Structural Engineering International, Volume 22, Number 8, July 2015, ISSN 1016-8664, E-ISSN 1683-0350

Impact Factor – 0.622

Research on Solidity and Longevity of Monolithic Concrete
. Jasarat A. Jamalov
Azerbaijan University of Architecture and Construction Scientific – Research Doctoral candidate (PhD),. Repubic
of Azerbaijan, Baku city, Yasamal region AZE 1111.

jasarat.jamalov@mail.ru
Abstract: The purpose of the study is adding film-forming material to open surface of the freshly moulded
concrete in the dry and hot climate conditions in order to accelerate its hardening and improve its construction
and technical properties. The subject of the study of is preventing water loss of freshly poured monolithic
concrete, increasing the speed of the concrete solidity, increasing freeze -thaw durability and decreasing water
absorption. Thus, studies of this thesis have been carried out to increase the co nstruction speed in monolithic
construction by replacing the energy spent on the hardening of the concrete with natural solar energy. As an
object of study, heavy pyrolysis resin, liquid sodium silicate and polyethylene film produced from Ethylene Polyethylene Plant in Sumgait were used as film-forming material in concrete and superplastificator C-3 was
used as plasticating supplement.
Key words: film-forming, heat-emitting, intensity, kinetics, solarthermisch processing, dry and hot climate, dry
and moist treatment, freshly moulded concrete, concrete shrinkage intensity, empirical distribution, empirical
function, quantity distribution law.
1.

Introduction

It is known that the problem of concrete shrinkage speeding is one of the most important issues both in
collection and monolithic concreting. Especially in the case of dry-hot climate, while solar technology can be
used, solution of this problem will allow shortening the duration of the concrete mix curing and improve the
quality of obtained concrete. The curing of the freshly poured concrete mixture in hot weather is a complex
technological process for concrete curing and increase of concrete solidity, cre ation of the necessary
temperature and humidity conditions, and prevention of cracks in the concrete mixture. Proper curing of
concrete mix is one of the main conditions to ensure its quality, the durability of structures and facilities.
Until recently curing of freshly poured concrete was carried out with creating humid environment and
without using film-forming material. However, these methods do not meet modern requirements of
industrialisation of construction, require huge amount of water, and not alwa ys was able to provide appropriate
quality of the concrete. Therefore, curing methods of covering concrete with vapour -proof materials, especially
with tarpaulin, polyethylene film or sprinkling concrete surface with film -forming compounds without
concrete damping procedure caused huge interest in recent years. [Akimoto S., Honda s., Jasukohshi. 1990]
Taking into account the abovementioned, including technologically convenient application of methods
of spreading isolation layers on concrete and less material consumption, scientific research of high-quality
isolation layer-forming compositions based on petrochemical products, as well as its joint application with
heliotechnology is topical.
2. Survey methods: The prospect of using solar energy is high during the technological processes
where hot and humid concrete processing temperature is within 40-600C limit. In this regard, recent conduction
of the development and implementation of solarthermisch processing methods of concrete is topical.
Soft condition of thermal processing of concrete can be provided within the specified temperature range.
After concrete curing, thermal processing enables product to gain harshness within 20 -22 hours in this
condition. On the other hand, utilization of concrete in thermal processing technology, while thermal energy of
hydration reaction of cement plays a role of a source of natural energy, is one of the interesting factors. It is
known that the dry and hot climate conditions in the country starts in May and lasts until Sep tember. During
these months, air temperature in shadow is 25-350C. In such a situation, hardened concrete could have certain
flaws. To remove these flaws, solarthermisch processing begins after smearing the surface of freshly moulded
concrete with various kinds of film-forming materials.
Within the research work, open surface of the concrete mix, added C-3 super plasticizing admixture in
optimum amount, was covered with heavy pyrolysis resin after 1.5-2.0 hours. During the applied complex
method, the internal temperature of the concrete is up to 60-650C for the 1st and 2nd days, depending on the air

