# Structural Engineering International, Volume 22, Number 8, July 2015, ISSN 1016-8664, E-ISSN 1683-0350

Impact Factor – 0.622

**Research on Solidity and Longevity of Monolithic Concrete
**

. Jasarat A. Jamalov

Azerbaijan University of Architecture and Construction Scientific – Research Doctoral candidate (PhD),. Repubic

of Azerbaijan, Baku city, Yasamal region AZE 1111.

jasarat.jamalov@mail.ru

Abstract: The purpose of the study is adding film-forming material to open surface of the freshly moulded

concrete in the dry and hot climate conditions in order to accelerate its hardening and improve its construction

and technical properties. The subject of the study of is preventing water loss of freshly poured monolithic

concrete, increasing the speed of the concrete solidity, increasing freeze -thaw durability and decreasing water

absorption. Thus, studies of this thesis have been carried out to increase the co nstruction speed in monolithic

construction by replacing the energy spent on the hardening of the concrete with natural solar energy. As an

object of study, heavy pyrolysis resin, liquid sodium silicate and polyethylene film produced from Ethylene Polyethylene Plant in Sumgait were used as film-forming material in concrete and superplastificator C-3 was

used as plasticating supplement.

Key words: film-forming, heat-emitting, intensity, kinetics, solarthermisch processing, dry and hot climate, dry

and moist treatment, freshly moulded concrete, concrete shrinkage intensity, empirical distribution, empirical

function, quantity distribution law.

1.

Introduction

It is known that the problem of concrete shrinkage speeding is one of the most important issues both in

collection and monolithic concreting. Especially in the case of dry-hot climate, while solar technology can be

used, solution of this problem will allow shortening the duration of the concrete mix curing and improve the

quality of obtained concrete. The curing of the freshly poured concrete mixture in hot weather is a complex

technological process for concrete curing and increase of concrete solidity, cre ation of the necessary

temperature and humidity conditions, and prevention of cracks in the concrete mixture. Proper curing of

concrete mix is one of the main conditions to ensure its quality, the durability of structures and facilities.

Until recently curing of freshly poured concrete was carried out with creating humid environment and

without using film-forming material. However, these methods do not meet modern requirements of

industrialisation of construction, require huge amount of water, and not alwa ys was able to provide appropriate

quality of the concrete. Therefore, curing methods of covering concrete with vapour -proof materials, especially

with tarpaulin, polyethylene film or sprinkling concrete surface with film -forming compounds without

concrete damping procedure caused huge interest in recent years. [Akimoto S., Honda s., Jasukohshi. 1990]

Taking into account the abovementioned, including technologically convenient application of methods

of spreading isolation layers on concrete and less material consumption, scientific research of high-quality

isolation layer-forming compositions based on petrochemical products, as well as its joint application with

heliotechnology is topical.

2. Survey methods: The prospect of using solar energy is high during the technological processes

where hot and humid concrete processing temperature is within 40-600C limit. In this regard, recent conduction

of the development and implementation of solarthermisch processing methods of concrete is topical.

Soft condition of thermal processing of concrete can be provided within the specified temperature range.

After concrete curing, thermal processing enables product to gain harshness within 20 -22 hours in this

condition. On the other hand, utilization of concrete in thermal processing technology, while thermal energy of

hydration reaction of cement plays a role of a source of natural energy, is one of the interesting factors. It is

known that the dry and hot climate conditions in the country starts in May and lasts until Sep tember. During

these months, air temperature in shadow is 25-350C. In such a situation, hardened concrete could have certain

flaws. To remove these flaws, solarthermisch processing begins after smearing the surface of freshly moulded

concrete with various kinds of film-forming materials.

Within the research work, open surface of the concrete mix, added C-3 super plasticizing admixture in

optimum amount, was covered with heavy pyrolysis resin after 1.5-2.0 hours. During the applied complex

method, the internal temperature of the concrete is up to 60-650C for the 1st and 2nd days, depending on the air

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Impact Factor – 0.622

temperature. In accordance with it, this temperature remains ≈5 -6 hours both two days; the 3rd day the

temperature is 60-620C, which lasts 5 hours and gradually cooling down becomes 6-80C higher than air

temperature that can be explained by the fact that hydration reaction continues after discontinuation of solar

energy.

