, it should fill the space and not overlap the line.
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QUESTIONS

1. Write down the names of the notes below. The first two have been
completed for you.

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A D ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___

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2. Draw the correct notes on the stave. Make each note a semibreve (which
lasts for 4 beats). The first two have been completed for you.

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F B G C A E F D E

3. Try to solve the puzzles by filling in the missing notes and letter names.
(CLUE: they all make up words.)

a) Clue: You sleep in it

___ ___ ___

b) Clue: Opposite of good

___ ___ ___

c) Clue: Birds can be kept in it

___ ___ ___ ___

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d) Clue: A chicken might lay one

____ ____ ____


Accidentals

In some pieces of music it is necessary to use the black notes (on the piano).
There are different symbols to show the musician which note to play. These are
known as accidentals.

b Flat Lowers the note

# Sharp Raises the note


Natural Restores the flat/sharp to the original pitch

If the symbol is written before a note then the note must be played according
to the sign. What this means is that if there is a flat sign before the note A,
then instead of playing A, the musician must play the black note immediately
below it: Ab

A
If the composer writes a sharp sign before the note C then the musician must
play the black note above it.

C#

Sometimes the composer might want a certain note to be sharp and then to be
played normally. To do this a natural sign is placed before the note, which
restores the flat or sharp to it’s “natural” pitch.
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QUESTIONS

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1. Which sign means to lower the note? _____________________________

2. Draw the symbol for a natural. _______

3. Draw the symbol for a sharp. ______

4. Which sign means to restore the note to it’s original pitch?______________

5. Draw the symbol for a flat. _______

6. Which sign means to raise the note? ______________________________

7. Name the following notes. The first one has been completed for you.

C sharp _________ _________ _________ __________ ________

8. Draw the following notes on the stave.

G sharp B flat F natural D sharp C natural E flat

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NOTE VALUES

In music, the lengths of notes change depending on the piece. There are
different symbols to show the different notes. It is important that you learn
what the different notes look like because it will help you to play pieces
properly.

Symbol Name Duration

semibreve Lasts for 4 beats

dotted minim Lasts for 3 beats

minim Lasts for 2 beats

dotted crotchet Lasts for 1½ beat

crotchet Lasts for 1 beat

quaver Lasts for ½ beat

Semi - quaver Lasts for ¼ beat

If you have two or even four quavers together you need to join the stems.

The same rule applies for semi-quavers.

+ =

=
QUESTIONS

1. 1. Draw a crotchet. __________

2. What is a 4 beat note called? __________

3. How many beats does a dotted minim last for? __________

4. Draw a quaver. __________

5. What is a 2 beat note called? __________

6. How many beats does a semi quaver last for? __________

7. Draw a pair of quavers. __________

8. How many beats does a dotted crotchet last? __________

9. Try to work out the answers to these puzzles by drawing in the note
value of the sum. Be careful to check whether it is add or subtract –
or both!

a)
+ =

b)
+ =

c)
- + =

d)
+ + =

e)
- - =
RESTS

Every note value you have learned so far has an equivalent symbol which
indicates a silence. This is called a rest. Look at the table to learn the
different symbols then answer the questions below.

Symbol Name Duration Rest

semibreve Lasts for 4 beats

dotted minim Lasts for 3 beats

minim Lasts for 2 beats

dotted crotchet Lasts for 1½ beat

crotchet Lasts for 1 beat

quaver Lasts for ½ beat

semiquaver Lasts for ¼ beat


QUESTIONS

1. Draw a crotchet rest. _________

2. How many beats does a dotted minim rest last for? _________

3. Draw a semi quaver rest. _________

4. How many beats does a quaver rest last for? ________

5. Draw a semibreve rest. __________

6. How many beats does a dotted crotchet rest last? __________

7. Try to work out the answers to these puzzles by drawing in the rest value
of the sum. Be careful to check whether it is add or subtract – or
both!

+ =

+ =

- + =

+ + =
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STEMS

You have now learned the symbols to show the different note lengths and where
on the stave the symbol goes to show the different notes. Lets think about
what the symbol actually looks like.