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temperature. In accordance with it, this temperature remains ≈5 -6 hours both two days; the 3rd day the
temperature is 60-620C, which lasts 5 hours and gradually cooling down becomes 6-80C higher than air
temperature that can be explained by the fact that hydration reaction continues after discontinuation of solar
energy.
One of the main properties of concrete and reinforced concrete, including monolithic concrete is its
compressive strength indicator.
This method can be applied in the Republic during the summer season (from May until September). It is to
note that the experiments last 3 days. Concrete samples process solarthermisch about 15 hours per day on average.
Concrete temperature rises to a maximum within 4 hours of this period, cement hydratation in isothermal process
took place at high temperatures - 45-60 0C (depending on the months of the year) during 6 hours, the temperature
falls again (26-30 0C) in 5 hours,.
During the research, it was found out that according to construction, technical and economic results,
indicators of the concrete quality were higher while using heavy pyrolysis resins as film-forming material instead of
latex, which today considered to be more effctive film-forming material (Table 1).
One of the most topical problems of the construction in the construction and installation works carried out in
the country and during the monolithic concreting is water loss of the freshly molded concrete in the dry and hot
climate conditions. [7,8]
Table 1
Comparison of some physical and mechanical quality indicators of known utilised and newly proposed film-forming
materials in concrete
Film-Forming Materials
Higher
indicators of
the concrete
samples quality
heavy pyrolysis
Quality Indicators
Latex SKS 65GP
while using
resins, with 300
Without film
600 g/m2 usage
2
heavy pyrolysis
g/m usage
resins instead
of latex
Overall moisture loss
of sample in weather
conditions (weight in
%), per day
2
0,3
5,5
7,5
18,3
4
0,9
5,9
7,6
6,55
6
1,4
6,0
7,7
4,28
7
1,6
6,1
8,0
3,81 times less
Compressive strength
limit of the samples
kept in the air
conditions before the
research (MPa):
7 days in open air
24,8
21,8
17,0
11,4% more
28 days in open air
36,5
31,1
19,0
11,7% more
In dry and hot climate conditions (0.5 water/cement ratio), water loss in the construction goods covered with
heavy pyrolysis resin in 1; 2; 3; 7; 14; 28 and 100 days was respectively 100; 37,5; 18; 6,25; 5,5 times less than in
the bare construction goods with the same composition. Water loss in the concrete samples mixed with super
plasticizer and covered with heavy pyrolysis resin in 1, 3, 7, 14, 28 days was relatively 145; 48; 33; 14; 11 times less
than uncovered concrete samples. No water absorption was observed in the concrete samples covered with heavy
pyrolysis resin (water / cement = 0.5) within 3-days and it was 12 times less in 28-days.
While researching freeze-thaw durability, it was determined that while the concrete examples are frozen and
unfrozen 50 times, solidity of usual (without film, test) concrete decreases by 1.5-2 times and freeze-thaw
durability coefficient of the concrete drops by 1.5-2 times (approximately it was 0,45-0,54); however, solidity of the
concrete samples covered with heavy pyrolysis resin was nearly the same after 50 times and freeze-thaw durability
coefficient was 0,79...0,86. [Avrami M.J. 1939]
Admixtures in the concrete increase this effect. Thus, solidity of the concrete admixture (C-3) samples
covered with heavy pyrolysis resin was nearly the same after freezing and unfreezing for 50 times and freeze-thaw

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durability coefficient was up to 0,90...0,97. The freeze-thaw durability of concrete samples is due to covering the
concrete surface with heavy pyrolysis resins as hydrolysation and chemical additives [JAMALOV J.A. 2003].
In dry and hot climate conditions, due to solar radiation and wind, water evaporates from the freshly moulded
structures in the first period of concrete hardening, the surface plunges and internal tensions emerge causing cracks
in the concrete. Sometimes, the crack width can reach up to 2-4 mm.
During the scientific research the literature has shown that in dry and hot climate conditions, more than 1 litre
water evaporates from 1 m2 surface of the concrete during the cement hardening period (nearly within 3 hours).
Consequently, concrete plunges which results in cracks on the surface (Figure 1). This is followed by concrete
shrinkage tension emerged inside the concrete as the result of water evaporation.
A number of film-forming materials were used to avoid such cracks. Thus, pamorol, bitumen emulsion, latex
and etc. were used as film-forming materials. The obtained results show that while using the local product – heavy
pyrolysis resin as film-forming material, it is better than latex for construction-technical and economic results. The
Picture of freshly poured concrete samples, covered with heavy pyrolysis resin as film-forming material and affected
by solar radiation and wind in dry and hot climatic conditions, normally no cracks appear on the surface if they are
reliably protected and possibility of plunging cracks falls to minimum (Figure 2).
To provide more effective hydration process in the samples, the current situation causes the density of
concrete structure due to increase in the amount of hydro silicates. This indirectly leads to high solidity of concrete.
X-ray analysis method was used in order to observe the processes occurring in the structure of the concrete and
confirm accuracy of the physical and mechanical results.
Figure 1.

