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Safety Precautions

1)
Blasting
1) Metal,
flammabie, or
corrosive
substances
shall notofbeblasting
transported
with explosives.
2) Explosives
and detonators
caps shall
not be permitted
to be transported in the same vehicle.
3) Detonators and other explosives for blasting shall be transported to the site of work in the original
metallic co

4) Explosives shall be stored only in a magazine which is clean, dry, well ventilated, reasonably cool, c
accordance with Indian Electricity Act and Indian Explosives Act and rules and regulations framed ther
resistant and securely locked.

5) Smoking and use of matches, naked lights and readily flammable articles or open fires/flame shall b

6) If nitroglycerine from deteriorated explosives has leaked down onto the floor of the explosive maga
thoroughly with an agent obtained before hand from the supplier of the explosives.

7) Any package containing explosives shall not be dragged, dropped or handled roughly. The package
shielded location vis-a.vis the magazine.

8) Smoking shall not be permitted nor matches. open lights, fire, flame, or any other device capable o
handling or using explosives.
9) While planning drilling operations for blasting purposes, consideration must be given to Ihe nature
view to avoiding the possibilities of land-slides after blasting.

10) The face of rock shall be carefully examined before drilling, to determine the possible presence of
made to drill at a site if undenoted explosives are suspected.

11) There shall not be any electric live wires or cables of any kind near electric blasting caps or other
purpose of firing the blast.

2) Excavation

1) In all works, an experienced and competent foremanor supervisor shall be placed in charge of the w
2) The foreman or supervisor shall be made responsible for the strict observance, of the safety rules.

3) Sides of excavation shall be inspected by foreman or supervisor during the course of excavation fro
other hazard-increasing occurrence and protection against slides and cavings shall be increased, if ne

4) Complete information on the underground structures (such as water pipelines, sewers, gas mains, e
is essential before doing the excavation work. Proper precautions shall be taken to prevent accident to
calamities for the general public.

5) No excavation or earthwork below the level of any foundation of building or structure shall be comm
taken to prevent danger to any person employed, from collapse of the structure or fall of any part the
6) Workers shall be instructed to use safety devices and appliances provided to them whenever it is n
7) Safety helmets shall be worn by all persons entering trench where hazards from falling stones, timb

8) Appropriate safety footwear (rubber boots, protective covers, etc) shall be worn by workers/ employ
protection.
9) All trenches in soil more than 1.5 m deep shall be securely shored and timbered.

10) Where two or more pieces of sheathing are used one above another, the sheathing shall be so arr
overlap the lowest wales supporting the pieces of sheathing next above it. These pieces of sheathing
supported by wales and struts as the trench is made deeper.

11) All loose stones, projectingclumps of earth, pockets of unstable material which might come down
which is a hazard, shall be either removed or the excavated sides adequately braced and the trench s
not be permitted to work one above the other.

12) Heavy equipment, such as excavating machinery and road traffic shall be kept back from the exca
of trench or at least 6 m for trench deeper than 6 m.

13) Excavations shall have at least one ladder per 1.5 m of length or fraction thereof in case of hazard
thereof in case of relatively less hazardous works. Ladders shall extend at least one metre above the t
stepping on or off the ladder.

e of work in the original containers or in securely locked separate noa-

ilated, reasonably cool, correctly located, protected against lightning in


d regulations framed thereunder substantially constructed bullet and fire

or open fires/flame shall be prohibited within the fenced area around it.

or of the explosive magazine, the floor shall be desensitized by washing


sives.

ed roughly. The packages shall be opened at a safe distance and at a

y other device capable of producing sparks or flame shall be carried while

t be given to Ihe nature of startum and the overburden with a

the possible presence of unfired explosive. No attempt shall be

ric blasting caps or other explosives except at the time and for the

placed in charge of the work


nce, of the safety rules.
course of excavation from time to time and after every rain, storm or
shall be increased, if necessary.

nes, sewers, gas mains, electrical conduit system and other civic facilities)
en to prevent accident to the workmen engaged in excavation work and

r structure shall be commenced or continued unless adequate steps are


ure or fall of any part thereof.
to them whenever it is necessary to do so.
from falling stones, timber or other materials exist.

worn by workers/ employees who are engaged in work requiring such

bered.

