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Data Acquisition System

Definition:

Data acquisitionis the process of


sampling signals that measure real world physical
conditions and converting the resulting samples into
digital numeric values that can be manipulated by a
computer.
Data acquisition systems typically convert analog
waveformsintodigitalvaluesforprocessing.

BLOC DIAGRAM of DAS

COMPONENTS of DAC
1.Transducer:A transducer is used to convert the physical parameters corning from the field into electrical signals or it is used to measure
directly the electrical quantities such as resistance, voltage, frequency, etc.

2.Signal Conditioner:Usually the output signals of the transducer will be of very low level (weak) signals. which cannot be used for further processing. In order to make the
signals strong enough to drivethe other elements signal conditionersare usedsuch as amplifiers, modifiers, filters etc.

3.Multiplexer:The function of the multiplexer is to accept multiple analog inputs (after signal conditioning) and provide a single output sequentially according to the
requirements.

4.A/D Converter: Theanalog-to-digital(A/D)converterisgenerallyusedtoconverttheanalogdataintodigitalform.Thedigitaldataisusedforthe


purposeofeasyprocessing,transmission,digitaldisplayandstorage.

5.Recorders and Display Devices: Indisplaydevicesthedataisdisplayedinasuitableforminordertomonitortheinputsignals.Examplesofdisplaydevicesare


oscilloscopes,numericaldisplays,panelmeters,etc.Thedigitaldataisfirstconvertedintoasuitableformforrecordingbymeansof
acouplingunitandthenrecordedonamagnetictape,punchedcardsoraperforatedpapertape.

Analog vs. Digital Signal


Analog signals:
Continuous,expressedindecimalsystem
Nolimitationonthemaximum/minimumvalue
Cannotbeprocessedbycomputer

Digital signals: binary number system


Allnumbersareexpressedbyacombinationof1&0
Themaximumvalueislimitedby#ofbitsavailable

Buffer Amplifier
Abuffer amplifier(sometimes simply called abuffer) is one that provideselectrical
impedancetransformation from one circuit to another. The symbols of ideal voltage
bufferandcurrentbufferareshowninFig1andFig2respectively.

TYPES of BUFFER AMPLIFIER


A) VOLTAGE BUFFER
A circuit which transfers a voltage from a circuit with high output impedance to a
circuitwithlowinputimpedanceiscallavoltagebuffer.Thevoltagebufferconnected
betweenthesetwocircuitpreventsthelowinputimpedancecircuit(secondone)from
loading the first one. Infinite input impedance, zero output impedance, absolute
linearity,highspeedetcarethefeaturesonanidealvoltagebuffer.
Avoltagebuffercanberealizedusingop
amp, BJT or MOSFET. Voltage follower using
transistor (BJT) is shown in Fig 3. Voltage
follower using BJT is also known as emitter
follower. +Vcc is the transistors collector
voltage, Vin is the input voltage, Vout is the
output voltage and Re is the transistors emitter
resistor.

B) CURRENT BUFFER
Currentbufferisacircuitthatisusedtotransfercurrentfromalowinputimpedance
circuittoacircuithavinghighinputimpedance.Thecurrentbuffercircuitconnected
inbetweenthetwocircuitspreventsthesecondcircuitfromloadingthefirstcircuit.
The features of an ideal current buffer are infinite input impedance, zero output
impedance,highlinearityandfastresponse. Acurrentbuffercanberealizedusing
transistor(BJTorMOSFET).
A current amplifier can be realized
using transistors.The schematic of a
current amplifier circuit using
transistorsisshowninthefigurebelow.
Two transistors are used in this circuit.
1 and 2 are the current gains of
transistors Q1 and Q2 respectively. Iin
is the input current, Iout is the output
current and+Vcc is the transistor T2s
collectorvoltage.

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