Figure 2
The impact to changes in the phase composition of the compounds formed during hydration of cement in the
concrete with admixtures (super plasticizer C-3) and plain concrete covered with heavy pyrolysis resin was
investigated by X-ray phase method. Hydration process in the samples, covered with heavy pyrolysis resin kept
under sunlight, proceed much effectively than in the samples without film. This happens due to hot and humid
conditions inside the samples caused by film smeared over the samples. X-ray analysis
of the admixture samples smeared with film and plain samples that the amount of fibre hydro silicates
(d=3,04 A0) in cement admixtures is high. Along with other factors, positive effect of the admixture on the cement is
related to this factor. Thus, X-ray phase analysis results show that admixture concrete (C-3), covered with heavy
pyrolysis resin and plain concrete shrinks faster due to impact of temperature. As a result, the existing hot and wet

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Structural Engineering International, Volume 22, Number 8, July 2015, ISSN 1016-8664, E-ISSN 1683-0350
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environment in the hardening system accelerates the concrete hardening, thus, prevents splitting of main structureforming hydro crystals and strength of the system grows.
The study of the concrete hardening process applying the theory of probability:
Accurate regulation of the concrete curing process helps to save energy spent on this process and improve the
quality of concrete. There are a number of significant factors that ifluence the curing process: water-cement ratio,
quality of fillings, air temperature, and regulation of surface temperature can be listed among these factors.
One can increase economic efficiency by replacing the energy spent on the hardening of concrete with
natural solar energy. In this connection, establishing some analytic relations and certain charts by studying the
hardening process and using the experimental results [1,6] is of theoretical and practical importance. We come to
the following conclusions due to the analysis of the histograms of [Jamalov J.A. 2003]:
a) Hardening rate in shrinkage of the M300 brand concrete, covered with film-forming material HPR (heavy
pyrolysis resin) changes due to days: solidity reaches 40% in 1 day, 60% in 2 days, 80% in 3 days and etc. (during
May-September)
b) solidity of M300 brand concrete admixture (with super plasticizer C-3) covered with film-forming material
HPR reaches 50% in 1 day, 66,7% in 2 days, 86,7% in 3 days, 110% in 7 days, and etc. during May-September.

F * ( x) function based on the histograms in Figure 3.
*
First, we establish empirical distribution F ( x) function for the plain concrete and without film-forming
*
material. The concrete sample reaches 100% design solidity in 28 days; therefore, we establish F ( x) function for
Here we establish the empirical distribution

1-28 periods.

F * ( x)  n x / n
Here

(1)

n x is the number of option less than x, n - volume of selection (experimental results). F * ( x) - is irreducible

function, changes between [0:1] interval and when x 
is the smallest and Xk is the highest option.

X 1 then F * ( x) = 0; when x<Xk then F * ( x) = 1; here X1

*

Figure 3. For compiling the function F ( x) of diagram of harshness rate of concrete admixture (SP-C-3)
samples covered with film, plain concrete samples covered with film, and plain samples, the following rule [3,7,8]
should be established. Empirical distribution function means

X x

F * ( x)

function that determines relative frequency of

for each value of x:
Table 2
Xi (days)

1

2

3

7

14

28

ni (harshness rate, MPa)

3

6

13,5

21

27

30

The distribution of the mentioned selection is as follows (Figure 4).