sheathing shall be so arranged so that the lower pieces of sheathing


ese pieces of sheathing shall be firmly driven into the soil and securely

which might come down on the workers in the trench or any condition
braced and the trench suitably guarded. On steep slopes workmen shall
kept back from the excavated sides at a distance not less than the depth

thereof in case of hazardous work and per 30 m of length or fraction


st one metre above the top of the cut to provide a hand hold when

FIRE PROTECTION
At any construction workplace fire hazards may take place due to the following:
1) Gas cutting and welding
2) Poorly installed temporary wiring
3) Defective heating appliances
4) Careless storage and handling of flammables

5) Inflammable liquids, gas cylinders and explosive substances should be stored separately at a distan
stores. For storing of explosive substances the existing regulations of Indian Explosives Act shall be fo
6) Combustible materials like saw dust, wood shavings and packing materials should be marked clear
7) Aisles of sufficient width should be provided for easy passage of people during an emergency.
8) Good house keeping like orderly storage, cleaning of the site and regular removal of packing mater

9) Electrical wirings should be either PVC sheathed conductors or vulcanized rubber cables. All joints s
and the wiring should not be permitted to trail on the Iloor. No part of the electrical circuit should be IS
any combustible material. All electrical installations should be as per the requirements laid down in IS

10) Open flames, welding and cutting operations, wherever necessary, should be carried out with strin
All
materials
lying around
should
removed orshould
covered
wetnear
gunny
bags, tinplaces
sheetsw
11)combustible
Adequate number
of appropriate
type
fire be
extinguishers
bewith
placed
vulnerable
2190 : 1979 and Part IV of National Building Code of India, 1983 should be followed for the purpose.
12) Supervisors and workmen at the site should be trained in the use of first aid fire fighting equipmen

g:

red separately at a distance not less than 15 m from buildings, plants and
Explosives Act shall be followed.
should be marked clearly and stored separately.
ring an emergency.
emoval of packing materials should be ensured.

rubber cables. All joints should be made in porcelain insulated conductors


ctrical circuit should be IS 13416 ( Part 5 ) : 1994 iaidwithin 150 mm of
uirements laid down in IS 1646 :1982 and National Electrical Code, 1984.

d be carried out with stringent precautions and under proper supervision.


etnear
gunny
bags, tinplaces
sheets,
etc, as
sparks can Guidelines
fly up to 10given
m. in IS
vulnerable
which
arewelding
easily accessible.
lowed for the purpose.
aid fire fighting equipment provided at site

4) Scaffolding

1) Light Duty Scuffoolds ( Timber ) - On light duty scaffolds work shall not be carried on more than one
to maintain a safe working load of 150 kg/m2 subject to a total load on each platform not exceeding 3
of tools
and weight
of to
working
materials).
300 kg/m2
subject
maximum
platform load ( which consists of weight of two men, weight of work
distributed over two or three pomts, and two other platforms used for access or light duty with safe w

3) Single scaffold shall consist of one row of upright poles or standards fixed at a suitable distance from
horizontally by ledgers spaced vertically at 15 to 18 m centres.
4)Every scaffold shall be effectively braced to make it rigid and tied or guyed to make it stable.

5) Single pole scaffolds shall be braced longitudinally and the double pole scaffolds shall be braced bo
scaffolds form a rigid and stable structure.

6) Every single pole and double pole scaffold shall be effectively tied to a building or adjacent structur
towards or away from the building or structure.
Additional Precautions for Single Pole Scaffolds

For the first few lifts, it will be necessary to use temporary rakers to ensure stability of the scaffold; Al
commenced; The putlogs shall not be considered to act as ties; and Tying shall be done as specified in
SPACING OF TIES (Clause 4.2.3 of IS 3696 part 1)
Heigth of Scaffold

Up to 6 metres
Up to 12 metres

Horizontal Spacing of Ties


B/w GL & 6m

B/w 6m and 12m

B/w 12m & 18m

Every 5th standard or


10m

--

--

Every 4th standard or Every 5th standard or


8m
10m

--

Every 3rd standard or Every 4th standard or Every 5th standard


6m
8m
or 10m
The following minimum widths of platforms for various types of uses are recommended.
1) Where platform is not more than 2 m above the ground or floor:
a) Painters, decorators ot similar workmen 300 mm
b) Other types ( men and tool only ) 500 mm
2) Where platform is more than 20 m above the ground or floor:
a) Men, tools and material 900 mm
b) Men, tools,matetial and wheel barrows 12OOmm
3) The erection, alterations and removal shodld be done only under the. supervision of men who are t
Up to 18 metres

4) Every scaffold shall be securely supported or suspended and shall, where necessary, be su5ciently
The use of cross braces or framework as means of access to the working surface shall not be permitte

5) The supporting member shall be placed on a firm, rigid, smooth foundation of a nature that will pre
anchorages shall be inspected by a competent person.