One of the main properties of concrete and reinforced concrete, including monolithic concrete is its

compressive strength indicator.

This method can be applied in the Republic during the summer season (from May until September). It is to

note that the experiments last 3 days. Concrete samples process solarthermisch about 15 hours per day on average.

Concrete temperature rises to a maximum within 4 hours of this period, cement hydratation in isothermal process

took place at high temperatures - 45-60 0C (depending on the months of the year) during 6 hours, the temperature

falls again (26-30 0C) in 5 hours,.

During the research, it was found out that according to construction, technical and economic results,

indicators of the concrete quality were higher while using heavy pyrolysis resins as film-forming material instead of

latex, which today considered to be more effctive film-forming material (Table 1).

One of the most topical problems of the construction in the construction and installation works carried out in

the country and during the monolithic concreting is water loss of the freshly molded concrete in the dry and hot

climate conditions. [7,8]

Table 1

Comparison of some physical and mechanical quality indicators of known utilised and newly proposed film-forming

materials in concrete

Film-Forming Materials

Higher

indicators of

the concrete

samples quality

heavy pyrolysis

Quality Indicators

Latex SKS 65GP

while using

resins, with 300

Without film

600 g/m2 usage

2

heavy pyrolysis

g/m usage

resins instead

of latex

Overall moisture loss

of sample in weather

conditions (weight in

%), per day

2

0,3

5,5

7,5

18,3

4

0,9

5,9

7,6

6,55

6

1,4

6,0

7,7

4,28

7

1,6

6,1

8,0

3,81 times less

Compressive strength

limit of the samples

kept in the air

conditions before the

research (MPa):

7 days in open air

24,8

21,8

17,0

11,4% more

28 days in open air

36,5

31,1

19,0

11,7% more

In dry and hot climate conditions (0.5 water/cement ratio), water loss in the construction goods covered with

heavy pyrolysis resin in 1; 2; 3; 7; 14; 28 and 100 days was respectively 100; 37,5; 18; 6,25; 5,5 times less than in

the bare construction goods with the same composition. Water loss in the concrete samples mixed with super

plasticizer and covered with heavy pyrolysis resin in 1, 3, 7, 14, 28 days was relatively 145; 48; 33; 14; 11 times less

than uncovered concrete samples. No water absorption was observed in the concrete samples covered with heavy

pyrolysis resin (water / cement = 0.5) within 3-days and it was 12 times less in 28-days.

While researching freeze-thaw durability, it was determined that while the concrete examples are frozen and

unfrozen 50 times, solidity of usual (without film, test) concrete decreases by 1.5-2 times and freeze-thaw

durability coefficient of the concrete drops by 1.5-2 times (approximately it was 0,45-0,54); however, solidity of the

concrete samples covered with heavy pyrolysis resin was nearly the same after 50 times and freeze-thaw durability

coefficient was 0,79...0,86. [Avrami M.J. 1939]

Admixtures in the concrete increase this effect. Thus, solidity of the concrete admixture (C-3) samples

covered with heavy pyrolysis resin was nearly the same after freezing and unfreezing for 50 times and freeze-thaw

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**durability coefficient was up to 0,90...0,97. The freeze-thaw durability of concrete samples is due to covering the
**

concrete surface with heavy pyrolysis resins as hydrolysation and chemical additives [JAMALOV J.A. 2003].

In dry and hot climate conditions, due to solar radiation and wind, water evaporates from the freshly moulded

structures in the first period of concrete hardening, the surface plunges and internal tensions emerge causing cracks

in the concrete. Sometimes, the crack width can reach up to 2-4 mm.

During the scientific research the literature has shown that in dry and hot climate conditions, more than 1 litre

water evaporates from 1 m2 surface of the concrete during the cement hardening period (nearly within 3 hours).

Consequently, concrete plunges which results in cracks on the surface (Figure 1). This is followed by concrete

shrinkage tension emerged inside the concrete as the result of water evaporation.