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Structural Engineering International, Volume 22, Number 8, July 2015, ISSN 1016-8664, E-ISSN 1683-0350
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F * ( x) function
Volume of selection n  3  6  13,5  21 27  30  100,5MPa
*
The smallest option is X 1  1 . Thus, when X  1, then F ( x)  0 .
when X <2 then X 1  1 value will repeat for 3 times.
3
F * ( x)  F * (3) 
 0,0298 (1< X  2 )
100,5
when X <3 then X  2 value will repeat for 9 times. Thus, when 2< X  3
9
F * ( x)  F * (9) 
 0,0895
100,5
when X <7 then X  3 value will repeat for 22,5 times. Thus, when 3< X  7
22,5
F * ( x)  F * (22,5) 
 0,2238
100,5
when X <14 then X  7 value will repeat for 43,5 times. Thus, when 7< X  14
43,5
F * ( x)  F * (43,5) 
 0,4328
100,5
when X <28 then X  14 value will repeat for 70,5 times. Thus, when < X  28 interval
70,5
100,5
F * ( x)  F * (70,5) 
 0,701,
X  28 ; F * (100,5) 
1
100,5
100,5
Figure 4. Graph of

Here we establish the empirical function based on the obtained figures (Image 3; 1-Graph):


0 X  1

0,0298 1  X  2

0,0895 2  X  3


*
F  0,2238 3  X  7

0,4328 7  X  14

0,701 14  X  28


1
X  28


Here we compile the
material HPR.

F * ( x) distribution function for the plain concrete sample covered with film forming
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Table 3
Xi (days)

1

2

3

7

14

28

ni (harshness rate, MPa)

12

18

24

30

33

35

Volume of selection

n   ni 12  18  24  30  33  35  152

X  1 then F ( x)  0 .
when X <2 then X  1 value will repeat for 12 times.
12
F * ( x)  F * (12) 
 0,078 (1< X  2 )
152
when X <3 then X  2 value will repeat for 30 times. when 2< X  3
30
F * ( x)  F * (30) 
 0,197
152
when X <7 then X  3 value will repeat for 54 times. when 3< X  7
54
F * ( x)  F * (54) 
 0,355
152
when X <14 then X  7 value will repeat for 84 times. when 7< X  14
84
F * ( x)  F * (84) 
 0,553
152
when X <28 then X  14 value will repeat for 117 times. when 14< X  28
117
152
F * ( x)  F * (117) 
 0,769 when X =28 then F * ( x)  F * (152) 
1
152
152
when

*

Here we establish the needed empirical function:


0 X  1

0,078 1  X  2

0,197 2  X  3


F *  0,355 3  X  7

0,553 7  X  14

0,769 14  X  28


1
X  28


The graph of this function is given in the Image 3 (2 graph)
Here we compile the
forming material HPR.
Xi (days)

1

2

3

7

14

Table 4
28

ni (harshness rate, MPa)

15

20

26

33

35

37

Volume of selection
when
when

F * ( x) distribution function for the concrete admixture sample covered with film

n   ni  15  20  26  33  35  37  166

X  1 then F * ( x)  0 .
X <2 then X  1 value will repeat for 15 times.
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F * ( x)  F * (15) 

15
 0,093 (1< X  2 )
166

X <3 then X  2 value will repeat for 35 times. when 2< X  3
35
F * ( x)  F * (35) 
 0,21
166
when X <7 then X  3 value will repeat for 61 times. when 3< X  7
61
F * ( x)  F * (61) 
 0,367
166
when X <14 then X  7 value will repeat for 94 times. when 7< X  14
94
F * ( x)  F * (94) 
 0,566
166
when X <28 then X  14 value will repeat for 129 times. when
14< X  28
129
28
 1.
F * ( x)  F * (129) 
 0,777 when X =28 then F * ( x)  F * (28) 
28
166
when

Here we establish the needed empirical function:


0 X  1

0,093 1  X  2

0,21 2  X  3


*
F  0,367 3  X  7

0,566 7  X  14

0,777 14  X  28


1
X  28


*

Here, let’s establish the distribution law for F ( x) function.
To this end, Avrami equation can be used for analytical description of the experimental results obtained from
heat emission kinetics of the concrete based on physical and chemical processes occurring during the concrete
hardening [2,4,5,6]:

F * ( )  1  ek

n

(2)

here  - is the amount of matter in the reaction during  time; n – is a constant
characterizing type of formation of structure of studied matter; k - speed constant of
the process. In the expression (2) if to take
distribution law for

here

n x k 

and

  F x (x) , then we can write the following for

F * ( x) function:

F * ( x)  1  e x
x - is the number of days of the concrete hardening;   is positive constant.
Expression (3) is distribution function for exponential law.