6) A scaffold platform plank shall not project beyond its end supports to a distance exceeding four tim
secured to prevent tipping. Cantilever of scaffold planks shall be avoided.

7) Men shall not be allowed to work from scaffolds during storms or high winds. After heavy rains or st
in-charge. Scaffolds should also be inspected every fortnight, during use, by him and again before sta

ried on more than one platform at any time and the platform shall be able
tform not exceeding 300 kg (which consists of weight of two men, weight
o men, weight of working tools and weight 01 working materials )
light duty with safe working load of 150 kg/m.

a suitable distance from the wall at 18 m apart and connected

make it stable.

lds shall be braced both longitudinally and transversely so that the

ng or adjacent structure to prevent movement of the scaffold either

lity of the scaffold; All putlogs shall be left in position until dismantling is
e done as specified in 4.2.3.
Vertical Spacing

4m
4m
4m

mended.

sion of men who are thoroughly experienced in this work.

essary, be su5ciently and properly strutted or braced to ensure stability.


shall not be permitted.
a nature that will prevent lateral displacement. All fasteners and

ce exceeding four times the thickness of the plank unless it is effectively

After heavy rains or storm, the scaffolds should be inspected by the siteand again before starting use.

Electrical Work

1) All work on major electrical installations shall be carried out under permit-to-work system which is n
2) No work shall be commenced on live mains unless it is specifically intended to be so done by specia
3) In such cases all possible precautions shall be taken to ensure the safety of the staff engaged for su
or indirectly connected with the work
6)
on Dead
and
Voltage
Apparatus:
Unlessfor
a person
is authorized
to takin
wor
4) Work
Such work
shallLow
only
beMedium
carried out
with Mains
properand
equipment
provided
the purpose
and, after
and
apparatus
all
mains
and
apparatus
to
be
worked
and experienced persons who are aware of the danger that exists when working on or near live mains
upon shall be isolated from all sources of supply before
5)
On completion
the work
forearthed
which the
starting
the work, of
proved
dead,
andpermitto-work
shortcircuited.is issued, the person-in-charge of the maint
discharged
to
the
issuing
authority.
For earthing and short-circuiting, only
recognized methods should be used.
7) Work on Live Mains and Apparatus
a) Immediately before starting work, rubber gauntlets, if used, shall be thoroughly examined to see w

b) No live part should be within unsafe distance of a person working on live low and medium voltage m
unless he is properly protected.

c) When dead mains are connected to live mains, all connections to the live parts shall be made last,
checked to ensure that only like phases are connected together.
8)
live equipment
in be
thebroken
vicinityonly
shallbybeauthorized
cordoned persons
off so that
working
on the release
9) Exposed
The electrical
circuits shall
by persons
disconnecting
switches,
isolatin
are racked out. Where possible, the isolation should be visibly checked
10)
Testing
and marking
ofdevices
devicesfor proving high voltage mains and apparatus dead are marked cle
It
shall
be ensured
that all
intended and should be tested periodically
11) Identification of cables to be worked upon

A cable shall be identified as that having been proved dead prior to cutting or carrying out any operat
the cable. A non-contact indicating rod, induction testing set or spiking device may be used for provin
12) Earthing and short-circuiting main

High voltage mains shall not be worked upon unless they are discharged to earth after making them d
earthing and short-circuiting equipment is adequate to carry possible shortcircuit currents and special
wherever installed should be locked up.
13) The person-in-charge should also conduct drills in artificial respiration, rendering first aid and fire fi

o-work system which is now well established


d to be so done by specially trained staff
f the staff engaged for such work, and also of others who may be directly

is authorized
to taking
work on
live mains
eson
purpose
and, after
necessary
precautions, by specially trained
ng on or near live mains or apparatus.

n-in-charge of the maintenance staff should return the permit duly

ughly examined to see whether they are in sound condition

ow and medium voltage mains so that he does not come in contact with it

arts shall be made last, and in all cases the phase sequence should be

snecting
working
on the released
in service
switches,
isolatingequipment
links, unbolting
connections or switches which

tus dead are marked clearly with the maximum voltage for which they are

carrying out any operation which may involve work on or movement of


e may be used for proving the cable dead

arth after making them dead and are earthed and shortcircuited with
cuit currents and specially meant for the purpose. All earthing switches

ndering first aid and fire fighting.

