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Atomic Number: The number of protons in an atom.

Atomic Mass: The sum of the masses of the particles in the atom.
Formula Mass: The sum of the masses of all elements present in a compound.
Mass Number: Number of protons plus the number of neutrons in an atom.
Isotopes: Atoms with the same number of protons, but different number of neutrons.
Molecular Formula: Representation of each element present in the smallest possible
amount of a compound
Relative Atomic Mass: Weighted average mass of the isotopes present relative to 1/12th
the mass of
an atom of 126C
Chemical Formula: Representation of the smallest possible amount of the substance.
Valency: The number of chemical bonds made by an atom or group of atoms
Spectator Ions: These are ions that may be present in the reacting solutions but do not
react.
Percentage Composition: the percentage contribution of each element to the total mass.
Empirical Formula: Simplest whole number ratio of the elements present in the compound.
Moles: 6x1023 of molecules
ISO Electronic: Any two or more elements which have the same electronic structure.
Atom Economy: This describes the efficiency of a chemical reaction by comparing the total
number of atoms in the product with the total number of atoms in the
reactant.
Ionisation Energy: minimum energy required to remove 1mol of electrons from 1mol of
atoms in the gas phase.
Electronegativity: This is a measure of the ability of an atom to attract a pair of electrons
in a
covalent bond
Covalent Bond: Shared pair of electrons.
Ionic Bonding: The electrostatic force of attraction between ions of opposite charge, ions
are not bonded together, rather they are just touching each other.
Lattice: Regular repeating pattern
Metallic Bonding: The electrostatic force of attraction between the lattice of positive ions
and delocalised electrons.
H-Bonding: The force of attraction between a lone pair of electrons and an exposed
hydrogen nucleus.
Dipole-Dipole: Force of attraction between oppositely charged poles on neighbouring
molecules.
Giant Molecular Covalent: Network of strong covalent bonds.
Homologous Series: A group of compounds that have similar properties and share a
general formula.
Hydrocarbons: Compounds of the elements Hydrogen and Carbon only.
Isomers: Different chemicals that have the same chemical formula.
Structural Formula: Shows sufficient detail to give a unique structured isomer
Fractional Distillation: Separating a complex mixture into a mixture of compounds with
similar boiling points.
Catalyst: a catalyst is a substance which speeds up a chemical reaction but remains
chemically unchanged by the reaction. It only works when it is in contact with
gases.
Combustion: Reaction of a fuel with Oxygen.
Greenhouse Gases: Trap infa-red radiation in the atmosphere.
Energy Levels: Volumes of space around a nucleus.
Catalytic Converter: 2NO + 2CO N2 + 2CO2
Flue Gas Capture: CaO + SO2 CaSO3
Structural Isomers: Have the same molecular formula but different structural formulae.
Dative Covalent Bonding: Both electrons donated from .
Saturated: Single bonds ONLY

Cracking: Breaking long chain hydrocarbons into smaller chain hydrocarbons.


Fractions: mixture of compounds with similar boiling points.
Fractional Distillation: Separates a very complex mixture into a few mixtures by similar
boiling points.