0, when x  0
*
F ( x)  

x
1  e , when x  0
Distribution density for exponential law:

113

(3)

(4)

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0, when x  0
f ( x)  
  x

e , when x  0

(5)

*

By altering the borders of changing interval of f (x) and F ( x) functions, (3) and (4) expressions can be
used for the statistical analysis of the experimental results.
Here we define the mathematical expectation for the distribution given via exponential law:



0

M ( x)   xf ( x)dx    xex dx

0

0


 ud  u 0 du ,

Here we get by partial integration formula:

x

u  x , d  e dx , we can write:


1   x  1  x
1  x
1
M ( x)   x e |0   e dx   2  e (dx)  2

0
 0

And taking into consideration that

Let’s calculate the mathematical expectation based on the statistical information for test samples of various
concrete samples:
1. For plain concrete covered with film

M   Pi  X i  0,02981  0,0597 2  0,1343 3  0,2089 7  0,268614  0,298 28  14,13
3
6
13,5
Here
P2 
 0,0597 ;
P3 
 0,1343
P1 
 0,0298 ;
100,5
100,5
100,5
27
30
21
P5 
 0,2686 ;
P6 
 0,2985
P4 
 0,2089 ;
100,5
100,5
100,5
2
Dispersion D( x)  M ( X 2 )  M ( x)  298,38  (14,13) 2  98,7
Here value of

M  ( X 2 )  1 0,0298 4  0,0597  9  0,1343 49  0,2089  196 0,2686  784 0,2985  298,38
2
2
was calculated based on M ( X )   Pi  X equation.
Table 5

X

2
i

Pi

1

4

9

49

196

784

0,0298

0,0597

0,1343

0,2089

0,2686

0,2985

Standart of the event

  D  98,78  9,94

If to take into account the abovementioned value of the mathematical expectation like
we can calculate

 - from M ( x) 

M ( x)  14,13, then

1
expression:
2

14,13 
If we write this value of  in the

1

2

;

  0,264

F * ( x) and f (x) expressions, then we get:
F * ( x)  1  e 0, 264 X
(6)
0 , 264 X
f ( x)  0,264e
(7)

1. For the plain concrete sample covered with film:

M   Pi  X i  0,0789 1  0,118  2  0,1583 3  0,197  7  0,217  14  0,23  28  11,64
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here

 i  ni /  ni

n

,

i

 152 defined above.

Dispersion of the event

D( x)  M ( x 2 )  M ( x)  234,477  11,642  98,988
2
distribution law of X value:
2

Table 6

X i2

Pi

1

4

9

49

196

784

0,0789

0,118

0,158

0,197

0,217

0,23

  D  98,988  9,95
1
Let’s calculate  via given law: M ( x)  2  11,64 ;   0,293

*
Then F ( x) and f (x) function needed:
F * ( x)  1  e 0, 293 X
f ( x)  0,293e 0, 293 X
Standard of the event

(8)
(9)

2. For the concrete admixture sample covered with film-forming material HPR:

M   Pi  X i  0,09041  0,1205 2  0,157  3  0,198 7  0,21114  0,223 28  11,38

Dispersion:

D( x)  M ( x 2 )  M ( x)  227,875  11,382  98,375
2

here

M ( X 2 )   Pi  X 2  227,875 ,

distribution law of X

2

value:
Table 7

X

Pi

2
i

1

4

9

49

196

784

0,0904

0,1205

0,157

0,198

0,211

0,223

Standard of the event

  D  9,92 ,

Here we define the value of  :
Now we establish the F

*

M ( x) 