FALL PREVENTION
Different categories of falls at worksite are generally as follows:
1)
2)
3)
4)

From height such as various floors, scaffolding, sloping roofs, hoists, ladders, steps, poles and platfo
In pits such as lift shaft, down stairs, chutes, basements and excavations, etc
From chimneys, steel structures, plant and machinery, etc, such as hoists, cranes, trucks, dumpers
Safety belts and harness prevent fall of workers while working at heights and hence shall be used c

Fall from Ladders


Following salient points should be specially taken care of:
1) Safe anchorages on firm footing should be provided.
2) Swaying, sagging, movements on sides should be avoided.
3) The ladders should be placed at correct angle of repose
4)The gap between the last rung and the top floor level shall not be kept more than 220 mm.
Fall from Hoists
1) Provision of gates for hoists and wire nets on each Iloor/landing should be made to prevent fall of w
2) Fall from Scaffoldings, Stagings, etc

3) All stagings, scaffoldings or platforms should stand on firm ground and should be secure, properly a
mm high. Toe boards at least 100 mm high should also be provided to prevent fall of persons.
Fall from floors and various storeys

1) All floors after casting should be provided with walls at end as soon as possible to prevent falll of pe
should be provided. Unauthorised persons should not be allowed and if work is carried out beyond day
of f1oor opening shaII be covered or barricated to avoid fall through the openings.
Fall,from Sloping and Fragile Roofs, etc

For sloping and fragile roof self-supporting platform should be used. Safety nets may also be provided
provided with safety belts, safety harness, helmets, etc. Securely supported crawling boards or ladder
Fall in Pits, Escavatiotts, Lift Shafts. dwonstairs. Chutes and Basements. elc
All accesses should be barricaded to prevent accident fall
Falls ,from Chimneys, Structural Framework, Plant & Machinery

Such falls should be prevented by following the safety regulations in letter and spirit. Provision of railin
harnesses, etc, reduce chances of fall. Safety belts and harnesses save workers from grave injuries.

s, steps, poles and platforms, etc, erected for execution of the work.
etc
cranes, trucks, dumpers etc.
nd hence shall be used compulsorily

e than 220 mm.

made to prevent fall of workers.

uld be secure, properly anchored and provided with railings atleast 900
t fall of persons.

sible to prevent falll of persons. In case of delay, safety parapet barricades


s carried out beyond day light, artificial lights shall be provided. All types
ings.

ets may also be provided inside below the roof. The workers should be
crawling boards or ladders shall be used while working on fragile roof.

d spirit. Provision of railings, cat-walks, wire-mesh, safety belts and


rs from grave injuries.

Concreting

1) For electric driven mixers, the wire connecting the mixers should be in good and sound condition, a
Earthingof electric motor should be done as per rules and specifications.

2) Accidents normally occur during the cleaning of mixing drum. Care should be taken to display notic
Wireropes operating the drum and clutches should be inspected regularly

3) Concrete can be placed manually if the quantity is less, or mechanically if the quantity is large. The
use of scaffoldings. Thus, the chances of accidents are relatively higher.
4) The hoisting equipment used to for concreting includes cranes.
5) Safety to be followed in case if a crane is used for concreting generally for casting of columns:

6) No crane should be used unless a competent person has inspected and tested it and furnished a ce
load.

7) Access to and egress from the operator's stand should be safe from any position ofthe crane.
8) Cranes should not be used to pull out fixed objects with a slanting pull, drag objects or move vehicl
9) When a derrick is not in use, the boom should be lowered to prevent it from swinging.
10) Hoists must be enclosed at ground level by substantial enclosures and gates at least 2 m high and
accommodate the engine or motor.

d and sound condition, and the circuit-breaker should be well maintained.

be taken to display notice, "Under Repairs" while cleaning the drum.

the quantity is large. The former method requires more workers and the

casting of columns:

ted it and furnished a certificate specifying the maximum safe working

sition ofthe crane.


g objects or move vehicles.
m swinging.
tes at least 2 m high and the enclosures should be extended to