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SOLUTIONS

Matter Flowchart
MATTER
yes
MIXTURE

ye
s

Is the
composition
uniform?

Homogeneou
s Mixture
(solution)

no

Can it be physically
separated?

PURE SUBSTANCE

ye
s

n
o

Heterogeneou
s Mixture

Colloids

Can it be
chemically
decomposed?

Compoun
d

no

Element

Suspensions
IPC-Solutions-Borders

Mixtures
a combination of two or more

substances that do not combine


chemically, but remain the same
individual substances; can be
separated by physical means
Two types:
Based on the prefixes
hetero and homo,
- Heterogeneous
what do you think are
characteristics of these
- Homogeneous
two types of mixtures?

Heterogeneous Mixture
Hetero means different
consists of visibly different substances or

phases (solid, liquid, gas)


a suspension is a special type of
heterogeneous mixture of larger particles
that eventually settle
Example:
Trail Mix

Notice the
visibly
different
substances

Homogeneous Mixture
Homo means the same
has the same uniform appearance and

composition throughout; maintain one


phase (solid, liquid, gas)
Commonly referred to as solutions
Example:
Salt Water

Notice the
uniform
appearance

SOLUTION
a mixture of two or more substances that is

identical throughout
can be physically separated
composed of solutes and solvents
the substance in the smallest
amount and the one that
dissolves in the solvent

Iced Tea Mix


(solute)

Salt water is
considered a
solution. How
can it be
physically
separated?

the substance in the larger


amount that dissolves the
solute

Iced Tea
(solution)

Water

(solvent)

Colloids (milk, fog, jello) are considered solutions

Types of Solutions
Gaseous solutions
Liquid solutions
Solid solutions

IPC-Solutions-Borders

Gaseous Solutions
Examples:
Air which is a mixture of oxygen, nitrogen
and smaller amounts of other gases is an
example of a gaseous solution.
The atmosphere is a good example of a
solution in which a gaseous solvent
(nitrogen) dissolves other gases (such as
oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapor, and
neon).

Miscible and Immiscible Liquids

Miscible liquids can easily dissolve in one another.


Immiscible liquids are not soluble in each other.

IPC-Solutions-Borders

Liquid Solutions
Most liquids solutions are obtained by dissolving a

gas, or solid in some liquid.

Example: Soda water, consists of a solution of


carbon-dioxide gas in water. Acetone C3H6O in
water is an example of a liquid-liquid solution.
Brine is water with sodium chloride (a solid)
dissolved in it. Seawater contains both dissolved
gases (from air) and solids (mostly sodium
chloride).
It is also possible to make a liquid solution by
mixing two solids together.

Solid Solutions
Example:

Dental filling alloys is a solution of


mercury (a liquid) in silver (a solid)
with small amounts of other metals.
Gold-silver alloy is also considered as
solid solutions.

Factors that Determine


the Rate of Solubility

SOLUBILITY
- maximum amount of solute that
will dissolve in 100 g of a solvent at
a specific temperature
E.g. 0.30 g of I2 dissolved in 1000 g of H2O.
Solubility is often expressed
in g/100 mL.

Molecular Structure
Gas molecules dont interact

that firmly so gas always


dissolve on each other.
Liquid solvents have a ton of
molecular interactions.
The structure of an individual
molecules determines whether
the substance will dissolve and
how well it will dissolve.

Chemists use the


saying like dissolves
like:

Polar (hydrophilic)
substances tend to
dissolve in polar solvents.
Nonpolar (hydrophobic)
substances tend to
dissolve in nonpolar
solvents.

Oil is nonpolar while


water is polar. They
are immiscible.

Polarity
For a substance
to dissolve, it
needs to interact
favorable with
the solvent.

NaCl

Only happens if
they have similar
polarities.

Na + Cl

Polar (hydrophilic) Solvents dissolves Polar Solutes


Nonpolar (hydrophobic) Solvents dissolves Nonpolar
Solutes

Example: ethanol in water

The stronger the


intermolecular
attractions
between solute
and solvent, the
more likely the
solute will dissolve.

Ethanol = CH3CH2OH
Intermolecular forces = H-bonds; dipole-dipole; dispersion
Ions in water also have ion-dipole forces.

Pressure
Gas gets
dissolved in a
solution not just
under pressure
but under
partial pressure
of the solute.
An increase in
pressure increases
the solubility of a
gas.

effervescence

Example:
An aerated water
bottles contain
carbon dioxide gas
under pressure.

Pressure

Solids increased pressure has no


effect on solubility
Gases increased pressure causes them
to be more soluble and vice versa
Ex. Soda, The Bends

How to Calculate Change in Pressure


William Henrys Law

the amount of a gas dissolved in a solution is

directly proportional to the pressure of the gas


above the solution.

low P

high P
Where:

low c

concentration of dissolved gas


- partial pressure of gas above
solutions
- constant, expresses the
solubility of the gas in a
solution

high c

Calculations Using Henrys Law


The solubility of oxygen gas at 1 atm pressure in pure
-1
water at 25 C is 0.043g/L . Find the concentration of O2
in water exposed to the air at the same temperature.

Solution: The partial pressure of O2 in the air is about 0.21


atm, and thus its mole fraction in the air is 0.21.
Substituting into Eq 5 yields.

C = kP
-1
C = (0.043 g/L )(0.21)
C = 0.0090 g/L

-1

Concentration
of O2 in H2O

Temperature
- All solubilities are temperature dependent;
must report temperatures with solubilities.
- Most solids are more soluble at higher
temperatures. Exceptions exist.
- All gases are less soluble at higher
temperatures.

Total solubility
generally goes up
as temperature
increases.

Temperature

Solids increased temperature causes


them to be more soluble and vice versa
Gases increased temperature causes
them to be less soluble and vice versa
Ex. Iced Coffee

Table 1
Solubility of Gases
Gas

Solubility (cm^3/100 cm^3 of H2)


0

20C

40C

60C

O2

4.8

3.3

2.5

1.9

CO2

171.0

92.3

56.6

36.0

SO2

7980.0

4250.0

2170.0

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