Note head Stem

Dotted minims (3 beats), minims (2 beats), crotchets (1 beat) and quavers (½


beat) are all made up from a note head which is the round part, and a stem.

It is very important that the stems go in the correct direction. This will depend
on which note is being written. Look at the example below.

All the notes that are below the middle line have a stem which is on the right
of the note head and points up. All the notes that are above the middle line
have a stem which is on the left of the note head and points down. The
note on the middle line can have a stem which goes up or down.
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QUESTIONS

1. Look at the examples below. Write whether the note has been drawn

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correctly or not and if you think it is incorrect, draw the note correctly.
The first 2 have been completed for you.
a)

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Answer: Correct

b)

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Answer: Wrong

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c)

Answer: ______________________

d)

Answer: ______________________

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e)

Answer: ______________________

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f)

Answer: ______________________
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& BARS, BAR LINES & SIMPLE TIME SIGNATURES

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If you look at a piece of music, you will see that it is divided into equal sections.
These are called bars and the lines that show where the bars start and end are
called bar lines. There should also always be a double bar line at the end of the
piece of music.

At the beginning of a piece of music you will find two numbers called a time
signature. Look at the example below.

Merrily we roll along

Treble Clef
Time Signature Bar line

Double bar line

The top number of the time signature tells us how many beats are in each bar

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and the bottom number tells us what kind of beat they are.

Some of the most common time signatures are:

2 means 2 crotchet beats in each bar


4

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3 means 3 crotchet beats in each bar
4

4 means 4 crotchet beats in each bar


4
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QUESTIONS

1. Fill in the missing time signatures at the beginning of each melody.

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a)

b)

c)

d)

2. Fill in the missing bar lines. (Don’t forget to put in a double bar line at
the end.)
a)

b)

c)
Repeats

Repeat lines. If there is a section of the music that needs to be repeated,


then repeat marks are used. They look like this:

and

1st & 2nd time bars: This is a sign to show that when playing a repeat, a
different ending is needed. The signs look like this:

The is drawn before the repeat sign and is played only the 1st
time, then follow the repeat sign.

The is drawn after the repeat sign and is played the 2nd time only.

This is the same as the following:


QUESTIONS

1) Add repeat signs so that bars 4-6 of the music are repeated and finish with a
double bar line.

How many bars of music will be heard when the music is played in full? __


st nd
2) Look at the music and insert a 1 Time Bar and a 2 Time bar.

How many bars of music will be heard when the music is played in full? __


st nd
3) Look at the music and insert a 1 Time Bar and a 2 Time bar.

How many bars of music will be heard when the music is played in full? __
PATTERNS

To repeat a section of music means to play exactly the same thing again.
Here is an example of repetition.

A sequence copies a pattern or shape at a different pitch. Here is an


example of sequence.

The second pattern of notes is two notes higher than the first pattern.

Here is another example of sequence

The second pattern of notes is one note lower than the first pattern.
QUESTIONS

1. Repetition: Copy each group of notes into the space provided and
also name the notes.

2. Sequence: Write the following sequences ONE NOTE HIGHER.

3. Sequence: Write the following sequences ONE NOTE LOWER.


TONES AND SEMITONES

A semitone is the smallest distance


between two notes.

On a keyboard there is a semitone


between any two notes which are
next to each other.

Remember- some notes can


have the same two names,
for example: F# and Gb

Examples of Semitones

There is a semitone between B and C There is a semitone between F and F#

There is a semitone between Bb and A

A tone is two semitones.

Examples of Tones

There is a tone between C and D There is a tone between Bb and Ab

There is a tone between E and F#


QUESTIONS

1. Write a note one semitone higher than the note given. The first
example has been answered for you. Use the keyboard to help you.

