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1.1 Definition of key terms
In this part the researcher would be present the definition of key terms its research. This
research involve a number of specific terms. The term are defined as follow.
A.Collaborative technique
Is actually derived from a broad term of communicative language technique (CLT)
approach, the communicative technique teaching is an umbrella term used term used
for a variety of educational approaches involving joint intellectual effort by students,
or students and teacher together.
The collaborative technique is under heading of CLT approach because this technique
absobs the characteristic of the approach in this technique, students usually work in
group of two or more. Mutually searching for understanding, solution, or meanings, or
creating a product.
(smith 9 mac grager,2008:12)
B. Descriptive text
A kind of the text that the social function is to describe a partial of person, place or
The purpose of the text is to give information. Contextual factor/ social context
of this text are description of specific thing, animal and human being (ahmad
1.2 Background of study
Acquring a second language after mean a process to learn another language after the
basics of the first language have been acquired in this process, these are four skills, they
are : listening,reading,speaking, and writing. Listening and speaking skills could be
masteres by absorbing its naturally from informal envvironment, and for reading and
writing skills. A learner must go to formal environment (school). Because, formal
environment focus on concious acquisition of roles and forms. It is severally limited in its
potencial to produce speakers who are able to communicative naturally and effectively
(dulay,burt& krashen.1982:17)
For both of reading and writing skills, student must be learned,must be taught. Must be
trained by a proffesional teacher or trainer. They will focus on the pattern grammatical
forms and its structure. In rule explanation , learners are explecitly taught linguistic
generalization (or exception) about the target language.

Writing, as the highest skills of language is often become the most difficult skill for the
learner. Students are often feel so hard to make a written. Because in writing they most
produce a product of language. They often confuse to generate their ideas. To solve the
problem. A teacher should consider about the way how to teach it in the classroom.
The most students have unsatisfactory achievement in writing and motivated in the
teaching and learning process. This can be caused by monotonus teaching which the
students learn individually in competitive condition. Therefore, collaborative technique
will be designed to improve the students ability of tenth level at SMA PGRI PUNGGUR
in writing descriptive text.
as students work together in paris and group, they are share information and come to
each others oid. They are a team whose players must work together in order to achieve
goal succesfully ( douglas brown,2001:49).
Behoping that the technique can improve the students motivation as indicated by the
students active involvement and the students and the students participation toward
activities in the teaching and learning process. And the students will have good responses
toward the implementation of the technique.
1.3 Problem of study
Based on the general background of the study above, in order to its research in focus, the
statement of the problems can be state as:
1. Do the collaborative technique can be effective used to improve students ability in
writing of descriptive text among Xth level of SMA PGRI PUNGGUR?
2. Are there any significant differences in the result of teaching writing of descriptive
text by using collaborative technique and without it?
1.4 Objective of study
Based on the problems statement, the general objective study is to find wether the using
collaborative technique can be effective in teaching writing of descriptive text.
Furthermore, to show the significant differences in the result of teaching writing of
descriptive text by using collaborative technique and without it.
1.5 The scope of study
In this research, the writer will limit the research in the using of collaborative technique in
writing descriptive text for Xth level in SMA PGRI PUNGGUR.
1.6 The significant of study
1. For the teacher : it can give motivation and consideration in supplied and election of
good teaching technique to accelerate in the process of teaching and learning. It can
give solution about management of teacher in process mange of learning. Especially
by using a good teaching technique and good hacking media. So that, the purpose of
education can do optimally and sucess.
2. For the students: it can improve students motivation by active involvement and the
students participation toward activities in the teaching and learning process, also
improve their ability of writing, especially for descriptive text.
3. Another reearcher : it can be used as a suitable information for another research to
improve learning english.


3.1 Research design
This research will be done at the second semester of the Xth grade of SMA PGRI
PUNGGUR 2011/2012. The purpose is to know that the students ability could be
improved in writing descriptive text by usingcollaborative technique .
This study is a collaborative classroom action research (CAR) in wich the
researcher, as a teacher, and the collaborator, as an observer, worked, together in
all stages, namely planning,implementing,obnserving and reflecting. The study
will be conducted in a cyclical procedure ( arikunto,suharjono,supardi.2007:49)