A number of film-forming materials were used to avoid such cracks. Thus, pamorol, bitumen emulsion, latex

and etc. were used as film-forming materials. The obtained results show that while using the local product – heavy

pyrolysis resin as film-forming material, it is better than latex for construction-technical and economic results. The

Picture of freshly poured concrete samples, covered with heavy pyrolysis resin as film-forming material and affected

by solar radiation and wind in dry and hot climatic conditions, normally no cracks appear on the surface if they are

reliably protected and possibility of plunging cracks falls to minimum (Figure 2).

To provide more effective hydration process in the samples, the current situation causes the density of

concrete structure due to increase in the amount of hydro silicates. This indirectly leads to high solidity of concrete.

X-ray analysis method was used in order to observe the processes occurring in the structure of the concrete and

confirm accuracy of the physical and mechanical results.

Figure 1.

Figure 2

The impact to changes in the phase composition of the compounds formed during hydration of cement in the

concrete with admixtures (super plasticizer C-3) and plain concrete covered with heavy pyrolysis resin was

investigated by X-ray phase method. Hydration process in the samples, covered with heavy pyrolysis resin kept

under sunlight, proceed much effectively than in the samples without film. This happens due to hot and humid

conditions inside the samples caused by film smeared over the samples. X-ray analysis

of the admixture samples smeared with film and plain samples that the amount of fibre hydro silicates

(d=3,04 A0) in cement admixtures is high. Along with other factors, positive effect of the admixture on the cement is

related to this factor. Thus, X-ray phase analysis results show that admixture concrete (C-3), covered with heavy

pyrolysis resin and plain concrete shrinks faster due to impact of temperature. As a result, the existing hot and wet

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**

Impact Factor – 0.622

environment in the hardening system accelerates the concrete hardening, thus, prevents splitting of main structureforming hydro crystals and strength of the system grows.

The study of the concrete hardening process applying the theory of probability:

Accurate regulation of the concrete curing process helps to save energy spent on this process and improve the

quality of concrete. There are a number of significant factors that ifluence the curing process: water-cement ratio,

quality of fillings, air temperature, and regulation of surface temperature can be listed among these factors.

One can increase economic efficiency by replacing the energy spent on the hardening of concrete with

natural solar energy. In this connection, establishing some analytic relations and certain charts by studying the

hardening process and using the experimental results [1,6] is of theoretical and practical importance. We come to

the following conclusions due to the analysis of the histograms of [Jamalov J.A. 2003]:

a) Hardening rate in shrinkage of the M300 brand concrete, covered with film-forming material HPR (heavy

pyrolysis resin) changes due to days: solidity reaches 40% in 1 day, 60% in 2 days, 80% in 3 days and etc. (during

May-September)

b) solidity of M300 brand concrete admixture (with super plasticizer C-3) covered with film-forming material

HPR reaches 50% in 1 day, 66,7% in 2 days, 86,7% in 3 days, 110% in 7 days, and etc. during May-September.

**F * ( x) function based on the histograms in Figure 3.
**

*

First, we establish empirical distribution F ( x) function for the plain concrete and without film-forming

*

material. The concrete sample reaches 100% design solidity in 28 days; therefore, we establish F ( x) function for

Here we establish the empirical distribution

1-28 periods.

F * ( x) n x / n

Here

(1)

n x is the number of option less than x, n - volume of selection (experimental results). F * ( x) - is irreducible

**function, changes between [0:1] interval and when x
**

is the smallest and Xk is the highest option.

X 1 then F * ( x) = 0; when x<Xk then F * ( x) = 1; here X1

*

**Figure 3. For compiling the function F ( x) of diagram of harshness rate of concrete admixture (SP-C-3)
**

samples covered with film, plain concrete samples covered with film, and plain samples, the following rule [3,7,8]

should be established. Empirical distribution function means

X x

F * ( x)

function that determines relative frequency of

**for each value of x:
**

Table 2

Xi (days)

1

2

3

7

14

28

ni (harshness rate, MPa)

3

6

13,5

21

27

30

The distribution of the mentioned selection is as follows (Figure 4).