1

2

 11,38 ;   0,296 ,

( x) and f (x) functions.
F * ( x)  1  e 0, 296 X

(10)

f ( x)  0,296e 0, 296 X
Thus, in all three revised cases, exponential law can be calculated for

(11)
*

F ( x) function, and normal

distribution law – for f (x) function.
Scientific innovations: - taking into account the main properties, for the first time heavy pyrolysis resin
was used as film-forming material to improve the quality of monolithic concrete in the dry and hot climate
conditions, as well as to ensure protection of structures and platforms from underground water.
- dependence of hardening speed increase in the concrete covered with heavy pyrolysis resin during
solarthermisch processing in dry and hot climate conditions (relative air humidity 50 -60%, temperature 25350C) on the amount of heat emitted during hydration of cement was defined, and consequently, th e
temperature occurred inside the concrete (nearly up to 60 0C) was effectively used for hot and humid curing of
the concrete.

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Impact Factor – 0.622

- For the first time intensity and kinetics of heat emission in hydration of cement particles in the
solarthermically processed concrete, covered with film-forming material in dry and hot climate conditions, was
determined by mathematical calculation. [Czarnecki Z., Blazejewicz T. 1990]
RESULTS
1. It was defined that concrete hardening can be accelerated by using solar energy and heat emitted from
hydration of cement in the dry and hot climate conditions. Thus, during hot and wet processing of monolithic
concrete, which open surface is covered with film-forming materials, the concrete obtains more than 70% of
projected harshness in ≈2 days due to temperature increase up to ≈60 0C.
2. It was determined that if to use heavy pyrolysis resin as film-forming material during solarthermisch
processing of the concrete, it gains 55-60% of projected harshness in 1 day, 67-75% - in 2 days. Besides, concrete
samples covered with liquid glass harden 53-57% in 1 day, 65-70% in 2 days. This means that harshness of concrete
samples covered with film-forming materials under the sunlight is more than concrete samples hardening under
normal temperature for 2,5 times, more than concrete samples under sunlight for 2 times in 1 day, as well as
relatively more than 1,8 and 2,1 times after 2 days.
3. It was established that water absorption was not observed in the concrete samples covered with heavy
pyrolysis resin in 3 days, while it was 20 times less than in ordinary concrete in 7 days and 12 times less in 28. It is
possible to prevent the water absorption and provide longevity of the concrete only using heavy pyrolysis resin.
4. It was determined that based on the climatic conditions of the country, AZN 4.11 economic benefit can be
get if to use solar energy and to substitute electric power with solar energy (without using electricity) in producing 1
m3 precast iron-concrete products (and monolithic constructions (bedding, coating and girder) during hot and wet
processing of the concrete and monolithic concrete in 5-6 months a year (May, June, July, August, September, and
October). On the other hand, AZN 0.43 economic benefit can be get if to use heavy pyrolysis resin as insulation for
1m2 instead of bitumen.

References:
AKIMOTO S., HONDA S., JASUKOHSHI. Additives for cement.Pat. USA 4946904, MKI 5 C 08 Q210/14
07.08.90.
AVRAMI M.J. Chem. Phys 7,1103, 1939, 46p.
BROAHAM S.B. Superplasticising admixture in high strength concrete. “Sumr. Concr. Eng., Brisbane, Beton”,
1977. 17-22p.
CZARNECKI Z., BLAZEJEWICZ T. Zywice epoksyd we jako modifikatory mieszanek betonowych. /PolimTworz. Wielkocrasteczk. 1990, 35, № 6, 188p.
GAD E.A.M., Abo-El-Enein S.A.- El-Sukkary M.M.X., Sayed W.M. Polymer impregnated cement pastes with
methyl acrylate. Silicat industrial. 1999, 64, № 5-6, 81-85p.
JAMALOV J.A. Curing method of freshly moulded concrete, invention, № a 2003 0249.
JAMALOV J.A. Solarthermisch processing of freshly poured concrete covered with film-forming materials and
technical protection measures. II International Scientific and Practical Conference dedicated to 80-year
anniversary of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan Heydar Aliyev, “Science”, Baku: November 2830, 2003, 446-450 p.
NEVEILLE A.M. Properties of concrete. Reprinted 1996 and 1997, 698p.

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