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Personal Endings of Russian Verbs,

Present Tense
In Russian there are generally two types of verbs, and every verb has different endings
depending on the person and number you use. The table below will help you understand
the difference between these two groups.
If the infinitive of the verb ends with - or -, then it falls into group 1.
If the first infinitive form ends with anything else (typical endings are - and -),
then it is part of the group 2.

Personal Endings of Russian Verbs, Present Tense


Group 1

Group 2

Infinitive:

Infinitive:

Adverbs and
Time in the Russian language is described with the help of the adverbs and .
The adverb can mean that:
a process has not started yet;
the desired result has not been achieved so far;
an action which was to have finished at the moment of speech is still going on.

?
.
Do you have a car?
No, not yet.

?
, .
Is Olga resting?
No, she is still working.

?
, .
Does he work?
No, he is still a student.

?
, .
Are you having lunch?
No, not yet. I am working.

The adverb can mean that:


a process has finished;
the result has been achieved;
there is already another action under way at the moment of speech.

?
, !
Do you have a car?
Yes, I have one already!

?
, .
Is Olga resting?
Yes, she is already resting.

?
, .
Is he a student?
No, he is already working.

?
, .
Are you having lunch?
No, I am already working. lunch is over

Conjunctions , , ,

Part 1.

Conjunction
Conjunctions in the Russian language are used to connect words in a sentence.
Theconjunction connects the components of a sentence.

Part 2.


-
.

I am reading a book and


thinking

He speaks English and Russian


well.

Its mom and dad.

Conjunction
The conjunction contrasts actions, objects and their characteristics.

Part 3.

,

.


,
.

He reads German poorly,


buthe can speak it well.

This is a small, but interesting


town.

I speak Russian badly,


butIunderstand it well.

Conjunction a
The conjunction is used to give a more accurate description of an object or action,
rather than to contrast them.


,
.


, .

,
.

Moscow is not a small,


butabig city.

My name is not Maria,


butMarina.

Im not from America,


butAustralia.

Whose? ? Possessive
pronouns
The question Whose? has several forms in Russian. Each form depends on the gender
and number of the object ? (masculine), ? (feminine), ? (neuter), ?
(plural for all genders). To answer this question we use possessive pronouns, which also
depend on the gender and number of the object about which you want to speak.

my

your

her

his

our

your

their

,
,
,

,
,
,

,
,
,

,
,
,

Remember

Pronouns , , are static, they never change their form. Other pronouns change
according to the gender ofthenoun theyre used to describe, and not according togender
oftheperson, whos speaking.

Possessive Pronouns

.
?

.
?

.
?

.
?

?
.

?
.

?
.

?
.

Where?
This is the most popular question in the Russian language. ? (Where have
you been?), ? (Where is my computer?), ?
(Where is my money?). You can answer questions with using the Prepositional
Case (which can be used to show location).
To put a word in the Prepositional Case, add the ending - to the unchangeable part
ofamasculine singular noun ( , ) or change
theending of a feminine singular noun to - ( ; ).
The prepositions and (in, at and on, at) are used to describe location:
means inside something or inside any building ( , , ),
means a position on a horizontal surface, in the open, or to indicate a process
( onatable, at the market, at a lecture).

General rule

On a horizontal surface

Inside something

Process

How to form Prepositional case


?

, , ,

, , ,

, , , ,
, ,

, , , ,
, ,

, ,

, ,

, ,

, ,

Some situations to use either or


Situations to use

Situations to use

Continents, countries, cities,


locations

Directions

, , ,

, , ,
, ,

Institutions, establishments

, ,
, , ,
, , ,
, ,

Islands; shores of rivers, lakes,


seas; mountains

, , ,
,

Surfaces and floors

, , ,
, ,

Social groups

, ,

Processes

Inside

, , ,
, ,

, , ,

Remember
, , , ,
,

, , ,
,

There are a few words that never change their ending


/

. I am in metro. (Inside of a system).


. Pavel goes by metro. (He uses a transport system).

( = ). Yesterday we were in the cinema.

. He lost everything in casino.

. Money is in the coat (Inside of it).


. There is a hole at your coat (on a surface of it).

. I am going to the seaside ( = at the seashore).


. A ship is sailing in the sea. (A ship is inside the sea).

Professions
Professions can be either masculine ( artist, journalist)
orfeminine (, ). There are also some professions that can
beboth masculine andfeminine, depending on gender of a person you are speaking
about ( manager, designer). Here is the list of some
commonly used professions.

Actor

Actor, artist

Basketball player
Volleyball player
Journalist
Waiter
Singer
Pianist
Sportsman

Tennis player
Football player

=
Boss

Broker

Designer
Diplomat
Director
Doctor
Engineer
Manager
Minister
Operator
Politician
President
Programmer
Psychologist
Secretary
Trader
Chief
Economist
Lawer

Student

Russian names

Gender Endings of a Noun


As you may have noticed, Russian nouns have genders. You can identify gender
ofanoun by its ending. Check out the table below for all possible variants. Please note:
both masculine and feminine nouns can end with the soft sign -. To avoid confusion,
memorize such words and their gender by heart.

Table: Endings of Nouns According to their Gender

(masculine)
A word ends
onaconsonant

-/-

Exceptions

,
,
,
,
,

usually denote
professions

80% of Russian words

, ,
,

, ,
,

(feminine)

(neuter)

(plural)

,
, ,

also some months

, , ,
, , ,
, ,

, ,
,

, ,
,
,

, ,
, ,
,

, ,
, ,
,

, ,
, ,

after consonants
, , , , , ,

only after
,

only after
,

, ,
, ,

, ,

1. These nouns are only in Plural ()


, , , ,

Remember

, ,

2. Some nouns have an unusual Plural form:


,
3. These words have an -a endings in Plural
, , , ,
, , ,

, ,
, ,

Nouns Animate and Inanimate


In the Russian language, all nouns fall into two categories animate and inanimate.
The first unites human beings (including professions and places in society), animals,
birds and fish. All of these words answer the question ? The second category
includes objects which answer the question ?

Animate

Inanimate

Who is it?

What is it?

a human

a table

a dog

a house

a cat

a car

mama

a computer

a friend

juice

a brother

a book

a teacher

a lamp

a director

metro

a student

a ticket

a manager

a lion

a shark

Remember
Names of social groups, like
, ,
are inanimate in Russian.

Countries, Nationalities
and Languages
C

Country

Where from?

His nationality

Her nationality

Their nationality

Spoken language

Language

Australia

Austria

England

()
America, (USA)

Argentina

Belgium

Bulgaria

Germany

Netherlands (Holland)

Greece

Denmark

Spain

Italy

Canada

-
-

China

Korea

Norway

Poland

Portugal

Russia

Romania

Serbia

Country

Where from?

His nationality

Her nationality

Their nationality

Spoken language

Language

Turkey

Finland

France

Czech Republic

Switzerland

-
-
-

Sweden

Japan