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**

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F * ( x) function

Volume of selection n 3 6 13,5 21 27 30 100,5MPa

*

The smallest option is X 1 1 . Thus, when X 1, then F ( x) 0 .

when X <2 then X 1 1 value will repeat for 3 times.

3

F * ( x) F * (3)

0,0298 (1< X 2 )

100,5

when X <3 then X 2 value will repeat for 9 times. Thus, when 2< X 3

9

F * ( x) F * (9)

0,0895

100,5

when X <7 then X 3 value will repeat for 22,5 times. Thus, when 3< X 7

22,5

F * ( x) F * (22,5)

0,2238

100,5

when X <14 then X 7 value will repeat for 43,5 times. Thus, when 7< X 14

43,5

F * ( x) F * (43,5)

0,4328

100,5

when X <28 then X 14 value will repeat for 70,5 times. Thus, when < X 28 interval

70,5

100,5

F * ( x) F * (70,5)

0,701,

X 28 ; F * (100,5)

1

100,5

100,5

Figure 4. Graph of

Here we establish the empirical function based on the obtained figures (Image 3; 1-Graph):

0 X 1

0,0298 1 X 2

0,0895 2 X 3

*

F 0,2238 3 X 7

0,4328 7 X 14

0,701 14 X 28

1

X 28

Here we compile the

material HPR.

**F * ( x) distribution function for the plain concrete sample covered with film forming
**

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Table 3

Xi (days)

1

2

3

7

14

28

ni (harshness rate, MPa)

12

18

24

30

33

35

Volume of selection

n ni 12 18 24 30 33 35 152

X 1 then F ( x) 0 .

when X <2 then X 1 value will repeat for 12 times.

12

F * ( x) F * (12)

0,078 (1< X 2 )

152

when X <3 then X 2 value will repeat for 30 times. when 2< X 3

30

F * ( x) F * (30)

0,197

152

when X <7 then X 3 value will repeat for 54 times. when 3< X 7

54

F * ( x) F * (54)

0,355

152

when X <14 then X 7 value will repeat for 84 times. when 7< X 14

84

F * ( x) F * (84)

0,553

152

when X <28 then X 14 value will repeat for 117 times. when 14< X 28

117

152

F * ( x) F * (117)

0,769 when X =28 then F * ( x) F * (152)

1

152

152

when

*

Here we establish the needed empirical function:

0 X 1

0,078 1 X 2

0,197 2 X 3

F * 0,355 3 X 7

0,553 7 X 14

0,769 14 X 28

1

X 28

The graph of this function is given in the Image 3 (2 graph)

Here we compile the

forming material HPR.

Xi (days)

1

2

3

7

14

Table 4

28

ni (harshness rate, MPa)

15

20

26

33

35

37

Volume of selection

when

when

F * ( x) distribution function for the concrete admixture sample covered with film

n ni 15 20 26 33 35 37 166

X 1 then F * ( x) 0 .

X <2 then X 1 value will repeat for 15 times.

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F * ( x) F * (15)

15

0,093 (1< X 2 )

166

**X <3 then X 2 value will repeat for 35 times. when 2< X 3
**

35

F * ( x) F * (35)

0,21

166

when X <7 then X 3 value will repeat for 61 times. when 3< X 7

61

F * ( x) F * (61)

0,367

166

when X <14 then X 7 value will repeat for 94 times. when 7< X 14

94

F * ( x) F * (94)

0,566

166

when X <28 then X 14 value will repeat for 129 times. when

14< X 28

129

28

1.

F * ( x) F * (129)

0,777 when X =28 then F * ( x) F * (28)

28

166

when

Here we establish the needed empirical function:

0 X 1

0,093 1 X 2

0,21 2 X 3

*

F 0,367 3 X 7

0,566 7 X 14

0,777 14 X 28

1

X 28

*

**Here, let’s establish the distribution law for F ( x) function.
**

To this end, Avrami equation can be used for analytical description of the experimental results obtained from

heat emission kinetics of the concrete based on physical and chemical processes occurring during the concrete

hardening [2,4,5,6]:

F * ( ) 1 ek

n

(2)

**here - is the amount of matter in the reaction during time; n – is a constant
**

characterizing type of formation of structure of studied matter; k - speed constant of

the process. In the expression (2) if to take

distribution law for

here

n x k

and

F x (x) , then we can write the following for

F * ( x) function:

F * ( x) 1 e x

x - is the number of days of the concrete hardening; is positive constant.