2. Write a note one semitone lower than the note given. The first example
has been answered for you.

3. Write a note one tone higher than the note given. The first example has
been answered for you.

4. Write a note one tone lower than the note given. The first example has
been answered for you.

5. Write a S if there is a semitone between each note or a T if there is a


tone between each note. The first two have been done for you.
DYNAMICS

In a piece of music, the volume often changes to add interest and emotion.
These changes in volume are called dynamics. To tell the musician whether the
music should be loud or quiet, the composer often uses the following symbols
which are written below the stave:

ff Fortissimo - means very loud

f Forte - means loud

mf Mezzo forte - means moderately loud

mp Mezzo piano - means moderately quiet

p Piano - means quiet

pp Pianissimo - means very quiet

Crescendo (cresc.) -
means to get louder

Diminuendo (dim.) -
means to get quieter

Sometimes the composer may want one note louder than another (in other words
one note is more prominent that the others). To show this, the composer uses
an accent, which looks like > and appears just above or below the note
depending where on the stave the note is (if the stem is going up then the
accent goes below the note, if the stem is going down then the accent goes
above the note).
QUESTIONS

1. Which symbol is used to show that the music is meant to be played

loud?_________

2. Which symbol is used to show that the music is meant to be played

moderately quiet?_________

3. Which symbol is used to show that the music is meant to be played

quiet?_________

4. Which symbol is used to show that the music is meant to get

louder?_________

5. Which symbol is used to show that the music is meant to be played

moderately loud?_________

6. Which symbol is used to show that one note is meant to be played louder
that the next?__________

7. Which symbol is used to show that the music is meant to be played

very loud?_________

8. Which symbol is used to show that the music is meant to be played

very quiet?_________

9. Which symbol is used to show that the music is meant to get

quieter?_________

10. Draw accents on the following notes (remember to check whether they
should be above or below the notes):
TEMPO

In many pieces of music, Italian terms are used to indicate the


speed or the tempo of a piece of music.

Adagio means slow

Largo means slow

Andante means at a medium (walking)


speed
Moderato means at a moderate speed

Allegro means quick

Presto means very fast

Accelerando means to gradually get quicker

Rallentando (rall) means to gradually get slower

Ritardando (rit.) means to gradually get slower

Composers also use various markings to show expression.

Staccato shown by a dot over or


under a note. It means
detached.
Legato play smoothly
Slurs over two different notes or
over a group of notes. It
means to perform the notes
smoothly.
Phrasing shape the music.
Accents makes the note sound more
prominent
Pause pause on a note
Questions

1. What does Allegro mean? __________________

2. Which Italian term means to play the music slowly?


___________

3. What does accelerando mean? _________________

4. On the following note, draw a pause.

5. What Italian term means to slow down? _____________

6. What does largo mean? ___________________

7. On the following excerpt, make all the notes staccato.

8. On the following excerpt, indicate that the music should


be played smoothly.
QUIZ 1

1. Write the correct time signature at the beginning of the music.

2. Give the meaning of f in bar 1. ________________________

3. What are the names of the notes in bar 3? ___ ___ ___ ___

4. How many beats does the final note last for? _______________

. . .
5. What is the name of the note marked *? ________
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6. What does this symbol mean? ______________________

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7. How many bars are in this example? _________

8. How many beats do the quavers in bar 2 add up to in total? ________


QUIZ 2

1. What does the time signature mean?

____________________________________________

2. Add a rest in bar 3 to make it up to the correct length.

3. What does this sign mean? _________________

4. Add bar lines for bars 5, 6 and 7.

5. What is the name of the first note in this example? ___________

6. What does p mean? __________________________

7. How many beats does the final note last for? ___________

8. Add accents to the three crotchets in bar 2.


QUIZ 3

1. Write the correct time signature in the box at the beginning of


the stave.

2. Give the meaning of p in bar 1. ______________________

3. Give the meaning of f in bar 5. ________________________

4. What does Adagio mean? _________________________

5. What does this sign mean? _______________

6. What does the sign at the end of the extract mean?

____________________________________________

7. What is the name of the first note? ___________


QUIZ 4

1. Draw the missing bar line in the first stave.

2. The speed is moderate. Write an appropriate Italian word above


the first note to show this.

3. There is a sequence at the bracket. Write the two missing notes


at * *.

4. What does mf mean? _______________________________

5. What does this sign mean? ________________

6. What is the letter name of the last note in the excerpt? ______

7. How many beats does the rest in last bar of the first stave last
for? ______________

8. Is there a tone or a semitone between the first two notes?


_______________