Expression (3) is distribution function for exponential law.

0, when x 0

*

F ( x)

x

1 e , when x 0

Distribution density for exponential law:

113

(3)

(4)

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**

Impact Factor – 0.622

0, when x 0

f ( x)

x

e , when x 0

(5)

*

**By altering the borders of changing interval of f (x) and F ( x) functions, (3) and (4) expressions can be
**

used for the statistical analysis of the experimental results.

Here we define the mathematical expectation for the distribution given via exponential law:

0

M ( x) xf ( x)dx xex dx

0

0

ud u 0 du ,

Here we get by partial integration formula:

x

u x , d e dx , we can write:

1 x 1 x

1 x

1

M ( x) x e |0 e dx 2 e (dx) 2

0

0

And taking into consideration that

**Let’s calculate the mathematical expectation based on the statistical information for test samples of various
**

concrete samples:

1. For plain concrete covered with film

**M Pi X i 0,02981 0,0597 2 0,1343 3 0,2089 7 0,268614 0,298 28 14,13
**

3

6

13,5

Here

P2

0,0597 ;

P3

0,1343

P1

0,0298 ;

100,5

100,5

100,5

27

30

21

P5

0,2686 ;

P6

0,2985

P4

0,2089 ;

100,5

100,5

100,5

2

Dispersion D( x) M ( X 2 ) M ( x) 298,38 (14,13) 2 98,7

Here value of

**M ( X 2 ) 1 0,0298 4 0,0597 9 0,1343 49 0,2089 196 0,2686 784 0,2985 298,38
**

2

2

was calculated based on M ( X ) Pi X equation.

Table 5

X

2

i

Pi

1

4

9

49

196

784

0,0298

0,0597

0,1343

0,2089

0,2686

0,2985

Standart of the event

D 98,78 9,94

**If to take into account the abovementioned value of the mathematical expectation like
**

we can calculate

- from M ( x)

M ( x) 14,13, then

1

expression:

2

14,13

If we write this value of in the

1

2

;

0,264

**F * ( x) and f (x) expressions, then we get:
**

F * ( x) 1 e 0, 264 X

(6)

0 , 264 X

f ( x) 0,264e

(7)

1. For the plain concrete sample covered with film:

**M Pi X i 0,0789 1 0,118 2 0,1583 3 0,197 7 0,217 14 0,23 28 11,64
**

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here

i ni / ni

n

,

i

152 defined above.

Dispersion of the event

**D( x) M ( x 2 ) M ( x) 234,477 11,642 98,988
**

2

distribution law of X value:

2

Table 6

X i2

Pi

1

4

9

49

196

784

0,0789

0,118

0,158

0,197

0,217

0,23

D 98,988 9,95

1

Let’s calculate via given law: M ( x) 2 11,64 ; 0,293

*

Then F ( x) and f (x) function needed:

F * ( x) 1 e 0, 293 X

f ( x) 0,293e 0, 293 X

Standard of the event

(8)

(9)

2. For the concrete admixture sample covered with film-forming material HPR:

M Pi X i 0,09041 0,1205 2 0,157 3 0,198 7 0,21114 0,223 28 11,38

Dispersion:

**D( x) M ( x 2 ) M ( x) 227,875 11,382 98,375
**

2

here

M ( X 2 ) Pi X 2 227,875 ,

distribution law of X

2

value:

Table 7

X

Pi

2

i

1

4

9

49

196

784

0,0904

0,1205

0,157

0,198

0,211

0,223

Standard of the event

D 9,92 ,

**Here we define the value of :
**

Now we establish the F

*

M ( x)

1

2

11,38 ; 0,296 ,

( x) and f (x) functions.

F * ( x) 1 e 0, 296 X

(10)

f ( x) 0,296e 0, 296 X

Thus, in all three revised cases, exponential law can be calculated for

(11)

*

F ( x) function, and normal

**distribution law – for f (x) function.
**

Scientific innovations: - taking into account the main properties, for the first time heavy pyrolysis resin

was used as film-forming material to improve the quality of monolithic concrete in the dry and hot climate

conditions, as well as to ensure protection of structures and platforms from underground water.

- dependence of hardening speed increase in the concrete covered with heavy pyrolysis resin during

solarthermisch processing in dry and hot climate conditions (relative air humidity 50 -60%, temperature 25350C) on the amount of heat emitted during hydration of cement was defined, and consequently, th e

temperature occurred inside the concrete (nearly up to 60 0C) was effectively used for hot and humid curing of

the concrete.

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**

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**- For the first time intensity and kinetics of heat emission in hydration of cement particles in the
**

solarthermically processed concrete, covered with film-forming material in dry and hot climate conditions, was

determined by mathematical calculation. [Czarnecki Z., Blazejewicz T. 1990]

RESULTS

1. It was defined that concrete hardening can be accelerated by using solar energy and heat emitted from

hydration of cement in the dry and hot climate conditions. Thus, during hot and wet processing of monolithic

concrete, which open surface is covered with film-forming materials, the concrete obtains more than 70% of

projected harshness in ≈2 days due to temperature increase up to ≈60 0C.

2. It was determined that if to use heavy pyrolysis resin as film-forming material during solarthermisch

processing of the concrete, it gains 55-60% of projected harshness in 1 day, 67-75% - in 2 days. Besides, concrete

samples covered with liquid glass harden 53-57% in 1 day, 65-70% in 2 days. This means that harshness of concrete

samples covered with film-forming materials under the sunlight is more than concrete samples hardening under

normal temperature for 2,5 times, more than concrete samples under sunlight for 2 times in 1 day, as well as

relatively more than 1,8 and 2,1 times after 2 days.

3. It was established that water absorption was not observed in the concrete samples covered with heavy

pyrolysis resin in 3 days, while it was 20 times less than in ordinary concrete in 7 days and 12 times less in 28. It is

possible to prevent the water absorption and provide longevity of the concrete only using heavy pyrolysis resin.

4. It was determined that based on the climatic conditions of the country, AZN 4.11 economic benefit can be

get if to use solar energy and to substitute electric power with solar energy (without using electricity) in producing 1

m3 precast iron-concrete products (and monolithic constructions (bedding, coating and girder) during hot and wet

processing of the concrete and monolithic concrete in 5-6 months a year (May, June, July, August, September, and

October). On the other hand, AZN 0.43 economic benefit can be get if to use heavy pyrolysis resin as insulation for

1m2 instead of bitumen.

References:

AKIMOTO S., HONDA S., JASUKOHSHI. Additives for cement.Pat. USA 4946904, MKI 5 C 08 Q210/14

07.08.90.

AVRAMI M.J. Chem. Phys 7,1103, 1939, 46p.

BROAHAM S.B. Superplasticising admixture in high strength concrete. “Sumr. Concr. Eng., Brisbane, Beton”,

1977. 17-22p.

CZARNECKI Z., BLAZEJEWICZ T. Zywice epoksyd we jako modifikatory mieszanek betonowych. /PolimTworz. Wielkocrasteczk. 1990, 35, № 6, 188p.

GAD E.A.M., Abo-El-Enein S.A.- El-Sukkary M.M.X., Sayed W.M. Polymer impregnated cement pastes with

methyl acrylate. Silicat industrial. 1999, 64, № 5-6, 81-85p.

JAMALOV J.A. Curing method of freshly moulded concrete, invention, № a 2003 0249.

JAMALOV J.A. Solarthermisch processing of freshly poured concrete covered with film-forming materials and

technical protection measures. II International Scientific and Practical Conference dedicated to 80-year

anniversary of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan Heydar Aliyev, “Science”, Baku: November 2830, 2003, 446-450 p.

NEVEILLE A.M. Properties of concrete. Reprinted 1996 and 1997, 698p.

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